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Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. said: "If a man is called to be a street
sweeper he should sweep streets as Michelangelo painted, or Beethoven
composed music, or Shakespeare wrote poetry. He should sweep streets
so well that all the hosts of heaven and earth will pause to say, here lives
a great street sweeper who did his job well".1 Whatever status in life, it
has no boundaries to fulfil your dreams. We are all capable to create a
bridge that will serve as a stepping stone that will pursue our plan to be
a better individual. Each of us has a different role in the society. We tend
to focus on our aim that is designed in our goal. Street sweepers is one of
the best illustration that suites to Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. quotation.
A city without sweepers or with bad sweepers is a den of poison and
death of physical and moral barbarity.2 Street sweeper has a vital role in
the society. They maintain cleanliness in every corner of each barangay
along the Metro. In order to keep the cleanliness of the environment,
someone who is passionate enough and willing to do this task
thoroughly. Monitoring and maintaining each community’s cleanliness
follow the standard of environmental agencies that are assigned to
govern the environment. Cleaning clogged creeks, sweeping dirt and
putting all things in order are stated on their job description, they are
also responsible for the maintenance of street alley and center isle of the
local and national road of government projects.

1 Garris . (2006),The Words of Rev. Matin Luther King Jr., section 1, para.1.
2 De leon M. (2013), The Street sweeper: Quezon City: Asian Journal.
As far as the barangay is concerned with regards to the cleanliness
and overall maintenance of the community, the local government
specially the Department of Public Services (DPS) with the collaboration
of Manila Barangay Bureau (MBB) assigned to take in charge of all the
barangay chairman of Manila to hire street sweepers prior to the
agreement between the barangay and local government. Yet sometimes
there are some orders coming from Manila City Hall for special purposes,
like the feast of Nazarene, Holiday season, New Year, and other special
occasions, and for some instances natural phenomena occur like
typhoons, floods and a like. Based on the House Bill No. 3434, An act
instituting policies for the protection and welfare of the cleaning workers
such as street sweepers and garbage collectors.
The proposed house bill stated that the street sweeping and garbage
collecting may be considered as demeaning jobs as they involve the filth
people produce. Menial as it is to many, without cleaning workers, our
community will become a land full of trash that can cause illneses and
cruelty in the environment however, most cleaning workers are employed
on a contractual or seasonal basis. Those hired by local government
units receive salaries or wages drawn from the maintenance and other
operating expenses of the hiring offices. They cannot be hired on regular
basis or be considered government employees because many government
units hiring them have reached the ceiling for personnel services as
prescribed by the Department of Budget and Management.1
Despite of bravery, passion, and hard work, the street sweepers
faces difficulties in maintaining cleanliness in every street and alleys in a
community. In their every demurral along streets and national roads,
their safety is at risk because of being prone from different forms of
accidents and diseases. Each street sweeper follows necessary pre-
cautionary measures to prevent them from those incidents. Sometimes,

Rep. Robles F. (2016), Cleaning Wokers Act, Quezon City: House Bill.
we often ignore how tough it is to be a street sweeper. We don’t even care
if we just throw away our trashes wherever we want because we are
stuck with the thought of there is someone who will patiently picking up
and cleaning up all those waste materials. Apparently they should only
work for 3 hours a day. However, there are times that they are extending
their working hours just to polish the cleanliness before leaving their
duties in a particular area.
Initiative and discipline are both essential to ensure that our
community is always be in order. Imagine a barangay without street
sweeper, what will happen next? Of course the community will have a
polluted creeks and mountain of trashes. We should always consider
that even without this people we can play our role as a good citizen who
understands the morality of good behaviour.
The focus of this study is the difficulties of each street sweepers and
how they faced the everyday challenges between the community, safety,
job, and their co-workers which generally contributes to their holistic
productivity and coping with the society.

Background of the Study

On November 7, 1975, during the term of Ferdinand Marcos he

passed the Presidential Decree No. 824, creating Metro Manila Counsel
(MMC) and its managing public corporation, the Metropolitan Manila
Commission (MMC), after the creation of Metro Manila in a referendum
held on February 27, 1975. Manila which was the capital city and was
moved to Quezon City, with two cities and 12 municipalities of province
of Rizal and one municipality in the province of Bulacan in Metro Manila.
In 1990 by the time of Corazon Aquino the MMC became Metro Manila
Authority (MMA) under Executive Order No.392 in accordance to article
18, section 8 under 1987 Philippine constitution. Since an elected
chairman is one of the constituents of the Mayor of Metro Manila, the
role of constituency gave less attention. The congress of the Philippines
composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives passed the
Republic Act. No. 7924 creating the Metro Manila Development Authority
(MMDA). On March 1, 1995, Fidel V. Ramos appointed Prospero Oreta as
the first chairman of MMDA in May 1995.
The MMDA plays a central role in Segregation Waste Management
(SWM) in Metro Manila. The act defines Metro Manila as a ‘special
development and administrative region’ that must be subjected to the
direct administration of the office of the President. Thus, the MMDA was
created with the task of overseeing metro-wide services within Metro
Manila without trespassing on LGU autonomy, which is provided for in
RA 7160, the Local Government Code. It is dependent on subsidies and
allocations from the national government as well as contributions from
LGUs. For a body handling a multitude of responsibilities such as the
MMDA, a limited amount of resources can easily be a hindrance in
carrying out plans and projects.1
During the past few years, the MMDA is taking charge in all the
maintenance and monitoring of cleanliness, declogging creeks, flood
ways project, traffic regulations, and ensuring public safety all over
Metro Manila. When it comes to barangay cleanliness and precautionary
maintenance, the MMDA deploy personnel all over the barangay in Metro
Manila, with the coordination of the barangay chairman and the
Barangay Bureau to perform certain actions in cleaning and removing
obstructions in all sidewalks, illegal parking, and illegal sidewalk vendors
in Manila.
After several years of implementing the order in Metro Manila,
MMDA gives the Local Government Units (LGU) the authority to
administer the cleanliness of each barangay, since the LGU and the
barangay has the capability to monitor their constituents. On December

RA 7924, (1995) An Act Creating the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority,
Defining Its Powers and Functions, Providing Funding Therefor and for Other Purposes.
1, 1973, ordained by the Municipal Board of the city an ordinance
creating a Manila Barangay Bureau and appropriating funds needed
where for from December 01, 1973 to June 30 1974.1 The ordinance
provides an allocation of budget in all barangay and district in Manila
including the salaries and wages as well as other expenditures, of the
Manila Barangay Bureau and the barangay personnel.
The said ordinance also provide the proper distribution of budgets to
ensure that every barangay in Manila will sustain their needs and give
enough funds to the projects and social services in their respective
barangay. One of the top priorities of the MBB is to maintain cleanliness
and monitor the overall order in every barangay which will be done by
hiring or appointing a street sweeper. This is also an opportunity to each
barangay to provide job opportunities to their constituents in order to
sustain their everyday living. In establishing the MBB, they ensure that
every street sweeper and barangay personnel have provided enough
benefits and salary that came from the local funds.
In October 6, 1992 the city council of Manila approved the
Ordinance No. 770 or “An ordinance creating the Department of Public
Services: Defining its functions and prescribing its staffing pattern, and
for other purposes”.2
This ordinance promote to discharge the functions related to solid
waste management and environmental sanitation, and the efficient
perform of the functions of the Department, the organizational structure
of the Department of Public Services, which is also includes the
monitoring, hiring and deploying street sweepers which will be
coordinated to the barangay will hire directly from their respective

Astals, C. (2001), Manila’s Millennium Compilation of Ordinances: City of Manila;
Mario Astals foundation Inc.
2 Ibid
Until today the local government of Manila with the collaboration of
the Manila Barangay Bureau and Department of Public Services
effectively implement the monitoring and establishing a “clean and green”
advocacy in all barangays and strictly follows and supports the rules of
each ordinance, and continuously promotes cleanliness by providing
personnel’s like street sweeper.
The researcher conducts a study in Barangay 118, Zone 9, District
1, Rawis, Quiapo Manila, which has a total population of 8,809 and total
population as per number of household per barangay is 280 and land
area of 32, 592.544 square meter.

Theoretical Framework

In 1981, Parse introduced the man-living-health theory that deals

with man’s total experience with health. In 1992, she changed the name
to the “Theory of becoming” in response to a change in the meaning of
“man” from mankind to a gender designation. She revised some of the
assumptions at that time, but other aspects of the theory were not
changed. Initially, Parse relied on Roger’s work that viewed the personas
an energy field; now, Parse sees the person as an open being. While
Rogers defined health as a value, Parse views it as a process. Parse
classifies nursing as a human science in which the nurse relates to the
person and family on a one-to-one basis without offering advice,
opinions, or a canned approach to care.1
Rosemar ie Rizzo Parse earned a bachelor of science in nursing from
Dusquesne University, Pittsburgh, and both a Master of Science in
nursing and PhD from the University of Pittsburgh. She was a faculty
member of the University of Pittsburgh, dean of nursing at Duequenes
University, and professor and coordinator of nursing research at Hunter

1Johnson, B. et al. (2006), “An Introduction to Theory and Reasoning in Nursing”;

Philadelphia PA: Lippincott William and Wilkins.
College, City University of New York. She served as professor and the
Marcelle Nichoff Chair at Loyola University in Chicago until she retired
as professor emeritus. Parse is the founding editor of Nursing Science
Quarterly, a scholarly journal that requires every article to be linked to
Parse designed the theory to consider the person a whole, not in the
traditional way that focuses on systems or fragments of the whole. She
poses two world perspectives. In one, the person is a total being that is a
combination of bio-psycho-social-spiritual aspects that interacts with
and adapts to the external and internal environments, she describes this
view as an applied science that draws from natural sciences. In the other
world perspective, the person is more than and different from the sum of
his or her parts. The person is free to choose and has mutual
interchanges with the environment. This perspective is considered a
basic science with its own body of knowledge. These perspectives are
called the totality worldview and simultaneity worldview, respectively.
These ideas will be important in the discussion that follows about the
influence of the theory on nursing practice.2
Parse identified three theoretical structures or propositions,
fortunately stating them in more concrete terms so they could guide
nursing practice. The first theoretical structure is that powering emerges
with the revealing-concealing of imaging, which can be stated as
“struggling to live goals discloses the significance of the situation”.3 The
first theoretical structure of Parse stated that the problem may be
depends on the situation which is either favourable to the side of the
individual or as a whole. The best example is when one of a family
member decided to work abroad; they need to consider a lot of things like
the employer, the location, culture and the environment.

1 Johnson, B. et al. (2006), “An Introduction to Theory and Reasoning in Nursing”;

Philadelphia PA: Lippincott William and Wilkins.
2 Ibid
3 Ibid
The second theoretical structure is that originating emerges with
the enabling-limiting of valuing. Parse restate this as “creating a new
shows one’s cherished beliefs and leads in directional movement”.1 The
second theoretical structure focuses on the plan were an individual has
an option how are they going to handle a tough situation in order to
The final theoretical structure is that transforming emerges with
the language of connecting- separating. The interpretation of this
statement is changing views emerge in speaking and moving with
others.2 The last theoretical structure postulated that the emerging
language is considerably connects on the phenomena that crates a high
tolerance especially to those people that is hit by a situation.
The theory of Parse as whole focuses on the behaviour of a human
wherein he or she possess characteristics which may be favourable or
not in his part. According to Parse, the theory embraces the interaction
of human to the environment and the behaviour of how are they going to
cope to any situation.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to understand the difficulties of five (5) adult
street sweepers along Barangay 390, Zone 40, Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo
Manila, in maintaining cleanliness in their workplace.

Conceptual Framework

The basis for conceptualizing the framework of this study is to

provide an understanding on the topic and identify the different
perspective to analyse and to generate an idea which will be useful to the
researcher and to people.

1 Johnson, B. et al. (2006), “An Introduction to Theory and Reasoning in Nursing”;

Philadelphia PA: Lippincott William and Wilkins.
2 Ibid

Understanding the Interview A Qualitative Analysis

difficulties of the five and evaluation of the
adult street sweeper experiences of
in maintaining phenomena through:
cleanliness along
Barangay 390, Zone  Coding System
 One-on-One
40, Plaza del Carmen  Observation
st. Quiapo Manila.

Fig.1 Conceptual Framework of the five adult street sweepers along

Barangay 390, Zone 40, Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo Manila.


Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions:

Central Question

1. What are the difficulties faced by the five adult street sweepers in
maintaining cleanliness in Barangay 390, Zone 40, Plaza del
Carmen st. Quiapo Manila

2. Issue Sub-Question
1. How are the difficulties of five adult street sweepers of Barangay
390, Zone 40, Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo Manila, in maintaining
cleanliness affected their performance in their job?

2. How are the difficulties of five adult street sweepers of Barangay

390, Zone 40, Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo Manila, in maintaining
cleanliness affected their safety in their workplace?
3. How are the difficulties of five adult street sweepers of Barangay
390, Zone 40, Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo Manila, in maintaining
cleanliness affected their role in the community?

4. How are the difficulties of five adult street sweepers of Barangay

390, Zone 40, Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo Manila, in maintaining
cleanliness affected their relationship with their co-workers?

Significance of the Study

The aim of this study is to understand the difficulties faced by each

street sweeper along sidewalks, alleys, streets and infer to those people
who gives importance to the lives of every street sweepers who are brave
enough, passionate and patient. The performance in their duties of every
street sweepers may depends on the proper management and care, which
should be monitored and prioritized by the authority in order to maintain
a productive individual and positive mind-set. The reality of being street
sweeper often creating a stereotyping specially to those people who has
no idea about their struggles, and so the community has a vital role in
keeping healthy environment as well as their role in the community and
implying self-confidence. Safety is significant to every individual to flow
the organization smoothly without any other hindrances, however it is
obliged to every authority to create and monitor a safe place and
implement pre-cautionary measures to prevent from those incidents. The
role of each individual to function the organization that firm the pillars of
effective colleagues to accomplish certain duties. This may provide the
working place the ability to identify decision making as the central role in
the process. The performance of each individual in their respective task
reflects how the outcomes which may manifest whether they are
productive or unproductive. The working area is a battle ground where
each individual learn, adjust and create an experiences that will
holistically build the personality to be firmed, well prepared and ready to
face the everyday challenges the will occur. The level of understanding in
certain experiences may have positive result because of the working
place governs the people having good behaviour and positive mind.
The significance of this study to the community where all the factors
is concern that may developed a precise relation that will beneficial to
each individual. The role of the community in supporting the
performance of the street sweeper in terms of assigned task is essential
to become more productive and well-coordinated to service. The
productivity of each personnel in the community, particularly the
Barangay officials that are part of the monitoring and preventive
maintenance of each problem that occur in every barangay in Manila

Scope and Delimitation

The researcher aim to limit its scope to the difficulties of five adult
street sweepers in maintaining cleanliness along Barangay 390, Zone 40,
Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo Manila., which focuses on how the local
government units of Manila reaches its goal productivity in terms of
effective monitoring of maintaining cleanliness of each barangay
particularly on Barangay 390 Plaza del Carmen street. Quiapo Manila
The scope of this study is to understand the difficulties of every street
sweeper and how are they going to face each challenges in their everyday
This study will understand the difficulties of their performance to
their job performance, safety, co-workers and the role in the community,
which may manifest to their overall productivity to perform their duties,
and how are they going to adapt certain actions that will effectively not
create an impact to their overall performance. The safety of each street
sweepers should be discuss because if were talking about Tondo, the
first impression of some people that it is a place of disorganized a place
where criminals were born or a place where different forms of trouble
The researcher will personally conduct an observation and an
interview to understand the difficulties of street sweepers and identify
the situation that focuses on maintaining cleanliness. Barangay 390,
Zone 40, Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo Manila is a part of Manila which
typically inhabited by large numbers people. This place is crowded, many
houses are compress and sometimes one big family is living in a one roof.
Some of the residents are poor which somehow commits crime and often
they target everyone just only to survive.

Definition of Terms

To make the study clear the following terms and phrases are defined
in accordance with their usage in this study. The following terms are
operationally defined:

Alleys- A narrow place that is located in barangay.

Barangay- Refers to a small community where a certain people lived.
Cleanliness- Refers to maintaining order and removing dirt and trash
Community- A geographic area can be shown in sketch or map. It
includes people who feel they belong to a certain centre, such as a barrio,
poblacion, municipality, city or province.
Creeks- Refers to a place where all the domestic waste are being
accumulated and passed through.
Department of Public Services (DPS)- An agency that governs the local
projects, clearing operations and monitoring of cleanliness and deploying
street sweepers or metro aid of the local government unit projects.
District- A community of a barangay of a particular city or municipality.
Hazard- Anything that could cause harm
Local Government Unit (LGU)- Refer to a local government that governs
the local community specifically the barangay, district, divisions and
Manila Barangay Bureau (MBB)- Refers to the agency that focus on the
issue of barangay concerns, proper allocations of budget and distribution
of salaries to all barangay personnel.
Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA)- Government agency
that assigned to monitor the situation in all the cities in metro manila,
specially the clearing operations of sidewalk vendors, traffic monitoring,
declogging and rescue operations.
Ordinance- Any law or rules that were passed in a city or municipality in
accordance of peace and order.
Safety- The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause
damage, risk, or injury.
Security- Protecting people, assets or environment from threats, whereas
safety is protection against hazards.
Sidewalks- It refers to the pedestrian lane.
Street Sweeper- Refers to the people that work along alleys, barangay
and sidewalks to maintain cleanliness and order.
Wages- Refers to a regular payment typically paid weekly or daily basis
by an employer.


This chapter includes discussion on related local and foreign

literature as well as the local and foreign studies which provide relevant
facts about the difficulties of five street sweepers in maintaining
cleanliness in Barangay 390, Zone 40, Plaza del Carmen st. Quiapo
Manila. This part aims to cite and discuss the writings of accepted
authorities, as well as to familiarize with previous studies that have
studied in relation to the present studies.

A. Related Literature

Management of street sweeping is complicated in part because of the

array of materials, chemicals, metals, and organic matter present in
street sweeping sediment. One of the most common forms of disposal is
to landfill the waste directly. This in itself is problematic, as noted above.
Some communities classify the waste as a hazardous material and others
do not. If the waste is considered hazardous, it must go into a special
landfill designed to contain the problem. If it is not considered
hazardous, then it can be dumped into a municipal landfill. However,
determining whether such wastes are hazardous or not is not an easy
task.1 In his statement the proposed safety worksite hazard analysis will
be utilized in preventing accidents to attain the zero casualties and serve
as premonitory for the respective authorities and for the employee.
Community participation can make the difference between success
and failure when a government or outside agency plans a sanitation
program. When local people participate in sanitation planning, the result
is more likely to fit local needs. In 1992, the government of El Salvador
1Brickman R. et al., (1961); Urban Sediment Removal, The Science, Policy, and
Management of Street Sweeping; New York U.S.A; published by Kluwer Academic
spent over 10 million dollars to build thousands of new toilets. The new
toilets were different from the kind that local people were used to, and
needed more care and cleaning than normal toilets. There was no
training in how to use them, and the government did not invite
communities to help make them.1 In his book he emphasized that it is
important that every country should have a proper disposal of waste
particularly domestic waste which contributed large amount of waste
products like human and animal manure that can cause severe diseases.
Most urban metropolitan councils perform cleansing of streets and
similar impervious surfaces. This is commonly for the purpose of
controlling gross pollutants, particularly litter, to maintain a level of
street cleanliness and aesthetic quality. The focus on environmental
issues is growing and local authorities are now considering street
sweeping as a beneficial at-source method for reducing the amount of
street borne pollutants entering the storm water system. The actual
contribution of street sweeping to the abatement of storm water pollution
is however not well understood. The objectives of street sweeping for
street aesthetics and storm water pollution control are very different,
with the former placing particular emphasis on the visual impact of
environmental pollution while the latter encompasses a much wider
range of pollutant types and sizes. Despite street sweeping being widely
considered an at-source storm water pollution control method its
effectiveness is unknown.2 The statement of the author stated that the
focus of the urban metropolitan council in regards with the
implementation of environmental challenges is focus on the issues of
cleanliness and overall performance of street sweeper to ensure that the
quality of maintaining cleanliness should be beneficial to the people and

Conant J. (2005); Sanitation and Cleanliness for a Healthy Environment; California
USA; Hesperian Foundation Press.
2 Walker T.A, (1999); Effectiveness of street sweeping for storm water pollution

control; Melbourne Australia: Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology.

The findings of the foreign literature mainly focus on the discussion
of implementing a community based program and the role of every
woman in the society that focuses on the maintaining and monitoring
cleanliness and every community and giving importance to their role in
the community. In addition with this, all authors mainly agreed that
formulating a program that will encourage every individual in the
community will achieving an environment free from obstructions, which
is beneficial to the people and to the environment.

The Republic Act No. 9003 also known as Ecological Waste

Management Act of 2000, is an act that aims to carry out the national
policy of adopting a systematic comprehensive and ecological solid waste
management program consistent with the pursuit of sustainable
development.1 In this act, it focuses on the proper disposal and
comprehensive ecological solid waste management to maintain, monitor
and segregate respectively each garbage being collected in every
barangay all over the country to ensure that all garbage that was being
collected is disposed properly to every landfill across the land.
Proper Waste Disposal to Save Bulacan Rivers, Governor Alvarado is
once calling on all residents to contribute to saving Bulacan Rivers
through proper waste disposal. He said that improper waste disposal had
been reported as the main reason for clogging of canals and silting of
rivers a big percentage of the river irrigation systems in Metro Manila and
many provinces have been silted for the past decades, resulting in floods
during rainy season. Meycauyan, Marilao, Obando rivers (MMORS) were
classified by a universal environmentalist group almost nine years ago as
among the dirtiest rivers systems in the world. Marilao rivers pollution

1Congress of the Philippines, (2000); Republic Act No. 9003 or An act providing for an
ecological waste management program, creating the necessary institutional
mechanisms and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties,
appropriating funds therefor, and for other purposes. Metro Manila, House of
mainly comes from tanneries, textile and electronics recycling industries
operating close to river. The residents no longer catch fish from the river
which contains toxic chemicals. The governor asks everyone to join
efforts retrieve and save the silted water system in the province to ensure
public safety and economic progress.1 The writer stated that in Bulacan,
there is an existing ordinance that provides an essential participation to
ensure that all the garbage will be collected will be disposed and
segregated to avoid clogging to every rivers in Bulacan which has a big
implication to their everyday life, and it has also a big impact to their
health. The governor of Bulacan seconded that the result of improper
waste disposal will lead to contamination and silted of every river, which
is one of the vast problems in the province of Bulacan.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) revealed that out of 4,000 tons
of garbage generated daily, only about 3,400 tons are collected. The
remaining 600 tons cause floods and pollution which pose a serious
threat to the people’s health.2 According to ADB, this was conducted in
every community in Metro Manila which has a dense population. This
study was able to identify the problems of the urban areas, which is the
improper disposal of garbage that causes clogging of canals during rainy
season. The severe effect of this phenomenon targeted the health of every
individual that experiencing the above problem.
The authors of the local literature deals mainly on the discussions of
the current issues concerning to the community cleanliness, the impact
of polluted environment may manifest to the overall on how they are
going to maintain and monitor cleanliness in the community. The
implementation of the different laws and ordinances that protects the
condition of the environment will beneficial to the people of the different
community throughout the country.

Velez, F. (2016). Manila Bulletin, Intramuros Manila, Manila Bulletin Publishing
Asian Development Bank (2016)
B. Related Studies

Davao's policy on cleanliness did not just came in shape at the time
the Davao City Ecological Solid Waste Ordinance of 2009 was
implemented. As early as 1948, the city introduced an ordinance that
regulates the disposal of human waste manure, garbage, refuse and
ashes, and domestic animal. Later in 1991, it banned residence from
littering, scattering, and carelessly disposing waste materials, refuse, and
other unsanitary items in streets, parks, public building, and other
public areas. In 2002, it legislated the creation of an Ecological Solid
Waste Management Board, a body tasked to devise measures for a safe
and sanitary management of solid wastes. In 2004, barangays were
mandated to implement a solid waste management program.1
Community cleanliness development involves community
participation. This was elicited in Barrio Pitogo by promoting a
community cleanliness contest wherein financial incentives were
produced. In addition to this, different activities were also introduced by
the Rotary Club to spark the interest of the community residents and
enhance the program’s activities in the area. The said program helps the
community of Barrio Pitogo especially the people which provide a
incentives or token to those residents and barangay that maintain
cleanliness and proper waste disposal.2
The GSO employees believed that the Baguio City aides have most
significantly performed their obligations in keeping the sidewalk clean
and dry and consistently collecting garbage. However, they believed that
the aides only moderately performed in their duties to remove and

1 Basa, M.J. et al., (2015). Waste Management Towards a Clean Environment: A

Comparative Study Between Davao City Philippines and Malang-Indonesia. University
Dhyana Pura, Bali, Indonesia.
2 Hubilla L. et al. (1993), A Case Study of Barrio Pitogo, Makati, M.M.: The Pook

Kalinisan Program; De La Salle University, Manila City, p.119

dispose the twigs, shrubs and leaves scattered along the streets.1 The
researcher postulated that the aid or street sweeper has a big role in
maintaining and monitoring cleanliness in Baguio city, which is the
destination of the people during summer season. It is one of the
challenges by the street sweeper to maintain and monitor the cleanliness
in the province of Baguio. The obligation of each street sweeper has a
significant role which is the researcher focuses to ensure that this
individual recognized their passion and dedication in their duties.
The works of the authors has a social significance to the site
specifically in different programs in regards to the implementation of
maintaining cleanliness, and the researcher also agreed that the proper
waste disposal and following the ordinances that was implemented to
monitor the cleanliness in every community. The different sectors, the
local government, and the street sweeper obliged to collaborate to
enhance and protect the environment and the health of every citizen.


Environmental Education (EE) has been characterized as a process

that prepares citizens to prevent and solve environmental problems.
Socio-economic status (SES) as one of four factors in a study related to
ecological knowledge. Respondents from low SES did not perceive
environmental threats as seriously as did other respondents. Low SES
respondents also rated themselves as more informed about the
environmental than did students and minorities.2 In their book they
simply stated that the environmental awareness should be introduced
and prioritized by every institution especially the school were they able to
teach awareness and knowledge about environmental cleanliness.

1 Dominador, V. (1995),The Maintenance of Cleanliness in Baguio City. (n.p), Baguio

Central University, Baguio City, P57
2 Day (2000), Elements of Effective Environmental Education Programs, University

of Florida.
Good relations with the community make them aware of important
values with regard to environmental aspects are to be maintained. Strict
formation of eco-clubs and endorsement of responsibility to perform the
activities would yield proper results and give scope to the other
individual to follow the same through which they would find out the
importance of environmental values. Conducting co-curricular activities
gives proper message to perform the activity and give scope to observe
the principle involved. The printed media and community are to be
utilized for acquisition of knowledge and skills required for living eco-
friendly.1 The researcher stated that good relations in the community
prior to maintain cleanliness is essential to secure the environment and
at the same time to minimize the possibility of acquiring related health
issues. The duties and responsibilities of every individual to perform
their obligations to their community to implement the campaign and to
maintain cleanliness.
The Anti-Litterbugs Campaign, in reality, seeks to change various
groups of people’s perception on littering. Firstly, it changes the
perceptions of the general public on littering. Before this, people always
point their fingers on the local authority when they see rubbish. They
would blame the authority for their apparent failure to keep the city
clean. However, the emphasis on targeting the litterbugs under the Anti-
litter bugs Campaign makes people shift the blame now to the litterbugs.
The second group of people whose perception is changed by the
campaign is the litterbugs themselves. Before this, they were not the
explicit targets of the efforts and campaigns of the authorities in their
endeavour to maintain cleanliness in their areas of jurisdiction. The
officials of the local authorities are the third group of people whose
perceptions are changed by the Anti-Litterbugs Campaign. Before this,
their preoccupation was to pick up rubbish thrown out by people

1 Kalam, S. (2008), The Ethics of Environmental Concern; India.

indiscriminately. Now, under the Anti-Litterbugs Campaign, they focus
their attention on stopping the littering.1 Based on the researcher, the
anti-litterbugs campaign of Malaysia has a social implication especially
in maintaining cleanliness, the said campaign focuses on the behaviour
of each citizen on how are they going to manage their trash according to
the rule of said campaign. According to the author, the local authority
who has the responsibility to monitor, implement and keep the
environment clean and sustainable.
The works of aforementioned authors deals mainly on the broad
discussion of the difficulties of the street sweeper in maintaining
cleanliness in Quiapo Manila. The present study is similar from the
aforementioned works primarily because it will focus specifically on
maintaining and monitoring cleanliness and the implementations of
different ordinances and laws and the hardship of each street sweeper to
perform their task. The sustainability of environment in which every
individuals will benefit and to change their mind-set on the forgoing
situation in the community.
On the other hand, the findings of each works differ from the
perspective of author, because each of the works classify according to
their main focus of the study. The above works has a significant effect to
lives of each individual, and to the people who focus of this study.

1Chua K. (2012), Maintaining Urban Cleanliness: A New Model, Universiti

Teknologi MARA, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia; Published by Elsevier Ltd.

This chapter describe and discuss the research methodology used in

this study in detail. It presents an in-depth discussion on the various
type of research to seek an appropriate approach for the present research
work. The chapter takes into consideration the research design,
methods, procedures and the instrument utilized to collect the data.
Subsequently, the chapter informs how the collected and categorized
data was analyzed.

Methods of Research Used

In this study, the researcher used an exploratory, interpretive type
of research design. The researcher uses the interpretive method to
deepen the understanding of the phenomena, in order to answer the
questions and inquiries on the said matter. Also, it uses an informative
method to inform on the facts behind and sense of the phenomena as a
whole. Lastly, descriptive methods that give the description about the
phenomena and other things needed to be considering for it.
The research study wants to understand how they find it difficult to
maintain cleanliness and how it affects their job performance, safety in
their workplace, role in the community, relationship with their co-
Interpretive research approach will be used for the whole structure
of this research to understand the difficulties of five (5) adult street
sweeper in Barangay 390, Quiapo Manila, in maintaining cleanliness.
The approach is used in order to better understand the phenomena and
to gather relevant information for the research study.
Sample and Sites
This study will be conducted in Barangay 390, Zone 40, Plaza del
Carmen st. Quiapo Manila, under the supervision of the Department of
Public Services (DPS) and Manila Barangay Bureau (MBB) and with the
coordination of the Barangay. The operation each organization is to
maintain the overall cleanliness of each barangay along the metro, and
monitoring and preventive maintenance of each government projects like
sidewalks, alleys, footbridge, creek and a like.

This study focuses on the adult street sweeper located in a said

barangay in Quiapo Manila. The said street sweeper is either regular
basis or contractual basis in their respective barangay.

Access and Permissions

In order to gain access to site and participants, the researcher
produced letters to get the necessary permission to conduct the said
study. The researcher gathered and used as a basis different letters from
the other research study. The following are the letters provided to
conduct the said procedure:

1. Letter to the Barangay Chairman

Data Gathering Procedures

The researcher conducts the following steps for gathering
information essential for this part of the study:

1. The researcher personally visits the site in order to see the vicinity
and give the necessary letter for the barangay chairman
2. The researcher visited different libraries private and government
operated libraries.
3. The researcher chooses a gatekeeper which is information rich and
works in the barangay in a long period of time.
4. The researcher gathered necessary information about the phenomena
from different libraries, data bases and web sites to have a deeper
knowledge about the participants.
5. The researcher will give the letter to the participants prior to the date
of the interview.
6. The interview will be conducted in the vicinity of the barangay.
7. The researcher will use his phone recorder to record the interview.
8. The researcher will capture photos of the interview when it is on-going.
9. The researcher will use one-on-one interview as the type of interview
to better communicate with the participants.
10. The researcher will give a questionnaire to have the background
information of the participants.
11. The site will be observed if the letter is signed as signal to conduct an
12. The data that will be collected is to be summarize from the
participants and will give conclusion, analysis and recommendation on
the proceeding chapters.
13. The researcher will show evidences of the study that is conducted.

Data Analysis Approach

In order to analyze the data generated from the interviews , the

researcher used a thematic method. In the analysis, words or phrases
are used as “codes” to analyze data in themes. Data is a collection of
information. A qualitative content analysis was used in which the data
assembled and justified. The steps that we have followed in the data
analysis are described below:

 In preparing for data analysis, the researcher wrote down each

 Organize the materials by typing through the use of matrix or table
of sources.
 In transcribing, by the process of converting audiotape recordings
or field notes. The researcher transcribes the text data word by
word. Analyzing your data by hand will help you to make a
hypothesis. It should be read the data and mark it by hand and
divide into parts.

By dividing all the data that is related or connected to each other, the
researcher explores and code the data. It consist of exploring the data to
obtain a general sense of the data, taking notes of ideas, thinking about
the organization of the data and considering whether the researcher need
more data. Coding process will help the researcher to determine the
themes of the said study. These themes are similar codes aggregated
together to form a major idea in the database. By layering the theme, the
researcher come up with the interview and transcription of data. After
that he used segments to come up with three themes that the researcher
will make a categories based on the themes.

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data

gathered for the study. It discusses the answers given concerning the
research questions posed in Chapter 1 using the interpretive analysis to
gathered data of the research.
A brief discussion concerning the difficulties of street sweeper in
maintaining cleanliness in Quiapo Manila, being presented in this
chapter, which will provide a great deal of correlation and analysis to the
different factors in difficulties of street sweeper in maintaining
The presentation of the data concerning to the study of the
difficulties of street sweeper in maintaining cleanliness as reflected in five
(5) selected participants is also presented, analysed and interpreted in
this chapter in relation to the overall performance and responsibilities of
every street sweeper using the techniques and guidelines provided for by
the interpretive method research.

1. Environmental Challenges in Maintaining Cleanliness

Environmental challenges has a broad

The major problem concerning to the overall performance of the

street sweeper in maintaining cleanliness is the environment itself, based
on the participants answer on the interview. The lives of every street
sweeper has a large part of change in society is caused by change of
different challenges experienced by each street sweeper. The well-being of
a society and the quality of the environment in which a society lives.
Environmental issues are harmful consequences of human activity on
the natural environment. Weather, pollution, and social institutions are
the main problems of each street sweeper in maintaining cleanliness.
The critical part of the responsibilities and performance of every
street sweeper is the battle between the environment and the
surroundings. The capability of the street sweeper to perform their duties
are based on the holistic monitoring of the government to assert more
effort to maintain cleanliness in their respective barangay.

1.A Weather Condition

One of the main factors to the difficulties of street sweeper in
maintaining cleanliness is weather condition, based on the response of
the participants in an interview; weather conditions affect the job
performance of each street sweeper in maintaining cleanliness in their
designated area. Typhoons and other weather disturbances causes
delayed on their job responsibilities, since typhoons are natural
phenomena, the impact will be reflected on the performance of every
street sweeper.

Related Interests