The two basins, Krishna-Godavari and Cauvery, have had paralled and comparable evolution and geological history. They come into being as pull-apart basins following rifting along the eastern continental margin of Indian craton in Early Mesozoic. Oil was first struck in quick succession in Godavari offshore and then in Palk Bay area in 1980 and 1981 respectively. Krishna Godavari Basin is a peri-cratonic passive margin basin on the east coast of India (Figure 1). The onland part consists of 28 000 km2 and is mostly alluvium covered. Krishna and Godavari are the two major river systems which drain the area and discharge in the Bay of Bengal.The offshore basinal area covers 24 000 km2 to the isobath of 200 m and consists of predominantly fine grained alluvial sediments2. However, the basin extends into deeper water and covers a much larger area. The basin's characteristic feature is its en-echelon horst and graben system which is filled with a thick pile of sediments of Permian-to-Recent age and emerging as one of India's most promising petroliferous areas. Commercial accumulation of hydrocarbons occurs in sediments from the Permian to as young as the Pliocene1. Studies by Dewangan et al. (2008) using chirp sonar, sub-bottom profiler (SBP) and multibeam swath bathymetry in the slope region also strongly suggests gas hydrate occurrence and distribution in the basin are linked with shale tectonics2.

Fig: Location map of Region

Krishna-Godavari Basin Introduction:
Extensive deltaic plain formed by two large East Coast Rivers, Krishna and Godavari in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the adjoining areas of Bay of Bengal in which these rivers discharge their water is known as Krishna Godavari Basin. The Krishna Godavari Basin is a proven petroliferous basin of continental margin located on the east coast of India .Its onland part covers an area of 15000 sq. km and the offshore part covers an area of 25,000 sq. km up to 1000 m isobath. The basin contains about 5 km thick sediments with several cycles of deposition, ranging in age from Late Carboniferous to Pleistocene.

The major geomorphologic units of the Krishna Godavari basin are Upland plains, Coastal plains, Recent Flood and Delta Plains.The climate is hot and humid with temperature reaching up to 42 degree symbol is to be inserted C during summer. The mean day temperature varies between 35 C and 40 C during summer and 25 C and 30 C during winter.

Tectonic History:
Krishna Godavari Basin is a Continental passive margin pericratonic basin. The basin came into existence following rifting along eastern continental margin of Indian Craton in early Mesozoic. The down to the basement faults which define the series of horst and grabens cascading down towards the ocean are aligned NE-SW along Precambrian Eastern Ghat trend. The geological history comprises of following stages:

Rift Stage: The basin got initiated through rift / syn-rift tectonics between PermoTriassic to Early Cretaceous and is essentially characterized by lagoonal to fluvial to occasionally brackish water sediments. The north-eastern part of the present onland basin was part of an intra cratonic rift set up till Jurassic that constituted the southeastern extension of NW-SE trending continental rift valley slopping northward. The basin has been initiated through rifting during Permo-Triassic period.

Syn Rift Stage: The early stage synrift sediments were deposited during early subsidence by tectonic fault systems. Basin subsidence continued along basement bound fault system accommodating synrift sediments of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous.

Drift Stage: Rift to drift transition is marked by a southerly/ southeasterly tilt of the basin leading to widespread marine transgression during Cretaceous and deposition of marine shale sequence followed by onset of overall regressive phase during Late Cretaceous, represented by a deltaic sequence comprising Tirupati Sandstone with dominant arenaceous facies. During Maastrichtian-Danian, the basin experienced major volcanic activity (Razole Volcanism) covering 1600 sq. km. area and having span of 5.5 million years.

Late Drift Stage: Initial soft collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates and initiation of Matsyapuri-Palakollu fault appears to have greatly influenced the Paleogene and younger tectonic regiment and the consequent sedimentation pattern.

Sediment induced Neogene tectonics: Increased gradients for the river systems and increased sediment load coupled with significant sea level falls during Neogene had triggered sediment induced tectonics in the shelf and slope parts of the basin creating highly prospective exploration locales. Some of the recent very significant discoveries in these settings had opened new hydrocarbon opportunities in the Krishna-Godavari basin and necessitated re-estimation of its hydrocarbon resource potential.

The five major tectonic elements of the basin are- Krishna Graben, Bapatla Horst, West Godavari Sub basin, Tanuku Horst and East Godavari sub basin.

Generalized Statrigraphy:
In the north-western and western margins of the basin, out crops of Achaean crystallines and sediments ranging in age from Late Permian to Pliocene are present. However, major part of the basin is covered by alluvium/sea. The geological map of the basin shows the details of outcrop belt.

Geological map of the basin The outcrop and sub-crop lithologic information has been gathered from a large numbers of wells drilled in the shelfal area and onland.

Fig: Litho-Stratigrapic section of Krishna Godavari Basin Depositional Environment: Four distinct depositional systems have been recognized in Krishna Godavari basin. This are Godavari delta system,  Masulipatnam shelf slope system  Nizampatinam shelf –slope system  Krishna delta system.

The maximum thickness of the sediments in Krishna Godavari basin is around 5000 m. controlling factor of the thick pile of sediments is presence of long linear Gondwana rift valley. Palaeontological evidences suggest a period of slow sedimentation and subsidence but changes in water depth during deposition.

Fig: Tertiary Play: Principal Depositional Elements from Shelfal Staging Area to Basin-Plain

Fig: Krishna Godavari Basin - Depositional Model of the Shallow Offshore

Fig: Seismic section showing spread of Pliocene Channel- Levee complexes and over bank deposits

Petroleum System:
Krishna-Godavari basin is a proven petroliferous basin with commercial hydrocarbon accumulations in the oldest Permo-Triassic Mandapeta Sandstone onland to the youngest Pleistocene channel levee complexes in deep water offshore. The basin has been endowed with four petroleum systems, which can be classified broadly into two categories viz. Pre-Trappean and Post-Trappean in view of their distinct tectonic and sedimentary characteristics. Seismic imaging of Pre-Trappean section poses problems in terms of data quality. Source rich areas at different stratigraphic levels

Fig: Hydrocarbon Generation Centres in Cretaceous

Fig: Hydrocarbon Generation Centres in Paleocene

Fig: Hydrocarbon Generation Centres in Eocene:

Pre -Trappean Petroleum System Permo-Triassic Kommugudem-Mandapeta-Red Bed Petroleum System is the oldest known petroleum system in the basin.
Kommugudem Formation is the main source rock for this system. It belongs to Artinskian (Upper Early Permian) age. This coal-shale unit is more than 900 m thick in the type well Kommugudem-1.It has a good source rock potential with rich organic matter with TOC ranging between 0.5 to 3% and vitrinite reflectance in the deeper part of the basin is in the range of1.0 to 1.3. Generation threshold occurred during Cretaceous.

Source Rock

Reservoir Rock

Mandapeta Sandstone of Permo-Triassic age is the principal reservoir rock for this system. It may be noted that these sandstones are in general tight and need frac jobs for exploitation. However, porous and permeable patches are also present and chasing them seismically is a major exploration challenge.

Cap Rock

Tight layers within Mandapeta Sandstone and the overlying argillaceous Red Bed act as effective seals.


Entrapment is essentially structural in nature. As mentioned earlier, seismic mapping of pre-trappean section has serious problems due to the presence of a good seismic energy reflector in the form of Basalt above this system affecting the seismic data quality.

Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Raghavapuram-Gollapalli-Tirupati-Razole Petroleum System
Raghavapuram Shale of Lower Cretaceous age is considered as the principal source rock not only for this system but also for the onland part of the basin. Maximum thickness up to 1100 m is recorded in the subsurface. The sequence comprises essentially carbonaceous shale with intervening sands possibly representing brief regressive phases in an otherwise major transgressive phase. The organic matter is dominantly of Type III and III B. The maturity level varies between catagenetic to inadequately matured in different parts of the basin. TOC is recorded up to 2.4%. It has the proclivity for generation of both oil and gas. Lenticular sands within Raghavapuram Shale possibly representing intervening regressive phases are one of the potential exploration targets; though mapping them seismically poses some challenges as mentioned above. A recent major find in its time

Source Rock

Reservoir Rock

equivalent (?) in shallow offshore part of the basin opened up some very exciting exploration opportunities in this sequence. Recent exploratory efforts in deep offshore also indicated prospectivity in Cretaceous sequence Sands within Gollapalli Formation of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in MandapetaEndamuru area and its time equivalent Kanukollu Formation in Lingala-Kaikalur area

are another potential target in this petroleum system. A northeast southwest trending corridor of Upper Cretaceous Tirupati Sandstone, product of a regressive phase, between southeastern side of Tanuku Horst and MTP fault is emerging as another important target. Raghavapuram Shale acts as effective seal for both Gollapalli reservoirs and the sands within Raghavapuram Shale. Shale intercalations within Tirupati Formation appear to act as seal for the accumulations within the Formation.

Cap Rock
Razole Formation (Deccan Basalt) acts as a regional cap for the pre-trappean hydrocarbon accumulations. It is of interest to note that occasional occurrence of hydrocarbons is noticed within Razole Formation itself, indicating its reservoir potential also.


While the entrapment style is essentially structural, accumulations in Raghavapuram Shale have strati-structural element in their entrapment.

Post-Trappean Petroleum System: Palakollu-Pasarlapudi Petroleum System It is the most prolific system in the onland part of the basin contributing major part of the onland hydrocarbon production. It has an abnormally pressured source sequence and a reservoir sequence with more than normal pressures.
The Paleocene Palakollu Shale is the source sequence. It is deposited in considerable thickness in the area to the south of MTP fault with a ENE-WSW alignment paralleling the fault. It shows fair to god source rock potential with proclivity to generate mainly gaseous hydrocarbons. TOC ranges between 0.6 to >5% and is dominantly humic type, rich in inertinite and about 10-20% contribution is from Type II organic matter. Subsidence history of Palakollu Shale suggests generation threshold to be around Middle Eocene.

Source Rock

Reservoir Rock

Sand layers within source rich Palakollu Shale are found to be potential reservoir rocks, though most often with very limited accumulations. Associated high pressures also do not make them attractive targets. Pasarlapudi Formation of Lower to Middle Eocene is the principal producing sequence onland with many potential reservoir levels.

Cap Rock

Laterally persistent shales within Pasarlapudi Formation have been found to act as effective seals for the accumulations within Pasarlapudi Formation. Palakollu Shale encompassing the occasional sands within the Formation also acts as seal for them.


Though structural entrapment is the dominant element for Pasarlapudi Formation, stratistructural element also appears to be occasionally present.

Vadaparru Shale–Matsyapuri / Ravva Formation-Godavari Clay Petroleum System Discovery of medium sized fields with liquid hydrocarbon in the Coastal Tract, significant discovery of Ravva Field in the shallow offshore and some very exciting mega discoveries in deep offshore parts of the basin have made this youngest petroleum system, a very important one.
Vadaparru Shale is the principal source sequence. Average TOC for this sequence is about 4%. Organic matter is in the early phase of maturation in the coastal part and increases basin ward. Organic matter is of Type III and has potential to generate both oil and gas. Generation threshold for this sequence is around Lower Miocene. An interesting recent observation regarding the source sequence is that some major gas accumulations in both shallow and deep offshore are found to be of biogenic origin also. This observation throws some interesting challenges in terms of exploration strategies to be adopted especially for the offshore part of the basin. Sands within Matsyapuri and Ravva Formation and also the sands within Vadaparru

Source Rock

Reservoir Rock

Shale are important potential levels and are known to house significant hydrocarbon accumulations in the basin. Recent discoveries in the channel- levee complexes in intra slope terrace/basin setting within Godavari Clay of Pliocene-Pleistocene has opened up hitherto unexplored frontiers of the basin for exploration.

Cap Rock

Shales within Matsyapuri and Ravva Formations, Vadaparru Shale and Godavari Clay act as effective seals. Though structural element plays dominant role for hydrocarbon accumulations in this system, role of strati-structural element is noticed. Clear understanding of sediment induced tectonics and precise mapping techniques for reservoir facies can yield very rich


dividends especially in the younger sequences. Krishna-Godavari Basin endowed with such effective petroleum systems ranging from Permo-Triassic to Pleistocene offer very exciting exploration challenges with matching rewards especially in deep water areas.

Petroleum Plays:
Syn-rift Mesozoic play: Pennar-Krishna Graben, Nizapattinam depression, both onland and offshore, Synrift grabens in shallow and deep waters (Block KG-OSN-2003/1, KG-DWN-98/1) Source Rock
Syn-rift Mesozoic sediments

Reservoir Trap Depositional Environment Discovery Wells UD-1 (KGDWN-98/2)

Sandstone Structural and strati-structural. Draping over reactivated structural high and wedgeouts.

Continental (Fluvial to Laccustrine )

KG-15, KG-16, & KG-8, KG-17 (Block KG-OSN-2003/1), KG-D4-MD1 (Block KG-DWN-98/1)

KG-D6-MA1 was the 19th exploration well drilled by RIL that was designed to

MA-1(Block KG-DWN-98/3)

test the hydrocarbons potential of the Cretaceous in the D6 block in offshore Andhra Pradesh, Bay of Bengal. The well is located in water depth of 1189 m in the Krishna Godavari basin. Significant oil discovery was made in this well in the Cretaceous section.

Early Miocene –Mid Miocene Play Shallow and Deep offshore area, Ravva Field, KG-OSN-2001/1(Dhirubhai-28,36,37), KGDWN-98/3 Source Rock Reservoir
     Eocene / Cretaceous Sandstone Structural/Strati-structural growth related /roll over/faulted /unconformity related Erosional subcrop beyond major sequence boundary (stratigraphic ) Combined fault seal and erosional remnant (strati-structural) Tilted faults block(structural ) Updip stratigraphic pinch out on sequence boundary.


Depositional Environment Discovery Wells

Shore face to deep- water channel and slope fan system

Ravva wells R-2 to R-5, 1987-1990.

Geological/ Geophysical Surveys
ONGC has carried out detailed geological mapping in the area covering 4220 sq. km since 1959. Gravity-Magnetic surveys, in onland part have been carried out by ONGC over an area of 19,200 sq. km. In offshore area, M/s. Prakla Seismos and GSI acquired the gravitymagnetic data for ONGC. Seismic Coverage: Conventional single fold surveys were initiated in 1965 and upto 1973 about 2,690 line km of data was acquired. CDP surveys commenced in 1973 and so far about 34,642 Line Km. data with foldage varying from 6 to 48 have been acquired. ONGC has also carried out 2,325 Sq. Km. 3D seismic in onland area. In offshore area, the first surveys of regional nature were carried out during 1964-65. These surveys were followed by multifold 2D / 3D seismic surveys, in shallow to deep waters and transition zone. As on 1st April 2005,(Figures of year 07-08 are to be taken instead of 2005 ) more than 74,753 Line Km. 2D and 26,508 Sq. Km. 3D seismic surveys have been carried out. Additionally, during 1972-74, 2,028 km. Refraction data was acquired to study the basement configuration and also shallow reflectors. More than 225 prospects have been probed by drilling of more than 557 exploratory wells. Hydrocarbon accumulations have been proven in 75 of these prospects (22 oil & 53 gas). Notable oil discoveries are Kaikalur, Vadali, Mori, Bantumilli, Lingala, Suryaraopeta, Gopavaram, Kesanapalli, and Kesanapalli West. The gas discoveries are Adavipalem, Elamanchili, Enugupalli, Narsapur, Razole, Tatipaka-Kadali, Pasarlapudi, Mandapeta, Chintalapalli. Nandigama, Endamuru, Penumadam, Ponnamanda, Achanta, Mullikipalle, Magatapalli, Gokarnapuram, Kesavadasapalem, Lakshamaneshwaram, Rangapuram and Sirikattapalli. In onshore, so far 141 prospects have been probed by 375 exploratory wells by ONGC, out of which 11 oil & gas pools and 31 gas pools have been discovered and most of them are on production. In offshore ,Sso far more than 84 prospects have been probed by 182 exploratory wells . Hydrocarbon accumulations have been proved in 33 of these prospects (11 oil & gas and 22 gas prospects). About nineteen discoveries have been made by Pvt./JV companies so far in NELP blocks (Fifteen Dhirubhai discoveries by RIL in blocks KGDWN-98/3 and KG-OSN-2001/2, three discoveries by Cairn Energy Pty. Ltd. (CEIL) in block KG-DWN-98/2 within Mio-Pliocene, 3 discovery by ONGC in the block KG-DWN98/2 within Plio-Pleistocene sandstone of Godavari formation and one discovery by GSPC in

block KG-OSN-2001/3 within Lower Cretaceous) to check the above the shallow and a deepwater discoveries.

Future Hydrocarbon Potential:
The Krishna Godavari Basin is an established hydrocarbon province with a resource base of 1130 MMT, of which, 555 MMT are assessed for the offshore region (upto 200 m isobath . Several oil and gas fields are located both in onland and offshore parts of the basin. The entrapments are to be expected from Permo-Triassic to Pliocene sediments. The Tertiary hydrocarbon entrapments are so far observed only in offshore part of the basin while Paleogene to Permo-Triassic entrapments are discovered in East Godavari and West Godavari sub-basins in the onland part. The reservoir facies of Permo-Triassic occur within the well identified source facies at the bottom and overlying Cretaceous argillaceous facies, which act as source as well as cap. In view of the fact that hydrocarbon indications are observed in well KB-4B-1, drilled in the north western part of offshore basin, and also, in well KG-1-B-1, indication of gas with higher hydrocarbon and oil stains in ditch samples collected from Late Paleozoic sediments, imparts the older sequence a fair degree of importance. These older sediments can also be expected to be present upto Krishna island area around the coastal part. The occurrence of gas fields like Mandapeta and Endamuru and indications of hydrocarbons in offshore areas point to the fair potential of this sequence. The Cretaceous and Early Tertiary accumulations of hydrocarbons are present in several fields e.g., Kaikalur, Bantumilli, Lingala, Narsapur, Razole Chintalapalli etc. both in East as well as West Godavari Sub-Basins. The Cretaceous sequence in offshore wells, like well KB-1B, has also indicated presence of hydrocarbons during drilling. Suitable source and reservoir facies are also reported in this well. The hydrocarbon generation centers in Cretaceous are shown in Figure 10. In view of this, the Cretaceous holds good potential for accumulation of hydrocarbons where some twenty commercial accumulations have been discovered so far. A number of gas fields are producing from Paleocene reservoirs, particularly in East Godavari Sub-Basin. The Tatipaka, Pasarlapudi, Kadali and Manepalli are the fields located onland, while, GS-8 is occurring in the offshore part of the basin. The hydrocarbon generation centers in Paleocene indicate fair to rich organic content on the basinal side. The

indications of gas and its pressure in this sequence justify good potential for Paleocene in the basin. Ten pools of hydrocarbon have already been discovered in this age group. The Eocene accumulation of gas is observed in Elamanchili, Tatipaka, and Pasarlapudi etc. Mori prospect is oil producer. These oil fields including GS-38 in offshore area indicate good hydrocarbon potential in Eocene sequence. Hydrocarbon generation centers in Eocene . Reefal limestone and associated shelf sediments of Eocene age form another category of hydrocarbon plays, in the lower deltaic areas of Godavari river and shallow waters of Masulipatnam Bay. Drape folds on tilted narrow fault block may have the potential for both oil and gas entrapment. Eight hydrocarbon pools have already been discovered. The Mio-Pliocene sequence in offshore part is promising. The commercial hydrocarbon accumulation in Ravva field is well known. The prospects GS-38, G-1 and G-2 are also hydrocarbon bearing in Mio-Pliocene strata. As many as fourteen commercial finds have come from this sequence.

Cauvery Basin:

The Cauvery Basin extending Extends along the East Coast of India, bounded by - 08º - 12º 5’ North Latitude , 78º - 800 East Longitude has been under hydrocarbon exploration since late nineteen fifties. Application of CDP seismic in 1984 considerably increased the pace of exploration resulting in the discovery of several small oil and gas fields. The first deep well for exploration was drilled in 1964. The Cauvery Basin covers an area of 1.5 lakh comprising onland (25,000 and shallow offshore areas (30,000 sq km). In addition, there is about 95,000 sq km of deep-water offshore areas in the Cauvery Basin. Most of the offshore and onland basinal area is covered by gravity, magnetic and CDP Seismic surveys. Geological map for the outcrop terrain shows the exposed formations. Category and Basin Type: Cauvery basin is a pericratonic rift basin and comes under category first. (Basins with established to commercial production.) Basin Age & Sediment Thickness

Result of Gondwanaland fragmentation during drifting of India- Srilanka landmass system away from Antarctica/ Australia plate in Late Jurassic/ Early Cretaceous.

The basin is endowed with five to six kilometers of sediments ranging in age from Late Jurassic to Recent (mainly thick shale, sandstone & minor limestone). Prognosticated resources : 700 MMT (430 MMT: onland areas and 270 MMT: offshore)

The Geological history of the Cauvery Basin began with the rejuvenation of rifting, i.e., creation of a new rift basin during Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous times.

Exploration efforts still young in Cauvery Offshore-confined mainly to land and close to coast. Cretaceous fan model (New discovery in CY-OS-2) promising for future exploration. Discovery by RIL (Dhirubhai-35) has opened a new corridor for exploration in Cauvery deep water Big size subtle features seen on GXT-DGH long offset lines at deeper levels

 

Sedimentation History and Depositional Environment:
Evolution of the Cauvery Basin is understood to have taken place through three distinct stages-

Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rift Stage:

Initiation of rifting has begun during the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous.

Rift stage sediments (Shivganga and Therani formations) of Upper Gondwana affinity are known from exposures. These were deposited in fluvial environments. The Kallakudi Limestone, younger to the Shivganga Formation, may represent an episode of basinal deepening and paucity of clastic supply. In the subsurface, the Andimadam Formation, overlain by the Sattapadi Shale, appears to mark the peak of this transgressive episode during Cenomanian.

 

Late Cretaceous
 

Initiation of rifting has begun during the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous. Rift stage sediments (Shivganga and Therani formations) of Upper Gondwana affinity are known from exposures. These were deposited in fluvial environments. The Kallakudi Limestone , younger to the Shivganga Formation, may represent an episode of basinal deepening and paucity of clastic supply. In the subsurface, the Andimadam Formation, overlain by the Sattapadi Shale, appears to mark the peak of this transgressive episode during Cenomanian.

 

Post Cretaceous

Towards the end of the Cretaceous, the basin experienced a phase of upliftment and erosion and a gradual basinward tilt of the shelf. The Tertiary sequence was deposited in a general prograding environment with gradual subsidence of the shelf. This sequence can be subdivided into two groups, the Nagore and Narimanam. The Nagore Group is well developed in the south, whereas the Narimanam Group attains its full development north of Karaikal High.

The Kallakudi Limestone , younger to the Shivganga Formation, may represent an episode of basinal deepening and paucity of clastic supply. By this time, Tertiary deltaic environment appears to have considerably progressed eastwards.

Tectonic History:
The Cauvery Basin is an intra-cratonic rift basin, divided into a number of subparallel horsts and grabens, trending in a general NE-SW direction. The basin came into being as a result of fragmentation of the Gondwana land during drifting of India-Sri Lanka landmass system away from Antarctica/Australia continental plate in Late Jurassic / Early Cretaceous. The initial rifting caused the formation of NE-SW horst-graben features. Subsequent drifting and rotation caused the development of NW-SE cross faults.

The Cauvery Basin contains the following major tectonic elements
          

Ariyalur-Pondicherry Depression Kumbhkonam-Madnam-Portonovo High Tranquebar Depression Karaikal High Nagapattinam Depression Vedarniyam High Thanjavur Depression Pattukuttai-Manargudi Ridge Mandapam Ridge Mannar Depression Vedarniyam – Tiruchirapally Fault

Generalized Stratigraphy:
The stratigraphy is worked out from outcrop geology and sub-surface information gathered from seismic and drilling data.

Precambrian: Precambrian cratonic rocks comprising granites and gneisses are exposed all along the western margin of the basin.

Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous: Overlying the Cratonic basement along the margin of the basin are exposures of sedimentary rocks of Gondwanic affinity identified as the Shivganga Beds and Therani Formation. The Therani Formation contains index Gondwana plant fossils (Ptilophyllum acutifolium). These rocks are feldspathic, gritty and kaolinitic.

Early Cretaceous: The rocks of the Uttatur Group is made up of Kalakundi, Karai Shale and Maruvathur Clay formations in the outcrops and the Andimadam, Sattapadi and Bhuvanagiri formations in the sub-surface. These formations overlie the older Gondwana rocks and basement granites and gneisses.

Andimadam Formation: In the subsurface, the formation is developed in grabens, namely, the Ramnad, Tanjore, Tranquebar and Ariyalur Pondicherry grabens. The lower boundary of the formation is marked by Archaean Basement rocks, while the upper boundary is defined by an argillaceous section. It comprises pale grey, fine to coarse grained, micaceous sandstone and micaceous silty shale.

Sattapadi Shale: This formation is widely distributed in the basin.It is absent in the southeastern part of the basin. The Andimadam Formation marks its lower boundary and an arenaceous facies of the Bhuvanagiri Formation marks its upper contact. It comprises mainly silty shale and thin calcareous sandstone. The environment of deposition is inferred to be marine. The age assigned is Albian-Cenomanian. This is one of the important source sequences for HC generation.

Bhuvanagiri Formation: The formation is developed mostly in the northern and central parts of the basin. The formation is predominantly sandstone with minor claystone and shale. A Cenomanian-Turonian age can be assigned to this formation. It is inferred to have been deposited in middle shelf to upper bathyal environment.

Palk Bay Formation: The occurrence of this formation is restricted to the Palk Bay. The lithology is dominantly calcareous sandstone with a few bands of sandy claystone. The depositional environment is inferred to be shallow marine in a fan delta setting.

Late Cretaceous: The sediments in the outcrops are classified under two groups, namely, the Trichinopoly and Ariyalur groups. The Trichinopoly and Ariyalur groups in outcrops consist of Sandstones and Limestone formations.

Kudavasal Shale Formation: It is present all along the eastern part of the basin. The formation consists of shale/calcareous silty shale with occasional calcareous sandstone bands.

Nannilam Formation: It is conformably overlain and underlain by the Porto-Novo and Kudavasal formations respectively. The formation consists of alternations of shale, calcareous silty shales and occasional calcareous sandstones. The formation age ranges from Santonian to Campanion.

Porto-Novo Shale: Predominantly developed in the northern part of the AriyalurPondicherry Sub-basin, west of Karaikal Ridge and Palk Bay Sub-basin. It is predominantly argillaceous with minor siltstone. The age of the formation is Campanion to Maastrichtian.

Komarakshi Shale: The formation has developed towards the eastern part of the basin. It unconformably overlies the Bhuvanagiri/ Palk Bay Formation and underlies the Karaikal/Kamalapuram formations. The formation consists mainly of calcareous silty shale. The age of the formation is Coniacian to Maastrichtian.

Tertiary: A complete sequence of Tertiary sediments is encountered in the sub-surface. The exposed rocks are represented by the Niniyur Formation of Paleocene age and the Cuddalore Sandstone of Mio-Pliocene age. The sub-surface section of Tertiary rocks

is considerably thick and has been classified into two groups; the lower part is named as the Nagaur Group and the upper part, as the Narimanam Group.

Nagore Group: The formations of this group overlie the Ariyalur Group. The base and top of the group is marked by pronounced unconformities. The four formations recognized in this group are described below.

Kamalapuram Formation: The Porto-Novo---Komarakshi Shale unconformably underlies the formation, whereas the overlying Karaikal Shale has conformable contact. It consists of alternations of shaly sandstones and shales.

Karaikal Shale: The formation conformably overlies the Kamalapuram Formation. The formation comprises shales, which are occasionally calcareous/pyritic. The age of the formation ranges from Paleocene to Eocene.

Pandanallur Formation: It has a restricted areal extension. It consists of claystone sandstone, deposited in middle shelf environment. Age of the formation is Lower Eocene.

Tiruppundi Formation: The formation is present in Pondicherry offshore, Nagapattinam Sub-basin, and south of Palk Bay Sub-basin. The formation comprises limestone, siltstone and sandstone. It is of Middle Eocene to Early Miocene age.

Narimanam Group: The youngest sedimentary sequence comprising sandstone, clay/claystone and limestone which are well recognized with distinct character is designated as a Group. This group comprises eight formations.

Niravi Formation: The formation unconformably overlies the Tiruppundi Formation/Karaikal Shale. The formation consists of grey coloured, fine to medium grained, calcareous sandstone with occasional pyrite and garnet.

Kovilkalappal Formation: It occurs in Tanjore and Nagapattinam Sub-basins and overlies the Niravi Formation, and underlies the Shiyali Claystone. It is argillaceous in nature with a dominant presence of limestone.

Shiyali Claystone Formation: It is observed to occur in Madanam and Karaikal area. The age of the formation ranges from Oligocene to Lower Miocene. Vanjiyur Sandstone Formation: The formation has limited areal extent. It is predominantly arenaceous in character and comprises dark grey, calcareous sandstone and siltstone.

Tirutaraipundi Sandstone Formation: The formation is present in the southern part of the Nagapattinam Sub-basin towards Palk Bay. It comprises mainly sandstones with minor limestone.

Madanam Limestone Formation: The formation is unconformably underlain by the Tirutaraipundi Sandstone and Vanjiyur Sandstone. It comprises mainly limestone with minor silty clays.

Vedaranniyam Limestone Formation: The formation occurs only in the southeastern part of the basin. It consists of predominantly coral limestone and minor grainstone.

Tittacheri Formation: The formation is present in a large part of the basin. It grades into the Cuddalore Sandstone Formation near the outcrops. This consists of unconsolidated gravely sandstone and earthy clays.The age of the formation is Lower Miocene to Pliocene.

Petroleum System:

Petroleum System and Generalized Stratigraphy Prognosticated Resources/Proved Reserve

The Cauvery Basin is an established hydrocarbon province with a resource base of 700 MMT (430 MMT for onland areas and 270 MMT in the offshore).

Proven / Expected Play Types
 

Structural and combination traps in Early Cretaceous to Paleocene sequences. Stratigraphic traps such as pinch-outs / wedge-outs and lenticular sand bodies in Early to Late Cretaceous sequences.

Source Reservoir Cap Rock

Sattapadi shale within Cretaceous– main source Kudavasal Shale within Cretaceous Basal part of Kamalapuram Fm (Paleocene). Andimadam, Bhuvanagiri & Nannilam Formations within Cretaceous Kamlapuram and Niravi Formations within Paleocene Precambrian Fractured Basement. Sattapadi shale within Cretaceous Post unconformity shales like Kudavasal and Kamlapuram.

Entrapment Structural/ Stratigraphic, Combination traps.

Petroleum Plays:
Cauvery Deep Water

Pliocene Play Types, Bright Event With Shadow Zone

Onland Cauvery Basin

Onland Basin References:
1. Basin architecture and petroleum system of Krishna Godavari Basin, east coast of India; S. K. Gupta, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, Dehradun, India 2. Gas Hydrate in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, India; P. Dewangan (National Institute of Oceanography), P. Jaiswal* (Rice University), T. Ramprasad (National Institute of Oceanography), S. Gullapallis (National Institute of Oceanography), C.A. Zelt (Rice University), M.V. Ramana (National Institute of Oceanography), M.V. Lall (Directorate General of Hydrocarbons), B.J.P. Kumar (Directorate General of Hydrocarbons) & A.V. Sathe (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) 3. Director General of Hydrocarbons website.

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