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**Integrated Design: MATS10250
**

Lecturer: Dr Bill Sampson Office: C51b, Sackville Street Building Email: w.sampson@manchester.ac.uk

These lecture notes are designed to accompany the slides used in lectures, which you can download from BlackBoard.

Density

One of the fundamental properties of all materials is their density. Density quantifies the mass per unit volume of a material, i.e. how heavy it is relative to how much space it occupies. We are all familiar with density and how it affects whether objects float or not: at room temperature, cooking oil has density of about 900 kg/m3, whereas water has density of 1000 kg/m3, so the oil has a lower density than water and therefore floats on water. Density applies to solid materials also: steel has a density of about 8000 kg/m3, whereas aluminium has a density of about 2600 kg/m3, so if we have two bars of these metals that are the same size, then the greater density of steel means that the steel bar will be heavier. Before looking at density, and the use of density to characterise textiles materials, it is helpful to look at how we quantify density. We have said that density quantifies the mass per unit volume of a material, we can write this as

density =

mass of an object volume of the object

(1)

As long as we stay on one planet (earth is a sensible choice) we can be comfortable using the terms mass and weight interchangeably. This isn’t rigorously correct, but it helps our understanding, so when we discuss the mass of an object, we can think of this being how much it weighs. When we weigh things in every day life, we often still use pounds, ounces, stones, etc. Scientists prefer to quantify the mass of objects in kilograms, or sometimes grams or micrograms. Similarly, we may measure length in inches, feet or miles, but scientists prefer metres, kilometres, centimetres, etc. When we talk about how long something is, we should always say what measurement we are using: Bill Sampson is 6 feet tall, not 6 metres! We call the information that we include with such numbers in order that we know what measuring system, the units. If we stick with using metres to measure length for now then we recall that the area of an object is measured in square metres, which we denote m2; the volume of an object is measured in cubic metres, which we write m3.

The volume of the plank is given by its length multiplied by its width multiplied by its thickness. so we’d expect out plank to float! . we have just collected the units together. Volume of plank = 2 m × 20 cm × 5 cm It’s a good idea to convert all these dimensions to metres: Volume of plank = 2 m × 20 cm × 5 cm = 2 m × 0. 20 cm wide and 5 cm thick. this can also be written as kg m-3.20 m × 0. but before we can use Equation (4) we need to work out its volume.05 m = 0. The mass of our plank is 12 kg. Our final form of the equation to calculate density is therefore density (kg/m3 ) = mass of an object (kg) volume of the object (m 3 ) (4) Let’s assume that we have a plank of wood that is 2 m long. the plank weighs 12 kg. We can now say that the units of density are kg/m3. we need to use Equation (4).02 (m ) 100 1200 (kg) = 2 (m 3 ) = 600 kg/m3 This is less than the density of water.We can now write Equation (1) including some units: density = mass of an object (kg) volume of the object (m 3 ) mass of an object (kg) × 3 volume of the object (m ) (2) This is the same as: density = (3) To get to Equation (3). To work out the density of the wood.02 (m 3 ) 12 (kg) 100 × 3 0. which we say as “kilograms per metre cubed” or “kilograms per cubic metre”. i.e.02 m3 We can now calculate the density of our piece of wood: density = = 12 (kg) 0.

Let’s assume that we have a piece of cotton fabric that weighs 1. It is given by linear density (kg/m) = mass of an object (kg) length of the object (m) (6) Let’s assume that we have a ball of string that contains 1 km of string and weighs 100 g. To overcome this. but varies from region to region because of the weave or knit. Linear density We have a similar problem when trying to characterise the density of yarns and fibres.5 (m) 1. A convenient property to characterise yarns and fibres is their mass per unit length.2 kg/m2 There are 1000 grams in a kilogram. This is often the case with thin sheet-like materials like textiles when we can usually work out the area quite easily but the thickness can be harder to define. check the units. making it difficult to measure thickness without squashing it. but instead use their area density. Yarns are made of many fibres close together and have small gaps between them. sometimes they are written ‘gsm’ or `g m-2’.Density of fabrics Sometimes it isn’t so easy to work out the volume of a material.2 (kg) 6 (m2 ) = 0. We calculate its area density using Equation (5): area density = = 1. we don’t usually characterise fabrics by their density. We call this the linear density. We calculate its linear density using Equation (6): .2 kg.5 m wide and 4 m long.2 (kg) 4 (m) × 1.2) g/m2 = 200 g/m2. This is defined as the mass per unit area of the material and is given by area density (kg/m2 ) = mass of an object (kg) area of the object (m2 ) (5) The density with units kg/m3 is sometimes called the bulk density. so the area density of our cotton fabric is (1000 × 0. the fabric is 1. If you’re ever unsure which density is being referred to. These units of grams per square are often preferred to describe the area density of textiles. Fibres often have non-uniform size and shape of cross-section along their length. There are two problems in measuring thickness: • it usually isn’t uniform. • the fabric is usually compressible.

A cubic block of metal with sides measuring 5 cm that weighs 1 kg. it would probably be better to use the units that we started out with. and to say that the string has a linear density of 100 g/km. A piece of A4 photocopy paper (297 mm × 210 mm) that weighs 5 g. and this makes it hard to imagine exactly what it means in the real world. 100 m of cotton yarn that weighs 15 g. Remember to include the units for all your answers. A block of plastic 10 cm long. A dice with sides measuring 1 cm made from wood with density 700 kg/m3.linear density = = 100 (g) 1 (km) 0. In this case. A polyester yarn that weighs 15 g and is 200 m long. Yarns and fibres are normally much thinner than our string.0001 kg/m This is a very small number. 20 cm long. Problems 1) Calculate the density of the following samples: a) b) c) A block of plastic. A square piece of fabric with sides 1. A cube of steel (density 8000 kg/m3) of side 5 cm with a hole of diameter 1 cm drilled through it. A rod of aluminium with diameter 1 cm and length 50 cm that weighs 106 g. A rectangular piece of fabric 2 m wide and 10 m long that weighs 4kg. so normally we prefer to weigh quite a long length of yarn in order to work out its linear density.5 m that weighs 225 g.1 (kg) 1000 (m) = 0. 10 cm wide and 5 cm thick that weighs 1 kg. 5 cm wide and 2 cm thick made from nylon that has a density of 1100 kg/m3. 2) Calculate the mass of the following objects: a) b) c) 3) Calculate the area density of the following samples: a) b) c) 4) Calculate the linear density of the following samples: a) b) .

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