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**Integrated Design: MATS10250
**

Lecturer: Dr Bill Sampson Office: C51b, Sackville Street Building Email: w.sampson@manchester.ac.uk

These lecture notes are designed to accompany the slides used in lectures, which you can download from BlackBoard.

**More about densities and units
**

We have identified three ways of describing the density of materials in general, textiles and yarns: • • • Bulk density: used for three-dimensional objects. SI units: kg/m3. Area density: used for two-dimensional objects. SI units: kg/m2. Linear density: used for ‘one-dimensional’ objects. SI units: kg/m.

Bulk density is what is commonly referred to as just ‘density’. Two dimensional objects are things like textiles (or pieces of paper) that are thin in one direction, but their dimensions in the other two directions are much larger. One dimensional objects are things like yarn, fibres, (or string and rope) that are much longer in one direction than in any other. The dimensionality of the object agrees with that of the units, so for threedimensional objects, the units are kg per meter cubed (kg/m3) and we note that a cube is three-dimensional. For two-dimensional objects, the units are kg per meter squared (kg/m2) and we note that a square is two-dimensional. For ‘one-dimensional’ objects, the units are kg per meter (kg/m) and we note that a line is one-dimensional. Sometimes we will see these units written in the following ways that are equivalent: (Bulk) density kg/m3 kg m-3 Area density kg/m2 kg m-2 Linear density kg/m kg m-1

In this part of our course, we will spend some more time looking at linear density.

others are derived from SI units. In that follows. Importantly tex is a unit. There are 1000 milligrams in a gram and 1000 metres in a kilometre. It’s important that we understand what these different measures of linear density are and how they relate to each other. if a portion of text is enclosed in a shaded box . So. Recall that the SI units for linear density are kg/m: 150 tex = 150 g/km 150 (g) = 1 (km) (150 ÷ 1000) (kg) 1000 (m) 150 (kg) = 1 000 000 (m) = 0. then you should memorise it: everyone who deals with textiles needs to know this stuff without having to look it up. if a yarn has a tex of 150 g/km. units. Tex: One of the more widely used units for linear density is the ‘tex’. we can write this as: 150 g/km = 150 (g) 1 (km) 150 000 (mg) = 1000 (m) = 150 mg/m So tex tells us the number of grams per kilometre of fibre or yarn. so it is quite common to find that people talk about linear density in units other than kg/m.00015 kg/m = So to convert tex to kg/m we divide by 1 000 000. so a yarn with a linear density of 150 g/km is said to be a 150 tex yarn. The tex of a fibre or yarn is the linear density in grams per kilometre. . it is conventional when discussing textile yarns to just state that “… the yarn’s tex is 150”. and this is the same as the number of milligrams per metre. Some of these depend on old-fashioned. nonSI.Linear density Textiles is a traditional industry.

to convert from denier to tex we divide by 9: 45 denier = 5 tex = 50 dtex and to convert from tex to denier. we divide by 10: 70 dtex = 7 tex and to convert from tex to dtex. but the unit can be applied to all fibres and yarns and it is the preferred unit of linear density in the United States. Most of us have seen this used to describe the fineness of the yarns in women’s tights. Before we can define measurements in the indirect system.1 tex 1 tex = 10 dtex So. so they tell us about the mass per unit length of the fibre or yarn.Decitex: We have seen that yarns are many fibres or filaments thick. The denier of a fibre or yarn is the linear density in grams per 9 kilometres. they tell us the number of hanks required to have a given weight of yarn. So. There are also several indirect systems for quantifying linear density. these tell us how much a given length of yarn will weigh. we need to define another term: the hank. we multiply by 9: 7 tex = 63 denier Tex. i. 1 dtex = 0. to convert from dtex to tex. we multiply by 10: 5 tex = 50 dtex Denier: Another measure of the linear density of fibres and yarns is ‘denier’. The indirect systems of measurement are called counts. decitex and denier all increase with increasing linear density. We call these direct systems of linear density. We will consider three: . The length of yarn on a hank depends on the type of yarn and we will consider two important types in this course: a hank of cotton is 840 yards long and a hank of worsted wool is 560 yards long. Often we talk about the fineness of yarn: a fine yarn has a low linear density and thus has a low value of tex. this is a coiled length of yarn with a specified length. so are inversely proportional to the linear density.e. These are often characterised by the subunit. ‘decitex’. these are measures where the value gets bigger as the yarn of fibre becomes finer. decitex or denier. Decitex is usually written as dtex. so the linear density of fibres and filaments is typically much less than that of yarns. it is the linear density in grams per ten kilometre length.

metric count tells us the number of 1 km hanks in a kg. Of course. the number of 1 km hanks in a kg is the same as the number of km per kilogram.040 (kg) 1000 (kg) = 40 (kg) = 25 (1) Suppose that a 1 km hank of yarn weighs 40 g. Defining metric count in this way means that it has no units. tex is the linear density of the yarn in g/km.Metric Count: The metric count is the number of 1 km hanks that together weigh 1 kg To calculate metric count we use the following equation: Metric count = 1 (kg) Mass of a 1 km hank (kg) 1 (kg) 40 (g) 1 (kg) = 0. we divide 1000 by the tex: 40 tex = 1000 ÷ 40 = 25 metric count . We calculate linear density by dividing the weight of a yarn by its length: linear density = mass of yarn length of yarn Now. So the tex of a yarn with metric count M is calculated as: linear density = 1 (kg) M (km) 1000 (g) = M (km) ⎛ 1000 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ g/km ⎝ M ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ tex ⎝ M ⎠ So. to convert metric count to tex. we divide 1000 by the metric count: 50 metric count = 1000 ÷ 50 = 20 tex and to convert tex to metric count. The metric count of the yarn is: Metric count = Remember.

We calculate linear density by dividing the weight of a yarn by its length: linear density = mass of yarn length of yarn Consider a yarn with cotton count.20456 We also need the length of yarn that weighs 1 lb in units of metres: length that weighs 1 lb = C × 840 1. or ‘English cotton count’ is a traditional indirect measure of linear density. so our yarn has a cotton count of 8 Ne. C. Cotton count. we just need our definition of linear and to convert yards and pounds into SI units. This means that C hanks of yarn. A hank of cotton is 840 yards long so we define the cotton count as follows: The cotton count is the number of 840 yard hanks that together weigh 1 lb To calculate cotton count we use the following equation: Cotton count = 1 (lb) Mass of a 840 yd hank (lb) (2) Suppose that an 840 yd hank of yarn weighs 2 oz (two ounces).1 C ) m We now substitute these into our expression for linear density: . together weigh 1 lb. so is defined in terms of imperial units. To convert cotton count to tex. There are 1. There are sixteen ounces to the pound: 16 oz = 1 lb The cotton count of the yarn is: Cotton count = 1 (lb) 2 (oz) 16 (oz) = 2 (oz) =8 Sometimes cotton count is expressed with the units ‘Ne’. the imperial unit of mass used is the pounds (lb).0936 yards in a metre and there are 2.2046 pounds in a kilogram.4536 kg 2.0936 m = ( 768.Cotton Count: All of the measures of linear density we have considered so far have used SI units or subunits. The imperial unit of length used is the yard (yd). each measuring 840 yards. So the mass of the yarn is 1 lb. which we convert to kilograms: mass of yarn = 1 lb = 1 kg = 0.

we multiply by 1½: 16 cotton count = 16 × 1.1 C (m) 0.5 by the tex: 15 tex = 590. to convert cotton count to worsted count.8 tex and to convert tex to cotton count. Notice the ratio of the lengths of yarn on these hanks: length of cotton on a hank 840 3 = = = 1 12 length of wool on a hank 560 2 So.5 C tex We state then: To convert cotton count to tex. we divide 590.5 ÷ 60 = 9.5 = 24 worsted count .0005905 (kg) C (m) 0.linear density = = = = = 0. The worsted count of the yarn is: Worsted count = The only difference between our definition of the cotton count and the worsted count is the length of yarn on the hank.5 by the cotton count: 60 cotton count = 590.5 (g) C (km) 590.4536 (kg) 768.5 ÷ 15 = 39. we divide 590. A hank of wool is 560 yards long so we define the worsted count as follows: The worsted count is the number of 560 yard hanks that together weigh 1 lb To calculate worsted count we use the following equation: Worsted count = 1 (lb) Mass of a 560 yd hank (lb) 1 (lb) 1 (oz) 16 (oz) = 1 (oz) = 16 (3) Suppose that a 560 yd hank of yarn weighs 1 oz.4 cotton count Worsted Count: Worsted count is typically used for wool.5905 (g) C (m) 590.

we divide 885. C is given by linear density = 590.8 ÷ 15 = 59 worsted count Summary We have introduced six different measures of linear density for yarns and fibres: Direct system tex decitex denier Indirect system metric count cotton count worsted count Those in the direct system increase as fibres or yarns become coarser and decrease as they become finer. this is the other way around.5 = tex 2W 885.8 = tex 2 3 ( ) W To convert worsted count to tex.8 by the tex: 15 tex = 885. it doesn’t matter what units we use to describe the linear density of a yarn or fibre. .8 by the worsted count: 20 worsted count = 885. we divide by 1½: 21 worsted count = 21 ÷ 1. Importantly. for measures in the indirect system. it will still have the same mass per unit length.5 tex 2W 3 3 × 590. What is important is that we always state the units that we are using. So to convert worsted count to tex we use linear density = 590.8 ÷ 20 = 44.5 = 14 cotton count Recall that the tex of a yarn with cotton count.2 tex and to convert tex to worsted count.and to convert worsted count to cotton count.5 C tex and C = W where W is the worsted count. we divide 885.

Problems 1) a piece of cotton yarn is 150 m long and weighs 3 g. metric count c. Calculate its cotton count and worsted count. Which is finer? Want to check your answers to questions 2-5? Here’s a useful web link: http://www. . tex b. tex b. worsted count 3) A piece of yarn is 100 m long and weighs 8 g.htm Remember to include the units for all your answers. 4) A sample of Yarn A is 80 m long and weighs 5. Yarn B has a linear density of 10 denier. dtex c.uk/scol/ccdenlin. cotton count d.6 g.cleavebooks. Express this in the following units: a. denier 2) A yarn has a linear density of 70 denier. Calculate its linear density in the following units: a.co.

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