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Articolo sulla progettazione di un sistema di navigazione automatica

Articolo sulla progettazione di un sistema di navigazione automatica

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Hakgu Kim, Wongun Kim, Dongwuk Kim, Kyongsu Yi

Phone: 082-02-880-1942

Fax: 082-02-880-7194

E-mail: iku3333@snu.ac.kr

kyi@snu.ac.kr

vehicle is presented in this paper. The proposed controller is a longitudinal velocity controller

which determines throttle and brake inputs based on the desired motion without vehicle

parameters. To that end, a combined vehicle model has been developed and few parameters of the

combined vehicle model have been regulated using an adaptation algorithm. A desired velocity of

the autonomous vehicle has been designed by considering the vehicle acceleration performance

and road curvature. Simulation and vehicle tests have been conducted to evaluate the performance

of proposed controller. Although the vehicle parameters are unknown, the test results show that

quite good tracking performance. The results also indicate that the MFCC considerably reduce the

effects of model uncertainty using the adaptation algorithm.

the engine, torque converter and tire model are roughly

In recent year, autonomous vehicle control known. Additionally, the model uncertainty and external

technology has been widely researched as a long-term disturbance should be considered. In this circumstance,

task of automation of transportation system. The control the model based approach could cause tracking problem.

system generally composed of three parts: perception, Since most of the vehicle parameters of the autonomous

decision and control. The perception algorithm is vehicle are unknown, the performance of model based

designed to detect preceding vehicle, pedestrian controller could be influenced by the assumed

unexpected obstacles, etc. The decision algorithm parameters and neglected dynamics. Therefore, the

classifies current driving conditions and choose a proper MFCC has been developed to compensate the

control strategy for given road and vehicle information. unawareness of vehicle parameters of the autonomous

The control part coordinates the throttle, brake and vehicle. A simulation using Carsim software and vehicle

steering inputs to tracking predefined vehicle path and test has been conducted to evaluate the performance of

desired velocity. the proposed model free cruise controller.

This paper focuses on the speed controller of Many authors have focused on the throttle and

autonomous vehicle. To achieve the control purpose, the brake actuation of speed controller. Goodrich has been

desired velocity profile has been designed to minimize proposed human centered design method to determine

the lap time and guarantee safety by considering the the throttle and brake actuation[1]. Some approaches

road curvature and vehicle acceleration capability. The have tried to develop model based lower level controller

tracking performance of the speed controller also should which determines control input based on vehicle

be guaranteed. parameters and inverse dynamics[2]-[5]. Instead of that,

The speed controller of autonomous vehicle has P. Shakouri used linearized vehicle model to design

been designed based on the model based adaptive cruise gain scheduling linear quadratic controller for throttle

controller(ACC). First, the speed controller generates and brake actuation[6]. The fuzzy controller and

desired acceleration such as the upper level controller of intelligent PID controller has been considered by few

the ACC. Then, the lower level controller calculates authors [7]-[8]. A model free controller has been

throttle and brake input to follow the desired dynamics. demonstrated to compensate for neglected dynamics in

The upper level controller of the ACC should be vehicle model[9]-[10].

designed by considering the human comfort and safety. This paper organized as follows. The test vehicle

However, there is no need to consider the human has been introduced in Section 2. This section also

comfort for autonomous vehicle. Therefore, a PID explains a simplified vehicle model for a model free

controller has been used for the upper level controller in cruise controller. The design method of reference

this study. On the other hand, the lower level controller velocity profile has been depicted in Section 3. In

which determines throttle and brake inputs should be section 4. The model free cruise controller for the

AVEC ’12

performance of MFCC has been verified using Carsim

software in Section 5. The test result using the

autonomous vehicle has been depicted in Section 6.

Finally, conclusions are presented in Section 7.

2. VEHICLE MODEL

MFCC has been used as a speed controller of the test

vehicle. The vehicle is equipped 2-L gasoline engine Fig. 1 Target Vehicle

with front wheel drive system. It also has various

sensors and additional actuators to control throttle,

brake and steering. The information of position and

motion of the vehicle is obtained from an Oxford

Technical Solutions RT 3002. The RT 3002 outputs real as

time measurements over CAN bus interface. Networked

computers have been used for the data acquisition and

the implementation of the proposed model free cruise

control algorithm. The throttle has been actuated by Pb vs

controlling the engine management system and the input

voltage has been generated using a DSP board. The

brake pedal position has been controlled by wire with a

DC motor.

The model free cruise controller assumes that

vehicle parameter such as engine map, torque converter as

map, gear ratio are unknown. Any inter vehicle state

cannot be used to develop the vehicle model. That

means that vehicle model should be designed based on

the relationship between the control inputs and vehicle Pb vs

acceleration. Generally, tracking force of a vehicle is

proportional to throttle angle. The braking force is

proportional to the brake pedal position. That means the

vehicle acceleration is proportional to control inputs. If

there were no control inputs, the vehicle decelerates

with aero dynamic drag force and rolling resistance. Fig. 2 Simplified Vehicle Model

This relationship is expressed in (1)

1

as (as Fth Fb Pb g ) (1) 3. REFERENCE VELOCITY PROFILE DESIGN

The way points of the test track have been obtained

where as is the vehicle acceleration is the throttle using RT 3002 dGPS signals by manually driving the

angle, Pb is the brake pressure and g is the zero test track. The way points have been used to calculate

the reference velocity. The way points of test track are

throttle deceleration. is the time delay of power train depicted in fig. 3.

or brake system. Fth and Fb are imaginary The reference velocity profile should minimize the

parameters that explain the relationship between the lap time as well as take into account the dynamics of the

control inputs and vehicle acceleration. These vehicle. Therefore, the problem of reference velocity

parameters imply powertrain and brake system design is a constrained minimum time optimization

parameters which have not been considered in the problem. In this study, the maximum lateral acceleration

simplified vehicle model. Therefore, it has been named and maximum longitudinal acceleration have been

vehicle characteristic parameters(VCPs). considered as dynamic constraints. The maximum speed

The VCPs are to act as a proportional gain between is also limited for vehicle safety. The optimization

the control inputs and the vehicle acceleration. It is problem has been solved using the dynamic

influenced by the vehicle states such as vehicle speed, programming technique.

engine speed and gear degree as well as vehicle g k vk t

parameters like engine map, gear ratio and brake system

J *k vk min g k vk J k 1 vk

(2)

prameters. Moreover, it is also contains control delay of vk Vk

the vehicle actuation system. The VCPs continuously

where is g k the cost function, t is the travel time

change during driving. Therefore, a proper adaptation

algorithm is required to design a control system using between stage k and stage k+1, J *k is the optimal cost

the simplified vehicle model. at stage k and J k 1 is the optimal cost at stage k+1.

AVEC ’12

algorithm, vehicle characteristic parameter(VCP)

adaptation algorithm and throttle/brake controller. The

100 switching algorithm determines switching between

throttle and brake based on the desired acceleration. The

VCPs adaptation algorithm calculates VCPs by

0 observing vehicle response for given control inputs. The

throttle/brake controller regulates control inputs based

global y(m)

-100 The objective of the model free cruise controller is

to minimize the error between the desired acceleration

and subject vehicle acceleration. The control law of

-200 MFCC is directly obtained from the simplified vehicle

model in (1) by substituting desired acceleration ades

instead of as . The resulting control law is:

-300

1

ades ades gˆ

Fˆth

-200 -100 0 100 P 1

(3)

b

global x(m) ˆ ades ades gˆ

Fb

Fig. 3 Way Points of Test Track

Every stage is one-to-one corresponding with the where Fˆth and Fˆb are the adapted vehicle

way points. The lateral and longitudinal acceleration has characteristic parameters for throttle and brake,

been calculated at every state by considering the road respectively. Is the estimated zero throttling

curvature and vehicle velocity. Then the velocity deceleration. These values should be obtained using

profiles which exceed the maximum lateral and proper adaptation algorithm so as to calculate the

longitudinal acceleration have been deleted in the control inputs.

dynamic programming algorithm. The upper limit of the VCPs adaptation algorithm is quite important part

reference velocity profile has been set to 55km/h for of the MFCC because these parameters account for the

vehicle safety. direct relationship between the control inputs and

vehicle responses. Especially, Fˆth has been affected by

4. MODEL FREE CRUISE CONTROLLER

the powertrain parameters such as the vehicle speed, the

The speed controller for autonomous vehicle engine speed, the torque converter and the transmission

composed of two parts such as the ACC: upper level parameters, etc. These parameters are all unknown.

controller and lower level controller. The upper level Therefore, obtaining accurate value of the VCPs for

controller gives the desired acceleration of the target throttle is quite difficult issue and that is also true for

vehicle to lower level controller. Then the lower level that of brake. Moreover, these parameters are imaginary

controller regulates the throttle and brake input to parameter which imply vehicle parameters that had not

follow the desired acceleration. been considered in simplified vehicle model. It means

The upper level controller has been designed using that the real value of VCPs cannot be measured and

simple PID controller. Since the target vehicle is adaptation error is also unknown. However, these values

unmanned vehicle, the speed controller is not need to relate to the inputs and the vehicle responses. The

take into account driver comfort such as jerk. Therefore, simplified vehicle model can be used to calculate the

the simple PID controller is enough to the upper level VCPs. An adaptation algorithm has been designed using

controller. However, the desired acceleration has been this simplified vehicle model.

saturated in a low level for vehicle safety. In case a driver presses the acceleration pedal, the

A design process using inverse dynamics of the brake pressure is zero. Reversely, when the driver

model based ACC can be used for the autonomous presses the brake pedal the throttle angle is zero.

vehicle. However, the powertrain and brake system Therefore, the vehicle characteristic variables could be

parameters of the target vehicle are unknown. Finding obtained from (4).

a ades gˆ

these parameters generally takes a lot of effort. To Fth , m s

overcome disadvantage of designing model based lower

(4)

level controller using inverse dynamics, a model free a ades gˆ

cruise controller(MFCC) has been developed as a lower Fb , m s

Pb

level controller for autonomous vehicle. The proposed

controller has been depicted in fig. 5.

Development of the MFCC is the major where Fth, m and Fb , m are the measured value of

contribution of this paper. The MFCC can follow the vehicle characteristic parameters.

desired acceleration command without vehicle

AVEC ’12

dynamics could be obtained by combining (1), (3) and

(6).

a ades gˆ

40

1 1

e1 ades a s e1 des e2 g

km/h

F ˆ

20 (8)

F ˆ

e2 F Fˆ e1

ades ades gˆ

0

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

distance(m) where g is the disturbance estimation error g gˆ .

Fig. 4 Reference Velocity Profile Since the system matrix of the error dynamics involves

nonlinear terms, it is nonlinear system. However, the

poles of the characteristic equation of the error

dynamics are not influenced by the control inputs. They

Switching are only affected by the time delay of the simplified

Algorithm

vref vehicle model and the weight for the measured VCPs.

PID ades Throttle Then, the characteristic equation is:

Controller /Brake

Controller 1

vs sI A s 2 s 0 (9)

VCVs

Adaptation

as Pb

The time delay is unknown. It could vary

Model Free Cruise Controller

depending on the vehicle state and parameters, but it

Fig. 5 Speed Controller generally remains in narrow range. Therefore, the time

The measured VCPs cannot be directly used to delay has been set to be 0.25s. The update

calculate throttle angle and brake pressure. Firstly, when parameter has been determined by considering the

the throttle angle and brake pressure have a value of damping ratio of the characteristic equation.

nearly zero, the VCPs could be highly sensitive to the The MFCC can reduce the effects of the

control inputs. To prevent a sharply change of the VCPs, disturbance using the VCPs adaptation algorithm. The

it should be updated when the throttle angle and brake VCPs are automatically adapted when the vehicle

pressure are upper than a threshold value. Secondly, few acceleration is higher or lower than the desired

seconds after the driver start to press the acceleration acceleration. Even if the MFCC uses the nominal value

pedal, most of the energy which is generated by the for the zero throttling deceleration of the vehicle, the

engine is used to accelerate the engine speed, not the acceleration error converges to zero in a few second.

vehicle speed. Therefore, the update of VCPs for Therefore, the nominal zero throttling deceleration is

throttle should be started few seconds after the control defined as follows:

input is initiated. Thirdly, the VCPs can be assumed as a gˆ vs k1vs k2 (10)

slow varying variable. Although it is influenced by

vehicle parameters and vehicle states, the VCPs are

slowly varying because the vehicle states are not where k1 and k2 are coefficient to calculate the zero

changed sharply in a short time. The sharply change has throttling deceleration. These values have been set the

been prevented using a weighted sum of the measured zero throttling deceleration to be 1m/s2 at 30m/s of

value and the original value. velocity. A disturbance estimation algorithm can be

Fˆth k 1 wFˆth (k ) 1 w Fth, m developed for the MFCC. However, since the vehicle

(5) parameters are unknown, the effects of disturbance and

Fˆb k 1 wFˆb (k ) 1 w Fb , m model uncertainty cannot be distinguished by the

MFCC. The deceleration by road grade and by the gear

where the w is a weight for the measured value of change has the same effects on the adaptation algorithm.

VCPs. The switching between throttle and brake has been

The weight function of VCPs can be rewritten as a determined using the nominal zero throttling

continuous form as follows: deceleration with a small hysteresis. If the desired

acceleration is larger than the nominal zero throttling

1 w

Fˆ Fˆ k Fm k

dt

(6) deceleration, throttle flag is activated. Reversely, the

desired acceleration is lower than the nominal zero

throttling deceleration, brake flag is activated.

Using the continuous adaptation algorithm, the if ades gˆ h throttle

error dynamics of the vehicle acceleration and the

elseif ades gˆ h brake (11)

VCVs has been analyzed. The errors have been defined

as follows: else No control

e1 as , des as

(7) 5. SIMULATION RESULTS

e F Fˆ

2

AVEC ’12

A simulation studies have been conducted for given Although the vehicle parameters of SUV vehicle

reference velocity profiles. A SUV vehicle model in model are unknown, the simulation result shows good

Carsim software has been used for simulation. The tracking performance for given velocity profile. The

simulation results are depicted in fig. 6. MFCC regulates control inputs to follow the desired

If the desired acceleration is bigger than the acceleration by adjusting VCVs. Moreover, a signal

nominal zero throttle deceleration, the throttle flag is noise has been applied to the vehicle acceleration signal

activated. Then, the vehicle characteristic in order to imitate the signal noise of the accelerometer.

parameters(VCPs) adaptation algorithm calculates the The simulation result in fig. 6(b) shows that the signal

value of VCP for throttle by observing the vehicle noise has little effect on performance of the MFCC.

acceleration. The VCP is increasing or decreasing until The result also indicates that quite important

the vehicle acceleration error converges to zero. If the advantage of the MFCC algorithm. The algorithm has

desired acceleration is less than the nominal zero not used vehicle parameters to control the target vehicle.

throttle deceleration. The same process for brake is The performance of MFCC would not be influenced by

carried out. the target vehicle parameters. The characteristic

60 equation in (9) also indicates that if time constant of the

target vehicle remains near the assumed value, the

40 damping ratio is determined only by weight for

measured VCPs, not the vehicle parameters. Therefore,

km/h

20

Reference Even though the target vehicle is a random ground

Simulation vehicle such as a truck and military vehicle, the MFCC

0 can be applied without the information about the vehicle

0 20 40 60 80 100

time(s) parameters. Theoretically, the tracking performance can

(a) Velocity be regulated by adjusting the weight of adaptation

algorithm.

4

6. TEST RESULTS

2

m/s2

0

been carried out to confirm the performance of the

-2 Desired model free cruise controller. The reference velocity was

Simulation generated using predefined velocity profile as a function

-4

0 20 40 60 80 100 of global position from the dGPS signals of RT3002

time(s) device. The vehicle velocity had been obtained from the

(b) Acceleration front wheel sensor and a discrete Kalman filter has been

designed to calculate the vehicle acceleration from the

30 velocity signal. The acceleration signal from the dGPS

Throttle

Brake

of RT 3002 device has not been used because of the

20 severe signal noise. Since the test track is the unpaved

road, the severe signal noise had been generated in the

%

The test result shows good tracking performance of

the speed controller for autonomous vehicle. The

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 reference velocity has been designed properly for real

time(s) system implementation. The vehicle acceleration error

was remained in a proper range during test driving. The

(c) Control inputs test result in fig. 7 (b) shows undesirable peak, but that

peaks have been caused by the front wheel slip when the

20

control input changes rapidly. The proper saturation

function of reference velocity profile design would be

15 required to prevent undesirable wheel slip. A reasonable

upper level controller to prevent the desired acceleration

10 from severe change of control input could be a solution.

VCVs Th Comparing the results of VCPs and control input in

VCVs Br fig. 6 and fig. 7, the VCPs are different each other for

5

0 20 40 60 80 100 the same velocity profile. The adaptation algorithm

time(s) automatically regulates the VCPs value is suitable for

the target vehicle. That means the MFCC could have

(d) VCVs robust performance to the model uncertainty and

external disturbance.

Fig. 6 Simulation Results

AVEC ’12

performance in real system implementation. The

40

performance and robustness of model free cruise

controller also has been proved by simulation and

km/h

20

Reference

performance despite the model uncertainty and external

experiment

disturbance.

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

time(s)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

(a) Velocity

This works have been supported by the BK21

program, SNU-IAMD, the Korea Research Foundation

2 Gran funded by the Korean Government (MEST),

(KRF-2009-200-D00003), and the National Research

0 Foundation of Korea Grant Funded by the Korean

m/s2

Government (2011-0001277)

-2

Des accel

REFERENCES

experiment

-4

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 [1] Goodrich, M.A., Boer, E.R., “Model-Based

time(s)

Human-Centered Task Automation: A Case Study in

(b) Acceleration ACC System Design” IEEE Trans. Syst. Part A:

Systems and Humans, Vol.33, No.3, pp.325-335.

Throttle [2] Han, D., Yi, K., “Design and Evaluation of

30

Brake intelligent vehicle cruise control systems using a

vehicle simulator”, International Journal of

20

Automotive Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 377-383.

%

10

tuning, and evaluation of a full-range adaptive cruise

control system with collision avoidance”, Vol. 17,

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Issue 4, April, 2009, pp. 442-455.

time(s) [4] Yi, K., Moon, I, “A driver-adaptive stop-and-go

cruise control strategy, Proc. IEEE International

(c) Control inputs Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control,

Taipei, Taiwan.

20 [5] P. Fancher, Z. Bareket, and R. Ervin, Ann Arbor,

“Human-Centered Design of an ACC-with Braking

15 And Forward-Crash-Warning System”, Proc. AVEC

2000, August, 2000, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

10 [6] P.Shakouri, A.Ordys, D.S.Laila, and M. Askari,

VCVs Th “Adaptive cruise control system: comparing

VCVs Br gain-scheduling PI and LQ controllers”, Proc. 18th

5

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 IFAC World Congress, August, 2011, Milano, Italy.

time(s) [7] St. German and R. Isermann, “Nonlinear distance

and cruise control for passenger car”, Proc.

(d) VCVs American Control Conference, June, 1995, Seattle,

Washington..

Fig. 7 Vehicle Test Results [8] Jose E. Narajno, Carlos Gonzalez, Ricardo Garcia

and Teresa de pedro, “ACC+Stop&Go maneuvers

The test result also shows that the performance of with throttle and brake fuzzy control”, IEEE

the MFCC can be lowered when the switching between Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems,

the throttle and brake is occurred during driving. Since Vol. 7, No. 2, June, 2006.

the adaptation algorithm is activated few seconds after [9] Sungwoo Choi, Brigitte d’ANDREA-NOVEL,

initiating the throttle and brake control, the frequent Michel FLIESS, Hugues MOUNIER and Jorge

change of control input can lower the tracking VILLAGRA, “Model-free control of automotive

performance. engine and brake for stop-and-go scenarios”,

European Control Conference, 2009.

7. CONCLUSION [10] Jorge Villagra, Vicene Milanes, Joshue Perez and

Carlos Gonzalez, “Model-free control techniques for

This paper presents a design method for speed Stop & Go systems”, 13th Internaltional IEEE

control of the autonomous vehicle. The reference Annual Conference on Intelligent Transportation

velocity profile generated using dynamic programming Systems, September, 2010.

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