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LIST OF ILLUST RATIO NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii Sectio n 3 OPERATO RS FAMILIARIZATIO N (cont)


LIST OF TA BLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
OPERATORS SA FE TY SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
I NPUT CO UPLI NG CA PACITOR
PRECHARGI N G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Sectio n 1 OPERATOR 'S ADJU ST MENTS . . . . . 3-3
G ENER AL INF ORM ATIO N
INTROD UCTIO N . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 3-3
INTROD UCTIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 B AS ELINE T RAC E . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
SPECI FICATIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 TRAC E ROTATIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
CA LIBR ATIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 PR OBE CO MPEN SATIO N . . . . . . . 3-3
REPAC KAGING FOR SH IPMEN T . . . . 1-9

Section 2 PREPARATION FOR USE Section 4 OPERATING PROC EDURES


FIRST-TIME START UP . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 BASIC APPL ICATIO NS . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
SA FETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 I NTROD UCTIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
LINE VOLTAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 I NDEX Τ0 B ASIC APPLICATIO N
POWER CO R D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 PR OC EDURE S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
L INE FU SE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 V OLTAGE MEAS UREMEN TS . . . . . 4-1
INSTRUMENT COO LIN G . . . . . . . . 2-2 TIME ME AS UREMEN TS . . . . . . . . 4-4
CO NTROLS, CO NNECTOR S, AND TELEV ISIO N DIS PL AYS . . . . . . . . . 4-8
INDICATO RS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 DELAYED-SWEEP
DISPLAY, P OWER, AND PR OBE MAG N IFICATIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
ADJU ST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
VERTICA L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
H ORIZONTA L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 Sectio n 5 OPTIONS AND ACCESSORI E S
T RIGGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
REAR PANEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTROD UCTIO N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
2-7
OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Sectio n 3 OPERATORS FAMILIARIZATIO N I
NTERNATIO NAL POWER CO R DS 5-1
STANDA R D ACCE SSORIES . . . . . 5-1
GENER AL OPERATING OP TIONAL ACCESSORI ES . . . . . . 5-1
I NF ORM ATIO N . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 3-1
GRATIC ULE . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 3-1 FR ONT PANEL I LLUSTRATIO N
GROUN DI NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
SIGNAL CO NNECTIO N S . . . . . . . . 3-1 CH ANGE INF ORM ATIO N
Fig ure Page

The 2213 Α Oscilloscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

1-1 M aximum input voltage vs frequency derating curve for C H 1 OR Χ, CH 2 O R Υ , and ΕΧΤ I NPUT connectors . . 1-7

1-2 Physical dimensions of the 2213Α Oscilloscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8


2-1 Optional power cords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2-2 Fuse holder and power cord co n nector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

2-3 P ower an d d isp lay co ntrols and indicators and PR O BE ADJU ST out p ut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

2-4 Vertical controls a n d connecto rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4

2-5 H orizon tal controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5

2-6 Trigger controls, connecto r, and indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6


2-7 Rear panel connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
3-1 Graticule measurement markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3-2 Probe compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
4-1 Pea k-to-peak waveform voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4-2 I nstantaneous voltage measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4-3 Common-mode rejection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4-4 Voltage ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4-5 Time Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4-6 R ise Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4-7 Time difference between p ulses on time relate d signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4-8 Phase difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4-9 H ig h-resolution phase difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
4-10 Delayed-sweep magnification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9

Table Page

1-1 Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2


1-2 En vironmental Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1-3 Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
2-1 VERT M ODE Trigger Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
The TEKTRONIX 2213Α Oscilloscope is α ru gged, light- The instrument is shi pped with t he following standard
weig ht, d ual-channel 60 MH z instrument that features α accessories :
br ight, sharply defi ned trace on an 80- by 100 mm cathode-
1 Operators manual 2 Pro be p ackages
ray tube (crt). Its vertical system supplies cali brated deflec-
1 Power cord
tion factors from 2 mV per d ivisio n to 5 V per divisio n.
Trigger circuits e n able stable triggering over th e full band- For part numbers and information about instrument ac--
width of the vertical system . Th e ho rizon tal system provides cessories, refe r to the "Options and Accessories" sectio n of
cali brated sweep speeds from 0.5 s pe r divisio n to 50 ns pe r th is ma n ual .
d ivision, along with α delayed-sweep feature. Α X10 magni-
fier circuit extends the maximum sweep speed to 5 ns per The service ma nual and all other optional accessories are
d ivisio n when th e SEC/DI V switc h is set to 0.05 Ειs per ordera ble from Te ktronix, Inc . Α local Te ktronix Field Office,
d ivision . representative, or the Te ktronix p ro d uct catalog can p rovide
or dering and pr oduct information .

Th e following electrical characteristics (Table 1-1) are mance c haracteristics for which no absolute limits are speci-
valid for th e 2213Α whe n it h as been adjusted at an am b ient fied, or c haracteristics that are imp ractical to check.
temperature betwee n +20°C and +30°C, h as h ad α warm-
up period of at least 20 minutes, and is operating at an
am bient temperature between Ο °C and +50°C (unless ot h- En vironmental c h aracte ristics are given in Ta ble 1-2. The
erwise noted) . 2213Α meets the req uireme n ts of MIL-Τ -288000, para-
graph s 4.5 .5 .1 .3, 4 .5 .5 .1 .4, and 4.5 .5 .1 .2 .2 for type ΙΙΙ ,
Class 5 equi pme nt, exce pt where ot herwise noted.
Items listed in the " Performance Req ui remen ts" column
are verifiable qu alitative o r quan titative limits, while items
liste d in th e "S upp leme ntal Information" column are either Ph ysical characteristics of the instrument are listed in
explanatory notes, calibration set up descri ption s, perfor- Table 1-3.
Ta ble 1-1
Electrical Characte ristics
C h a racte ristics Performance Requ irements Supplemental Info rmation

VERTICAL DEFLE CTION SYST EM


Deflection F actor 5 mV per d ivision to 5 V per division
gain is ad justed with VOLTS/DI V switch
Range 2 mV per division to 5 V per division set to 10 mV per division.
in α 1-2-5 sequ ence. 2 mV per d ivisio n gain is a djusted
with VOLTS/DIV switch set to 2 mV
per division .
Accuracy ±3%

Range of V OLTS/DIV Varia ble Control Continuously variable between


settings . Increases d eflectio n factor
by at least 2.5 to 1 .
Step R esponse Rise Time Rise time is calculated from the form ula :

Rise Time 0.35


B andwi d th (-3 dB)
0°C to +35°C

5 mV per Division to 5 V p er 5.8 ns or less .


Division

0°C to 50°C
2 mV per Division to 5 V per 7.0 ns or less .
Division
B andwidth (-3 d B) M easu red with α vertically centered
6-division reference sign al from α 50 Ω
0°C to +35°C
so urce d riving α 50 Ω coaxial cable
2 mV per Division Dc to at least 50 MH z. that is terminated in 50 Ω, bot h at
the input co nnector an d at t h e probe
5 mV per Division to 5 V per Dc to at least 60 MHz . input, with t he VOLTS/DIV V ariable
Division control in the CA L detent .
0°C to +50°C

2 mV per Division to 5 V per Dc to at least 50 MHz .


Division
AC Cou p led L ower Limit 10 H z or less at -3 dB.
B a n dwidth Limiter Up pe r limits (-3 d B ) band pass at
10 MH z ± 15%.
Chop M ode Switching Rate 500 kH z ±30% .
In put Characteristics
Resista nce 1 ΜΩ ±2%.
Capacitance 20 pF ±2 p F.

M aximum Safe Input Voltage A See Fig ure 1-1 for derating curve.
DC Co u p led 400 V ( d c + pea k ac) or 800 V ac ρ-ρ
to 10 kH z or less .

AC Coupled 400 V (dc + pea k ac) or 800 V" αε ρ-ρ


to 10 kH z or less .
Ta ble 1-1 (co nt)

Characteristics P erfo rm ance R eq uireme nts Supplemental In formatio n

VERTICAL DEFLE CTION SYST EM (cont)

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio At least 20 to 1 at 25 MHz. Chec ked at 10 mV per division for
(C MRR) common-mode signals of 6 divisions or
less with VOLTS/DIV Varia ble cont rol
adjusted fo r best CMRR at 50 kH z.

Trace Shift with Attenuator Rotation 0.75 division or less . V O LTS/DIV Variable co ntrol in CAL
detent .

Trace S hift as V OLTS/DIV 1 .0 division o r less .


Varia ble Co ntrol is Rotated

Trace Shift with Invert 1 .5 division o r less .

Channel Isolation Greater than 100 to 1 at 25 ΜΗτ.


T RIGGER SYST EM

T RIGG ER Se nsitivity Exter nal trigger signal from α 50 Ω


source driving α 50 Ω coaxial cable
Ρ-Ρ AUTO/TV LINE and NORM terminated in 50 Ω at the in put co nnecto r.
M odes 5 MHz 60 MH z

Internal 0.3 div 1 .0 div

Extern al 40 mV 150 mV

Lowest Useable Frequency in Ρ-Ρ 20 Hz with 1 .0 division intern al


AUTO M ode or 100 mV external .
σ TV FIELD Mode 1 .0 division of com posite sync.

EXTI NPUT

M aximum Input Voltage A 400 V (dc + peak ac) or 800 V ac ρ-ρ See F igure 1-1 for derating curve.
at 10 kH z or less .

Input Resista nce 1 ΜΩ ±2%.

In p ut Capacitan ce 20 pF ±2 .5 pF .

AC Coupled 10 H z or less at lower -3 d B point .

LEVEL Control Range (NORM)

ΙΝΤ Can be set to any p oint of the trace


that can be d isplayed.

ΕΧΤ, DC At least ± 1 .6 V, 3.2 V ρ-ρ.

ΕΧΤ, DC - 10 At least ± 16 V, 32 V ρ-ρ.

VAR HO L DO FF Control Increases Sweep holdoff time by at


least α factor of 10 .
Ta ble 1-1 (con t)

Characteristics P erfo rma n ce R eq uirements Supplemental Information

H OR IZONTAL DEFLE CTION SYST EM


Sweep Rate 0.5 s per division to 0.05 As p er
division in α 1-2-5 seq uen ce . Χ10
magnifier extends maximum sweep
speed to 5 ns p er d ivisio n.

Accuracy Un magnifie d Mag nifie d Sweep accuracy applies over the


center 8 d ivisions . Exclude the fi rst
+15°C to +35°C ±3% ±4% 25 ns of the swee p for magnified
sweep s peeds and anyt hing beyond
0°C to +50°C ±4% ±5% the 100t h magnified division.

POSITIO N Control Range Start of swee p to 10th division in Χ 1 or


100t h divisions in X10 will position past
the center vertical graticule line .

Swee p Linearity ±7%. Linearity measured over any 2 of the


center 8 divisions. W ith magnifier in Χ10,
exclude the first 25 n s and anyt hing p ast
the 100t h division.

Variable Control Range Co n tinuo u sly variable between


cali br ated settings . Extend s the sweep
s p eed b y at least α factor of 2.5 .

Delay Time

Delay P ositions M inimum less than 1 .0 As, 20 As, and


0 .4 ms .

MULTI PL IER I ncreases delay time by at least α


factor of 50 .

J itter One part or less in 10,000 (0 .01 %) of


the maximum available d elay time .

Χ-Υ OPERATIO N (Χ1 MAG NIFICATIO N)

Deflection Facto rs Same as Vertical Deflection System


(with VOLTS/DIV Variable controls in
CA L detent) .

Accuracy M easured with α dc-coupled , 5-division


reference signal .
Χ-Axis ±4%.

Υ-Axis Same as Vertical Deflection System .

Ban dwi dth (-3 dB) M easu red with α 5-division


refere nce signal .
Χ-Axis Dc to at least 2 MH z.

Υ-Axis Same as Vertical Deflection System .

Ph ase Difference B etween Χ- an d ±3° from do to 100 kH z. W it h dc-coupled inputs .


Υ-Axis Amplifiers
Table 1-1 (cont)
Characte ristics P erfo rma n ce R equ i rements Supplemental Info rmation

PROBE AD JUST

Out put Voltage of PROBE ADJU ST 0.5 V ±5%.


J ack
Repetition Rate 1 kH z ±20% .

Z-AXIS INPU T

Sensitivity 5 V causes noticea ble modulation . Useable freque ncy ra nge is


Positive-going in put decreases do to 10 MH z.
intensity.

M aximum Safe Input Voltage 30 V ( d c + peak ac) or 30 V C ρ-ρ ac at


1 kH z or less .

Input Resistance 10 k Ω ± 10%.

POWER SO UR CE

L ine Voltage Ranges 90 V to 250 V .

L ine Fre quency 48 Hz to 440 H z.

M axim um Power Consumption 40 W (70 VA) .

L ine Fu se 1 .0 Α, 250 V, slow-blow.

CATHOD E-RAY TUBE

Display Area 80 by 100 mm .

Standard Phosph or Ρ 31 .

N ominal Accelerating Voltage 14 kV .


Table 1-2
En vironmental Characteristics

Characteristics Desc ription

NOTE

The instrument meets the requirements of MIL-T-288000, paragraphs 4.5 .5.1 .3,
4.5.5.1 .4, and 4.5.5.1 .2.2 for Type /Ι/, Class 5 equipment, except where other-
wise noted.

Temperature

Operating 0°C to +50°C (+32° F to +122° F).

N onoperating -55°C to +75°C (-67° F to +167°F). Tested to ΜΙ L-Τ-288000 paragraph s


4.5 .5 .1 .3 and 4.5 .5 .1 .4, exce pt in 4.5 .5 .1 .3 steps 4 and 5 (0°C operati ng test) are
p erformed ahead of step 2 (-55°C nonoperating test). Equ ipment s hall remain
off upon return to room am bient d uring step 6. E xcessive condensation s hall be
removed before operating duri ng step 7.

Altitude

Operating To 4,500 m (15,000 ft). M aximum operating temperatu re decrease d 1 °C per


1,000 ft above 5,000 ft .

N onoperating To 15,000 m (50,000 ft).

H umidity (Operating and N onoperating) 5 cycles (120 h ours) refe renced to M I L-Τ-288000 paragraph 4.5 .5 .1 .2 .2 for Ty pe
III, Class 5 instruments. Operati ng a n d non-operating at 95% +0% to -5%
relative h umidity. Operating at +50°C and +30°C. Non-operating at +30°C to
+60°C.

Vibration (Operating) 15 mi nutes along each of 3 major axes at α total d isplacementof 0.015 inch ρ-ρ
(2 .4 g's at 55 H z) with freq ue ncy varied from 10 H z to 55 H z to 10 H z in 1-mi nute
swee ps. H old for 10 mi nutes at 55 H z in eac h of the 3 major axes . All major
resonances must be above 55 Hz .

Shoc k (Operati ng a nd N onoperating) 30 g's, h alf-si ne, 11-ms d uratio n , 3 shocks per axis each di rection, for α total of
18 shocks.

EMI M eets ra d iated and conducted emission requ irements per V DE 0871 Class Β.
Table 1-3
Physical Characteristics

Characteristics Description
Weight With Power Cord

With Cover, Probes, and Pouch 6.0 kg (13.1 Ib).

Without Cover, Probes, and Pouch 5.0 kg (10.9 Ib).

Domestic Shipping Weight 7 .0 kg (15.4 Ib).

Height

With Feet and Handles 137 mm (5 .4 in).

Width

With Handle 360 mm (14.2 in).

Without Handle 327 mm (12.9 in).

Depth

With Front Cover 445 mm (17 .5 in).

Without Front Cover 440 mm (17.3 in).

With Handle Extended 511 mm (20.1 in).


If th e i n st ru me nt is to be sh ipped to α Te ktronix Service Surroun d th e i n strume n t wit h polyet hylene sheeting to
Center for service or repai r, attac h α tag s h owing; owner protect its fi n is h . Obtain α carton of corrugated card b oard
(with address) and t he name of an indivi d ual at your firm havi n g α carton test strengt h of 275 pounds and h aving
t h at can be co ntacted . Include com plete instru ment serial inside dimensions of no less th an six i n ch es more than th e
number a nd α d esc ri p tion of t he service req uired . instrument d imension s. Cu s h ion th e i nstrument by tig htly
pac k i ng three inc h es of du n nage o r uret h ane foam between
carton and instru ment, on all sides. Seal carto n wit h s h ip-
Save and reuse t he pac k age i n whic h you r instrument ping tape or i n dust r ial staple r.
was s h ipped. If t he original packagi n g is unfit for use or not
availa b le, re p ac kage t h e i nstrument as follows :
SA FE TY
R efer to the "O perators Safety Summary" at the front of
this manual for powe r source, grounding, and ot her safety
considerations pertai ning to the u se of the 2213 Α. B efore
connecting the instrument to α power so urce, carefully read
the following about li ne voltages, p owe r cords, and fuses .

L I NE VO LTAG E
The inst rument is capa ble of continuous operation using
input voltages that r ange from 90 V to 250 V nominal at
fre qu encies from 48 H z to 440 H z.

POWER CO R D
Α d etac hable t hree-wire power co rd with α three-con tact
plug is provided with each instrument to pe rmit connection
to both t he power source and protective ground. The p lug
protective-ground contact connects (through t he protective-
grou nd co nductodto the accessible metal p arts of the instru-
ment. For electrical-shock protection, insert this plug only
into α power outlet that has α securely grou nded protective-
grou nd contact .

This inst ru men t is shipped with the requ ired powe r cord
as or dered by the customer . Available powe r-cord informa-
tion is ill ust rated in Figure 2-1, an d part numbers are listed in
Section 5 of this ma nual . Contact your Tektronix represen-
tative or local Tektro nix Field Office fo r add itio nal powe r-
cord informatio n. 2. P ress in a nd slig htly rotate the fuse-hol der cap coun-
terclockwise to release it .

L I NE FU SE 3. Pull t h e cap (with the attached fuse inside) out of the


fuse h ol der.
The instrument fuse h olier is k)cated on the rear panel
(see F igure 2-2) and contains the line fu se . The following
procedure ca n be used to verify that the proper fuse is in-
stalled or to install α replacement fuse . 4. Verify proper fuse value (1 .0 Α, 250 V, slow b low) .

1 . Unplug the power cord f rom the power-input source 5. Reinstall the fuse (o r re placement fuse) and the fuse-
(if app licable) . h older ca p .
Always maintain adequate instrument cooling. The venti-
lation holes on both sides of the instrument cabinet and on
the rear panel must remain free of obstruction .
T he following descri ption s ar e intended to familiarize t h e PR OBE AD JU ST Co nn ecto r-Provides an a pproxi-
operator wit h t h e location , operation , a n d fu n ctio n of t h e mately 0.5 V, negative-going, sq uare-wave voltage (at
instrument's controls, connectors, an d indicators . approximately 1 kH z) that permits an operator to
compensate voltage probes and to c hec k operation of
th e oscilloscope vertical system . It is not intended for
DIS PL AY, PO WER, A N D PR O BE AD JU ST verifying the acc u racy of th e vertical gain or time-base
circuitry.
Refer to Fig ure 2-3 for locatio n of items 1 t h rough 8.

Internal Gratic ule- Elimi n ates parallax viewing error BEAM F IND Switch-Wh en h eld in, compresses the
between t he t race and g raticule lines . R ise-time am pli- display to within the graticule area and provides α visi-
tud e an d meas ureme nt points are ind icated at th e left ble viewing intensity to ai d i n locating off-screen
edge of th e g raticule . dis plays .

i
POWER Switch-Turn s n strument power on and off.
Press in for ON ; press again for OFF . TRAC E ROTATIO N Contr ol-Screwdriver adjust-
ment used to align the crt trace with t h e horizontal
Power Indicator-An LE D that illuminates when the graticule li n es .
inst ru ment is operating.

F OC US Co ntrol-Adjusts for optimum d isplay INTEN SITY Co ntrol-Determines the brig htness of
definitio n. the sweep trace.
j2 Input Coupling (AC-GND-DC) Switches-Three-po-
sition switches that select the method of cou p ling the
R efer to Figure 2-4 for location of items 9 through 16 .
input signals to the instrument d eflection system .
CH 1 V OLTS/DIV a nd CH 2 VOLTS/DIV Switches- AC-Input signal is capacitively coupled to the ver-
Used to select the vertical deflection factor in α 1-2-5 tical amplifier. The do component of the input sig-
sequence . To obtain α calibrated d eflection factor, the
nal is b locked . Low-fre q uency limit (-3 dB point) is
V OLTS/DIV variable control must be in the calibrated approximately 10 Hz .
(CAL) d etent (fully clockwise) .
G ND-The input of the vertical amplifier is
1X-Indicates the deflection factor selected when
grounded to p rovide α zero (ground) reference-volt-
using either α 1 Χ probe or α coaxial cable.
age dis play ( d oes not ground the input signal). This
switch position allows precharging the input cou-
10Χ PROBE-Indicates t he deflection factor se-
pling ca p acitor .
lected when using α 10 Χ probe.
DC-All frequency components of the input signal
are cou p led to the vertical deflection systems.
VOLTS/DIV Variable Controls-When rotated coun-
terclockwise out of their calibrate d detent positions,
these controls provide continuously variable,
uncalibrated deflection factors between the calibrated Ί3 CH 1 OR Χ a n d CH 2 OR Υ Input Connectors-
settings of the VOLTS/DIV switches . Provide for application of external signals to the verti-
cal d eflection system or for an Χ-Υ display. In the Χ-Υ
mode (SEC/DIV switch set to Χ-Υ), the signal con-
POSITION Controls-Use d to vertically p osition the nected to the CH 1 OR Χ input connector p rovides
display on the crt. When t he SEC/DIV switch is set to horizontal deflection (X-axis) and the signal connecte d
Χ-Υ, the Channel 2 POSITION control moves the dis- to the CH 2 OR Υ input connector provides vertical
play vertically (Y-axis), and t he H orizontal POSITION deflection (y-axis) .
control moves the d isplay h orizontally (X-axis) .

j4 VERTICAL MODE Switches-Two three-position


switches and two button switches are used to select
the mo d e of operation for the vertical amplifier
system .

CH 1-Selects only the Channel 1 in put signal for


display.

BOTH-Selects b oth Channel 1 and Channel 2 in-


put signals for display. The CH 1-BOTH-CH 2
switch must be in the BOTH position for either
ADD, ALT, or CHOP operation .

CH 2-Selects only the Channel 2 input signal for


display.

ADD-Displays the algebraic sum of the Channel 1


and C hannel 2 inp ut signals.

ALT-Alternately dis plays Channel 1 an d Channel


2 input signals . The alternation occurs d uring re-
trace at the en d of each sweep . This mode is useful
for viewing b oth input signals at sweep speeds
from 0.05 )us per division to 0.2 ms per division .

CHOP-The display switches between the Chan-


nel 1 and Channel 2 input signals during the
sweep. The switching rate is approximately
500 kHz. This mode is useful for viewing b oth
Channel 1 and Channel 2 input signals at sweep
s peeds from 0.5 ms p er division to 0.5 s pe r INTEN S- Horizontal deflection is provided by the
division. sweep generator at α swee p speed determined b y
the S EC/DI V switch . The sweep generator also
BW LIMIT-Wh en pr essed in, this button switch provides an intensified zone on the dis p lay. The
limits the b andwidth of the vertical am plifier and the start of the intensified zone re presents the sweep-
Trigger system to approximately 10 MHz. Bu tton start p oint when DLY'D H ORIZONTA L M OD E is
must b e pressed α seco nd time to release it and selected .
regain full 60 MH z bandwidth operation. Provides α
meth od fo r reducing interference from h ig h-fre- DLY'D- Horizontal deflection is provided by the
que ncy signals when viewing low-frequency sweep generator at α sweep speed determined by
signals. the SEC/DI V switch setting. The start of the swee p
is delayed from th e initial swee p-trigger point b y α
CH 2 INVERT Switch-I nverts t he Channel 2 dis- time determined b y the setting of the DEL AY TIME
play when button is presse d i n. Button must b e Range Selector switch and MULTI PL IER control.
pr essed in α second time to release it and regain α
noni nverted display.
22 DEL AY TIME-Two controls are u sed in con junction
j5 GND Co nn ecto r-Provides direct connection to the
instrument chassis ground.
I
with NTEN S and D LY'D HOR IZONTAL MOD E to se-
lect the amount of delay time between th e start of the

D
swee p and t he beginning of the intensifie d zone .
16 SER IAL a nd Mod Slots-The SER IA L slot is im-
p rinted with the instrume nt's se rial number . The M od Range Selector Switch--This three-positio n
slot contains the option nu mber that is installed in the switch selects 0.4 ms, 20 μs, and 1 .0 μs of delay
inst rument. time . To increase the sweep delay from the cali-
brated setting of the Range Selector Switch, rotate
the MULTI PL IER control clockwise .

MULTI PL IER Control-Provi des variable sweep


HORIZONTAL delay from less than 1 to greate r than 50 times the
setting of the Range Selector switch.
Refe r to Fig ure 2-5 for location of items 17 through 22 .

11 SEC/DI V Switches- Use d to select the sweep


speeds for t he sweep generator i n α 1-2-5 sequence.
To obtain calibrated sweep speeds, the SEC/DI V
Variable control must be in the cali brated detent (fully
cloc kwise).

Ί$ SEC/DI V Variable 6o ntrol-Provides contin uously


variable, uncali brated sweep spee ds to at least 2 .5
times slower than the calibrated setting . It extends the
slowest sweep spee d to at least 1 .25 s p er division .

j9 Χ10 M ag nifier Switch-To increase displayed swee p


spee d by α factor of 10, pull out the SEC/DI V Varia ble
kn ob. The fastest sweep speed can be exte nd ed to 5
ns p er division. Push in the S E C/DI V Variable k no b to
regain the Χ1 sweep s peed.

10 POSITION Control- Positions the dis play horizontally


in all modes.

Zj HORIZONTAL MODE Switch-T hree-positio n switch


determines the mode of operation for th e h orizontal
deflection system .

ΝΟ DLY- Horizontal d eflection is p rovi ded by the


sweep generator, with out α delayed start, at α
sweep speed determi ned b y the SEC/DI V switc h
setting .
2) SO UR CE Switch-Determi nes the source of the trig-
R efer to 2-6 for location of items 23 t hro ugh 31 . ger sign al t h at is coupled to the inp ut of the trigger
circuit.
23 TRIGGER Mo d e Switches-Th ree section switch
t hat determin es t h e trigger mode for the sweep. ΙΝΤ-Permits trigge r ing on signals that are applied
to the CH 1 OR Χ and CH 2 OR Υ inp ut connec-
N ORM -Swee p is in itiated when an adequate trig- tors . The source of the internal signal is selected by
ger signal is app lied . In th e abse nce of α trigger the ΙΝΤ switch.
signal, no baseline trace will be p resent .
L INE -T he power-so urce waveform is the source
Ρ-Ρ AUTO-T V LINE -Pe rmits triggering on wave- of the trigger signal . Th is trigger source is useful
forms and television lines h aving re petition rates of when vertical input signals a r e time related (multi-
at least 20 Hz. Sweep free-runs in the abse nce of ple or sub multip le) to the frequency of the power-
an adeq uate trigger signal or when the repetition in pu t source voltage.
rate is b elow 20 Hz . The range of the TR IGG ER
LEVEL control is rest ricted to th e peak-to- pea k ΕΧΤ-Permits triggering on signals app lied to the
range of t h e trigger signal . ΕΧΤ INPUT connector .

TV FIEL D- Press in bot h Ρ-Ρ A UTO and NORM ΙΝΤ Switch-Selects the so urce of the internal trig-
2$
buttons . Permits triggering on television fiel d sig- gering signal when the SO UR C E switch is set to INT.
nals. TRIGGER LEVEL control s hould be rotated
fully counterclockwise when triggering on TV sig- CH 1-The signal applied to the CH 1 O R Χ in p ut
nals with negative going sync and cloc kwise for connector is the so urce of the trigger sign al .
p ositive going sync .
VERT M OD E-The inte rn al trigger source is deter-
SGL SWP RE SET- Press in th e sp ring-ret urn but- mi ned by the signals selected for dis play by the
ton momentarily to arm the trigger circuit for α sin- VERTICA L M OD E switches . See Table 2-1 for
gle-sweep display. In this mode, the trigger system VERT M OD E trigger source .
operates the same as N ORM, except only one
sweep is displayed for each trigger sign al . Anot her
sweep cannot b e displayed u ntil the SG L SWP
RE SET button is momentarily pressed in agai n to
reset the trigger circuit. This mode is useful for dis-
playing and p hotographing either nonrepetitive sig-
nals or signals that cause u nstable conventional
,.
displays (e .g ., signals that vary in amplit ude,
shape, or time).

24 T RIG'D-RE ADY Indicator-LE D illuminates when ei-


ther Ρ-Ρ AUTO or NORM Trigger Mode is selected
and the Swee p has been triggered (T RIG'D). In single
swee p display, the LED illuminates to indicate that t h e
Trigger circuit is armed (RE ADY) .

ί5 TR IGGER LEVEL Control-Selects the amplitude


p oint on the trigge r signal at wh ic h t he swee p is
triggered .

ίό SLOPE Switch-Selects the slope of the signal that


triggers the swee p.

OUT- Wh en butto n is released out, sweep is trig-


gered from the positive-goi ng slope of the trigger
signal .

IN-When button is pressed in, swee p is triggered


from th e negative-going slope of th e trigger signal .
s peeds from 0.5 ms p er division to 0.5 s pe r INTEN S- Horizontal deflection is provided by the
division. sweep generator at α swee p speed determined b y
the S EC/DI V switch . The sweep generator also
BW LIMIT-Wh en pr essed in, this button switch provides an intensified zone on the dis p lay. The
limits the b andwidth of the vertical am plifier and the start of the intensified zone re presents the sweep-
Trigger system to approximately 10 MHz. Bu tton start p oint when DLY'D H ORIZONTA L M OD E is
must b e pressed α seco nd time to release it and selected .
regain full 60 MH z bandwidth operation. Provides α
meth od fo r reducing interference from h ig h-fre- DLY'D- Horizontal deflection is provided by the
que ncy signals when viewing low-frequency sweep generator at α sweep speed determined by
signals. the SEC/DI V switch setting. The start of the swee p
is delayed from th e initial swee p-trigger point b y α
CH 2 INVERT Switch-I nverts t he Channel 2 dis- time determined b y the setting of the DEL AY TIME
play when button is presse d i n. Button must b e Range Selector switch and MULTI PL IER control.
pr essed in α second time to release it and regain α
noni nverted display.
22 DEL AY TIME-Two controls are u sed in con junction
j5 GND Co nn ecto r-Provides direct connection to the
instrument chassis ground.
I
with NTEN S and D LY'D HOR IZONTAL MOD E to se-
lect the amount of delay time between th e start of the

D
swee p and t he beginning of the intensifie d zone .
16 SER IAL a nd Mod Slots-The SER IA L slot is im-
p rinted with the instrume nt's se rial number . The M od Range Selector Switch--This three-positio n
slot contains the option nu mber that is installed in the switch selects 0.4 ms, 20 μs, and 1 .0 μs of delay
inst rument. time . To increase the sweep delay from the cali-
brated setting of the Range Selector Switch, rotate
the MULTI PL IER control clockwise .

MULTI PL IER Control-Provi des variable sweep


HORIZONTAL delay from less than 1 to greate r than 50 times the
setting of the Range Selector switch.
Refe r to Fig ure 2-5 for location of items 17 through 22 .

11 SEC/DI V Switches- Use d to select the sweep


speeds for t he sweep generator i n α 1-2-5 sequence.
To obtain calibrated sweep speeds, the SEC/DI V
Variable control must be in the cali brated detent (fully
cloc kwise).

Ί$ SEC/DI V Variable 6o ntrol-Provides contin uously


variable, uncali brated sweep spee ds to at least 2 .5
times slower than the calibrated setting . It extends the
slowest sweep spee d to at least 1 .25 s p er division .

j9 Χ10 M ag nifier Switch-To increase displayed swee p


spee d by α factor of 10, pull out the SEC/DI V Varia ble
kn ob. The fastest sweep speed can be exte nd ed to 5
ns p er division. Push in the S E C/DI V Variable k no b to
regain the Χ1 sweep s peed.

10 POSITION Control- Positions the dis play horizontally


in all modes.

Zj HORIZONTAL MODE Switch-T hree-positio n switch


determines the mode of operation for th e h orizontal
deflection system .

ΝΟ DLY- Horizontal d eflection is p rovi ded by the


sweep generator, with out α delayed start, at α
sweep speed determi ned b y the SEC/DI V switc h
setting .
G RATIC ULE probe . The probe's ground lea d provides the best grounding
method for signal interconnection and ensures the maxi-
The graticule is inte rn ally marked on the face p late of th e mum amount of signal-lead shielding in t he p robe ca ble .
crt to enable accu rate measurements with out parallax error Α sepa rate ground lead can also be connected from the unit
(see Fig ure 3-1) . It is marked with eight vertical and ten h ori- under test to the oscillosco p e GND co nnector located on
zo ntal major d ivisions. Eac h major division is divi ded into the front p anel .
five subd ivisions . The vertical deflection factors and h orizon-
tal timing are calibrated to the gr aticule so that accurate
measurements can be made directly from th e c rt. Also, per- SIG NA L CO NNE CTIO NS
ce ntage mark e rs for the meas ur eme nt of rise and fall times
are located on the left side of t h e g r aticule. Ge nerally, p robes offer the most convenient mea ns of
connecting an in put signal to the instrume nt. They are
shielded to prevent pickup of electromagnetic interference,
G RO UN DI NG and the su pplied 10 Χ probe offers α h ig h i np ut impedance
that minimizes circ uit loading. This allows the circuit under
The most relia ble signal measu reme n ts are made when test to operate with α minimum of change from its n ormal
the 2213 Α and th e unit unde r test are connected by α com- co n d ition as measurements are bei ng made.
mon refe re nce (ground lead), in addition to the signal lea d or
Coaxial cables may also be u sed to connect signals to
the in put co nnectors, but they may h ave considerable effect
on th e accuracy of α displayed waveform . To maintain the
original fre quency c haracteristics of an applied signal,
only h ig h- q uality, low-loss coaxial cables should b e u sed.
Coaxial cables should be terminated at both ends in t heir
c h aracteristic im pe d ance . If this is n ot possi ble, use suitable
impedance-matc hing devices.

I NPUT CO UPL I N G

CA PACITO R PRE C HARGI NG


When the In put Cou p ling switch is set to GND, the input
signal is connected to ground through the in p ut coupling
ca pacitor in series with α 1 ΜΩ resisto r to fo rm α
prechargi ng networ k. Th is n etwo rk allows the in p ut coupling
capacitor to charge to t h e average dc-voltage level of the
signal applied to t h e probe . Th us any large voltage
transients that may accidentally be generated will not be
applied to the am p lifier input when the Input Coupling switch
is moved from GND to AC . The precharging n etwork also
provides α measure of p rotectio n to the exte rnal ci rcuitry by
redu cing the cu rrent levels that ca n be d rawn from the ex-
ternal circuitry during ca p acitor charging .

The following procedure should be used whenever the


probe ti p is connected to α signal source having α different
do level than t hat previously a pp lied, es p ecially if th e dc-
Operators Familiarization-2213A Operators

level difference is more than 10 times the VOLTS/DIV 3. Connect the probe tip to the signal source and wait
switch setting: several seconds for the input coupling capacitor to charge .

1 . Set the Input Coupling switch to GND.

2 . Insert the probe tip into the oscilloscope GND connec- 4. Set the Input Coupling switch to AC . The display will
tor and wait several seconds for the input coupling capacitor remain on the screen, and the ac component of the signal
to discharge . can be measured in the normal manner .
O PERATOR'S ADJU ST MENTS
I NT ROD UCTION TRIGGER
VAR HOLDO FF NORM
To verify the operatio n and accuracy of yo ur instrument
Mode Ρ-Ρ AUTO
b efore ma king meas ureme nts, perform the followi ng adj ust- OUT
S LO PE
ment procedu res. If adjustments are required beyond the
LEVEL Midrange
scope of the operators's ad justments, refer th e instrument VERT M OD E
ΙΝΤ
to α qualifie d service technician. ΙΝΤ
SO UR CE
ΕΧΤ CO UPLING AC

B efore proceedi ng with t hese instructions, refer to


" Preparation for U se" (Section 2) .
2. Press in the P OWER switc h button (ON) and allow the
instrument to warm up (20 minutes is recommended for
maximum accuracy).
Verify that t he POWER switch is OFF (button out), t h e n
i
plug t he power co rd nto the p ower-source outlet .
3 . Ad just the INTEN SITY control for desired display
brightness .
If indications specified in t hese p rocedures ca nn ot be ob-
tained, r efe r t h e instrument to α q ualified service technician .
4 . Ad just the Vertical and H orizontal POSITIO N co ntrols
as needed to center the trace on the screen .

BAS EL I NE T RAC E
T RAC E ROTATIO N
First obtain α baseline trace, using the following
proced ure .
Normally, the resulting trace will be pa rallel to the center
horizontal graticule line, and the Trace Rotation ad ju stment
s houl d not be req uired . If ad ju stment is needed, perform t h e
1 . Preset the inst ru ment front- panel controls as follows:
following procedure :

Display
I NTEN SITY Fu lly countercloc kwise 1 . Preset instrument controls and obtain α baseline
FOC U S M idrange trace.

V ertical (Bot h Chann els) 2. Use the Channel 1 POSITIO N control to move the
baseline trace to the center horizontal graticule line .
POSITIO N Midrange
VERTICA L MOD E CH 1
BW LI MIT Off (butto n out)
mV 3. If the resulting trace is not parallel to the center hori-
V50
OLTS/DIV
zontal graticule line, use small flat-bit screwdriver to adjust
VOLTS/DIV Varia ble CA L detent
the TR AC E ROTATIO N control and alig n t he trace with t h e
CH 2 I NVER T Off (button out)
AC ce nter ho rizontal graticule line .
Input Coupling

Horizontal
PR OBE CO MPEN SATION
POSITIO N Midrange
H O RIZONTA L MOD E ΝΟ ID LY M isadj ustment of probe com pensation is α commo n
SEC/DI0V .5 ms source of measurement error. M ost attenuator probes are
SEC/DI V Varia ble CA L detent equ ipped with α com p ensation ad j ustment. To ensure opti-
Χ10 M ag nifier Off (knob in) mum measurement accuracy, always compensate the oscil-
Range Selector 0.4 ms loscope p ro bes before ma king measurements . Pro be
MULTI PLIER < Χ1 com pensation is accom p lished as follows :
Operato r s Familiarization-2213A Operators

1 . Preset instrument cont rols and obtai n α baseline


trace.

2. Connect the two 10 Χ p robes (su pp lied with th e in-


strument) to the CH 1 and CH 2 in pu t connectors .

3. Set bot h VOLTS/DIV switches to 10 mV and set


I
bot h nput Coupling switch es to DC .

4. Select CH 1 VERTICA L MOD E and insert the tip of


the C hannel 1 p robe into the PROBE AD JU ST output j ac k .

5 . Using the a pproximately 1 kH z PR OBE AD JU ST


s q uare-wave sign al as the input, obtain α 5-division dis p lay
of t he signal .

6. Set th e S EC/DI V switch to d isplay seve ral cycles of


the PR OBE ADJU ST signal . U se the Channel 1 POSITIO N 8. Select CH 2 VERTICA L MOD E and connect the
co ntrol to ve rtically center the display. Channel 2 p robe tip to t he PR OBE ADJU ST o utpu t j ack .

7. Chec k the wavefo rm presentation for overshoot and 9. U se the Channel 2 POSITIO N to vertically center the
rolloff (see Fig ure 3-2) . If necessary, ad just the p robe com- display a nd r epeat step 7 for the Channel 2 probe.
pensation for flat tops on the waveforms . Refer to the in
structions supp lied with t he probe for details of
compensation adjustment . 10 . Disconnect the p ro bes from the instru ment.
I N T R OD U CTIO N VO LTAG E ME AS UREMEN TS
After becoming familiar with the capabilities of the 2213 Α AC P eak-to-Peak Voltage
Oscilloscope an operator can then easily develop conve- To make α peak-to-peak voltage measurement, use the
nient methods for making p articular measurements . The in- following procedure:
formation in this section is designed to enhance operator
understanding and to assist in developing efficient tech-
ni ques for making specific measurements . Recommended ΝΟΤΕ
methods for making basic measurements with your instru-
ment are described in the procedures contained in t his This procedure may also be used to make voltage
section. measurements between any two points on the
waveform .

When α procedure first calls for presetting instrument


controls and obtaining α b aseline trace, refer to the "Oper- 1 . Preset instrument controls and obtain α baseline
ator's Adjustments" part in Section 3 and perform steps 1 trace.
through 4 u nder "Baseline Trace" .

2. Apply t he ac signal to either vertical-channel in p ut


connector and set the VERTICAL MODE switch to display
the channel used .

3. Set the appropriate V OLTS/DIV switch to display


IN D E X TO BASIC about five d ivisions of the waveform, ensuring that the
A PPLICATIO N PR OC E D URE S V OLTS/DIV Variable control is in the CAL detent .

V OLTAGE MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4. Adjust the TRIGGER LEVEL control to obtain α stable
AC Peak-to-Peak Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 display.
Instantaneous Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Algebraic Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Common-Mode Rejection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 5. Set the SEC/DIV switch to α position that displays
Amplitude Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 several cycles of the waveform .

TIME MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4


Time Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 6. Vertically position the d isplay so that the negative
Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . 4-5 peak of the waveform coincides with one of the h orizontal
Rise Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 graticule lines (see Figure 4-1, Point Α).
Time Difference Between Pulses On Time
Related Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . 4-6
Phase Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 7 . Horizontally position the display so that one of the
positive peaks coincides with t he center vertical graticule
TELEVISION DISPLAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 4-8 line (see Figure 4-1, P oint Β).
TV Line Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 4-8
TV Field Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
8. M easure the vertical d eflection from p eak-to-peak
DELAYED-SWEEP MAGNIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 (see Figure 4-1, Point Α to Point Β).
NOTE 2. Apply t he signal to either vertical-channel input con-
nector and set the VERTICAL MODE switch to display the
If the amplitude measurement is critical or if the trace channel used .
is thick (as α result of hum or noise on th e signal), α
more accurate value can be obtained by meas uring
from the top of α pea k to th e top of α valley. This will
eliminate trace thickness from the measurement. 3. Verify that the V OLTS/DIV Variable control is in t he
CAL detent an d set the Input Coupling switch to GND.

9. Calculate the peak-to-peak voltage, using the follow-


ing formula:
V OLTS/DIV 4. Vertically position the baseline trace to the center
vertical switch setting h orizontal graticule line . This establishes the ground refer-
Volts (ρ-ρ) = deflection χ i ndicate d b y 1 Χ ence location .
(divisions) (or 10 Χ PROBE when
10Χ probe is used)

EXAMPLE: The measured peak-to-peak vertical deflec- NOTE


tion is 4.6 divisions (see Figure 4-1) using α 10Χ attenua-
tor probe with t he V OLTS/DIV switch set to 5 V (at 10Χ If measurements are to be made relative to α voltage
PROBE setting) . level other than grou nd, set the Input Coupling switch
to DC instead, and apply the reference voltage to the
Input connector. Then position the trace to the refer-
Substituting the given values : ence (horizontal graticule) line .

Volts (ρ-ρ) = 4.6 div χ 5 V/div = 23 V .


5 . Set the COUPLING switch to DC . Points on the
waveform above the ground reference location are positive .
Instantaneous Voltage Those points below are negative .

To measure instantaneous level at α given point on α


waveform, referred to ground, use the following procedure :

NOTE
1 . Preset instrument controls an d obtain α baseline
If using Channel 2, ensure that the Chann el 2 INVER T
trace.
switch is in its noninverting mo de (button out) .

6 . If necessary, re p eat Step 4 using α different refer-


ence line which allows the waveform in Step 5 to be dis-
played on screen .

7 . Adjust the TRIGGER LEVEL control to obtain α sta-


ble display .

_ 8. Set the SEC/DIV switch to α p osition that displays


several cycles of the signal .

9. M easure the d ivisions of vertical deflection between


the ground reference line and the point on the waveform at
which t he level is to be determined (see Figure 4-2) .
10 . Calculate th e instantaneous voltage, usi ng the fol-
lowing formula:

V OLTS/DIV
Instanta- vertical switch setting
neo us = d eflectio n χ p olarity χ in dicated by 1 Χ
Voltage (divisio ns) (+ or -) (or 10 Χ when 10Χ
p robe is used)

EXA MPLE : The measured vertical deflection from the


refe rence line is 4.6 divisio ns (see Figure 4-2), the wave-
fo rm point is above the reference li ne, α 10Χ attenuator
p ro be is being used, and the V OLTS/DIV switch is set to
2 V (at 10 Χ probe setting) .

Su bstituting t he give n values :

Instantaneous Voltage = 4.6 div χ (+1) χ 2 V/div =


9.2 V .
d. To attain similar response from each ch annel, set
both t he Channel 1 an d Ch annel 2 Inp ut Coupling switches
to th e same position.
Algebraic Add itio n
W it h the VERTICA L MODE switches set to BOTH and
ADD, the waveform d is playe d is the algebraic sum of the Common-Mode Rejection
signals applied to the Ch annel 1 and C h a nn el 2 in p uts The following p rocedure shows h ow to eliminate un-
(C H 1 + CH 2) . If the Chan nel 2 INVERT button is pressed wanted ac input-power frequency com ponents . Similar
in, the waveform dis played is the difference b etween t he methods coul d b e used either to eliminate other unwanted
signals a pp lied to the Chann el 1 and Channel 2 inputs (CH 1 fre q uency components or to provide α do offset .
- CH 2) . Wh en both VOLTS/DIV switches are set to th e
same deflection factor, the deflection factor i n t he ADD
mode is eq ual to th e deflection factor in d icated b y either
VO LTS/DIV switc h. 1 . Preset instrument controls and obtain α baseline
trace.

Th e following ge neral p recautions should be observed


when using the ADD mode. 2 . Apply the signal contai ning the unwanted line-fre-
qu ency components to the CH 1 in pu t connector.

α. Do not exceed t he input voltage rating of the


oscilloscope . 3. Apply α line-frequency signal to the CH 2 in put co n-
nector . To maximize cancellatio n, the signal ap plied to
Chan nel 2 must be in ph ase with t he unwanted line-fre-
b. Do not apply signals that exceed th e equivalent of qu ency component on the Channel 1 input .
about eight times the V OLTS/DI V switc h settings, since
large voltages may distort the display. For exam ple, with α
V OLTS/DIV switch setting of 0.5 V, th e voltage a pp lied to 4. Select BOTH and ALT VERTICA L MOD E an d set
that channel should not exceed approximately 4 volts. b ot h VOLTS/DIV switches to produce displays of approxi-
mately 4- or 5-d ivisio ns in am plitude .

c. Use Channel 1 and Channel 2 P OSITIO N control


settings whic h most nearly position t he signal on each ch an- 5. Ad ju st the CH 2 V OLTS/DIV switc h and C H 2
nel to mi d screen, when viewed in eithe r CH 1 or CH 2 V OLTS/DIV Variable control so that the Cha n nel 2 d isplay is
VERTICA L MOD E . This ensures th e greatest d ynamic app roximately th e same am p litude as the undesired portion
range for ADD mode o peration. of th e Channel 1 display (see F igure 4-3Α).
3 . Set the am plitude of the refe rence signal to five verti-
cal divisions b y ad justi ng the V OLTS/DI V switch an d
VOLTS/DI V Variable control.

4. Disconnect the reference signal an d apply t h e un-


known signal to be measure d to the same chan nel input .
Adjust the ve rtical position of the waveform so that its bot-
tom edge just touc hes the 0°/ο line on the crt.

5. Horizontally position the waveform so that its top


most features cross the center vertical graticule li ne (see
Figu re 4-4).

6. R ead t he percent ratio directly from the gradu ations


of the center li n e, referring to the 0% and 100% percentage
marks on the left edge of the graticule (1 minor division
equals 4% for α 5- d ivision display) .

6. Select ADD VERTICA L M OD E and press in the


INVERT button, and slig h tly readju st the CH 2 V OLTS/DIV
Variable control for maxim u m cancellation of the und esired
signal component (see Figure 4-3Β).

Am plitude Comparison (Ratio)

In some app lications it may be necessary to esta blish α


set of d eflection factors ot her than those indicated by t he
V O LTS/DIV switch settings . This is u seful for com paring
un known signals to α reference signal of k nown am p litude .
To accomplish t his, α reference signal of kn own amplitude is
first set to an exact number of vertical divisions b y adj usti ng TIME ME AS UREMEN TS
the V OLTS/DIV switch and Variable co ntrol . Un known sig- Time Du ration
n als can then be q uickly and accurately compared with t he
reference signal without distur bing the setting of the To measure time b etween two points on α waveform,
V O LTS/DIV Variable control . This procedure is as follows: use the following procedure.

1 . Preset instrume nt controls and obtain α baseline / 1 . Preset instrument controls an d obtai n α baseline
trace. trace.

2. Apply the reference signal to either vertical c hannel 2 . Apply the signal to either ve rtical-chan nel input con-
input and set the VERTICA L MOD E switch to display the nector and set the VERTICA L MOD E switch to display the
channel used . channel used .
3. A djust the TRIGGER LEVEL control to obtain α stable Fr eque ncy
disp lay . T he freque ncy of α recu rrent signal ca n be determined
from its time- d uration measureme nt as follows :

4. Set the S EC/DI V switch to display one complete pe-


riod of the waveform . E nsure t h at t he SEC/DI V Variable 1 . M easure the time duration of one waveform cycle us-
control is in the CA L detent . ing the preceding "Time Duration" measurement procedure.

5. P osition the display to p lace the time-measurement 2 . Calculate the reci procal of the time-duratio n value to
poi nts on the center ho rizontal graticule line (see F igure 4-5) . determine the fre que n cy of the waveform .

E XA MPLE : The signal in F igure 4-5 h as α time du ration


6. M easure the Horizontal distance between the time- of 16 .6 ms .
meas urement poi nts .

Calculating the reci procal of time du ration :


7. Calculate time duration u sing the following fo rmula :
F req uency = 1 = 1 = 60 H z
time duration 16 .6 ms
horizontal S EC/DI V
dista nce χ switch
Time (division) setting
Duration R ise Time
magnification factor Rise-time measurements use the same met h ods as time
duration, exce pt that the measurements are made between
the 10% and 90% p oi nts of the low to h ig h transition of the
E XA MPLE : The d ista nce between t he time meas urement selected waveform (see F igure 4-6) Fall time is measured
points is 8.3 divisions (see F igure 4-5), and the SEC/DI V between the 90% and 10% points of t he hig h to low transi-
switch is set to 2 ms p er d ivision. The Χ 10 M ag nifier is tion of the waveform .
off (kn ob in).

1 . Preset instrument controls and obtain α b aseline


trace .

Substituting the given values :


2. Apply an exact 5-division signal to either vertical-
channel input co nn ector and set the VERTICA L M OD E
Time Duration = 8.3 div χ 2 ms/div = 16 .6 ms switch to d is play t he c hannel used.
3. Set the appropriate V OLTS/DIV switch and variable 5. Select BOTH VERTICA L MOD E ; then select either
control for an exact 5-division d is play. ALT or CHOP, depending on the freq uency of input signals.

4. Vertically position the trace so that the zero reference 6. If the two signals are of op posite polarity, press in the
of the waveform touches the 0% graticule li ne and the top of Channel 2 INVER T button to invert the Channel 2 display
the waveform touc hes the 100% gratic ule line. (signals may b e of opposite polarity d ue to 180° p hase
difference) .

5. Horizontally position the d isplay so the 10% p oint on


7. Adjust the TR IGGER LEVEL control for α stable
the waveform intersects the second vertical graticule line .
display.

6. M easure the h orizontal distance between t he 10%


8. Set the SEC/DI V switch to α swee p speed which pro-
an d 90% points (between P oints Α and Β of Figure 4-6) and vides three or more divisions of h orizontal separation be-
calculate the time duration using the following form ula :
tween the reference p oints on the two d isplays. Ce nter each
horizontal SEC/DI V of the disp lays ve rtically (see Figure 4-7)
distance χ switch
Rise (divisions) setting
Time = 9 . Measure the horizontal difference between the two
magnification factor signal reference points an d calculate the time difference us-
ing the following formula :
Exam p le : The h orizontal distance between the 10% and
SEC/DI V horizontal
90% p oints is 5 divisions, and the SEC/DI V switch is set
switch χ difference
to 1 μs p er division . The X10 magnifier k nob is off (knob
Time setting (divisio ns)
i n) . Difference =
magnification factor
Su bstituting the given values in the formula : EXA MPLE : Th e S E C/DI V switch is set to 50 μs per divi-
- 5 div χ ; μs/div - 5 μs sion, th e Χ10 M ag nifier is on ( button out) and the h ori-
Rise Time
zontal difference between waveform measurement
points is 4.5 divisions.

Sub stit uting th e give n values in the formula:

Time Difference Between Pu lses On Time-Related Time


50 μs/di10χ 4.5 div _
Signals Difference - 22 .5 μs
The calibrated swee p speed and dual-trace features of
the 2213Α allow measurement of the time difference be-
tween two separate events . To measure time difference,
use the following p rocedure :

1 . Preset instrument controls an d obtain α b aseline


trace, then set the TR IGG ER SO UR CE switch to CH 1 .

2 . Set both In p ut Coupling switches to the same p osi-


tion, de pen d ing on the ty pe of input coupling desired .

3. Using either probes or cables with eq ual tine delays,


connect α k nown reference signal to the Channel 1 in put
and the com parison signal to the Chann el 2 inp ut .

4. Set both VOLTS/DIV switches for 4- or 5-division


d isplays .
Ph ase Diffe rence
In α simila r manner to "Time Difference B etween Two
Time-Related P ulses" ph ase comparison between two sig-
nals of the same frequency can be ma d e u sing the dual-
trace feature of the 2213Α. Th is method of phase d iffe rence
measurement can be used up to th e freq uency limit of the
vertical d eflectio n system . To mak e α p hase comparison,
use th e following proced ure :

1 . Preset instrumen t controls and obtain α b aseline


trace, then set the ΙΝΤ switch to CH 1 .

2. Set both I nput Co up li ng switches to the same posi-


tion, de pen d ing on the ty pe of in put cou p ling d esired .

3. U si ng eith er prob es or ca bles with equal time delays,


connect α known refe rence signal to the Chan nel 1 input
and the unk nown signal to the Chann el 2 input .

4. Select BOTH VERTICA L MOD E; then select either horizontal


ALT or CH OP, depe nd ing on the frequency of in p ut signals. Ph ase horizontal graticule
The reference signal should precede the comparison signal Difference = difference χ
in time . (divisio ns) cali bration
(deg/div)

5 . If the two sign als are of opposite polarity, press in Exam ple : The horizontal difference is 0.6 d ivision with α
t h e Ch ann el 2 I NVER T button to invert t h e C h an nel 2
graticule calibration of 45° p er division as shown in F ig-
display. ure 4-8.

6. Set bot h VOLTS/DIV switch es and b ot h Var ia b le Substituting the given values into the phase d iffere nce
controls so the displays are equal in amplitude . fo rmula :

7. Adj ust the TRIGGER LEVEL co ntrol for α stable Ph ase difference = 0.6 div χ 45°/div = 27° .
display.

More accurate ph ase measurements can be made by us-


ing the Χ10 Magnifier function to increase the sweep speed
8 . Set t he S E C/DI V switc h to α sweep speed whic h
disp lays abo ut one full cycle on the waveforms. without changing the SEC/DI V Variable control setting.

EXA MPLE : If the swee p speed were increased 10 times


with t he magnifier (Χ10 M ag nifie r butto n out), the magni-
9. Positio n the d isplays an d adj ust the S EC/DI V Vari-
fied h orizontal graticule cali bration would be 45°/division
able co nt rol so t hat one reference-sig nal cycle occup ies ex-
actly 8 h orizontal gratic ule divisions at the 50% rise-time d ivided by 10 (or 4 .5°/division). Fig ure 4-9 shows the
same signals illustrated in Fig ure 4-8, but magnifyi ng the
points (see F igure 4-8) . E ach division of the graticule now
represents 45° of the cycle (360° - 8 d ivisio ns), an d J he displays resu lts in α horizontal difference of 6 division s
horizontal graticule cali bration can be stated as 45°/per between the two signals.
d ivision .

Substituting the given values in t h e phase difference


10 . M easure th e ho rizontal differen ce between cor- fo r mula :
responding points on the waveforms at α common horizon-
tal graticule line (50% of rise time) an d calculate the phase
difference using the following formula: Phase difference = 6 div χ 4.5°/div = 27° .
6. Select the DLY'D HORIZON TA L MOD E and increase EXA MPLE : Determine the appa rent magnification of α
the swee p speed to magnify the intensified portion of the display with an initial S EC/DI V switc h setting of 0.1 ms
swee p (see Fig ur e 4-10). p er division and the secon d SEC/DI V switch setting of
1 μs p er division .

7 . The apparent swee p magnification can be calculated


from the following formula:
Ap p arent Su bstituting the given values :
initial SEC/DI V setting
Delayed Swee p Appa rent 1 χ 104s
second S E C DI V setting = 10 2 =100
Magnificatio n M agnification 1 χ 106s
I N T R OD U CTIO N STA N DA R D ACC E SSO R I E S
This section contains α gen eral description of instrument The following standar d accessories are provi d ed with
options available at the time of p ub lication of this manual . each instrument .
Also included is α com p lete list (with Tektronix part nu mber)
of stan dard accessories i n cluded with each instrume nt and oty Desc ription Order
α partial list of optional accesso ries. Additional informatio n
2 P robes, 10Χ 1 .5-meter lengt h with
ab out instrument options, option availability, and ot her ac-
accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-6122-01
cessories ca n be obtained either by consulting the current
Tektronix Product Catalog or by contacting your Te ktronix 1 Power Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161-0104-00
Field Office or representative .
1 Operators Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 070-4734-00

OPTIO N S OP TIO N A L ACC E SSO R I E S


T he following optional accessories are recommen ded for
There are currently no options availa ble for the 2213 Α. use with t he 2213Α Oscillosco pe.

Or Desc ription der


IN T ERN ATIO N A L P O WER CO R DS
Service Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 070-4733-00
Instruments are shipp ed with t he detachable power-co rd
Protective Front Panel Cover . . . . . . . . . 200-2520-00
config uration ordere d by the customer . Descri ptive informa-
tion about the international power-cords is provided in Sec- Co rd Wr ap and Storage P ouc h . . . . . . . 016-0677-00
tion 2, " Prep aratio n fo r Use" . The following list i d entifies the
Protective Front Panel Cover, Cord
Tektronix part numbers for the availa ble power cords .
W ra p, and Storage P ouch . . . . . . . . . . . . 020-0672-00

Carrying Stra p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346-0199-00


Description Order
Carryi ng Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 016-0694-00
U niversal Euro 10-16 Α, 50 Hz . . . . . . . . . . 020-0859-00
L ow-Cost, Ge neral- P ur p ose Camera . . . C-5C Option 04
UK 240 V /13 Α, 50 Ηz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 020-0860-00
Rac kmoun t Adapter Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 016-0466-00
Australian 240 V /10Α, 50 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . 020-0861-00
ω SCO PE-M OBILE CA RT-Occupies less
North America n 240 V/1 5A, 60 Hz . . . . . . . 020-0862-00 th an 18 inches of aisle s p ace, with stor
Switze rland 220 V/10Α, 50 Hz . . . . . . . . . . 020-0863-00 age area in b ase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M odel 2000