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FRICTION STIR WELDING OF 5052

ALUMINIUM ALLOY

RATNESH KUMAR RAJ SINGH

DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED MECHANICS

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI

APRIL 2017
©Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi, 2017
FRICTION STIR WELDING OF 5052
ALUMINIUM ALLOY
by

RATNESH KUMAR RAJ SINGH

DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED MECHANICS

Submitted

in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

to the

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI

NEW DELHI, INDIA

APRIL 2017
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Friction Stir Welding of 5052 Aluminium Alloy”

being submitted by Mr. Ratnesh Kumar Raj Singh to the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

is worthy of consideration for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and is a record

of the original bonafide research work carried out by him. Mr. Ratnesh Kumar Raj Singh has

worked under our supervision for the submission of this thesis, which to our knowledge has

reached the requisite standard. To the best of my knowledge, this work in part or full has not

been presented to any other university or institute for the award of any degree/diploma.

Prof. Rajesh Prasad Prof. Sunil Pandey

Professor Professor

Department of Applied Mechanics Department of Mechanical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

Hauz Khas, New Delhi – 110016, India Hauz Khas, New Delhi – 110016, India

Date:

Place: New Delhi

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am extremely grateful to the God for the blessings, which of course have been with me always,

and giving me the strength and dedication to complete my work to the best of my ability. I pay

my exceptional gratitude to Professor Rajesh Prasad (Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT

Delhi) and Prof. Sunil Pandey (Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Delhi), whose mere

presence as my supervisors, consciously and subconsciously, always gave me support and

strength. I have been able to complete this work only by virtue of the knowledge that I received

from them during my PhD.

The experiment based research work requires availability of adequate research infrastructure. I

am thankful to my supervisors, who are indeed, my mentors, Prof. Rajesh Prasad and Prof. Sunil

Pandey to help me to get access to all the necessary facilities in IIT Delhi. I am privileged to

work under the supervision of them and owe all thanks to them for supporting, advising and

guiding me from time to time during course of experimentation and throughout my research

studies.

My special thanks are also to Prof. Suhail Ahmad, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Delhi

for his constant help and support. Being the chairman of student research committee (SRC), he

always advised me with his valuable suggestions and expert opinions. I acknowledge the help

and support that I received from Prof. Puneet Mahajan, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT

Delhi, during my research as the member of SRC. I also deeply thank Dr. P.M. Pandey,

Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering for being the member of my SRC

and for his advices and expert opinions related to my research. I am indebted to Dr. S.

iii
Aravindan, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, for their help, support

and valuable suggestions during my research.

I am also thankful to my fellow scholars Dr. Dinesh Rathore, Mrs. Deepti Jaiswal, Mr. Dinesh

Shetti, Mr. Saurabh Shukla, Mr. Gaurav Singh, Mr. Anuj Jindal, Mrs. Shaksi Chauhan, Mrs.

Shanta Mohapatra, Prof. Arshad Noor Siddiquee, Prof. Hariom Choudhary, Dr. Zaheer Khan,

Mr. Abhishek Pandey, Mr. Aryajyoti Goswami, Mr. Mohd. Awol Habib and Mr. Siddharth

Tamang. The support extended by them during the critical stages of this research work is

gratefully acknowledged and I am also thankful for their interest and involvement in the

technical discussions.

The help provided by staff of the Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics Division

Laboratories especially Mr. Ayodhya Prasad, Mr. Anil Kumar, Mr. Tulsiram, Mr. Ramchandar

and Mr. Bhavar Singh is appreciated. The help extended on personal fronts by Mr. Ayodhya

Prasad and Mr. Anil Kumar is gratefully acknowledged.

I am most grateful to my family. I express my deepest gratitude‟s to my parents, wife, and

brother. I love them with all of my heart. I am thankful to my parents for the principles they

instilled in me as a young man and for their continued support, guidance, and love for our family.

It would have been impossible to complete this work without my family‟s understanding,

patience, and sacrifices.

(Ratnesh Kumar Raj Singh)

iv
ABSTRACT

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process which involves stirring the material

by a non consumable rotating tool to generate frictional heating that soften the base material and

produces the joint. FSW is commonly used for welding of aluminium alloys. Owing to solid state

nature, and reduced dependence on skills, FSW has numerous advantages over fusion welding

processes. Consequently, researchers have shown increasing interest in the application of FSW to

aluminium alloys to achieve better mechanical properties.

In the present research, friction stir welding of 5052-H32 aluminium alloy has been performed

using conventional robust vertical milling machine (VMM). This VMM has been modified to

work as a FSW machine and fitted with an indigenously developed setup which is capable of

firmly clamping the 6 mm thick 5052 aluminium plates and is also capable for measuring

downward and traverse welding forces. The different attachments have also been fitted with

VMM for measurement of temperature distribution and power consumption during welding. A

tool holder interface has also been developed which is able to effectively clamp the various size

of FSW tool. The hot die steel (H13) tool with a cylindrical threaded pin has been used for the

welding.

Numerous trial experiments have been performed to establish the principal FSW process

parameters. The tool pin and shoulder diameter, tool rotation and welding speed have been

selected as the FSW process parameters and experimentation have been performed in accordance

with the response surface methodology (RSM). Mechanical and metallurgical tests have been

performed for each welded specimen. The weld quality has been analyzed though tensile, impact,

v
fatigue and fracture toughness tests along with microstructural examination. The effect of

individual process parameter on each weld properties has been analyzed in detail.

It has also been found that the external cooling also affects the quality of welds produced by

FSW. To see the effect of external cooling three cooling media such as natural air, water and

liquid nitrogen have been used for welding and welds have been examined based on mechanical

and metallurgical properties. The water has been found a suitable cooling media for batter

mechanical properties.

To achieve best mechanical properties, it is necessary to optimize the process parameters based

on suitable cooling media. So the FSW process parameters have been optimized again for the

best suited cooling media. In this experiment FSW process parameter has been studied through a

separate set of experiments using Taguchi‟s L9 orthogonal array. The effect of process parameter

in cooling media on weld quality characteristics such as strength, elongation, impact strength,

fatigue and fracture toughness have been analyzed.

Analysis of results has revealed significant effect of all these FSW parameters and cooling media

on mechanical and metallurgical properties of the weld. The FSW process parameters have also

significantly affected the welding force generated, power consumed and temperature distributed

during welding. The metallurgical test results have revealed occurrence of considerable grain

refinement in the stir zone owing to dynamic recrystallization mechanism.

vi
साय

घषषण घूणन
ष वेल्डिंग (एपएसडब्रू) एक ठोस अवस्था वाऱी वेल्डिंग प्रक्रिमा है लिसभें गैय-उऩबोज्म घूणन

उऩकयण द्वाया घुरनशीर ताऩ उत्ऩन्न कयने के लरए साभग्री को तेिी से घुमाया जाता है , िो आधाय

साभग्री को नयभ कयते हैं औय सिंमुक्त जोड़ फनाता हैं। एपएसडब्रू आभतौय ऩय ए्मूभीननमभ लभश्र

धातओ
ु िं के वेल्डिंग के लरए उऩमोग क्रकमा िाता है । ठोस अवस्था की प्रकृनत औय कौशर ऩय ननबषयता भें

कभी के कायण एपएसडब््मू के फ्मूिन वेल्डिंग प्रक्रिमाओिं से ज्यादा पामदे हैं। नतीितन, शोधकताषओिं

ने फेहतय मािंत्रिक गण
ु ों को प्राप्त कयने के लरए ए्मभ
ू ीननमभ लभश्र धातु को जोड़ने के लऱए एपएसडब््मू

के उऩयोग भें फढ़ती रुचि ददखाई है ।

वतषभान शोध भें , 5052-एि 32 ए्मूभीननमभ लभश्र धातु के घषषण घूणन


ष वेल्डिंग के लऱए ऩायिं ऩरयक रूऩ

से भिफूत ऊर्धवाषधय लभलरिंग भशीन (वीएभएभ) का उऩमोग क्रकमा गमा है । इस वीएभएभ को एपएसडब्रू

भशीन के रूऩ भें काभ कयने के लरए सिंशोचधत क्रकमा गमा है औय श्वतः ववकलसत सेटअऩ के साथ रगामा

गमा है िो 6 लभभी भोटी 5052 ए्मूभीननमभ प्रेटों को भिफूती से जोड़ने भें सऺभ है औय वे नीिे की

तयप ऱगने वाऱी वेल्डिंग फरों को भाऩने में बी सऺभ है । वेल्डिंग के दौयान ताऩभान ववतयण औय त्रफिरी

की खऩत के भाऩ के लरए ववलबन्न उऩकरण बी वीएभएभ के साथ रगाए गए है । उऩकयण धायक

अंतरपऱक बी ववकलसत क्रकमा गमा है िो क्रक प्रबावी रूऩ से ववलबन्न आकाय के धातु के चादरों को दफाने

भें सऺभ है । वेल्डिंग के लरए गभष भयने वारे स्टीर ( एि 13) से फनी एक फेरनाकाय ऩेचदार वऩन का

उऩमोग क्रकमा गमा है ।

प्रमुख एपएसडब््मू प्रक्रिमा भाऩदिं डों को स्थावऩत कयने के लरए कई प्रमोग ऩयीऺण क्रकए गए। उऩकयण

वऩन औय किंधे का व्मास, उऩकयण योटे शन औय वेल्डिंग की गनत का िमन एपएसडब््मू प्रक्रिमा भाऩदिं डों
के रूऩ भें क्रकमा गमा है औय प्रमोग की प्रनतक्रिमा सतह ऩद्धनत (आयएसएभ) के अनुसाय क्रकमा गमा है ।

प्रत्मेक वे्डेड नभूने के लरए यांत्रिक औय धातुववक गुणों के टे स्ट जैसे की तन्मता, प्रबाव, पटीग औय

फ्रैक्िय ऩयीऺणों के साथ-साथ सूक्ष्म-संरचनात्मक ऩयीऺा के साथ वे्ड गुणवत्ता का ववश्रेषण क्रकमा गमा

है । प्रत्मेक वे्ड गुणों ऩय अरग-अरग प्रक्रिमा माऩदं डों के प्रबाव का ववश्रेषण क्रकमा गमा है ।

मह बी ऩामा गमा है क्रक फाहयी शीतरन एपएसडब््मू द्वाया उत्ऩाददत वे््स की गण


ु वत्ता को बी प्रबाववत

कयती है । फाहयी शीतरन के प्रबाव को दे खने के लरए प्राकृनतक वामु, िर औय तयर नाइट्रोिन िैसे

शीतरन माध्यमों का इस्तेभार वेल्डिंग के लरए क्रकमा गमा है औय मािंत्रिक औय धातु सिंफिंधी गण
ु ों के

आधाय ऩय वेल्ड की िािंि की गई है । अच्छे यांत्रिक गुणों की वजह से िर को एक उऩमुक्त माध्यम ऩामा

गमा है ।

सवषश्रेष्ठ मािंत्रिक गुण प्राप्त कयने के लरए, उऩमुक्त फाहयी शीतरन ऩय आधारयत प्रक्रिमा भाऩदिं डों को

अनुकूलरत कयना आवश्मक है । इसलरए एपएसडब््मू प्रक्रिमा भाऩदिं डों का अनुकूरतभ शीतरन माध्यम

के लरए क्रपय से अनुकूलरत क्रकमा गमा है । इस प्रमोग भें एपएसडब््मू प्रक्रिमा माऩदं डों का इस्तेभार

तागुची एर 9 ऑथोगोनर सयणी के प्रमोग के एक अरग सेट के भार्धमभ से क्रकमा गमा है । शीतरन

माध्यमों भें प्रक्रिमा माऩदं डों का प्रबाव वे्ड गण


ु वत्ता ववशेषताओिं िैसे क्रक शलक्त, फढ़ाव, प्रबाव शलक्त,

पटीग औय फ्रैक्िय का ववश्रेषण क्रकमा गमा है ।

ऩरयणाभों के ववश्रेषण ने इन सबी एपएसडब््मू भाऩदिं डों औय शीतरन माध्यमों के वे्ड के यांत्रिक औय

धातुववक गुणों ऩय भहत्वऩूणष प्रबाव ददखामा है । एपएसडब््मू प्रक्रिमा भाऩदिं डों ने वेल्डिंग के दौयान

उत्ऩन्न वेल्डिंग फर, त्रफिरी का सेवन औय ताऩभान को बी प्रबाववत क्रकमा है । धातुववक गुणों के ऩररछण

के नतीिे ने गनतशीर ऩुनयष िना तिंि के िरते अलस्थय ऺेि भें कापी ग्रेन शोधन की घटना का ऩता िरा है ।
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certificate i

Acknowledgements iii

Abstract v

Table of Contents vii

List of Figures xxiii

List of Tables xxxi

List of Symbols xxxvii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background 3

1.2 Research Objective 4

1.3 Benefits of The Research 4

1.4 Organization of the Thesis 5

1.5 References 7

Chapter 2 Literature Review 9

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Aluminium and its properties 12

2.3 Aluminium alloy and temper designation system 12

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2.4 Wrought Aluminium Alloy 15

2.5 Aluminium-Magnesium (AA 5xxx) alloys 16

2.5.1 The Al-Mg System 17

2.6 Aluminium Alloy AA 5052 18

2.7 Welding of aluminium 22

2.8 Problem in Aluminium welding 22

2.9 Introduction of Friction stir welding 24

2.9.1 Microstructural Features of FSW 26

2.9.2 Advantage of FSW Process 27

2.9.3 Suitability of FSW process for marine application 28

2.9.4 Major challenges for FSW of Aluminium 28

2.9.4.1 Tool Material 29

2.9.4.2 Machine Tool and Equipment 29

2.9.4.3 Selection and Optimization of Process Parameter 30

2.10 References 30

Chapter 3 Methodology and Experimentation 35

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Equipment 39

3.2.1 The Vertical Milling Machine 39

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3.2.2 Work Fixture 39

3.2.3 Load Measuring attachment 41

3.2.4 Holder for Tool Attachment 42

3.3 Tool Material 43

3.4 Power and Temperature Measurement 44

3.5 Experimentation 44

3.5.1 Base Material 44

3.5.2 Tool Design 45

3.5.3 Experimental Trial and Determination of 46


Parameter widow

3.6 Design of Experiments 47

3.6.1 Terminology used in design of experiment 47

3.6.2 Basic principles of design 49

3.6.3 Steps in Experimentation 49

3.6.4 Need for statistically designed experiments 50

3.6.5 Central composite design 50

3.6.6 Response surface methodology 51

3.6.6.1 Design for Fitting for Response Surface 51

3.6.7 Taguchi Method 51

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3.6.8 Selection of orthogonal array 53

3.6.9 Analysis of Variance 53

3.7 Experimentation 54

3.7.1 Optimizing FSW process parameter 54

3.7.2 Optimization of cooling media 55

3.7.3 Optimization of process parameter for underwater 58


welding

3.8 Preparation of test coupons 59

3.9 Weld characterization 59

3.9.1 Tensile testing 61

3.9.2 Charpy impact testing 62

3.9.3 Fatigue testing 63

3.9.4 Fracture toughness testing 64

3.9.5 Hardness Testing 66

3.9.6 Microstructure 68

3.9.7 Fractography 69

3.9.8 Force measurement 69

3.9.9 Power measurement 69

3.9.10 Temperature measurement 69

x
3.10 References 70

Chapter 4 Optimization of FSW process parameter 73

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Development of an empirical relationship 75

4.3 Optimization of FSW process parameter 76

4.4 Result and Discussion 78

4.4.1 Effect of process parameter on Tensile properties 78

4.4.1.1 Effect of pin diameter 86

4.4.1.2 Effect of shoulder diameter 86

4.4.1.3 Effect of rotational speed 86

4.4.1.4 Effect of welding speed 87

4.4.2 Effect of process parameter on % elongation 88

4.4.2.1 Effect of pin diameter on % elongation 89

4.4.2.2 Effect of shoulder diameter on % elongation 93

4.4.2.3 Effect of rotational speed on % elongation 93

4.4.2.4 Effect of welding speed on % elongation 93

4.4.3 Effect of process parameter on Charpy impact 94


strength

4.4.3.1 Effect of pin diameter on Charpy impact strength 99

xi
4.4.3.2 Effect of shoulder diameter on Charpy impact 100
strength

4.4.3.3 Effect of rotational speed on Charpy impact 100


strength

4.4.3.4 Effect of welding speed on Charpy impact 100


strength

4.4.4 Effect of process parameter on FCGR 101

4.4.4.1 Effect of pin diameter on FCGR 107

4.4.4.2 Effect of shoulder diameter on FCGR 107

4.4.4.3 Effect of rotational speed on FCGR 108

4.4.4.4 Effect of welding speed on FCGR 108

4.4.5 Effect of process parameter on fracture toughness 108


properties in WNZ

4.4.5.1 Effect of pin diameter on fracture toughness 110

4.4.5.2 Effect of shoulder diameter on fracture toughness 110

4.4.5.3 Effect of rotational speed on fracture toughness 114

4.4.5.4 Effect of welding speed on fracture toughness 114

4.4.6 Effect of process parameter on fracture toughness 114


properties in HAZ

4.4.6.1 Effect of pin diameter 119

4.4.6.2 Effect of shoulder diameter 119

xii
4.4.6.3 Effect of rotational speed 119

4.4.6.4 Effect of welding speed 120

4.5 References 120

Chapter 5 Optimization of Cooling Media 125

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Experimentation 127

5.3 Results and discussion 128

5.3.1 Tensile properties 128

5.3.2 Charpy impact strength 130

5.3.3 Fatigue Properties 131

5.3.3.1 FCGR along the weld nugget 132

5.3.3.2 FCGR across the weld nugget 135

5.3.4 Fracture toughness properties 138

5.3.4.1 Fracture toughness properties in weld nugget 138

5.3.4.2 Fracture toughness properties in HAZ 138

5.4 References 141

Chapter 6 Optimization of Process parameter for 145


Underwater FSW

6.1 Introduction 147

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6.2 Experimental Procedure 148

6.3 Results and Discussions 149

6.3.1 Effect of process parameter on tensile properties 149

6.3.1.1 Effect of Pin Diameter on UTS 153

6.3.1.2 Effect of Shoulder diameter on UTS 154

6.3.1.3 Effect of rotation speed on UTS 154

6.3.1.4 Effect of welding speed on UTS 155

6.3.2 Effect of process parameter on % elongation 155

6.3.2.1 Effect of Pin Diameter on % elongation 157

6.3.2.2 Effect of Shoulder diameter on % elongation 158

6.3.2.3 Effect of rotation speed on % elongation 158

6.3.2.4 Effect of welding speed on % elongation 158

6.3.3 Effect of process parameter on Charpy impact 159


strength

6.3.3.1 Effect of Pin Diameter on impact strength 160

6.3.3.2 Effect of Shoulder diameter on impact strength 162

6.3.3.3 Effect of rotation speed on impact strength 163

6.3.3.4 Effect of welding speed on impact strength 163

6.3.4 Effect of process parameter on fatigue properties 163

xiv
6.3.4.1 FCGR Behaviour Along the WNZ 164

6.3.4.2 FCGR Behaviuor Across the WNZ 171

6.3.5 Effect of process parameter on fracture toughness 178

6.3.5.1 Fracture toughness properties in WNZ 178

6.3.5.2 Fracture toughness properties in HAZ 182

6.4 References 188

Chapter 7 Microstructure, Microhardness and Fracture 193


Surfaces

7.1 Introduction 195

7.2 Weld Appearance on the top Surface 195

7.2.1 Surface appearance of weld produced in different 195


cooling media

7.2.2 Surface appearance of weld produced in 198


underwater

7.3 Relationship between the top surface roughness 199


and Microstructure development

7.4 Microstructure development around the tool pin: 200


Based on broken tool Study

7.5 Macrostructure of WNZ 203

7.6 Microstructure of welds produced in different 209


cooling media

7.7 Macrostructure of weld produced in underwater 212

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welding

7.8 Microstructure of weld produced in underwater 213


welding

7.9 Lazy „s‟ (zigzag line) defect formation 216

7.10 Hardness distribution in welds 217

7.10.1 Hardness distribution in welds produced in 218


natural air cooling

7.10.2 Hardness distribution of weld produced in 221


different cooling media

7.10.3 Hardness distribution in welds produced in 223


underwater welding

7.11 Fractography of tensile fracture samples 219

7.11.1 Fracture location of tensile samples of weld 224


produced in air cooling

7.11.2 Fracture location of tensile samples of Weld 225


produced in different cooling media

7.11.3 Fracture surfaces of tensile samples produced in 226


different cooling media

7.11.4 Fracture location of tensile samples of welds 231


produced in underwater FSW

7.11.5 Fracture surfaces of tensile samples of weld 233


produced in underwater FSW

7.12 Fracture properties of Fatigue sample 237

7.12.1 Fracture surfaces of fatigue samples with a crack 238

xvi
propagets in WNZ

7.12.2 Fracture surfaces of fatigue samples with a crack 239


propagates across the WNZ

7.12.3 Fractography of fracture surfaces of fatigue 240


samples

7.13 Fractography of fracture toughness tested samples 242

7.14 References 244

Chapter 8 Force Power and Temperature measurement 249

8.1 Introduction 251

8.2 Force generation during welding 251

8.2.1 Forces generated during welding in Air 252

8.2.2 Forces generated during different cooling media 255

8.2.3 Forces generated during under water welding 255

8.3 Effect of process parameter on downward forces 258

8.3.1 Effect of pin diameter on downward forces 258

8.3.2 Effect of shoulder diameter on downward forces 259

8.3.3 Effect of tool rotational speed on downward 259


forces

8.3.4 Effect of welding speed on downward forces 260

8.3.5 Effect of cooling media 260

8.3.6 Variation of downward forces due to other 260

xvii
regions

8.4 Temperature distribution during welding 261

8.5 Heat flow analysis 261

8.6 Power consumption during welding 264

8.6.1 Power consumption during welding in air 264

8.6.1.1 Effect of pin diameter on Power consumption in 267


air

8.6.1.2 Effect of shoulder diameter on Power 271


consumption in air

8.6.1.3 Effect of rotational speed on Power consumption 271


in air

8.6.1.4 Effect of welding speed on Power consumption in 271


air

8.6.2 Power consumption in different cooling media 271

8.6.3 Power consumption during underwater welding 272

8.6.3.1 Effect of pin diameter on power consumption 272


during underwater welding

8.6.3.2 Effect of shoulder diameter on power 274


consumption during underwater welding

8.6.3.3 Effect of tool rotation on power consumption 275


during underwater welding

8.6.3.1 Effect of welding speed on power consumption 275


during underwater welding

xviii
8.7 References 275

Chapter 9 Discussion and Conclusion 279

9.1 Outcomes of the research 281

9.2 Chapter 4: Effect of process parameter on weld 281


properties

9.2.1 The effect of Tool Pin diameter on weld 282


properties

9.2.2 Effect of shoulder diameter on weld properties 283

9.2.3 Effect of tool rotational speed on weld properties 283

9.2.4 Effect of welding speed on weld properties 284

9.3 Chapter 5: Effect of external cooling on weld 285


properties

9.4 Chapter 6: Effect of process parameter on weld 289


properties in underwater welding

9.4.1 Effect of tool pin diameter 291

9.4.2 Effect of tool shoulder diameter 292

9.4.3 Effect of tool rotational speed 293

9.4.4 Effect of welding speed 294

9.5 Chapter 7: microstructure and microhardness 295


development during the fsw and fracture surfaces

9.5.1 Surface finish 295

xix
9.5.2 Microstructure development around the tool pin: 296
study based on broken tool

9.5.3 Microstructure development in wnz 298

9.5.4 Microstructure of welds 300

9.5.5 Lazy „s‟ (zigzag line) defect 302

9.5.6 Hardness distribution in welds 303

9.5.7 Fractography of fracture samples 306

9.5.7.1 Fractography of tensile fracture samples 306

9.5.7.2 Fractography of fatigue samples 308

9.5.7.3 fractography of fracture toughness 310


samples

9.6: Chapter 8: Forces, Power and Temperature 311


Measurement

9.6.1 Effect of process parameter on force generated 311


and power consumption

9.6.2 Effect of process parameter 311

9.6.2.1 Effect of tool pin diameter 312

9.6.2.2 Effect of tool shoulder diameter 312

9.6.2.3 Effect of tool rotational speed 312

9.6.2.4 Effect of welding speed 313

xx
9.6.2.5 Effect of cooling media 313

9.6.3 Temperature distribution during welding 313

9.7 Conclusion 314

9.8 Scope for the future work 315

9.9 References 316

Appendices

Appendix 1 Tensile, Charpy and Fatigue Properties of Welds 325


Produced in Natural Air Cooling

Appendix 2 Fracture, Notch and Other Properties of Welds 326


Produced in Natural Air Cooling

Appendix 3 Tensile and Charpy Impact Properties of Welds 327


Produced in Underwater

Appendix 4 Fatigue Properties of Welds Produced in 327


Underwater

Appendix 5 Fracture Toughness Properties of Welds 328


Produced in Underwater

Appendix 6 Curriculum Vitae 329

xxi
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title Page No.

Fig. 2.1 Al-alloys usage in the Alcoa Audi A8 2002 11

Fig. 2.2. The principal wrought aluminium alloys 17

Fig. 2.3 The Aluminium-Magnesium equilibrium diagram 19

Fig. 2.4 Schematics of FSW process 25

Fig. 2.5 A typical macrostructure of FSW showing various microstructural features 26

Fig. 3.1 Friction Stir Welding machine and attached setups 40

Fig. 3.2 Welding fixture attached on load measuring setup 41

Fig. 3.3 Force measuring attachment (a) Top view of force measuring attachment, 42
(b) Side view of attachment, (c) Bottom Plate with load cell which is
attached to milling machine and (d) load cell with data acquisition and
storage system

Fig. 3.4 Tool Holder (a) Schematic diagram of tool holder (b) 3 D view of Tool 43
Holder (c) Tool holder with attached tool

Fig. 3.5 Tool design for Friction Stir welding 47

Fig. 3.6 Schematic diagram of FSW with external cooling 57

Fig. 3.7 Friction Stir welding in (a) Air, (b) Underwater and (c) Under Liquid 57
Nitrogen

Fig. 3.8 Wire EDM cutting of Samples 60

Fig. 3.9 Drawing of Samples preparation from weld 60

xxiii
Fig. 3.10 Dimension (in mm) of subsize tensile samples 61

Fig. 3.11 Dimension (in mm) of miniature tensile samples 61

Fig. 3.12 Dimension (in mm) of notched tensile samples 62

Fig. 3.13 Stress-Strain diagram for base metal in Parallel and perpendicular to 62
rolling

Fig. 3.14 Dimension (in mm) of Charpy Impact Sample 63

Fig. 3.15 Fatigue Specimen (a) Dimensions of Fatigue samples, (b)- Sample for 64
FCGR across weld Nugget, (c)- Sample for FCGR along the weld nugget

Fig. 3.16 The FCGR measurement (a) FCGR measurement in base metal by both 65
electronic and COD gauge, (b) FCGR measurement in weld by COD
gauge, (c) FCGR measurement across the weld nugget by COD gauge

Fig. 3.17 FCGR in base metal parallel and perpendicular to rolling 65

Fig. 3.18 Fracture toughness samples (a) Schematic diagram of fracture sample, (b) 67
fracture toughness samples in the centre of weld nugget (c) fracture
toughness sample in HAZ of AS (d) Fracture toughness sample in HAZ of
RS

Fig. 3.19 Fracture toughness testing (a)- Fracture toughness testing machine and (b)- 67
3-point bend fracture toughness testing

Fig. 3.20 Schematic CTOD Fracture Toughness testing graph 68

Fig. 3.21 Microhardness indentations across the weld nugget and from top to bottom 68
in weld nugget

Fig. 4.1 Engineering Stress-Strain curve for tensile tested samples 79-80

Fig. 4.2 Variation in UTS in FSWed samples 80

xxiv
Fig. 4.3 Normal Probability vs Studentized Residual plot for UTS 82

Fig 4.4 Predicted vs actual plot for UTS 83

Fig. 4.5 Variation of UTS with respect to (a) pin diameter (b) shoulder Diameter (c) 84-85
rotational speed (d) welding speed

Fig. 4.6 Normal Probability vs Studentized Residual plot for % Elongation 90

Fig 4.7 Predicted vs actual plot for % elongation 90

Fig. 4.8 Variation of % Elongation with respect to (a) pin Diameter (b) Shoulder 91-92
Diameter (c) Rotational Speed and (d) Welding speed

Fig. 4.9 Variations of Charpy Impact Strength in different welds 94

Fig. 4.10 Normal Probability vs Studentized Residual plot for Charpy Impact 96
Strength

Fig. 4.11 Predicted vs actual plot for Charpy impact strength 96

Fig. 4.12 Variation of % Charpy impact strength with respect to (a) pin Diameter (b) 97-98
Shoulder Diameter (c) rotational speed (d) welding speed

Fig. 4.13 Normal Probability vs Studentized Residual plot for FCGR 103

Fig. 4.14 Predicted vs actual plot for FCGR 103

Fig. 4.15 Effect of process parameter on FCGR properties 104-105

Fig. 4.16 Normal Probability vs Studentized Residual plot CTOD in WNZ 111

Fig 4.17 Predicted vs actual plot for CTOD in WNZ 111

Fig. 4.18 Variation of Fracture Toughness in WNZ with respect to (a) pin Diameter 112-113
(b) Shoulder Diameter (c) rotational speed (d) welding speed

xxv
Fig. 4.19 Normal Probability vs Studentized Residual plot for CTOD in HAZ 116

Fig. 4.20 Predicted vs actual plot for CTOD in HAZ 116

Fig. 4.21 Variation of Fracture Toughness in HAZ with respect to (a) pin Diameter 117-118
(b) Shoulder Diameter (c) rotational speed (d) welding speed

Fig.5.1 Engineering Stress-Strain diagram of welds at (a) Low welding Speed and 130
(b) High welding speed

Fig. 5.2 Charpy impact strength of different welds and their average values (in red 131
mark)

Fig. 5.3 FCGR at different welding condition in the weld nugget 133

Fig. 5.4 Slopes of FCGR curves at different welding condition in the weld nugget 134

Fig. 5.5 FCGR in different welds at a constant ΔK (10 MPa-m1/2) 134

Fig. 5.6 FCGR at different welding condition 136

Fig. 5.7 Slope of FCGR at different welding condition across the weld nugget 137

Fig. 5.8 FCGR at different welding condition across the weld nugget 137

Fig. 5.9 Fracture toughness properties in weld produced in different cooling media 139

Fig. 5.10 Fracture Toughness Properties in Weld Nugget 141

Fig. 6.1 Underwater FSW of aluminium alloy 148

Fig. 6.2 UTS of welds and base along with their average values 151

Fig.6.3 YS of welds and base along with their average values 151

Fig. 6.4 % Elongation of welds and base along with their average values 151

xxvi
Fig. 6.5 Effect of process parameters on UTS 153

Fig. 6.6 Effect of process parameter on % Elongation 157

Fig 6.7 Charpy Impact Strength of underwater FSWed samples 160

Fig. 6.8 Effect of process parameter on Chapy impact strength 162

Fig. 6.9 FCGR in WNZ of underwater welded samples with 7 mm Pin Diameter 165

Fig. 6.10 FCGR in WNZ of underwater welded samples with 8 mm Pin Diameter 166

Fig. 6.11 FCGR in WNZ of underwater welded samples with 9 mm Pin Diameter 167

Fig. 6.12 Slope of FCGR curve used for calculation of da/dN 168

Fig. 6.13 FCGR variation in WNZ with welding process parameters 171

Fig. 6.14 FCGR in AS and RS HAZ samples with 7 mm Pin Diameter 172

Fig. 6.15 FCGR in AS and RS HAZ samples with 8 mm Pin Diameter 173

Fig. 6.16 FCGR in AS and RS HAZ samples with 9 mm Pin Diameter 174

Fig. 6.17 Slope of FCGR curve in AS and RS used for calculation of da/dN 176

Fig. 6.18 Effect of process parameter on FCGR in AS HAZ 177

Fig. 6.19 Effect of process parameter on FCGR in RS HAZ 177

Fig. 6.20 CTOD in weld nugget (Red mark showing average values) 179

Fig. 6.21 Fracture Toughness Properties in Weld Nugget 181

Fig. 6.22 CTOD in HAZ (AS and RS) 183

Fig. 6.23 Effect of Process Parameter on Fracture Toughness Properties in AS HAZ 186

xxvii
Fig. 6.24 Effect of process parameter on Fracture Toughness Properties in RS HAZ 188

Fig. 7.1 Material flow and top surface roughness correlated by (a) Dark and bright 199
bands in WNZ (taken by Optical Microscope) and (b) shoulder mark on
top surface (taken by SEM)

Fig. 7.2 Weld mid section along the welding direction 201

Fig. 7.3 Showing material flow at (a) location „e‟ and (b) location „f‟ 201

Fig. 7.4 Dark and Bright bands (a) Different in particle size (taken by optical 202
microscope) (b) Different in grain size (taken by SEM)

Fig. 7.5 Optical microstructure of fractured tool pin in transverse direction of weld 202

Fig. 7.6 Optical microstructure taken in (a) Advancing and (b) Retreating side of 203
fractured tool

Fig. 7.7 Optical macrostructure of welds produced at low welding speed in 205
different cooling media

Fig. 7.8 Optical macrostructure of welds produced at high welding speed in 206
different cooling media

Fig. 7.9 Optical macrostructure of weld cross section showing locations for width 208
measurement

Fig. 7.10 Weld width at different location (as shown in Fig. 7.9) 208

Fig. 7.11 Combined width of HAZ+TMAZ in AS and RS 208

Fig. 7.12 Optical microstructure of base metal taken (a) along and (b) across the 209
rolling direction

Fig. 7.13 Optical microstructure of weld produced in different cooling media and 210
welding speed (a) Air@100, (b) Air@400, (c) UW@100, (d) UW@400,
(e) UN@100 and (f) UN@400

xxviii
Fig. 7.14 Optical microstructure of TMAZ in (a)- Advancing and (b)- Retreating 212
Side

Fig. 7.15 Optical microstructure of underwater weld produced at different set of 214-215
process parameters (a)-W71, (b)-W72, (c)- W73, (d)-W81, (e)- W82, (f)-
W83, (g)-W91, (h)-W92, (i)-W93

Fig. 7.16 SEM image of Lazy „S‟ defect found during welding at (a) low 217
magnification and (b) high magnification showing lack of bonding

Fig. 7.17 Nano-indentation results of Lazy „S‟ defect Weld produced at welding 217
parameter (a) Air@100 and (b) UW@100

Fig. 7.18 Hardness distribution across the weld produced in air 219-220

Fig. 7.19 Hardness profile across the weld at (a) low and (b) high welding speed 222

Fig. 7.20 Microhardness profile across the joint for welds of pin diameter (a) 7 mm, 224
(b) 8 mm and (c) 9 mm (the rectangles showed in figures represents the
area affected by tool pin and shoulder)

Fig. 7.21 SEM images of different fracture surfaces of tensile samples showing 229
common type of FSW defects

Fig. 7.22 SEM images of fractured surfaces of tensile samples of Natural Cooled 232
weld at (a) low and (b) high welding speed, Water cooled weld at (c) low
and (d) high welding speed, Nitrogen cooled weld at (e) low and (f) high
welding speed

Fig. 7.23 SEM images of fracture surfaces of tensile samples 233

Fig. 7.24 SEM images of fractured surface of tensile samples produced at different 236
set of process parameters

Fig. 7.25 SEM fractrography of tensile samples at higher magnification 237

Fig. 7.26 SEM images of fracture surfaces of fatigue samples at the threshold ∆K 240

xxix
Fig. 7.27 Fracture surfaces of FCGR test samples (i) along weld and (ii) across weld 241

Fig. 7.28 SEM fracture surfaces of FCGR test samples (as shown in Fig. 17) at (a) 241
Low ∆K along the weld, (b) High ∆K along the weld, (c) Low ∆K in
across the weld, (d) High ∆K across weld

Fig. 7.29 SEM images of fractured surfaces of fracture toughness samples 244

Fig. 8.1 Downward forces occurred during welding in air at different process 253-254
parameter

Fig. 8.2 Distribution of forces during FSW in different cooling media at (a) low 256
welding speed (b) high welding speed

Fig. 8.3 Distribution of downward forces during underwater welding 257

Fig.8.4 Arrengament of thermocouple attachment on welding plate (all dimensions 262


are in mm)

Fig. 8.5 Temperature distribution during Welding 263

Fig. 8.6 Variation of power consumption during welding 265-266

Fig. 8.7 Normal % probability vs Studentized residuals plot for power consumption 268

Fig. 8.8 Predicted vs Actual plot for power consumption 268

Fig. 8.9 Variation of Power consumption with (a) pin diameter, (b) shoulder 269-270
diameter, (c) rotational speed and (d) welding speed

Fig. 8.10 Power Consumption in different cooling media and welding Speed 272

Fig. 8.11 Power consumption in under water welding with varying process 273
parameter

Fig. 8.12 Effect of process parameter on power consumption in underwater welding 274

xxx
LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page


No.

Table 2.1 Designation system for wrought and cast aluminium alloy 13

Table 2.2 Temper designation for strain hardened alloys 14

Table 2.3 Effects of solid solution of principal solute elements on strength of 17


pure aluminium

Table 2.4 Major alloying elements (Wt. %) of 5xxx Series Aluminium alloy 18

Table 2.5 Solid solubility of magnesium in Aluminium 19

Table 2.6 Intermetallic Phases present in AA 5xxx 20

Table 2.7 Properties of 5052 Aluminium alloy 21

Table 3.1 Alloying elements in base metal obtained by optical emission 44


spectroscopy

Table 3.2 Mechanical properties of Base Metal 45

Table 3.3 Process parameter for selection of tool design 46

Table 3.4 Upper and lower limit of process parameters selected for welding 47

Table 3.5 Welding parameters, coded values and their ranges 55

Table 3.6 Welding runs and their notations 56

Table 3.7 Welding parameter and cooling condition 57

Table 3.8 Process parameters with their range and levels 58

xxxi
Table 3.9 Welding parameters and their notation 58

Table 3.10 Notations for the samples as shown in Fig. 3.10 60

Table 4.1 Selected ranges of process parameters 75

Table 4.2 Welding run notation, their actual and coded values 77

Table 4.3 ANOVA table for UTS 81

Table 4.4 Result of ANOVA for UTS 81

Table 4.5 ANOVA table for % Elongation 88

Table 4.6 Result of ANOVA for % Elongation 89

Table 4.7 ANOVA table for Charpy Impact Strength 95

Table 4.8 Result of ANOVA for Charpy Impact Strength 95

Table 4.9 Analysis of variance table for FCGR 102

Table 4.10 Result of ANOVA for FCGR 102

Table 4.11 ANOVA table for Fracture toughness in WNZ 109

Table 4.12 Result of ANOVA table for Fracture toughness in WNZ 109

Table 4.13 ANOVA table for fracture toughness in HAZ 115

Table 4.14 Result of ANOVA for fracture toughness in HAZ 115

Table 5.1 Welding parameters and ambient conditions 128

Table 5.2 Tensile Properties of Welds 129

Table 6.1 Process parameters with their range and levels 149

xxxii
Table 6.2 Welding parameters and weld notation 150

Table 6.3 Tensile properties of FS welds 152

Table 6.4 Response table of means for UTS 152

Table 6.5 Response table for signal to noise ratios (Larger is better) for UTS 152

Table 6.6 Contribution of process parameters on UTS 153

Table 6.6 Response table of Means for % Elongation 156

Table 6.7 Response table for Signal to Noise Ratios (Larger is better) for % 156
Elongation

Table 6.8 Contribution of Process Parameter on % Elongation 156

Table 6.9 Response table of Means for Impact Strength 161

Table 6.10 Response table for Signal to Noise Ratios (Larger is better) for 161
Impact Strength

Table 6.11 Contribution of process parameter on Charpy impact strength 161

Table 6.12 FCGR test values for crack propagated in weld nugget 169

Table 6.13 Response table for S/N ratios (Smaller is better) for FCGR in WNZ 170

Table 6.14 Contribution of Process Parameter on FCGR in WNZ 170

Table 6.15 FCGR values across the weld nugget 175

Table 6.16 Response table for S/N ratios (Smaller is better) for FCGR in AS 175
HAZ

Table 6.17 Contribution of Process Parameter on FCGR in AS HAZ 175

xxxiii
Table 6.18 Response Table for S/N ratios (Smaller is better) for FCGR in RS 176
HAZ

Table 6.19 Contribution of Process Parameter in FCGR on RS HAZ 177

Table 6.20 Response table for Means CTOD in WNZ 180

Table 6.21 Response Table for S/N ratios (Larger is better) for CTOD in WNZ 180

Table 6.22 Contribution of process parameter on CTOD in WNZ 180

Table 6.23 Response table for mean for CTOD in AS HAZ 183

Table 6.24 Response table for S/N ratios (Larger is better) for CTOD in AS 183
HAZ

Table 6.25 Contribution of process parameter on CTOD in AS HAZ 186

Table 6.26 Response Table for Means for CTOD in RS HAZ 187

Table 6.27 Response table for S/N ratios (Larger is better) for CTOD in RS HAZ 187

Table 6.28 Contribution of process parameter on CTOD in RS HA 187

Table7.1 Surface features of welds produced in different cooling media 197

Table 7.2 Surface features of underwater friction stir welded plates 198

Table 7.3 Weld cross-section area for weld produced in different cooling media 207

Table 7.4 Weld cross-section of underwater Friction Stir Welded samples 213

Table 7.5 Fracture location of weld of tensile samples of weld produced in air 228

Table 7.6 Fracture locations of tensile samples of welds produced in different 230
cooling media

xxxiv
Table 7.7 Fracture tensile samples of weld produced in underwater FSW 235-236

Table 7.8 Fracture samples of FCGR test in which crack propagates in WNZ 238

Table 7.9 Fracture samples of FCGR test in which crack propagates across the 239
WNZ

Table 7.10 Fracture Toughness surface of weld produced in different cooling 242
media and fail in Weld Nugget

Table 8.1 Models for heat generated during FSW 262

Table 8.2 ANOVA table for Power Consumption 266

Table 8.3 The outcome of ANOVA for Power consumption 267

Table 8.4 Response table of Means for power consumption 273

Table 8.5 Contribution of process parameter on power consumption 274

xxxv
LIST OF SYMBOLS
R Shoulder radius
r Pin radius
t Pin height
S Welding Speed
T Total spindle torque
τ Shear flow stress
Ts Torque on shoulder
Tps Torque on the lateral surface of pin
Pt Traverse power
Tpb Torque at pin bottom
Ft Traverse force
F1 Flow force
F2 Frictional force
S Welding speed
N Tool rotational speed
d Pin Diameter
D Shoulder Diameter
υ Poisson‟s ratio
a Original crack length
KI Stress Intensity Factor
vp Plastic component of COD
W Width of sample
B Thickness of sample
S Spam of the sample
δp Plastic part of CTOD
δe Elastic Part of CTOD
δc Total CTOD
𝜎𝑦𝑠 Yield Strength of the material
Qs Heat generation
AS Shoulder contact area
qv Volumetric heat source
FN, FP Normal and traverse forces
T Torque
H Sheet thickness
YS Yield strength of Weld
µ Friction coefficient
UTS Ultimate tensile strength

xxxvii