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PONTIFICIA UNIVERSITAS A S. THOMA AQ.

IN URBE
ANGELICUM
Facultas Theologiae

The Ἐγένετο Phrases


and
ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις
in the Gospel of Luke

TESINA BY SARAH GILDEA

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the

LICENTIATE IN BIBLICAL THEOLOGY


ROMAE 2018
The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

Contents

Part 1, Structural Criticism


I. Introduction . . . . . . . 7

II. Textural Criticism . . . . . . 8

III. Source Criticism . . . . . . 12


A.) Mark and Matthew As A Source . . . . 13
i.) Mark . . . . . . . 13
ii.) Matthew . . . . . . 17
B.) The LXX As A Source . . . . . 18
i.) G. Dalman . . . . . . 18
ii.) M. Johannessohn . . . . . 19
iii.) H. Thackeray . . . . . . 20
iv.) A. Plummer . . . . . . 20
v.) L. J. Delebecque . . . . . 21
V. Form Criticism . . . . . . . 23
VI. Redaction Criticism . . . . . . 23
VII. Narrative and Semiotic Criticism . . . . 24
Part 2, LXX and Gospel Comparison
I. The LXX Use of Select Ἐγένετο Phrases . . . 25
A.) Graphical Distribution of the Phrases . . . 26
B.) The "Days" Expression . . . . . 27
C.) Luke and His Use/Modification of LXX Phrases . . 28
II. A New Approach to the Formal Structure of the Ἐγένετο Phrases
in the Gospel of Luke . . . . . . 29
A.) Formal Content – 'Strong' vs 'Weak' Phrases . . 29
B.) Discountable Random Occurances – Isolated Phrases . 29
III. Categorization of the Ἐγένετο Phrases
A.) Ἐγένετο δὲ Followed by a Temporal Expression . . 30
B.) Καὶ ἐγένετο Followed by a Temporal Expression . . 31
C.) Καὶ ἐγένετο Followed by a Modified Temporal Expression
i.) Non Specific Time Element + ἡµέρα . . . 32
ii.) 'Orphan' ἡµέρα Phrases . . . . . 32
D.) Ἐγένετο δὲ + ἐν + Articulated Infinitive . . . 33
E.) Καὶ ἐγένετο + ἐν + Articulated Infinitive . . . 33
F.) Phrases Missing An Element . . . . 34
G.) Graphical Distribution of the Phrase . . . 35

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Part 3, Redaction, Composition of the Introduction and Exegesis


I. Introduction . . . . . . . 36
II. Gospel Chapters 1 and 2 – The Infancy Narratives . . 38
A.) 1,5-7
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . 39
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 40
B.) 1,8
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 41
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 42
C.) 1,23
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 44
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 44
D.) 1,24
i.) Composition of the Phrase . . . . 45
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 45
E.) 1,39
i.) Composition of the Phrase . . . . 46
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 46
F.) 1,41
i.) Composition of the Phrase . . . . 46
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 47
G.) 1,59
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 47
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 48
H.) 2,1
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 48
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 49
I.) 2,6
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . 49
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 49
J.) 2,15
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 50
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 50
K.) 2,46-49
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 51
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 51
III. Gospel Chapter 3,21-22 – The Baptism Narrative,
Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . . 52
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 52
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 53
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 53

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IV. Gospel Chapter 4 – Example of the Non-Use of the Ἐγένετο Phrases 54


V. Gospel Chapter 5 – Divine Intervention and the Forgiveness of Sins
A.) 5,1-7 . . . . . . . 55
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 55
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 55
B.) 5,12-14, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . 57
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 57
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 58
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 58
C1.) 5,17-20, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . 60
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 60
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 61
C2.) 5,21-24, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . 62
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 62
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 63
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 63

VI. Chapter 6 – The Sabbath Events . . . . . 66


A.) 6,1-5, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . 66
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 67
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 67
iiii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 67
B.) 6,6-11, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . 68
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 68
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 69
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 69
C.) 6,12-14, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . 70
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 70
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 70
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 70

VII. Chapter 7-8, The Use of ἑξῆς and καθεξῆς . . . 72


A.) 7,11 . . . . . . . . 72
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 72
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 72
B.) 8,1 . . . . . . . . 73
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 73
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 73

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VIII. Chapter 8,22-25 – Jesus' Power Over Nature,


Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . . 75
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 75
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 76
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 76

IX. Chapter 9 – Narrative Shift to Jerusalem . . . 77


A.) 9,18-22, Christological Identification by Peter,
Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . . 77
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 77
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 78
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 78
B.) 9,28-36, The Transfiguration,
Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . . 79
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 79
ii.) Composition of the Introduction and Verses 29, 33 . 80
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 80
C.) 9,51, The Travel to Jerusalem . . . . 82
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 82
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 82

X. Chapters 11 through 20 . . . . . . 84
A.) 11,1-4, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . . 84
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 84
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 84
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 85
B.) 11,27 . . . . . . . 86
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 86
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 86
C.) 14,1 . . . . . . . . 87
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 87
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 87
D.) 17,11-14b . . . . . . . 88
i.) Composition of the Introduction and Verse14b . . 88
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 88
E.) 17,26-28, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . 89
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 89
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 89
F.) 18,35-40, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts . 90
i.) Redaction . . . . . . . 90
ii.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 91
iii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 91

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G.) 20,1 . . . . . . . . 92
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 92
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 92

XI. Chapter 24 – The Resurrection . . . . . 93


A.) 24,4
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 93
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 93
B.) 24,13, Introduction to the Narrative of the Two Going to Emmaus
i.) Exegesis in Relation to the Ἐγένετο Phrases . . 94
C.) 24,15
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 95
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 95
D.) 24,30
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 96
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 96
E.) 24,51
i.) Composition of the Introduction . . . . 98
ii.) Exegesis . . . . . . . 98

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . 99
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . 101

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Part 1, Structural Criticism

I. Introduction
The 'problem' of the ἐγένετο phrases first presented itself during a seminar at the
Angelicum. The class was told that there was nothing substantial to the repetition, and
that several published works by theologians had already addressed the problem in great
detail. Not satisfied with their conclusions (the most convincing being that Luke wanted
to give his writing a LXX feel), I began my own independent research without thought
of using the subject for a tesina. About a year into this research that I discovered the
repetitive use of ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις and similar temporal phrases within the same narratives
that were initiated with these certain ἐγένετο phrases. This began a turning point in my
research; no other theologian or grammarian had investigated the relationship between
the two groups of phrases. The underlying conviction throughout was that one simply
does not repeat themselves for no reason. In the case of the gospel of Luke, if the writer
was a native Greek as seems to be accepted by the majority of authors, it is simply
absurd to write bad Greek unless there was a purpose. The author of the gospel
attributed to Luke didn't need to know Hebrew; it was all spelled out for him in Greek,
in the LXX. However, simply imitating the LXX was not a good enough explanation;
the following is the result of this research.

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II. Textual Criticism

1,5: Ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις Ἡρώδου βασιλἐως...


No serious variants. A, C, D, K, P and other manuscipts have the addition of
[του] βασιλἐως.

1,8: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτόν... No variants for the entire sentence.

1,23: καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡµέραις τῆς λειτουργίας...


No variants for the entire sentence.

1,24: Μετὰ δὲ ταύτας τὰς ἡµέρας συνέλαβεν Ἐλισάβετ... no variants for the entire
sentance.

1,39: Ἀναστᾶσα δὲ Μαριὰµ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ταύταις... no variants for the entire
sentance.

1,41: καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἤκουσεν τὸν ἀσπασµὸν...


No variants in the introductory phrase. A transposition of words occurs in the
next section in 5 6 1-4 A C2 K W Γ Δ 33. 700. 1241. 2542 r1 syh.

1,59: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ ἡµέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ ἦλθον περιτεµεῖν...


Some variants have τῇ ἡµέρᾳ ὀγδόῃ, A5 K9 Γ10 Δ9 Θ9 Ψ. The double use of the
article is a Hebraism. The variants suggest there was an effort to correct the original
text. Internal evidence suggests that the Hebrew syntax is more likely original.

2,1: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ἐκείναις ἐξῆλθεν...


No variants for the entire sentence.

2,6: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτούς ἐκεῖ ἐπλήσθησαν...


Alternative reading, ὡς δὲ παρεγινοντο ετελεσθησαν in D5. It's late date and lack
of external evidence favors the current reading.

2,15: καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπ'αὐτῶν... ἄγγελοι...


No variants in the introductory phrase. Several manuscripts add και οι
ανθρωποι, which is a simple addition to ‘the shepherds’ and does not significantly alter
the text.

2,46: καὶ ἐγένετο µετὰ ἡµέρας τρεῖς εὗρον αὐτὸν... No variants for entire sentence.

3,21: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ βαπτισθῆναι... No variants for entire sentence.

5,1: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ τόν ὄχλον ἐπικεῖσθαι...


Instead of Ἐγένετο δὲ, 75 has καὶ ἐγένετο. 75 is an early document which
began this narrative with καὶ ἐγένετο; however, this narrative is not a continuation from
the previous narrative, which ended rather disjointedly with "he was preaching in the
synagogues in Judea". This is the beginning of a long, continuous narrative joined with
select ἐγένετο phrases. Since this present narrative is a new beginning, the present
arrangement appears to be more original. Internal evidence favors the current reading.

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5,12: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αύτὸν έν µιᾷ τῶν πόλεων καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀνὴρ πλήρης λέπρας·
No variants in the introductory phrase. πλήρης λέπρας is noted as “p)”, which
"characterizes variants that the editors attribute to a parallel in another canonical
Gospel. These variants are not considered to be part of the initial text."1 However, there
is no parallel gospel with πλήρης λέπρας. Λέπρας without the accompanying adjective
is only found in D. Internal evidence favors the current reading.

5,17: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν µιᾷ των ἡµερων...


No variants in the introductory phrase. Afterwards, D5 has “αυτου διδασκοντος
συνελθειν τους Φαρισαιους και νοµοδιδασκαλους, ησαν δε συνεληλυθοτες."
There is no nominative noun in this phrase from D, and συνεληλυθοτας is
misspelled [pres act part nom mas sing]. Lack of external evidence and poor grammar
in D favors the current reading.

6,1: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν διὰ σπορίµων...


Variant εν σαββατω δευτεροπρωτω (δευτερω πρωτω 13), A C D K Γ Δ Θ Ψ 13
565. 700. 892. 1424 lat syh; Epiph. The meaning of δευτεροπρωτω is unclear, and this
variation does not appear until the fifth century. External evidence favors the current
reading.

6,6: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν καὶ διδάσκειν:
This has a reading influenced by a parallel passage, in manuscript D, which
replaces it entirely with Και εισελθοντος ('he entering', aor act part gen masc sing)
αυτου παλιν εις την συναγωγην σαββατω εν η ην ανθρωπος ξηραν εχων την χειρα.
[incorrect/nonsensical grammar: There should be a preposition or article in front of
σαββατω; there is no noun for which preposition to modify; the articles which follow
have no corresponding noun and the article η should be in the dative.]. Internal evidence
favors the current reading.

6,12: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ταύταις ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν...


No variants in the introductory phrase. Minor variations follow, but the current
reading is favored.

7,11: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς ἐπορεύθη πόλιν καλουµένην Ναιµ.


A few variants have ἐγένετο τῃ, or ἐγένετο ἐν τῃ. 7,11-17 has no parallel in
Matthew or Mark. Although those forms are found frequently in the LXX, they are not
found in the NT.

8,1: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς καὶ αὐτὸς διώδευεν...


No variants for the entire sentence.

8,22: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν µιᾷ των ἡµερων, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐνέβη εἰς πλοῖον...
No variants in the introductory phrase. Insignificant variants in the phrase which
follows allows for the current reading.

9,18: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν προσεθχόµενον...

1
D. TROBISCH, A User’s Guide Guide to the Nestle-Aland 28 Greek New Testament (Stuttgart, 2013), 63.

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No variants in the introductory phrase. Αὐτὸν was replaced with αὐτους in D;


προσεθχόµενον is missing in D a c e syc; συνηντησαν [aor act ind 3rd pl] was used
instead of συνῆσαν [imp act ind 3rd pl] in B* f; συνηχθησαν [aor pass ind 3rd pl] was
used instead of συνῆσαν in 1424; transposition of the words λέγουσιν οἱ ὄχλοι.

9,28: Ἐγένετο δὲ µετὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους ὡσεὶ ἡµέραι ὀκτὼ...


No variants in the introductory phrase. The apodotic καὶ is missing in 45vid
‫ *א‬B
579 it syp.h co., but is found in ‫א‬2 A C D K L P W Γ Δ Θ Ξ Ψ f1.13 565. 700. 892. 1241.
1424. 2542. l844 lat sys.c. boms
The apodotic καί is missing from important documents, but found in a wide
variety of others, therefore external evidence suggests its inclusion.

9,29: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ προσεύχεσθαι...


No variants in the introductory phrase. Minor variants following.

9,33: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι... No variants for entire sentence.

9,51: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ συµπληροῦσθαι...


No variants in the introductory phrase. Minor variant later on.

11,1: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐν...


No variants for the entire sentence.
11,27: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ λέγειν αὐτὸν ταῦτα ἐπάρασά...
No variants in the introductory phrase. Ταυτα was omitted in 75, and there is a
transposition of words in other documents.

14,1: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἐλθειν...


Some versions read εισελθειν, aor active inf. of εισερχοµαι, meaning ‘to enter’,
which stems from ερχοµαι, meaning ‘to come/go’; however, the infinitive verb was
never used by Luke with the καὶ ἐγένετο. Internal evidence therefore favors the current
reading.

17,11: Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴµ…


Many authors inserted αὐτόν after the infinitive verb (A D K N W Γ Δ Θ Ψ f1.13
565. 700. 892. 1241. 1424. 2542. ). The infinitive followed by an accusative pronoun
was often used by Luke (1,8; 2,6; 6,1.6.12, etc.), however, it is not necessary in this
case because the apodosis has the pronoun in the nominative. Internal evidence favors
the current reading.

17,14b: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ὑπάγειν αὐτοὺς ἐκαθαρίσθησαν.


No variants of this phrase.

17,26: καὶ καθὼς ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις Νῶε... No variants within the phrase.

17,28: ὁµοίως καθὼς ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις Λώτ: Many manuscripts have και ως (A D
K N W Γ Δ Θ ƒ1 565. 700. 892. 1424. 2542. syh; Irarm, lat vl). This appears merely to be
a scribal error; one can easily see the similarity between καθὼς and και ως. Και ως is

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redundant and grammatically incorrect. Internal and external evidence favor the current
reading.

18,35: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ ἐγγίζειν αὐτὸν εἰς Ἰεριχὼ...


No variants for entire sentence, except the last word, which does not affect this
present study.

20,1: Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν µιᾷ τῶν ἡµερῶν διδάσκοντος αὐτοῦ...


Some manuscripts added εκεινων (A C K N W Γ Δ Θ ƒ13 33. 565. 700. 892.
1424. syh). However, ἐν µιᾷ τῶν is never used in conjunction with εκεινων as this
would be grammatically incorrect – "in one of the those days", therefore internal
evidence favors the current reading.

24,4: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀπορεῖσθαι αὐτὰς...


Some variants have µνηµειον (tomb, monument [Matt 8:28]) for ἀπορεῖσθαι
(lost). Other variations don’t concern the initial phrase.

24,15: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ὁµιλεῖν και συζητεῖν αὐτοὺς...


No variants in the introductory phrase.

24,30: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ κατακλιθῆναι αὐτὸν...


No variants in the introductory phrase. Later in the sentence, some individual
words are missing from some manuscripts.
24,51: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εὐλογεῖν αὐτὸν...
No variants in the introductory phrase. ἀπέστη [‘withdraw', 'remove’, aor act ind
3rd sing] instead of διέστη ['set apart', 'separate', aor act ind 3rd sing] in D; καὶ ἀνεφέρετο
εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν missing in some manuscripts, and other minor variations.

III. Source Criticism

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The gospel of Luke is believed to be a compilation of a variety of sources; Luke


depended on Mark for much of his material,2 and what is found common to Luke and
Matthew (and not found in Mark) is considered to come from the source "Q".3 The parts
of the gospel that are unique to Luke are believed to come from a third source called
"L".4
Oral sources can also be considered. "Luke himself was also in personal contact
with eyewitnesses... during the years A.D. 57-9 when he was with Paul in Palestine...
[Acts 21-27]... In Jerusalem he was present at Paul's interview with James,"5 (Acts
21,18ff). Federico Giuntoli more recently mentioned that an oral tradition could exist
alongside 'literacy', and that the two were not necessarily incompatible. According to
Giuntoli, there was an oral tradition with Homer, leading to divergent texts, and oral
communication was in fact still important in the 4th century BC.6 He appeared to find
this relevant also to NT studies.
Luke's gospel contains a great many semitisms, which are considered unusual
additions since he is commonly believed to be Greek.7
Studied among the so-called semitisms in his gospel are the repeated use of the
phrases ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ and καὶ ἐγένετο. Added to these phrases within a narrative is
often found a temporal expression, ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις or equivalent.
This phrase ("in those days") can look forward to a future event, or it can look
back on an important event, depending on the context in which it is found. This is
demonstrated for example, in 17,26 where the synoptics have Jesus stating, "καὶ καθὼς
ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις Νῶε" (just as it was in the days of Noe), "οὕτως ἔσται καὶ ἐν
ταῖς ἡµέραις τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου" (so it will be in the days of the Son of Man). A
select group of Minor Prophets used ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις when writing of the future
2
This idea was first presented in 1838 by Christian Gottlob Wilke and Christian Hermann Weisse (Die
evangelische Geschichte, kritisch und philosophisch bearbeitet, Leipzig), and later supported by Heinrich
Holtzmann in 1863 (Die synoptischen Evangelien. Ihr Ursprung und geschichtlicher Charakter, Leipzig).
3
Holtzmann was also a leading proponent of the two source theory. In 1890, Johannes Weiss abbreviated
the name Quelle (“source”) to “Q”.
4
B. S. EASTON, “Linguistic Evidence for Lucan Source L”, JBL, Vol. 29 (1910), 139-180.
5
N. GELDENHUYS, Commentary on the Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids, MI, 1951), 23.
6
Stones, Tablets and Scrolls. Four Periods of the Formation of the Bible. Conference, Pontifical Biblical
Institute, May 11-13, 2017.
7
Some authors disagree, like J. M. GAULT, "The Discourse Function of Kai Egeneto in Luke and Acts",
Occasional Papers in Translation and Textlinguistics: OPTAT 4 (Dallas, TX, 1990), 388-399.
However, the author had the largest vocabulary of all the New Testament authors, along with Paul. A
larger vocabulary signifies more experience and knowledge of the language, therefore Greek. The author
was also able to change his writing style from a good Greek style to what is considered Hebrew syntax or
phrasing; this shows the authors' flexibility and creative ability.

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eschatological era, meaning the inauguration of the last stage of salvation. When used
by Luke, these phrases signal that the eschatological era has been realized and continues
to be lived out.
Luke appears to have recognized the eschatological nature of the ἡµέρα phrases
and used them most often in narratives introduced with particular ἐγένετο phrases. Did
he learn this literary technique from Mark or from listening to his companions, or from
the LXX?

A.) Mark and Matthew As A Source


In order to determine if Mark or Matthew was a source for Luke's use of the
ἐγένετο phrases, redaction criticism will be employed in this section.

i.) Mark
It is commonly believed that Luke copied from Mark on many occasions, but
Mark never used ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ, preferring καὶ ἐγένετο and that only on three
occasions: It was used once with the temporal expression "days" (1,9); once to
introduce a Sabbath day narrative (2,23); the third time it is found in the middle of a
parable (4,4). Although the use of repetitive καί is a Hebraism and a typical Marcan
trait, καὶ ἐγένετο is not.
The temporal expression (ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις) is used without an ἐγένετο
phrase only in chapter 8 and twice in the eschatological discourse of Jesus in chapter 13.
(1,9) Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ Ναζαρὲτ...
This is parallel to the hebraic structure "impersonal 'be' + setting phrase + finite
verb where the finite verb moves the narrative forward."8
Luke has instead a double introduction, both following the Greek form:
(1,5) Ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις Ἡρῴδου βασιλέως τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἱερεύς τις...
(1,8) Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν...
The first does not contain a conjunction, and the subject of ἐγένετο in verse 5 is
"a certain priest" (Greek nominative subject). The subject of ἐγένετο in verse 8 is the

8
R. BUTH, R. S. NOTLEY, eds., The Language Environment of First Century Judaea. Jerusalem Studies in
the Synoptic Gospels, Volume Two. Jewish and Christian Perspectives Series, Volume 26 (Leiden,
2014), 272.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

indefinite verb ἱερατεύειν (Greek syntaxed δέ, hebraic finite verb, Greek apodotic δέ,9
verse 11).
Mark's next use of an ἐγένετο phrase is in a narrative also recorded by Matthew
and Luke:
Mark 2,23 Matthew 12,1
Καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν Ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ ἐπορεύθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς
παραπορεύεσθαι διὰ τῶν σπορίµων, καὶ οἱ τοῖς σάββασιν διὰ τῶν σπορίµων: οἱ δὲ
µαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤρξαντο ὁδὸν ποιεῖν µαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἐπείνασαν, καὶ ἤρξαντο
τίλλοντες τοὺς στάχυας. τίλλειν στάχυας καὶ ἐσθίειν.
And it happened him, on the sabbath, to be going At that time Jesus went through the grainfield on
through the fields, and his disciples began to go the sabbaths; and his disciples were hungry and
forward plucking the heads of grain. began plucking heads of grain and to eat.
Luke 6,1
Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν διὰ σπορίµων, καὶ ἔτιλλον οἱ µαθηταὶ
αὐτοῦ καὶ ἤσθιον τοὺς στάχυας ψώχοντες ταῖς χερσίν.
And then on the sabbath he passed through the grainfield, and his disciples were plucking and eating the
heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands.

The use use of ἐγένετο + time element + accusative pronoun is only a "tolerable"
Greek structure, a setting phrase that was used by the LXX translators "which literally
represented the original."10 The original Hebrew construction used the "preposition ‫ְבּ‬
prefixed to an infinitive contruct",11 often with a pronoun suffix. The phrase then
deliberately recalls the Greek OT.
Luke copied Mark's version, but traded one Greek form for a LXX form.
Moulton wrote that Luke "deliberately recalled the Greek OT by using the phrase,"12
but so does Mark. If that is the case, then why bother to change Mark's text? Luke also
changed the plural σάββασιν to the singular σαββάτῳ without an article (Matthew kept
the plural form); Luke changed Mark's παραπορεύεσθαι13 to διαπορεύεσθαι,14 and in
doing so doubled the use of the preposition διά, making it clear that they were walking
through the grain fields, and not alongside them (Matthew used the easier aorist of
πορεύοµαι). Luke also eliminated the article for σπορίµων, chose the imperfect of τίλλω
instead of the participle, but then utilized the participle forms of 'pluck' and 'eat'. Note

9
F. C. BABBITT, A Grammar of Attic and Ionic Greek (New York, NY, 1902), §601.
10
J. H. Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament Greek, Vol. 1, “Prologomena” (Edinburgh, 19063), 16.
11
BUTH, NOTLEY, Language Environment, 325.
12
Moulton, A Grammar, Vol. 1, 16.
13
A word meaning 'to pass by', it was never used by Luke, but seen in Mark here and 9,30; 11,20 and
15,29, and used only once by Matthew in 27,39.
14
A word meaning 'to pass through', it was never used by Mark, but seen in Luke here and 13,22; 18,36;
Acts 16,4 and also found in Romans 15,24.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

that all of these changes allow the reader or listener to pass through the narrative more
quickly to his conclusion.
Mark may have been the source for the narrative story, but Luke edited it
independently and according to his own literary design.
Mark's last use of an ἐγένετο phrase is in chapter 4:

Mark 4,4
Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ σπείρειν ὃ µὲν ἔπεσεν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν,
καὶ ἦλθεν τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτό.
And while sowing, some fell beside the road, and the birds came and devoured it.
Luke 8,5 Matthew 13,4
καὶ ἐν τῷ σπείρειν αὐτὸν ὃ µὲν ἔπεσεν καὶ ἐν τῷ σπείρειν αὐτὸν ἃ µὲν ἔπεσεν
παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν,
καὶ κατεπατήθη καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ καὶ ἐλθόντα τὰ πετεινὰ κατέφαγεν αὐτά.
οὐρανοῦ κατέφαγεν αὐτό. And while he sowed it some fell beside the road,
And while he sowed some fell beside the road, and and birds coming devoured it.
it was trampled and the birds of heaven devoured
it.

Mark has a hebraic infinitive structure within a setting phrase,15 because the
phrase introduces the finite verb ἦλθεν. Luke and Matthew have eliminated ἐγένετο
from the phrase and they both added αὐτὸν. Matthew chose the aorist participle of
ἔρχοµαι over the aorist indicative of Mark; Luke eliminated that birds 'came' (that can
be deduced from the text) adding instead that they were birds 'of heaven'. Luke used the
pronoun ὃ16 instead of Matthew's ἃ for the first half of the sentence, and embellished the
second half, adding the more aggressive words 'trampled' and 'devoured'. Luke's
changes also created an onomatopoeia by adding an additional κατεπατήθη, which
repeates the hard sounding 'K' 'T' and 'P' – καὶ κατεπατήθη καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ ... κατέφαγεν
– imitating the noise of the falling and destruction of the seeds.
Again, it can be said that Luke copied Mark's text, but he edited it independently
and according to his own literary design.
Mark used a "days" expression outside of the ἐγένετο phrases only in 8,1, where
he introduced the narrative miracle of the multiplication of the loaves.

15
BUTH, NOTLEY, Language Environment, 268.
16
Luke used the ό relative pronoun much more often (over 300 times in his gospel), compared to the 5
times he used ά.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

Mark 8,1-2 Matthew 15,32


Ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις πάλιν πολλοῦ Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς προσκαλεσάµενος τοὺς
ὄχλου ὄντος καὶ µὴ ἐχόντων τί φάγωσιν, µαθητὰς αὐτοῦ εἶπεν· σπλαγχνίζοµαι ἐπὶ
προσκαλεσάµενος τοὺς µαθητὰς λέγει τὸν ὄχλον, ὅτι 1ἤδη ἡµέραι τρεῖς
αὐτοῖς· 2 σπλαγχνίζοµαι ἐπὶ τὸν ὄχλον, ὅτι προσµένουσίν µοι καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν τί
ἤδη ἡµέραι τρεῖς προσµένουσίν µοι καὶ οὐκ φάγωσιν·
ἔχουσιν τί φάγωσιν·
The narrative isn't recorded by Luke and Matthew didn't copy the phrase. Mark
may have been attempting to make a special distinction with Ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις,
but the distinction is not very strong.
The other two uses of a "days" expression are found within the eschatological
discourse. All synoptic authors have precisely the same wording, with one small
exception by Luke, who eliminated the conjunction δέ at the beginning of the phrase.
Mark 13,17 Matthew 24,19
οὐαὶ δὲ ταῖς ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσαις καὶ ταῖς οὐαὶ δὲ ταῖς ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσαις καὶ ταῖς
θηλαζούσαις ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις. θηλαζούσαις ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις.
Luke 21,23
οὐαὶ ταῖς ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσαις καὶ ταῖς θηλαζούσαις ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις·

For the second "days" phrase, Matthew found little interest in copying Mark's
dative composition, choosing instead a genitive construction. Other than those slight
differences, the two are very similar.
Mark 13,24 Matthew 24,29
Ἀλλὰ ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις µετὰ τὴν Εὐθέως δὲ µετὰ τὴν θλῖψιν τῶν ἡµερῶν
θλῖψιν ἐκείνην ὁ ἥλιος σκοτισθήσεται, καὶ ἐκείνων ὁ ἥλιος σκοτισθήσεται, καὶ ἡ
ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φέγγος αὐτῆς, σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φέγγος αὐτῆς,
But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall And immediately after the tribulation of those
be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light. days, the sun shall be darkened and the moon
shall not give her light,
Luke 21,25
Καὶ ἔσονται σηµεῖα ἐν ἡλίῳ καὶ σελήνῃ καὶ ἄστροις, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς συνοχὴ ἐθνῶν ἐν
ἀπορίᾳ ἤχους θαλάσσης καὶ σάλου,
And there will be signs in the sun and in the moon, and in the stars. And on earth distress of nations, in
the confusing noise of the sea and waves,

Luke's rendition is different; he retained the words σηµεῖον and 'desolation'


(ἐρήµωσις) but didn't use the 'days' form within his narrative. One should question why,
when this is an 'eschatological discourse'.
It is believed that Luke's gospel was written after the the destruction of
Jerusalem because Luke eliminated "abomination of desolation" (Matt 24,15; Mk
13,14) and wrote instead "when you see Jerusalem surrounded by an army ..." (21,20).
This very specific "surrounded by an army" on its own would certainly suggest a post

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

70 dating, except that Luke eliminated that phrase for another reason; his change
removes the negative prophecy from the book of Daniel that the other authors were
clearly referencing.
Luke is writing a restorative eschatology, just as the book of Daniel is seen as
presenting a restoration Apocalypse. Luke used the book of Daniel (as well as other
prophetic books) to establish Jesus as the object of those prophetic texts. Luke was not
subtle in his use of the book of Daniel; the Angel Gabriel only appears in Daniel; a 'son
of man' who has ἐξουσία is only found in Daniel, 7 (Luke, chapter 5), and Luke 24,37
has the hapax θεωρεῖν, only used in Psalms and Daniel (8,15). The changes made in the
present narrative have nothing to do with pre- or post- destruction of Jerusalem; it
appears that Luke rewrote the sentance to avoid a Danielic reference to punishments and
not restoration.

ii.) Matthew
Matthew never used ἐγένετο δὲ, whereas Luke used it on twelve occasions with
the temporal expression (ἐν).
Matthew didn't utilize καὶ ἐγένετο until well into his gospel. It was used on five
occasions with the same formula, Καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ... (with an aorist),
where they served transitional purposes (7,28; 11,1; 13,53; 19,1; 26,1).
Outside of those formulaic expressions, there is Matthew 9,10, Καὶ ἐγένετο
αὐτοῦ ἀνακειµένου ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ. All the phrases use the same impersonal ἐγένετο setting
to introduce a finite verb (Hebrew structure). Luke copied none of these.
Matthew used ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις only once in his gospel, outside of the apocalyptic
narrative in chapter 23. He used the phrase not in the introduction to his gospel or the
birth of Jesus, but in introducing John the Baptist (3,1), Ἐν δὲ ταῖς ἡµέραις ἐκείναις
παραγίνεται Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστὴς κηρύσσων ἐν τῇ ἐρήµῳ τῆς Ἰουδαίας... The wording
is unique to Matthew and introduces a finite verb. Perhaps Matthew was trying to draw
more attention to the event with the use of the phrase.
Luke by comparison, used an ἐγένετο phrase with a direct object of the temporal
expression six times. It was used in the introduction (1,5) and also to note the
circumcision of John the Baptist (1,59). It appears again at the beginning of chapter 2,
when Joseph and Mary were compelled to go to Bethlehem. In 5,17 it introduced a
miracle story and in 6,12, it introduces a narrative which closes with Jesus choosing the

17
The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

apostles. It was used one last time in 8,22 to introduce the narrative of Jesus having
power over nature.
Luke further used a "days" expression not directly attached to an ἐγένετο phrase
on nine other occasions within a narrative (1,7; 1,18; 1,23; 1,24; 1,39; 1,59; 9,36; 21,23;
23,7). Most of these "exception days" expressions are placed within narratives
introduced or continued with an ἐγένετο phrase, and all of these narratives are
eschatological or soteriological. One would be justified in eliminating verse 21,23 as it
is isolated and placed within the eschatological discourse (which was already addressed
briefly) as well as 23,7 (Herod happened to be in town 'in those days'), but this still
leaves seven usages by Luke, compared to Matthew and Mark.
Can this overuse in Luke (the phrase was not used in John, Acts or any of the
letters) be accounted for by the use of 'other sources'? No NT author outside of Matthew
and Mark used ἐγένετο with the direct object of the temporal expression, even though
all the authors were living within the same period of history when the apocalyptic genre
was popular. The phrase 'in those days' marks Luke's usage as unique to that author.

B.) The LXX As A Source


Several attempts have been made by scholars to determine the source of the
phrases. Many believe that Luke consciously adopted these semitisms in imitation of
the LXX style.

i.) G. Dalman was the first of the more recent (1898) theologians who attempted to
explain the source of the semitisms in the Synoptic gospels. The Greek verb ἐγένετο is
the aorist, middle, indicative, third person singular of the verb γίνοµαι, which means "to
become", "to be". He recognized that ἐγένετο δὲ and καὶ ἐγένετο came from the Hebrew
‫ ַו ֶ ֑יּהִי‬, and that there was no Aramaic equivalent.17 To clarify Dalman's work we can add
the research of two other, more recent authors on this subject. The Aramaic Targums
adopted the phrase ‫ ַו ֶ ֑יּהִי‬and the new Hebrew reduced it because of the Aramaic
influence.18 Since the Scriptures are mainly a narrative of past events, the Hebrew was
often written in a narrative past-tense sequence using ‫ ַו ֶ ֑יּהִי‬, "a special form of the

17
G. DALMAN, trans., D. M. KAY, The Words of Jesus (Edinburgh, 1902), 32.
18
K. BEYER, Semitische Syntax im Neuentestament, Band 1 (Gottingen, 1962), 30. "...im jüngeren
Hebräisch geht es unter aramäischem Einfluß zurück...".

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

conjunction, waw + doubling" of the first letter, "joining the verbs in the sequence."19
The entire phrase is translated either Ἐγένετο δὲ or καὶ ἐγένετο. The καὶ ἐγένετο syntax
is not correct in Greek; the rendering of ‫ ו‬with καί in this case produces a faulty Greek
construction, and the choice between καί or its omission "is not indifferent",20 but based
on that particular translator's preference for keeping the Hebrew syntax, or not.
Ἐγένετο δὲ is the koine Greek syntax of ‫ – ַו ֶ ֑יּהִי‬but δέ is post-positive, and
therefore changes the original Hebrew syntax to favor the Greek. When the faulty Greek
is avoided, this means that "the translator saw the problem and wanted to avoid a
grammatically unacceptable expression."21 Δέ is far more common in genuine Greek
texts, but is sparingly used in the LXX.
Luke however, used the phrases where Dalman didn't expect to find them
(throughout both the gospel and Acts, not just in the initial chapters, and in the "We
sections" of Acts), and Luke didn't use them where Dalman expected to find them (the
discourses of Jesus). Dalman was against the idea of a Hebrew original in the works of
Luke,22 and many scholars23 after him agreed.

ii.) Martin Johannessohn in 1926 wrote an extensive analysis of these phrases in both
the LXX and in Luke.24 Johannessohn wanted to show how much the language of the
New Testament owed to the LXX and researched the hebraic background of these
phrases. He recorded detailed observations of all the variations in language that came
after the various ἐγένετο phrases that he found, investigating far outside the
grammatical needs of this present study. Johannessohn noted that although both the
LXX and Luke repeatedly used phrases that contained the word ἐγένετο, Luke phrased

19
T. O. LAMBDIN, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew (New York, NY, 1971), 107.
20
A. AEJMELAEUS, On the Trail of the Septuagint Translators: Collected Essays (Leuven, 2007), 50.
21
AEJMELAEUS, On the Trail, 50.
22
DALMAN, The Words of Jesus, 30-32.
23
1. J. C. HAWKINS, Horae Synapticae (Oxford, 1909), 15-23; 198-207.
2. H. F. D. SPARKS, ‘The Semitisms in St. Luke’s Gospel’, JTS 44 (1943), 129-38. Sparks wrote that
there are five LXX influences on Luke: (1) OT quotations usually in LXX form; (2) OT names usually
with LXX spelling; (3) characteristic vocabulary and (4) key phrases adopted from the LXX, and (5)
Luke’s changing of Mark to conform to LXX language.
3. J. A. FITZMYER, The Gospel According to Luke I-IX (New York, NY, 1981), 107-127.
24
M. JOHANNESSOHN, "Das biblische καὶ ϵ͗γένετο und seine Geschichte." Zeitschrift für Vergleichende
Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der Indogermanischen Sprachen, 53(3/4) (Gottingen, 1926), 161-212.

19
The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

his narratives differently than what was done in the LXX, preferring the use of infinitive
clauses over conditional clauses.25
Johannessohn discovered a necessary detail: Luke was not 'copying' the LXX
per se.

iii.) H. Thackeray recognized three distinctive constructions in the NT:


a. either καὶ ἐγένετο or ἐγένετο δὲ + finite verb;
b. either καὶ ἐγένετο or ἐγένετο δὲ + καί + finite verb;
c. either καὶ ἐγένετο or ἐγένετο δὲ + infinite main verb.26
The LXX (with one exception) used only the first two forms. Luke in the Gospel
wrote a. twice as often as b. and b. twice as often as c. Thackeray also noted that the b.
construction is found in the later historical books, which followed the Hebrew slavishly
and that Genesis/Exodus and the prophetic books preferred a. Thackeray naturally
focused on where the phrases were used in the majority, and paid less attention to the
later prophetic books.

iv.) A. Plummer created categories on Luke's use of ἐγένετο and based on the
constructions that followed, ended with four basic groups. 27 Examples from these
categories includes:
a. The ἐγένετο and that which came to pass are placed side by side as parallel
statements in the indicative mood [finite verb] without conjunction:28
1,8: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν... (v. 9) ἔλαχε τοῦ θυµιᾶσαι...
1,23: καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡµέραι τῆς λειτουργίας αὐτοῦ ἀπῆλθεν...
2,1: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ἐκείναις ἐξῆλθεν δόγµα...
b. The ἐγένετο and that which came to pass are coupled together by καὶ:29
5,1: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ τὸν ὄχλον ἐπικεῖσθαι αὐτῷ... καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ἑστὼς...
5,17: Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν µιᾷ τῶν ἡµερῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διδάσκων...
8,1: Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς καὶ αὐτὸς διώδευεν...

25
JOHANNESSOHN, "Das biblische...", 199.
26
H. THACKERAY, Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek, According to the Septuagint, Vol. 1
(Cambridge, 1909), 50.
27
PLUMMER, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Luke, (Edinburgh,
19607), 45. The last of these four basic groups in Plummer (δ) is Luke's arrangement in Acts, which is not
a part of the current study.
28
PLUMMER, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary, 45. α. ἐγένετο (with either conjunction), but without
a secondary καί, and the following verb in the indicative mood ("Indicative mood, no conjunction").
29
PLUMMER, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary, 45. β. ἐγένετο (with either conjunction), followed
by καί as a 1) unifier, 2) epexegetic "It came to pass namely"; or 3) introducing the apodosis element, "It
came to pass that", as found in classical Greek.

20
The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

c. Ἐγένετο δὲ + infinitive (object of ἐγένετο)


3,21: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ βαπτισθῆναι ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν... ἀνεῳχθῆναι τὸν
οὐρανὸν.
6,1: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν διὰ σπορίµων,
6,6: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτὸν
6,12: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ταύταις ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ ὄρος
6,22: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἀποθανεῖν τὸν πτωχὸν.

According to Plummer, of the two "Hebraistic" types, the first category is


common in the first two chapters of the gospel, and is not found in Acts. The third
category he considered "more classical" (i.e., Greek) and is found more in Acts than in
the Gospel, which he assumed was to be expected.
Plummer made an important distinction, in that the "Hebraistic" category i. is
not found in Acts. This observation was ignored by Dalman, Turner and Fitzmyer.30
Both Thackeray and Plummer overlooked the necessity of the temporal
expression (ἐν, ὡς), a construction that will be of importance when determing the
possible intentions of Luke in the Gospel.

v.) L. J. Delebecque also classified his phrases, and also agreed to three components
(the verb ἐγένετο, followed or preceded by δέ or καί, and a third element),31 but he
further recognized the temporal expression. He did not see the distinction between the
use of δέ or καί (they are both conjunctions that predominately signify "and"). His
classifications are:
a. Ἐγένετο δὲ, a temporal expression introduced by ἐν and a present infinitive or
aorist. The infinitive can be α) completive, β) controlled by ἐγένετο, or γ) as a
subject of that verb. There are only four phrases considered Hellenistic by
Delebeque which qualify here:
1.) 3,21: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ βαπτισθῆναι ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν... ἀνεῳχθῆναι τὸν
οὐρανὸν.
2.) 6,1: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν...
3.) 6,6: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτὸν...
4.) 6,12: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ταύταις ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν...

30
BUTH, NOTLEY, Language Environment, 311-312.
31
E. DELEBECQUE, Études grecques sur l'Évangile de Luc (Paris, 1976).124-128.
Delebeque also recommends excluding 8,40 and 10,38, as most editors during his time excluded it.
"Dans Luc, si l'on exclut, avec les plus récents éditeurs, ... que ne donnent pas tous les manuscrits ...",
127.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

b. Ἐγένετο with δέ or καί, and a temporal expression (nominal or verbal),


followed by a second verb "juxtaposed" sometimes with another nominative
subject. Examples of this include ἐν τῷ + infinitive or 'day'. There is also the
preposition + µετά, a genitive absolute and ὡς followed by an indicative
aorist. Delebecque allowed for several variations. His examples of this type
of formula includes:
1.) µετά followed by a number of days, once (2,46);
2.) a genitive absolute, 11,14 ἐγένετο δὲ τοῦ δαιµονίου ἐξελθόντος and
probably 20,1 (ἐν µιᾷ τῶν ἡµερῶν);
3.) four times a temporal introduced by ὡς;
4.) four times followed by the dative of a name;
5.) nine times ἐν τῷ + infinitive, seen in formula A, and the infintive is
always present except 24,3 where Luke has an aorist.

c. The καί in first position, in imitation of the LXX translation of the Hebrew ‫ו‬.
His examples are
2,21: Καὶ ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν ἡµέραι... καὶ ἐκλήθη
2,27-28: καὶ ἐν τῷ εἰσαγαγεῖν... καὶ αὐτὸς ἐδέξατο...
Acts 1,10: καὶ ὡς ἀτενίζοντες ἦσαν... καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο
παρειστήκεισαν...
Delebecque included the temporal expression and also recognized that µετά and
ὡς are time elements that also introduced the temporal expression. All three of these
authors cited were heavily preoccupied with the grammar of the second verb.

From this research it can be concluded that all the synoptic authors were familiar
with the ἐγένετο phrases; Luke is distinct in his use which shows a strong influence
from the LXX, but he was not copying; his ἐγένετο phrases are unique structures and
although look back to the LXX usage, they also reflect a Greek author.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

V. Form Criticism
A narrative that begins with the formula ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν + articulated infinitive
always introduces an event that identifies a divine intervention that leads to a revelation
of Jesus as the Christ (Messiah) or Son of God. As part of the introduction to a
particular narrative, these phrases appear where a messianic, eschatological or
soteriological revelation will be revealed. Form-critically, the gospel as a whole is a
series of narratives that provide a setting for not only revealing that Jesus is the long-
awaited Messiah, but also demonstrating that Jesus is the Son of God. As such, when
these specially noted narratives include a direct object of the temporal expression, i.e.,
"in those days" or similar, they serve to demonstrate the fulfilment of a previous
eschatological or soteriological hope. Secondary aims within a particular narrative may
also be present ("miracle story"). This type of writing is a historical narrative with
theological undertones. The theology represented in all occasions is a Christology, and
the Sitz im Leben is always the life of Jesus.

VI. Redaction Criticism


Luke divided his gospel into four separate literary units, beginning with an
introduction (Luke 1,1 – 4,13).
Luke 4,14 – 9,50 takes place in northern Palestine, in the area of Nazareth and
Galilee after the temptation in the desert (4,1-13) and ends not long after the
Transfiguration (the closing section – 9,51, "And when the days were drawing near"
looks to the ἀνάληµψις "receiving" or "taking up" of Jesus). Chapter 9 ends the initial
stages of the ministry of Jesus, where the narratives arranged by Luke had been ordered
in increments that gradually reveal the divinity of Jesus. After this section, the location
changes to the travel to Jerusalem. This is the third phase in this account of Luke of the
historical life of Jesus. Jesus' negative prophesies32 begin with chapter 11, and it is not
until chapter 24 that we get the final phase, the death and resurrection of Jesus.

32
“This generation is a wicked generation; it asks a sign and a sign will not be given it, but Jonas the
prophet.”

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

VII. Narrative and Semiotic Criticism


The gospel is written on two distinct levels; one in which the reader is privy to
background information that would not have been available to immediate witnesses
during the public ministry of Jesus (the 'Infancy Narratives', for example). The second
written level is the written record of the witnesses who encountered the public ministry
of Jesus.
The phrases in question are used during the first level, the narrative sections and
literary additions to certain historical events. Although Luke is known to have copied
from other sources, the appearance of these non-Greek modes of expression have been
the subject of many studies throughout the years.
These polyvalent phrases recall not only OT texts such as Genesis and Exodus,
but also a select group of prophets such as Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel, who
used the phrase "in those days" to refer to future eschatological events. Luke used these
same phrases in his gospel to refer back to events in the life of Jesus in order to alert his
present reader that what took place in the life of Jesus was related to the eschatological
prophecies found in these OT texts.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

Part 2, LXX and Gospel Comparison

I. The LXX Use of the Ἐγένετο Phrases


The phrases utilized by Luke that are also found in the LXX33 are delimited here
and graphically displayed on the following page. Dative constructions are also noted,
although not used by Luke.
1.) Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν followed by a temporal expression:
– Gen. 26,32; 24,25; 39,11; 40,20; Ex. 2,11; 16,22; 16;27; 19,16.
2.) Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν followed by a temporal expression:
– Ex. 12,51; Num. 7,1; Judg. 14,15; 19,1*2; 21,4; 1 Sam. 3,2; 2 Sam. 12,18;
Is. 7,1; Jer. 1,3.
3.) Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν + articulated infinitive:
– Gen. 24,52; 35,18; 38,28; 42,35.
4.) Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν + dative phrase:
– Gen. 14,1; 35,17;34 21,22; 26,32; 30,41; 34,25; 38,1; 40,20; Ex. 4,24;
16,27; 19,16; Ruth 3,8; Is. 38,1.

5.) Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν + articulated infinitive:


– Gen. 11,2; 19,29; Num. 10,34; 17,7; Josh. 15,18; Judg. 1,14; 13,20; 14,11;
16,14; Ruth 1,1; 1 Sam. 23,6; 2 Sam. 1,2; 3,6; 4,4; 15,5; 1 Kings 8,1;
11,15; 18,4; 2 Kings 2,1; 2,9; 1 Chron. 15,26; 2 Chron. 5,11; 12,11; 13,15;
16,5; 25,16; Neh. 1,4; Is. 37,1; Ez. 9,8; 10,6; 11,13; 37,7; Dan. 3,91; 8,15.
6.) Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν + dative phrase:
– Gen. 8,13; 14,1; 35,17; 21,22; 26,32: 34,25; 40,20; Ex. 12,51; 40,17; Num.
10,11; Judg. 14,15; Ruth 3,8; 2 Sam. 12,18; 1 Kings 14,25; 18,44; 2 Kings
18,9; 1 Chron. 17,3; 20,1; 2 Chron. 12,2; 16,5; 25,16; Neh. 1,4; Is. 37,1;
Jer. 35,1; 46,1; 52,4 and 31; Ez. 1,1; 3,3; 8,1; 20,1; 29,17; 30,20; 31,1;
32,1; 40,1; Zech. 7,1.

33
A. RAHLFS, ed., LXX Septuaginta, Württembergische Bibelanstalt/Deutsche Bibelgesell-schaft
(Stuttgart, 1935).
34
This sentence has an accusative following the dative ἐν, followed by a finite verb phrase.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

A.) Graphical Distribution of the Phrases


The following chart illustrates the distribution of the ἐγένετο phrases outlined
above.

It was noted previously that Thackeray placed more interest in those books with
the largest number of phrases, and none of these authors saw a relation between these
phrases and the "days" phase.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

These grammatical parts form a literary composition, and in dealing with a


literary composition, one should not look for only quantity or grammatical repetition,
but also the quality or hermeneutic. What message were those translators trying to
communicate with their ἐγένετο translations? Who followed more faithfully to the
Hebrew syntax and who adapted the text to Greek standards? If Luke used the LXX for
a model, were there any books that might have been of interest to Luke? The Greek
translator of Exodus was the most careful of all in wanting to produce a non faulty
Greek edition.35 He is the only author of the entire LXX to use the precise phrase,
Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις. The author of 2 Chronicles used predominantly the
καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν + articulated infinitive, but in all the historical books, these phrases were
used to look back on past events.

B.) The "Days" Expression


In the prophets there are many occasions where a "days" expression introduce
future eschatological or messianic prophesies. "In those days" (Jer. 3,16, ‫ ָה ֵהמָּה ַבּיָּמִים‬, ἐν
ταῖς ἡµέραις ἐκείναις and "in that day" (Jer. 4,9, ‫בַיּוֹם–הַהוּא‬, ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡµέρᾳ), often
combined with "in that time" (Jer. 4,11, ‫ ָבּעֵת ַההִיא‬, ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ [ἐροῦσιν]), refer
to "God's act of judgment upon Israel, specifically upon their leaders, priests and
prophets.36 The notion of time was interchangeable with day,37 and also very frequently
the word "hour" was also used within the communication of an "end-time period in
which God will execute his judgment...", that will vindicate his people and lead to "their
resurrection to eternal life."38 These temporal expressions are used consistently when
introducing the content of an eschatological prophecy.
"In several passages it is clearly an eschatological formula; and the later
prophetic tradition tended more and more to take it in the absolute and specific sense, as

35
AEJMELAEUS, On the Trail, 50.
36
S. MIHALIOS, The Danielic Eschatological Hour in the Johannine Literature, LNTS 436 (London,
2011), 23-24.
37
30,3 (“the days come”), 30,7 (“time of tribulation”), 30,8 (“in that day”). Also, Zeph. 1,12 (‫) ָבּעֵת ְו ָהי ָה‬
and 1,15 (‫)הַהוּא הַיּוֹם‬. “The eschatological nature of the “day” references in Zephaniah is confirmed by (1)
other eschatological descriptions of this day in the rest of the book… (2) the final and universal nature of
Israel’s restoriation (3.29); and (3) the radical transformation that these promises introduce, a
transformation that differs from reality as it is known." MIHALIOS, The Danielic Eschatological Hour,
21F.
38
MIHALIOS, The Danielic Eschatological Hour, 30.

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referring to dies ilia ..."39 Even when the prophetic authors used cosmic phrases that
would label their work as "apocalyptic", the theology is still centered on an eschatology.
Luke's gospel is known for its eschatological content; in combining the ἐγένετο
phrases with these temporal expressions, it appears that Luke created a unique
eschatological formula. He used a "days" expression within the context of an (καί/δέ)
ἐγένετο phrase on at least fifteen occasions. This is extraordinary.

C.) Luke and His Use/Modification of LXX Phrases


Research into Luke's use of the various Hebraisms has often been mixed with
other linguistic phenomena that are also admittedly interesting (and helpful for the
overall study of the language), but have often distracted researchers from focusing
solely on the purpose of the ἐγένετο phrases under investigation here. Studies in the
1940's and '50's determined that the only Hebraism distinct and frequent enough was the
"apodotic καί".40 It is used in Luke securely 17 times.41
Luke selectively utilized the apodotic καὶ; he also selectively used the ἐγένετο
phrases as well as the infinitive construction.42 He did not merely copy words and
phrases but organized and framed them according to his own hermeneutical design,
placing these phrases in the parts of his narrative where he wanted to draw more
attention from his Jewish listener. Not only do these phrases have an formal structure
(they become predictable), there is a hierarchy in their use; phrases that contain the
direct object of the temporal express, ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις or equivilent, seem to recall
prophetic events of the LXX and therefore in the gospel of Luke will signify a most
important event. Furthermore, the placement of the phrases ἐγένετο δὲ/καὶ ἐγένετο is
also not random. Luke as a Greek author will prefer the Greek form, ἐγένετο δὲ;
however, καὶ ἐγένετο will be used more frequently.
Luke's gospel spoke to the Jewish listener in a special way, using certain
nuances that they would understand; he expressed them in a manner similar to the LXX,
yet he is not trying to give his gospel a 'biblical tone'; he is simply using the LXX

39
S. MOWINCKEL, trans. G. W. ANDERSON, He That Commeth. The Messiah Concept in the Old
Testament & Later Judaism (Grand Rapids, MI, 2005), 147f.
40
W. MOST, “Did St. Luke Imitate the Septuagint?”, JSNT 15 (1982), 30-41.
41
2,21; 2,27; 5,1; 5,12; 5,17; 7,12; 8,1; 8,22; 9,28; 9,51; 13,25; 14,1; 17,11; 19,1; 19,15; 24,4; 24,15.
42
JOHANNESSOHN, "Das biblische...", 199.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

language as a means of communicating his eschatological message, and for this, he does
not need to know Hebrew.

II. A New Approach to the Formal Structure of the Ἐγένετο Phrases


in the Gospel of Luke
The phrases under examination have a literary function which has only recently
been recognized; Levinsohn for example, noted that particular phrases suggested that
certain episodes were related thematically.43 Certain phrases announce a narrative, other
phrases support the continuation of a longer narrative, and other phrases serve to close a
narrative.
A.) Formal Content – 'Strong' vs 'Weak' Phrases
The most important or strongest of the ἐγένετο phrases are those with the
direct object of the time element, a "days" expression. These announce an
important Messianic revelation, and in "later Judaism the term 'Messiah' denotes
an eschatological figure."44 'Weak' phrases are subordinate to these and serve to
carry a longer narrative forward or chain smaller narratives together in order to
show a relation between them. Kαὶ ἐγένετο serves the same grammatical
function as ἐγένετο δὲ, but there is a syntactical difference. It is evident from the
text of the Gospel that ἐγένετο δὲ begins a narrative and καὶ ἐγένετο continues
the narrative with additional details; therefore, the Greek syntax has priority for
Luke. The syntactical difference is a compositional choice, as has already been
suggested from Luke's change of the Markan text (2,23).
B.) Discountable Random Occurances – Isolated Phrases
The word ἐγένετο on its own without a formal criteria is meaningless.45
Therefore, a single placement of the word ἐγένετο is not a part of Luke's unique
composition. Occasions where ἐγένετο is used in the middle of a sentence can be
considered a normal use of the word. Therefore, the following verses will not be
included in this study: 1,44; 2,2.13.42; 3,2; 4,25; 6,13.16.49; 8,24; 9,34.35;
10,21; 11,14.30; 13,19; 15,14; 19,9.15.29; 22,14.24.44.66; 23,44; 24,19.21.31.

43
S. H. LEVINSOHN, Discourse Features of New Testament Greek: A Coursebook on the Information
Structure of New Testament Greek (Dallas, 2000), 179.
44
MOWINCKEL, He That Cometh, 3.
45
F. BLASS, A. DEBRUNNER, R. FUNK, trans. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early
Christian Literature (Cambridge, 1961), 472.

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From these observations, the following offers a new approach to understanding


the ἐγένετο phrases in the Gospel of Luke.

III. Categorization of the Ἐγένετο Phrases


A.) Ἐγένετο δὲ Followed by a Temporal Expression
Ἐγένετο + δέ (post-positive conjunction) + ἐν (time element) + ταῖς ἡµέραις
(direct object of the time element) or τῶν ἡµερῶν (indirect object). This
temporal expression is first used in 1,5 without the conjunction; it is thereafter
modified with an adjective or pronoun; ἐκείναις (2,1), ταύταις (6,12), µιᾷ τῶν
(8,22) or a number (9,28). In this last instance, the time element is not ἐν, but
µετὰ.
The Greek introduction (post-positive δέ) is a normal koine Greek syndetic
composition, and when joined with the direct (or indirect) object of the time
element (i.e., not a verb), it marks a very specific point in the narrative. The "use
of the preposition ἐν in LXX Greek ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ἐκείναις to designate a
singular occurrence in the past rather than a timespan would be exceptional for
κοινή Greek.” This is “a lexical calque on a biblical Hebraism in LXX Greek, in
view of relative frequency and aspects of signification.”46
In the LXX, this precise wording is used only in Exodus 2,11 at the
beginning of the history of Moses. Here, it marked the beginning of a new
eschatological intervention by God, the the promise made to Abraham will be
fulfilled in the covenant of Moses.
As mentioned previously, Jeremiah also used ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις εκείναις, often
with an messianic message.47 Hermeneutically, all of the ἡµέρα phrases can be
understood as having the same implication, and for Jeremiah, "Ezekiel, and
Second Isaiah, more than for the eighth century prophets, the future is to have
important discontinuities with the past.”48
In Luke's gospel, ἡµέρα with the preposition ἐν introduced God's
intervention in human history, an eschatological or soteriological revelation

46
A. HOGETERP, A. DENAUX, Semitisms in Luke’s Greek: A Descriptive Analysis of Lexical and
Syntactical Domains of Semitic Language Influence in Luke’s Gospel (Tübingen, 2018), 186.
47
3,16.18; 5,18; 31,29 (LXX 38,29); 33,15,16 (not in LXX); 50,4.20.
48
LUNDBOM, Jeremiah 1-20: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (New York, NY,
1999), 314-315.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

which also, by necessity, includes a Christological identification, as the


revelations ultimately regard Jesus the Messiah, the principle of the
eschatological event. Ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις (or equivalent) is a messianic phrase,
meaning "the day of the Lord," 49 and with this understanding, the ἐγένετο
phrases coupled with the messianic ἡµέρα clause state that a messianic and
therefore also an eschatological moment has arrived.
Besides the use of ἡµέρα as the direct object of the time element, σάββατον
may also be included in this category, since σάββατον is a proper form of ἡµέρα.
The temporal phrase will be grammatically altered in these cases because the
phrase is missing the article which syntactically would not be correct with
σάββατον. The phrases are still temporal, retain the formal elements of the
ἐγένετο phrase, and therefore, verses 6,1 (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ
διαπορεύεσθαι...) and 6,6 (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ εἰσελθεῖν...) can be
included in this study.

B.) Καὶ ἐγένετο Followed by a Temporal Expression


Καὶ ἐγένετο + ἐν (time element) + τῇ/ταῖς ἡµέρᾳ/ἡµέραις (direct object of
the time element) or τῶν ἡµερῶν (indirect object). Instead of utilizing the post-
positive coordinating conjunction (δέ), Luke used the Hebrew syntaxed καί. This
temporal expression is first found in Ex. 12,51: Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ ἡµέρᾳ ἐκείνη,
"the Lord brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt, the land of
bondage." This needs to be noted: The first time a Greek syntaxed ἐγένετο
phrase is used with a qualified "days" expression is in Exodus 2,11; the next
time an ἐγένετο + "days" phrase is used is in 12,51, at the end of that same
salvific and eschatological narrative.
The fulfillment of the promise to Abraham through Moses opened up a new
hope for a further fulfillment: Luke records Jesus inviting the children of Israel
out of the bondage of the Old Law.50

49
“It is not a reference to the days of the infancy narrative or of Jesus’ childhood, but is an eschatological
expression indicating the time chosen by God (Jer. 33,15; Joel 4,1).” R. E. BROWN, The Birth of the
Messiah. A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke (New York, NY,
1993), 49f.
50
Luke 16,16, "The law and the prophets were until John; from that time the kingdom of God is
preached..."

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

However, it is not contended here that with every ἐγένετο phrase in his
gospel Luke intends to direct his readers to a specific LXX passage. Luke's
gospel reminds one of the past, but looks towards the future, and he has a
tendency to use these phrases when introducing a major messianic,
eschatological or soteriological narrative in his gospel.
Verses that fall under this category are
1,59 – Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ ἡµέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ ἦλθον περιτεµεῖν...
5,17 – Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν µιᾷ τῶν ἡµερῶν...
20,1 – Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν µιᾷ τῶν ἡµερῶν....

C.) Καὶ ἐγένετο Followed by a Modified Temporal Expression


i. Καὶ ἐγένετο + Non Specific Time Element + ἡµέρα.
Using the Hebrew syntaxed καί, a little creative liberty is permitted in
this category with the variable use of µετά or ὡς. The liberty is justified
because ἡµέρα is the object of those time elements. It should also be noted
that these modifiers are never used when Luke utilized the ἐγένετο with the
post-postive conjunction.
1,23 – Καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡµέραι τῆς λειτουργίας αὐτοῦ...
2,46 – Καὶ ἐγένετο µετὰ ἡµέρας τρεῖς...

ii. 'Orphan' ἡµέρα Phrases


These phrases are not directly connected to a qualifying ἐγένετο
introduction, but the phrases are found within qualifying narratives and
appear out of place, not necessary or just overtly redundant within the
narrative. Their use is therefore suspected as being part of the compositional
pattern controlled by the author of the Gospel. The majority of these are
found in the first chapter: 1,7 προβεβηκότες ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις αὐτῶν ἦσαν;
1,18 προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις αὐτῆς; 1,24 Μετὰ δὲ ταύτας τὰς ἡµέρας
συνέλαβεν Ἐλισάβετ, and 1,39 Ἀναστᾶσα δὲ Μαριὰµ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις
ταύταις. Also 9,36 ...καὶ οὐδενὶ ἀπήγγειλαν ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις οὐδὲν.

D.) Ἐγένετο δὲ + ἐν + Articulated Infinitive


Instead of using the direct object of the temporal expression (ἡµέρα), the
time element is followed by an articulated infinitive verb and is the protasis, the
condition in a clause under which another circumstance takes place. This phrase

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

is used on seven occasions and always introduces a major Christological


narrative. The articulated infinitive is always the object of the preposition,51 and
includes the following verses: 1,8; 2,6; 3,21; 5,1; 9,51; 11,27; 18,35.
The ancient author Polybius used ἐν τῷ with the infinitive but without
ἐγένετο. 52 This was also the case with Thucydides, Plato and Xenophon, 53
therefore ἐν τῷ + infinitive without ἐγένετο is not considered a Hebraism or
from the LXX and for this reason verses 1,26; 8,40; 10,38 and 11,37 are
excluded from this study. It is only this use combined with ἐγένετο that is the
Hebraistic or LXX form.54

E.) Καὶ ἐγένετο + ἐν + Articulated Infinitive


The only difference between this category and the previous category is the
use of καί instead of δέ. This phrase was introduced for the first time in Gen.
4,8, and doesn't appear in the gospel of Luke until 5,12. The use of καὶ renders
the phrase Hebraistic and copulative. This phrase has a lower hierarchal value
than ἐγένετο δὲ because it either begins a narrative that operates as a support for
main narrative, providing additional information, or it begins an independent
narrative whose motif (soteriological/eschatological) has already been asserted –
a repetition. It can also sere as a conclusion, giving the narrative a powerful
closing statement. As such, it is used by Luke more frequently than the ἐγένετο
+ δέ formula, on twelve occasions in the gospel.55
There are two verses that do not have an infinitive, but an adverb acting as
the noun: 7,11, Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς ἐπορεύθη εἰς πόλιν καλουµένην Ναΐν...
and 8,1, καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς καὶ αὐτὸς διώδευεν.... The phrase is not
followed by the infinitive, which is a formal distinction in the gospel of Luke.
There are also no examples of this use in the LXX. Is ἑξῆς simply copied from

51
The writers of the New Testament "always use the articular infinitive when the infinitive is meant to be
construed as object of a preposition,” D. BURK, Articular infinitives in the Greek of the New Testament:
On the Exegetical Benefit of Grammatical Precision (Sheffield, 2006), 81.
52
H. F. ALLEN, The Infinitive in Polybius Compared with the Infinitive in Biblical Greek. Dissertation
(Chicago, 1907), 325.
53
MOULTON, A Grammar, Vol. 1, 215.
54
“Originale griechische Belege für das einführende ἐγένετο gibt es nicht." BEYER, Semitische Syntax,
30. Beyer supposes that many of these NT phrases are translated from a Hebrew original, yet the ἐγένετο
phrases are still used as a stylistic device by the NT author, "Trotzdem empfiehlt sich die korrekt hebr.
Übersetzung aus stilistischen Gründen, ..." (p. 61f).
55
5,12; 9,18.29.33; 11,1; 14,1; 17,11.14b; 24,4.15.30.51.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

another source? Is it an invention by Luke, perhaps a slang form of ἡµέρᾳ? As


noted earlier, Delebecque had recommended not using the phrase. These phrases
will be addressed in Part III.

F.) Phrases Missing An Element


One last category is necessary to observe those phrases which don't fit the
categories above (because they are missing one or another element), yet are
contained within already heavily nuanced narratives. These phrases continue a
narrative and contain a time element, but this is followed by an aorist verb.
1,41 – καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἤκουσεν τὸν ἀσπασµὸν τῆς Μαρίας ἡ Ἐλισάβετ...;
2,15 – Καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπʼ αὐτῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι....

The following phrase can be considered only because it is contained within


a larger narrative containing several of the qualified phrases listed previously.
Phrases that are similar to these but found outside an already qualified narrative
have no distinctive value. The post-positive Greek syntaxed δέ also gives it a
certain priority.
1,65 – καὶ ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πάντας φόβος τοὺς περιοικοῦντας αὐτούς,
It can be justifiably argued that this last phrase is not a part of any
intentional design by Luke. It can be easily removed without placing in doubt
the theory presented here as a whole.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

G.) Graphical Distribution of the Phrase


The chart indicates the number and variety of occurances for the seven
categories as outlined in III.

It is evident that the author placed the majority of these phrases at the
introduction to the gospel, which stands out not only for the variety of phrases but also
for their repetition; chapter 2 retains the variety, with slightly less repetition. Such
strong usage and repetition isn't seen again until chapter 9, with the Transfiguration.
In chapter 5, the author used one phrase from three of the more important categories,
whereas in chapter 6 he chose only clear eschatological phrases: Ἐγένετο δὲ +
σάββατον for the first two narratives, and then the third and last narrative of the chapter
begins with a strong 'traditional' eschatological ἡµέρα form.
After chapter 9, their usage drops dramatically, except for brief reminders in chapters
11 and 14. The phrases don't appear within a narrative again until chapter 24, where
Luke closed his gospel with a series of καὶ ἐγένετο + infinitive phrases, evenly spaced
within the concluding chapter.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

Part 3, Redaction, Composition of the Introduction and Exegesis


I.) Introduction
In the preface, the author addressed a "Theophilus". This is a narrative technique
referred to today as an Authorial Intrusion – where the author steps away from the
text and speaks out to the audience.56 Theophilus is not someone personally known
by Luke; his address to Theophilus is restricted to the dedication and does not
continue within the body of the gospel. There are no other personal comments to
Theophilus in the gospel, there was no signing-off, "well, there you have it,
Theophilus" or, "say 'hi' to ..." as there are in the letters. Internal evidence, therefore,
suggests that this is not a letter and that Theophilus is a literary device. Luke
probably addressed his work to all those who love God (whether Jewish or a
polytheist), and since these listeners love or want to know God, they will be open
minded and listen attentively to this particular work.57 This literary device was also
used by Horace in some of his Odes (1.22, for example), so it is not unique or
invented by Luke. Theophilus "was obviously meant for those who would in any
case have been accustomed to read books with such dedications."58
Prefaces like this came into vogue in the Hellenistic age. The ancient Greeks and
Semites didn't use them. "It is noteworthy that in the Greek Bible the only other
prefaces"59 are in Ecclesiasticus and with the author of II Maccabees. Cadbury
further explained that the very idea of using a preface demonstrates that Luke had a
literary creation in mind, and that the style of writing in contrast to the rest of the
book was also a typical mark of literary works of his time.60 However, Cadbury
wasn't the first to recognize this. In 1899, P. Corssen wrote a review of Blass'
Philology of the Gospels, and for Corssen, "a certain literary style ('solchem
Raffinement')" implies a certain audience ('ein großes Publikum’) "and points to a

56
V. BODDEN, Telling the Tale: Narration and Point of View (Mankato, MN, 2009), 44.
57
B. SHELLARD, New Light on Luke: Its Purpose, Sources, and Literary Context (Sheffield, 2002), 41.
“In this respect, the Theophilus of Luke's Prologue may be a symbolic figure, who represents any well-
disposed 'lover of God'. Luke, who is sensitive to the meaning of names (see Acts 4.36; 9.36; 13.8) would
thus have chosen this one quite deliberately. His Gospel is inclusive, as is evident from his redaction of
Mk 4.21/Mt. 5.15 at Lk. 11.33, and he does not want to shut anyone out.”
58
M. DIBELIUS, Studies in the Acts of the Apostles (London, 19732), 103-104.
59
H. J. CADBURY, The Making of Luke-Acts (Peabody, MA, 19993), 194.
60
CADBURY, Luke-Acts, 196.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

particular social setting for the work ('aus dem Dunkel der Conventikel auf den
Büchermarkt hinaus')."61
It is not enough to recognize that Luke was intending to create a literary work;
what type of literature was he intending?
According to the form, syntactical structure and style of the composition of the
preface, Luke’s short, detachable passage, and his need to explain why he is writing
and to identify his intended audience, fits in with a particular literary type "in the
long and multiform tradition of technical or professional prose" which can be called
a ‘scientific tradition', in the sense of the German "wissenschaftlich", a term which
recognizes certain 'Art' subjects also as sciences in their own rite.62 The process and
development of this style of introduction took place under a long set of
circumstances, and there developed within these fields two forms of address within
the Greek literary world. They can be cautiously described as either one long
introduction, dependent upon its intended audience (directed impersonally towards
those who practice the same particular science), or a short introduction (and more
general), for those who are interested in learning. Luke's preface fits the second
category.
According to these observations, Luke intended to create a scientifically ordered
literary work not only for those who were already convinced, but for those who were
not.

61
L. ALEXANDER, “Luke’s Preface in the Context of Greek Preface-Writing”, The Composition of Luke’s
Gospel, Selected Studies from Novum Testamentum, Comp. D. E. ORTON (Boston, 1999), 90.
62
ALEXANDER, “Luke’s Preface...", 91-99.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

II. Gospel Chapters 1 and 2 – The Infancy Narratives


Luke's source for the first two chapters is unknown. They are filled with
references to Jewish scripture and tradition, much more than can be addressed here.
Only those that directly relate to our key phrases will be observed.
Below is an outline of the ἐγένετο phrases that will be encountered in the first
two chapters. The phrases are indented to show the level of strength or importance of
the content they introduce within the narrative:
1,5: Ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις, priest Zachary/King Herod.
1,7: ...ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις αὐτῶν ἦσαν, they were old.
1,8: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ, Priest, custom, temple..., angel appears.
1,18: ἡ γυνή... ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις αὐτῆς..., Elizabeth is old.
1,23: καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡµέραι..., Zachary goes home.
1,24: Μετὰ δὲ ταύτας τὰς ἡµέρας..., Elizabeth conceives.
1,39: Ἀναστᾶσα δὲ Μαριὰµ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ταύταις... Mary rising up.
1,41: καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς, Elizabeth..., "mother of my Lord".
1,59: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ ἡµέρᾳ..., circumcision and naming John.
1,65: καὶ ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πάντας φόβος τοὺς..., Zachary speaks.

2,1: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις..., Caesar Augustus.


2,6: Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ... ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡµέραι..., Jesus is born.
2,15: καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς..., angels leave, shepherd visit.
2,46: καὶ ἐγένετο µετὰ ἡµέρας τρεῖς εὗρον αὐτὸν..., Jesus is found in the temple.

Luke logically needed to place more emphasis on the introduction, in order to


draw the readers' attention to the topic and maintain their interest.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

A.) 1,5-7, Ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις Ἡρώδου βασιλἐως τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἱερεύς τις ὀνόµατι
Ζαχαρίας ἐξ ἐφηµερίας Ἀβιά, καὶ γυνὴ αὐτῷ ἐκ τῶν θυγατέρων Ἀαρὼν καὶ τὸ
ὄνοµα αὐτῆς Ἐλισάβετ. 6ἦσαν δὲ δίκαιοι ἀµφότεροι ἐναντίον τοῦ θεοῦ,
πορευόµενοι ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ἐντολαῖς καὶ δικαιώµασιν τοῦ κυρίου ἄµεµπτοι. 7καὶ
οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τέκνον, καθότι ἦν ἡ Ἐλισάβετ στεῖρα, καὶ ἀµφότεροι προβεβηκότες
ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις αὐτῶν ἦσαν.

i.) Composition of the Introduction


The subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the nominative noun ἱερεύς, "priest" (the
noun as the object of ἐγένετο renders a Greek structure). The subject of the time
element is the temporal expression "the days...". The phrase reads, "There was in
the days... a certain priest...".
Other hebraistic words include, Judea; priest; ἐφηµερίας (hapax);63 Ἀβιά
(hapax) and Ἀαρών (hapax). This is all internal evidence to support the belief
that Luke was familiar with Jewish history and customs.
The verse afterwards (6) contains a few hapaxes: δικαίωµα, "rightousness"
or "justified" (found almost 150 times in the LXX) and ἄµεµπτος, "blameless"
(found 24 times in the LXX). Also found in this verse is the improper
preposition ἐναντίον, meaning "before". This is also a hapax, but a little more
peculiar. It is not used metaphorically in Greek sources, but the metaphorical use
is typical of the LXX (found over 400 times), where it has various nuances, such
as "in the sight or judgment of", and more frequently in reference to God.64 In
the NT, only Luke used it, and used it as a metaphor (20,26; 24,19) as well as
Acts 7,10 (where the author is relating the LXX narrative of Joseph and the
Pharaoh). Although hapaxes are considered evidence of another source for Luke,
it is also possible that the 'other' source could be the LXX.
Verse 7 contains another ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις phrase, not as an introduction, but
as a conclusion, "...καὶ ἀµφότεροι προβεβηκότες ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις αὐτῶν ἦσαν",
"and both of them were moving on in days". This perfect, active, plural,
participle, nominative form of προβαίνω is a hapax and is found in the OT only
in Gen. 18,11, Αβρααµ δὲ καὶ Σαρρα πρεσβύτεροι προβεβηκότες ἡµερῶν. 65 In

63
Used only here and in verse 8, "division" – a Jewish-Greek word, and identifies an important Hebrew
ancestor.
64
R. SOLLAMO, "Semitic Interference in Words Meaning 'before' in the New Testament," Glaube und
Gerechtigkeit: in memoriam Rafael Gyllenberg. V. Riekkinen, ed. (Helsinki, 1983), 183.
65
Besides Abraham, it is also used in regards to Josue 13,1, προβεβηκὼς τῶν ἡµερῶν (also 23,1-2), and
David in 1 Kgs 1,1, προβεβηκὼς ἡµέραις.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

the gospels προβαίνω was used by Mark 1,19 (Matt. 4,21) to mean 'moving on';
only Luke used the word as a metaphor. There is nothing grammatical that
compelled Luke to express their old age in this manner and none of the other NT
writers (including Luke) used that particular form.66 By way of comparison,
Luke's wording for the old age of the prophetess Anna is not the same (2,36);
"αὕτη προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ἡµέραις πολλαῖς", and it is not introduced with an
ἐγένετο or ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις phrase. Using the exact same wording as Genesis
might indicate Luke's interest in having his audience view Zachery and
Elizabeth in the same light as Abraham and Sara. Luke used a particular
phrasing to draw the reader's attention to a specific event within a narrative, and
he never used this phrase again.
ii.) Exegesis
A bad king is placed in comparison with the good and pius Zachary, an old
Jewish priest, and his equally good and elderly wife, unfortunate and
undeserving of their fate of childlessness. Normally, childlessness would have
been considered a curse or punishment for sin; Luke was careful to assure his
audience that this was not the case by first emphasizing their holiness and high
social standing within the community. His Jewish audience may already assume
that this story would end well, because they were familiar with this 'just and
good yet cursed Israelite' theme from their own scriptures. To further entice the
listeners of this gospel, Zachary's wife was also noted as belonging to one of the
most important families in Israel's history, a descendent of Aaron.”67
Luke may be trying to induce emotion from his Jewish listener, by
introducing first the Idumean murderer, Herod, in contrast to the pius Zachery
and Elizabeth. More importantly, the author is going to great length to establish
the social standing of the couple.

66
Luke 1,18: "…ἐγὼ γάρ εἰµι πρεσβύτης…"; 1,36: "…υἱὸν ἐν γήρει αὐτῆς…". John 8,57: "…πεντήκοντα
ἔτη…"; 21,18: "…ὅταν δὲ γηράσῃς …".
67
"Syntactically gune (en) auto ‘he had a wife’ is the main clause and ek ton thugateron Aaron’ is an
adjectival phrase modifying gune, but semantically this phrase is the most important: not that Zechariah
had a wife, but that his wife was also of priestly origin is what matters. Hence several modern translators
change the syntactic pattern accordingly, cp. 'his wife was a descendant of Aaron'." J. REILING, L.
SWELLENGREBEL, A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke (London, 1971), 15.

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B.) 1,8-11, Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ τάξει τῆς ἐφηµερίας αὐτοῦ ἔναντι
τοῦ θεοῦ, 9κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἱερατείας ἔλαχε τοῦ θυµιᾶσαι εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν ναὸν
τοῦ κυρίου, 10καὶ πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος ἦν τοῦ λαοῦ προσευχόµενον ἔξω τῇ ὥρᾳ τοῦ
θυµιάµατος. 11ὤφθη δὲ αὐτῷ ἄγγελος κυρίου ἑστὼς ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου
τοῦ θυµιάµατος.

Form critically, this is a historical narrative of the birth of John the Baptist.
i.) Composition of the Introduction
The post-positive δέ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the
finite verb (v. 11) ὤφθη, "appeared"68 (ὁράω, hebraic finite verb; apodotic δέ is a
Greek setting structure69). The subject of the time element is the articulated
infinitive verb ἱερατεύειν, "to serve as a priest" (Hebrew technical term followed
by the accusative pronoun, a Hebrew idiom,70), rendering a mixed Greek/hebraic
phrase, "And it was while 'priesting'... [that] an angel appeared...".
The time element would be translated, 'while' or 'when', making the
sentance read (without the prepositional phrases), "and it was while he was
serving as a priest, an angel appeared...". The time element tells us that the two
events took place at the same time.
Hapaxes include the articulated infinitive ἱερατεύω ('be a priest', 27 times in
the LXX and in the NT only once, in Hebrews 7,5), and τάξις (not found in LXX
but 5 times in Hebrews; also 1 Cor. 14,40 and Col. 2,5). Also found in this verse
is a synonym to ἐναντίον, ἔναντι, another improper preposition, used in the NT
only here and in Acts 8,21,71 whereas in the LXX it is found in approximately
240 verses, 186 of those in the phrase ἔναντι κυρίου.

68
There is a problem with this verse, as Plummer had thought that the object of ἐγένετο was the difficult
phrase (v. 9) ἔλαχε τοῦ θυµιᾶσαι ('he received the incensing'). This is incorrect, but has been copied by
many authors up to and including Hogeterp, Denaux, Semitisms in Luke’s Greek, 472.
In terms of grammar, the time element ἐν with an articulated infinitive always suggests
contemporaneous time with another phrase (D. BURK, Articular infinitives, 95.). It is the protasis, the
condition in a clause. This other action which is taking place while the articulated infinitive is acting is
the object of ἐγένετο and the apodosis – it is the shift or change in the narrative scene which has been
introduced. The phrases "while he was priesting" and "he received the incensing" are part of the same
protasis. Verses 9 and 10 are all describing the priestly act, and are a part of a long prepositional phrase
beginning with κατά; therefore, ἔλαχε can not be the object of ἐγένετο. What happened while Zachery
was 'priesting'? This is the object of ἐγένετο.
In terms of theology, the whole scene emphasizes that Zachery was in the Holy of Holies when the
angel appeared to him, rendering little doubt that it was an angel and not some other spirit who appeared
to him.
69
BABBITT, A Grammar, §601.
70
BUTH, NOTLEY, Language Environment, 325.
71
SOLLAMO, "Semitic Interference", 184.

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The announcement of the birth of John has similar wording to Judges 13.
One can see traces of the story of Samson: 1.) both women were barren, 2.)
someone is not permitted wine or unclean food (it was the wife in Judges), 3.)
the phrase "from his mother's womb"72 and 4.) both sons will do something
great.
ii.) Exegesis
This ἐγένετο phrase in verse 8 announced to the listener that something
significant was about to take place.
The literary similarity between Samson and John the Baptist is not likely
intended to draw some type of equality between the two, but only to emphasize
the special nature of the event, similar to the literary comparison made in verse 7
between Elizabeth and Sara. It would be difficult for the reader to simply stop at
those miraculous birth stories of Sarah without also considering the unnamed
wife of Manue (Manoah) as well as Rebekah, Rachel, and Hannah who also
gave heroes to Israel. This appears to be an important feature of Luke's
introduction – he placed Elizabeth in the category of priviledged women. This is
not a looking back at the past, but a bringing the history of salvation forward,
into the present.
John was a Jewish martyr for a people suffering both political and religious
oppression. Luke was not trying to create a parallelism or a 'diptych'73 with John
and Jesus, but instead placed the 'bitter pill' of a suffering Messiah (whom no
one expected) within the 'sweet' history of Israel's great heros, male and female.
By 'wrapping' the birth of Jesus within the birth of John the Baptist, it appears
that Luke was trying to make the Advent of the Messiah more palatable for the
Jewish reader. Luke will continue to utilize the figure of John the Baptist (as
Matthew did in his gospel) in chapter 7 and more importantly, in chapter 9.
As further regards the originality of Luke, this structure can be compared to
other Lucan narratives where he has a "pair of complementary visions, followed

72
However, the wording is completely different. Judges has the more primitive, ἐκ τῆς γαστρός; Luke
1,15, ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας µητρὸς αὐτοῦ.
73
P. H. RICE, Behold, Your House is Left to You: The Theological and Narrative Place of the Jerusalem
Temple in Luke’s Gospel (Eugene, OR, 2016), 60.

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by a meeting of the recipients."74 Examples include Peter and Cleopas, Saul and
Ananias, and Cornelius and Peter.
Verse 18 repeats the ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις from verses 5 and 7, and again
emphasizes the old age of Zachary and his wife. Luke placed more emphasis on
Elizabeth; ἡ γυνή µου προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις αὐτῆς. The repetition of the
old age of Elizabeth emphasizes the miraculous nature of John's birth, and with
the use of ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις, Luke has added an eschatological nuance.
Luke withheld the name of Gabriel until verse 19. Gabriel is an apocalyptic
figure who only appears in Daniel (8,16; 9,21),75 and placing his name this late
in the narrative is an intentional literary device to create tension in this verse.
Gabriel appeared to Zachery during the time of liturgical prayer (1,10-11), just
as in Daniel 9,20-21; Zachery responded with fear (1,12) as in Daniel 8,17 and
10,7; Gabriel responded to Zachery and said not to fear (1,13) as in Daniel
10,12; Gabriel states that he has been sent to speak to Zachery (1,19), as in
Daniel 8,16 and 10,11; the appearance of Gabriel is called an ὀπτασία (vision,
1,22) as in Theodotian Daniel 10,1.7.8.16.76

Within chapter 1 there are other divine interventions, and the author highlights
each of these with a "καὶ ἐγένετο" phrase joined with ὡς, which is a very natural usage,
found frequently in the LXX and in secular Greek.77

74
M. D. GOULDER, Luke, A New Paradigm (Sheffield, 1989), 205.
75
Daniel 8,16, καὶ ἤκουσα φωνὴν ἀνθρώπου ἀνὰ µέσον τοῦ Ουλαι, καὶ ἐκάλεσε καὶ εἶπεν Γαβριηλ,
συνέτισον ἐκεῖνον τὴν ὅρασιν. "And I heard the voice of a man between Ulai: and he called and said:
Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision."
Daniel 9,21, καὶ ἔτι λαλοῦντός µου ἐν τῇ προσευχῇ µου καὶ ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀνήρ, ὃν εἶδον ἐν τῷ ὕπνῳ µου τὴν
ἀρχήν, Γαβριηλ, τάχει φερόµενος προσήγγισέ µοι ἐν ὥρᾳ θυσίας ἑσπερινῆς. "As I was yet speaking in
prayer, behold the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, flying swiftly touched me
at the time of the evening sacrifice."
76
This compilation is an edited form taken from BROWN, Birth of the Messiah, 270-271.
77
THACKERAY, A Grammar, 50. "Xenophon used ἐγένετο ὣστε or ὡς ‘it happened that’."

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C.) 1,23, καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡµέραι τῆς λειτουργίας αὐτοῦ, ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸν
οἶκον αὐτοῦ.

i.) Composition of the Phrase


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἀπῆλθεν, "he departed" (ἀπέρχοµαι, without apodotic καὶ, Hebrew
structure). The subject of the time element is the finite verb, ἐπλήσθησαν
(πίµπληµι, Hebrew structure) rendering a strong hebraic phrase, "and after he
fulfilled the days of his service, he departed...".
There is a hapax with λειτουργία, and here (along with verse 24) is found a
clear overuse of ἡµέρα along with the first opportunity to address another word,
πίµπληµι.78 It is a reduplicated form of πληρόω and a reflexive verb; the root
'πλη' means 'fill'. This form (there are many forms of the word) is only used in
the LXX on three occasions (Proverbs 3,10; 18,20 and Sirach 24,25). Luke used
this reflexive form thirteen times in his gospel, but outside of the infancy
narratives,79 he only used it five times, which shows a heavy focus in the two-
chapter introduction. By contrast, Luke used the form πληρόω only twice in the
introduction (1,20; 2,40), and preferred it seven times in the rest of the gospel.80
Πίµπληµι is connected to the ἐγένετο phrases (1,23; 2,6) as well as other
important parts of the Infancy Narratives (1,57; 1,67; 2,21-22). It is always used
when someone is 'filled' with the Holy Spirit (1,15; 1,41) or anger (4,28). It most
curiously is found in verses 5,26 and 6,11 – key chapters of this study. The word
is never used by Luke again, until chapter 21, where he is expressly writing of a
fulfillment of prophecy.
ii.) Exegesis
Πίµπληµι is always correctly placed as a proper reflexive verb, but one can
not help wonder if Luke had arranged his narrative in order to take advantage of
the word that can mean 'fill' or 'fulfill', suggesting a fulfillment of prophesy
within the narratives. The use of πίµπληµι for the births of both John and Jesus
is very stylistic (no other scripture writer writing of a birth describes it in this

78
Luke used the word on 13 occasions in the gospel and 9 occasions in Acts. It is not found in Mark, and
is found in Matthew only 2 times (22,10; 27,48); in the LXX, 1 Kings 2,27; 2 Chron. 36,21-22; Jer.
25,12.
79
1,15; 1,23; 1,41; 1,67; 2,6; 2,21; 2,22.
80
3,5; 4,21; 7,1; 9,31; 21,24; 22,16; 24,44.

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manner). Cadbury had noted that one of the stylistic characteristics of Luke was
something he called "distribution and concentration,"81 meaning Luke's tendency
to use a term frequently in a sequence of passages, only to use it rarely or never
elsewhere. Cadbury had no real explanation for this, except to write it off as
structural creativity. There is more to Luke's composition than just 'creativity';
they also recall to the reader a fulfillment of prophecy.

D.) 1,24, Μετὰ δὲ ταύτας τὰς ἡµέρας συνέλαβεν Ἐλισάβετ ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ
περιέκρυβεν ἑαυτὴν µῆνας πέντε λέγουσα

Form critically, this is the conclusion of the first part of the historical narrative of
the birth of John the Baptist.
i.) Composition of the Phrase
The phrase ταύτας τὰς ἡµέραις calls back to the previous verse ἐπλήσθησαν
αἱ ἡµέραι τῆς λειτουργίας. "After his days were fulfilled", then, "after these
days"; it is redundant, and the verse would have been perfectly clear without the
addition. The phrase was added for emphasis, to draw attention to the fulfillment
of the events, and perhaps suggest that something else was about to take place.
ii.) Exegesis
This verse introduces Elizabeth's conception and hiding; the angel's
prophecy has been fulfilled. Luke with this 'orphan' "days" phrase draws
attention to this fulfillment. It is believed by some that she hid not from shame,
but because of the divine secrets at work.82
Unlike the first half of this narrative where the angel's name was withheld,
in the next verse Luke placed Gabriel's name at the introduction of the narrative
of the divince conception of Jesus.
This first Christological moment which follows (1,35) does not have to be
directly accented with key phrases, because it is introduced with the apocalyptic
angel Gabriel. The repetition of his name alone will keep the attention of anyone
living during this apocalyptic culture. Much of the content that Luke provides in
this chapter also has to do with witness: the apocalyptic angel Gabriel

81
W. L. LIEFELD, “Luke”. F. E. GÆBELEIN, ed., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Vol. 8 (Grand
Rapids, MI, 1984), 803.
82
D. M. ORCHARD, ed., A Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture (London, 1953), 747e.

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announced the arrival of John; Zachery gave witness to Elizabeth; Gabriel again
announced another divine intervention that is much greater than John; then later,
Elizabeth will serve as a witness to Mary.

E.) 1,39, Ἀναστᾶσα δὲ Μαριὰµ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ταύταις ἐπορεύθη εἰς τὴν ὀρεινὴν µετὰ
σπουδῆς εἰς πόλιν Ἰούδα...

i.) Composition of the Phrase


This is the first time that Luke uses the phrase ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις with the
pronoun οὗτος. This is not a generic chronological indication, but a temporal
indicator with a theological nuance, by virtue of the intertextual appeal to similar
OT expressions.83 While all the evangelists use the expression ἐκεῖνος, Luke
used ἐκεῖνος on three occasions within the structure of an ἡµέραις phrase, but
placed ταύταις here and in 6,12.84 It is the difference between saying "those"
days (back then or in the future), or "these" days – bringing salvation to the here
and now.
ii.) Exegesis
Luke in this verse began the shift of focus from Elizabeth to Mary.
The ἀναστᾶσα (ἀνίστηµι) is Mary's immediate response to the message of
the angel, and in this case denotes a more personal eagerness (µετὰ σπουδῆς), to
be of assistance to her elderly cousin.85 This phrase stands before another great
event, introduced with a 'continuation' ἐγένετο phrase:

F.) 1,41, καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἤκουσεν τὸν ἀσπασµὸν τῆς Μαρίας ἡ Ἐλισάβετ, ἐσκίρτησεν τὸ
βρέφος ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ αὐτῆς, καὶ ἐπλήσθη πνεύµατος ἁγίου ἡ Ἐλισάβετ,

i.) Composition of the Phrase


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἐσκίρτησεν, "he lept" (σκιρτάω, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject

83
"L’espressione ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ταύταις non è una generica e pleonastica indicazione cronologica,
quanto piuttosto un indicatore temporale con una sfumatura teologica, in virtù del richiamo intertestuale a
simili espressioni veterotestamentarie." M. DE SANTIS, "La visita di Maria ad Elisabetta (Lc 1,39-45)."
Paradigma lucano del processo salvifico di Dio, in Angelicum 88 (2011), 16.
84
The phrase is also used in 23,7 (narrative) and 24,18 (dialogue), where the intertextual appeal could be
questioned.
85
Just as Mary didn't directly ask Jesus to preform a miracle at Cana (John 2,1), natural good will
motivates charitable acts without the need of a direct request.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

of the time element is the finite verb, ἤκουσεν, "she heard" (ἀκούω, Hebrew st.),
rendering a strong hebraic phrase, "and it was when she heard... he lept...".
Following the καὶ ἐγένετο phrases and making special note of ἐν ταῖς
ἡµέραις from verse 39, the direction of the gospel has shifted from the person of
Elizabeth to Mary (her name is placed before the nominative).
ii.) Exegesis
As the recipient of a divine favor, Elizabeth is now the witness to the main
event. Elizabeth had already been established as the just, pius wife of a Jewish
priest; she is a descendent from the chosen line of Aaron and was blessed with
the miraculous birth of a boy who ἔσται γὰρ µέγας ἐνώπιον [τοῦ] κυρίου.
More importantly, the Spirit of prophecy that had been "withdrawn from
Israel since the last prophets because of the nation's sin... would be poured out
on all of the restored Israel at the end."86 This Spirit that had been missing for
about four hundred years came upon Elizabeth first with her personal statement,
and again moves the history of salvation from promise to fulfilment. Elizabeth,
and filled (πίµπληµι) with the Holy Spirit, declared that "the mother of my Lord"
was present.
The implication is that if Jesus is Lord of this faithful Jewish woman, then
he must also be the Lord to the faithful Jewish audience of Luke's gospel.
After the speech of praise from Mary, the story of John the Baptist continues.

G.) 1,59, καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ ἡµέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ ἦλθον περιτεµεῖν τὸ παιδίον καὶ ἐκάλουν
αὐτὸ ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόµατι τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ Ζαχαρίαν.

i.) Composition of the Introduction


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἦλθον, "they came" (ἔρχοµαι, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject
of the time element is the direct object τῇ ἡµέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ, "the eighth day" (the

86
J. B. GREEN, ed., Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (Downers Grove, IL, 1992), 343. See also
Josephus, Against Apion, 1.8, “It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes, very particulary,
but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there has not
been an exact succession of prophets since that time." W. WHISTON trans., Josephus. Complete Works
(Grand Rapids, MI, 1978), 609.
Also, "The end of the prophetic period signaled the loss of immediate access to God; Jewish history
entered a period of Divine silence." D. HARTMAN, Jewish Values – Implications for Jewish Federations
(New York, NY, 1978), 6.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

reduplicated article is Hebrew syntax), rendering a strong hebraic phrase, "and it


was on the eighth day when they came to circumcise...".
On the eighth day, John was named, and Zachery miraculously spoke.
In this verse, the καὶ ἐγένετο phrase announces the circumcision. The
narrative however, will continue to describe Zachary regaining his speech and
John's prophetic calling.
ii.) Exegesis
The phrase "eight days" would normally just indicate that proper religious
care was taken and circumcision was preformed, but placed within the ἐγένετο
phrase gives it a prophetic tone. The number eight is symbolic for something
above the natural order. Circumcision represents the Israelites supernatural
protection by Yahweh, and Chanukah with the eight candled menorah
remembers the Maccabees triumph over the Helenized Syrians.87 The number
eight was placed here within an important ἐγένετο phrase that announced the
completion of the promise of the angel to Elizabeth and Zachary. 88

H.) 2,1, Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ἐκείναις ἐξῆλθεν δόγµα παρὰ Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου
ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουµένην.

Form critically, this is a continuation of the historical narrative of the birth of Jesus.
i.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite verb
ἐξῆλθεν, "it went out" (ἐξέρχοµαι, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject of
the time element is the direct object ταῖς ἡµέραις ἐκείναις, "those days" (Hebrew
prophetic phrase), rendering a mixed Greek/hebraic phrase, "And it was in those
days it went out...".
This narrative begins with a phrase very similar to verse 1,5, this time with
the addition of the postpositive δέ. With this conjunction, the author announced
a new and important section which is linked indirectly to the first, and with ἐν
ταῖς ἡµέραις, he has informed the listener that something of an eschatological

87
There was also the great sacrifice of Moses and Aaron, the "feast of the Lord" and other religious feasts
that developed over time and lasted until "the eighth day".
88
In addition to this understanding of the number eight, the gospel of John also used 'eight' days, in
connection with the resurrection of Jesus (John 20,26), and Luke will use it again in the introduction to
the Transfiguration (9,28).

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nature will be revealed. This narrative announces the movement of the family to
Bethlehem, as prophecied by Micah (5,2).
ii.) Exegesis
Just like chapter one, chapter two began with a long dative construction
providing the background scene; the disliked, foreign authority in juxtaposition
with a poor, pius, humble Jewish family. In this narrative however, the family is
not from Aaron, but from David. The temporal expression gives the introduction
a eschatological dimension because of its prophetic tone.

I.) 2,6-11, Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡµέραι τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν,
7
καὶ ἔτεκεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς τὸν πρωτότοκον, καὶ ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν καὶ
ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ, διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύµατι. 8Καὶ
ποιµένες ἦσαν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῇ αὐτῇ ἀγραυλοῦντες καὶ φυλάσσοντες φυλακὰς τῆς
νυκτὸς ἐπὶ τὴν ποίµνην αὐτῶν. 9καὶ ἄγγελος κυρίου ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς καὶ δόξα κυρίου
περιέλαµψεν αὐτούς, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον µέγαν. 10καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ ἄγγελος·
µὴ φοβεῖσθε, ἰδοὺ γὰρ εὐαγγελίζοµαι ὑµῖν χαρὰν µεγάλην ἥτις ἔσται παντὶ τῷ λαῷ,
11
ὅτι ἐτέχθη ὑµῖν σήµερον σωτὴρ ὅς ἐστιν χριστὸς κύριος ἐν πόλει Δαυίδ.

i.) Composition of the Introduction


Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite verb
ἐπλήσθησαν, "they were fulfilled" (πίµπληµι, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.).
The subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive verb εἶναι, "they are"
(εἰµί, followed by an accusative pronoun which recalls the LXX). The mixture
of Greek and Hebrew elements renders the entire phrase, "and it was while they
are there, the days were fulfilled...".
ii.) Exegesis
Prophecies are fulfilled and Jesus is born. An unnamed angel appears to the
nearby shepherds (v. 9), who feared a great fear (ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον µέγαν).
They were told, as in the previous narrative with Mary, not to fear (v. 10)
because "born to you a saviour who is Christ the Lord in the city of David" (v.
11, ἐτέχθη ὑµῖν σωτὴρ ὅς ἐστιν χριστὸς κύριος ἐν πόλει Δαυίδ). Note the
placement of 'saviour' first, which had only been used previously by Luke for
God, and is never used again in the gospel nor in the other Synoptic authors; the
anarthrous Christ (the first time the title is used by Luke) the annointed, is
identified as 'Lord', 'in this city' (Micah 5,1-2, answer to a prophecy). The
announcement that Jesus would sit on the throne of David was first made by the

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

angel Gabriel in 1,30. 'David' looks back to the past to the promises to Abraham
that were fulfilled in the monarchy, and now it also looks forward to the
fulfillment of the promise given to David, that he would have an heir, a future
Messiah, who will rule.

J.) 2,15, καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπ'αὐτῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι, οἱ ποιµένες
ἐλάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους· διέλθωµεν δὴ ἕως Βηθλέεµ καὶ ἴδωµεν τὸ ῥῆµα τοῦτο τὸ
γεγονὸς ὃ ὁ κύριος ἐγνώρισεν ἡµῖν.

i.) Composition of the Introduction


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἐλάλουν, "they said" (λαλέω, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject of
the time element is the finite verb, ἀπῆλθον (ἀπέρχοµαι, Hebrew st.), rendering a
strong hebraic phrase, "And it was after the angels departed... the shepherds
said...".
This verse, as in chapter one, used the same subordinating conjuction ὡς
('modified temporal expression') followed by an aorist verb. Καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς is
only used by Luke again in verse 19,29, in the narrative that places Jesus
preparing to enter Jerusalem.
ii.) Exegesis
Luke used ἐγένετο with the conjunction ὡς to announce the conception of
John the Baptist (1,23), to present the 'mother of my Lord' (1,41), in the present
verse to announce Bethlehem, and the phrase will only be used again when Jesus
is preparing for his passion and death.

K.) 2,46-49, 46καὶ ἐγένετο µετὰ ἡµέρας τρεῖς εὗρον αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ καθεζόµενον ἐν
µέσῳ τῶν διδασκάλων καὶ ἀκούοντα αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπερωτῶντα αὐτούς· 47ἐξίσταντο
δὲ πάντες οἱ ἀκούοντες αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῇ συνέσει καὶ ταῖς ἀποκρίσεσιν αὐτοῦ. 48καὶ
ἰδόντες αὐτὸν ἐξεπλάγησαν, καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ µήτηρ αὐτοῦ· τέκνον, τί
ἐποίησας ἡµῖν οὕτως; ἰδοὺ ὁ πατήρ σου κἀγὼ ὀδυνώµενοι ἐζητοῦµέν σε. 49καὶ
εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς· τί ὅτι ἐζητεῖτέ µε; οὐκ ᾔδειτε ὅτι ἐν τοῖς τοῦ πατρός µου δεῖ
εἶναί µε;

Form critically, this narrative is a 'pronouncement story', because it records Jesus'


first words, the proclamation of his Divine Sonship - "οὐκ ᾔδειτε ὅτι ἐν τοῖς τοῦ πατρός
µου δεῖ εἶναί µε;"?

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

i.) Composition of the Introduction


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb εὗρον, "they found" (εὑρίσκω, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject
of the time element is the direct object ἡµέρας τρεῖς, "three days", rendering the
hebraic phrase, "and it was after three days they found him...".
ii.) Exegesis
Numbers are always symbolic with Luke; Mary lived with Elizabeth for
about three months (1,56); after three days, Jesus is found (2,46); in a parable, a
friend asked for three loaves (11,5); For three years there was no fruit on a fig
tree (13,7); and in another parable, a woman hid three measures of meal (13,21).
In the LXX, 'three' was used on hundreds of occasions. It is a number that
signified waiting in expectation for the completion, therefore it is prophetic,
such as Jona and the whale, which is recorded by Luke as prefiguring Jesus'
descent and Resurrection (chapter 11).
Luke in this verse has advanced to the time when Jesus was twelve years of
age (v. 42); he had been missing and then found in the Temple µετὰ ἡµέρας
τρεῖς, "doing his father's business". Meriting a substantial introduction, the child
Jesus was in an intellectual state that surpassed his apparent age; he astonished
the teachers with his understanding and intelligence. In the present narrative,
Jesus was hidden for three days, then afterwards manifested his divine nature to
witnesses.

Chapters 1 and 2 of the gospel show a preponderant use of the ἐγένετο phrases,
along with an obvious overuse of phrases that include the word ἡµέρα. This word, used
seven times in the first chapter alone, was combined with an ἐγένετο phrase on three of
those occasions, drawing the readers attention to the importance of this time for the
author.
Having established the background information for the theological history that
he wished to convey, Luke will now use the ἐγένετο phrases when he wished to
emphasize particular Christological/eschatological events in his gospel.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

III. Chapter 3, 21-22, The Baptism Narrative,


Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts89

Matthew 3,16-17 Luke 3,21-22 Mark 1,9-11


16βαπτισθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς 9Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ἐκείναις
εὐθὺς ἀνέβη ἀπὸ τοῦ ταῖς ἡµέραις ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς
ὕδατος: καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀπὸ Ναζαρὲτ τῆς
ἠνεῴχθησαν [αὐτῷ] οἱ 21Ἐγένετο
δὲ ἐν τῷ Γαλιλαίας καὶ ἐβαπτίσθη
οὐρανοί, καὶ εἶδεν [τὸ] βαπτισθῆναι ἅπαντα τὸν εἰς τὸν Ἰορδάνην ὑπὸ
λαὸν καὶ Ἰησοῦ Ἰωάννου.
βαπτισθέντος καὶ 10καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ
πνεῦµα [τοῦ] θεοῦ προσευχοµένου ἀνεῳχθῆναι τοῦ ὕδατος εἶδεν
καταβαῖνον ὡσεὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν σχιζοµένους τοὺς
περιστερὰν [καὶ] ἐρχόµενον 22καὶ καταβῆναι τὸ πνεῦµα οὐρανοὺς καὶ τὸ πνεῦµα
(coming) ἐπ' αὐτόν: τὸ ἅγιον σωµατικῷ ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον
17καὶ ἰδοὺ φωνὴ ἐκ τῶν εἴδει ὡς περιστερὰν ἐπ' εἰς αὐτόν:
οὐρανῶν λέγουσα, Οὗτός αὐτόν, 11καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῶν
ἐστιν ὁ υἱός µου ὁ οὐρανῶν· σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱός µου
ἀγαπητός, ἐν ᾧ εὐδόκησα. καὶ φωνὴν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἐν σοὶ
γενέσθαι, Σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱός µου ὁ εὐδόκησα.
ἀγαπητός, ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα.

Form critically, this narrative is a 'pronouncement story' (like the previous one,
2,46), because it records the words of God the Father, "this is my beloved son ...".
i.) Redaction
The introduction to the narrative of the baptism of Jesus begins with 3,15
and could just as easily rely on Mark or Matthew ("Q"). It is believed that Luke
copied the literary Greek µεν... δέ in the phrases previous to this narrative, which
creates a juxtaposition between John the Baptist and Jesus. In verse 21, Luke
switched from the classical µεν/δέ Greek form to Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ βαπτισθῆνα.
The post-positive δέ signifies a new beginning. He did not copy Mark’s καὶ
ἐγένετο ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις, because here is related the second
Christological moment: 90 Jesus was baptised, heaven opened, and a voice
declared, "you are my beloved Son". There is no new eschatological revelation
in this narrative, so a "days" phrase would not be used.

89
All words and phrases that are similar to at least one other Synoptic author will be underlined in the
Greek text in order to allow the reader to determine for themself how similar or different the texts are to
each other. Spacing between verses is also intentional.
90
The first Christological moment was 1,35.

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"Jesus from Nazareth", etc. as well as "John" and "Jordan" were redacted
from Mark's account, and a singular "heaven" was opened (using the passive
infinitive). Luke added that Jesus was in prayer, he changed the "spirit of God"
to the "Holy Spirit" and added 'bodily form' (giving more realness to the story –
it wasn't a hallucination). Luke is word for word the same as Mark for the
second half of verse 22 only using the infinitive of γίνοµαι, rather than using
Mark's the third person singular. For the conclusion, Luke chose Mark's "you
are" my son – God spoke to his own son, rather than God speaking to the
surrounding witnesses. This redaction better reflects the theology of the Letter to
the Hebrews 1,2 – God the father doesn't speak to man directly, but only through
his Son.
The 'voice from Heaven' is reminiscent of Isaiah 6,4-8, Ezekiel 1,25-28, and
4 Ezra 6,13).
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the aorist
infinitive ἀνεῳχθῆναι, "it was opened" (ἀνοίγω, infinitive verb rendering a
Greek st.). The subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive
βαπτισθῆναι, "was baptised" (βαπτίζω, Hebrew st.), rendering a mixed
Greek/hebraic phrase, "and it was while everyone was baptised... heaven was
opened..."
iii.) Exegesis
John had been presented by Luke as a great reformer; some thought that
John was 'the Christ' (verse 15). Here, John is placed in comparison with Jesus
and John declared Jesus as superior. Μεν... I baptise with water; δέ... he will
baptise with the Holy Spirit.
For Luke, prayer was an important part of the Christological message, and
will in a later chapter merit an ἐγένετο phrase. Jesus in the present narrative was
in prayer, and not 'rising up from the water' as in Mark's version.
Jesus has so far been identified as "Son of the Most High" (1,32), "Son of
God" (1,35) and "κύριος” (1,43; 2,6). "Son" does not necessarily mean
"Messiah", but various ancient texts written during the Second Temple period
appear to use phrases similar to these. Dead Sea Scroll 1Q28a (written between
175-125BC), called the "Rule of the Congregation" has the phrase "Messiah of

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Israel"; 4Q246 (50-30BC) is called the "Son of God" text, or "Aramaic


Apocalypse"; 4Q174 (30-1BC) links 2 Sam. 7,14 (a descendent of David) with a
royal Messiah; and 4Q369 (30-68AD), the "Prayer of Enoch" has a 'first born'
son who will be a prince and ruler of all the world.91 It is said that the condition
of the texts makes a definitive interpretation debatable,92 but their links with
other OT texts and their overall escatological nature has given critics more
confidence as to their probable interpretation.
Luke linked the title "Christ" in relation to Davidic messianic hope in 2,11
(introduced with Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις ἐκείναις); he introduced the idea of
"the Christ of the Lord" in 2,26; Luke recorded the question of whether John was
the "Christ" in 3,15, and in 3,22 Luke recorded the announcement of Jesus as
"Son" of a voice from the heavens (introduced with Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ +
articulated infinitive).
The identity of Jesus as 'son' is subsequently reaffirmed by the genealogy
which immediately follows (3,23-38) and ends with the affirmation "son of
God".

IV. Chapter 4 – Illustration of the Non-Use of the Ἐγένετο Phrases


Chapter 4 begins with the narrative of Jesus sent out into the desert; form
critically, the narrative is a 'story about Jesus'. During the temptations, Jesus was careful
to not reveal his divine Sonship; the 'Divine Son' theme is present, through the
persistent questioning of the διάβολος, but a confession from Jesus is lacking. The
persistent questioning and tempting of Jesus is not proof of Jesus' divinity nor is it
soteriological or eschatological and therefore there are no occurrences of any qualified
ἐγένετο phrase within this chapter.

91
GREEN, Dictionary of Jesus, 886-887.
92
GREEN, Dictionary of Jesus, 887.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

V. Chapter 5 – Divine Intervention and the Forgiveness of Sin


This chapter introduces possibly the clearest and simplest literary arrangement
of the ἐγένετο phrases. It begins with a miracle designed for the apostles alone to
witness, followed by a public miracle. The first narrative is introduced with ἐγένετο δὲ
ἐν (+ articulated infinitive); the narrative which follows is introduced with καὶ ἐγένετο
ἐν (+ articulated infinitive), demonstrating a continuation of the first narrative; the third
narrative is introduced with καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν µιᾷ των ἡµερων – it includes the "days"
phrase used in the prophetic literature to indicate an eschatological event. What will be
demonstrated in this chapter is that the first two narratives were composed to highlight
the real interest of the author – the third narrative where Jesus demonstrates his
authority (ἐξουσία) to forgive sin. The prophets had warned of punishment and death
for sin, and God worked miracles through those prophets to demonstrate the truth of
those messages, but no prophet had the authority to forgive sin.

A.) 5,1, Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ τὸν ὄχλον ἐπικεῖσθαι αὐτῷ καὶ ἀκούειν τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ
καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ἑστὼς παρὰ τὴν λίµνην Γεννησαρὲτ

This first narrative has no parallel and form critically is a miracle story.
i.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the placement of two articles in succession (τῷ
τὸν) is also Greek syntax. The subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite verb
ἑστώς, "he was standing" (ἵστηµι, with the apodotic καί, Hebrew st.). The
subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive verb ἐπικεῖσθαι, "to
croud" (ἐπίκειµαι, Hebrew st.). The mixture of Greek and hebraic elements
renders the phrase, "and it was while the crowds were pushing... [that] Jesus
was...".
ii.) Exegesis
It appears that Matthew (4,19) and Mark (1,17) have forgone this narrative
and just report the conclusion, "I will make you fishers of men".
Verse 5, ἀποκριθείς... εἶπεν, "answering, he said". The repetition of the
same action is a hebraic literary tradition found often in the LXX, most often
utilizing the aorist participle followed by an aorist indicative. Both Luke and
Matthew use it an equal amount (33 times) of occasions.

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Verse 7 has the suspicious but accurate use of πίµπληµι, where γεµίζω was
used instead by John.93 The reflexive πίµπληµι tells the reader that they were
filling their own boats. Luke has Peter state his ἀµαρτωλός, and he identified
himself as an ἀνήρ, a man, which is the correct use of the word (the antonym is
γυνή - a woman). Luke has Jesus respond to the θάµβος (a natural fear) in this
present narrative by stating that the fishermen will in the future catch
"ἀνθρώπους", mankind, which is also correct use of the word. In the third
narrative of the series, we will see ἀµαρτωλός again, but this time, the
forgiveness/cure by Jesus will be given to a single man, who is identified by
Luke as ἄνθρωπος – not ἀνήρ, as he should be identified. Finally, the cure in
that last narrative will cause not θάµβος, but φόβος for the witnesses.
With the repetition of the words πίµπληµι, ἀµαρτωλός, ἄνθρωπος, ἀνήρ and
the contrast between θάµβος and φόβος, Luke made connections between the
first and third miracle stories of this chapter.

93
Not for a parallel narrative, but in verses 2,7 and 6,13.

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B.) 5,12-14, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Text


Matthew 8,2–4 Luke 5,12–14 Mark 1,40–44
12καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι
αὐτὸν ἐν µιᾷ τῶν πόλεων
2καὶ ἰδοὺ λεπρὸς καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀνὴρ πλήρης 40Καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς αὐτὸν
προσελθὼν προσεκύνει λέπρας· ἰδὼν δὲ τὸν λεπρὸς παρακαλῶν αὐτὸν
αὐτῷ λέγων· κύριε, ἐὰν Ἰησοῦν, πεσὼν ἐπὶ [καὶ γονυπετῶν] καὶ λέγων
θέλῃς δύνασαί µε πρόσωπον ἐδεήθη αὐτοῦ αὐτῷ ὅτι ἐὰν θέλῃς δύνασαί
καθαρίσαι. λέγων· κύριε, ἐὰν θέλῃς µε καθαρίσαι.
3καὶ ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα δύνασαί µε καθαρίσαι. 41καὶ σπλαγχνισθεὶς ἐκτείνας
ἥψατο αὐτοῦ λέγων· 13καὶ ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἥψατο καὶ
θέλω, καθαρίσθητι· καὶ ἥψατο αὐτοῦ λέγων· θέλω, λέγει αὐτῷ· θέλω,
εὐθέως ἐκαθαρίσθη καθαρίσθητι· καὶ εὐθέως ἡ καθαρίσθητι·
αὐτοῦ ἡ λέπρα. λέπρα ἀπῆλθεν ἀπʼαὐτοῦ. 42καὶ εὐθὺς ἀπῆλθεν ἀπʼ
4καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτοῦ ἡ λέπρα, καὶ
Ἰησοῦς· ὅρα µηδενὶ 14καὶαὐτὸς παρήγγειλεν ἐκαθαρίσθη.
εἴπῃς, αὐτῷ µηδενὶ εἰπεῖν, 43καὶ ἐµβριµησάµενος αὐτῷ
ἀλλὰ ὕπαγε σεαυτὸν ἀλλὰ ἀπελθὼν δεῖξον εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν αὐτὸν
δεῖξον τῷ ἱερεῖ καὶ σεαυτὸν τῷ ἱερεῖ καὶ 44καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ· ὅρα µηδενὶ
προσένεγκον τὸ δῶρον ὃ προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ µηδὲν εἴπῃς, ἀλλὰ ὕπαγε
προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς, εἰς καθαρισµοῦ σου καθὼς σεαυτὸν δεῖξον τῷ ἱερεῖ καὶ
µαρτύριον αὐτοῖς. προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς, εἰς προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ
µαρτύριον αὐτοῖς. καθαρισµοῦ σου ἃ
προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς, εἰς
µαρτύριον αὐτοῖς.

Form critically, this narrative is a miracle story.


i.) Redaction
Word for word, Luke's account is closer to Mark than Matthew ("Q"). Mark
wrote the story as taking place in Galilee while Jesus was teaching in the
synagogues, whereas Matthew places the story at the end of the Sermon on the
Mount. Luke made no geographic reference. Although Mark never used καὶ ἰδοὺ
and the influence could certainly have come from Matthew, Luke uses the
phrase in many verses independent of Matthew.94 It appears that Luke copied
Mark's καὶ εὐθέως... ἀπῆλθεν ἀπʼαὐτοῦ (v. 13b), only adding ἡ λέπρα which
could easily be an independent addition; he inverted the phrase σεαυτὸν δεῖξον
(v. 14) that Matthew copied. Luke redacted the leper's reaction to seeing Jesus;
he didn't come and 'adore', προσκύνει (a favorite Matthew word, used 13 times
in his gospel), nor did he παρακαλῶν καὶ γονυπετῶν ('urged him' and 'knelt

94
Chapters 1, 2 and 24, for example.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

down', as in Mark). Luke's leper πεσὼν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον ἐδεήθη ('fell on his face,
begging', δέοµαιis is a word favored by both Luke and Paul), a dramatic
description for literary affect to demonstrate the seriousness of the illness. Luke
also redacted Mark's version of Jesus sending the leper off with instructions.
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἐδεήθη, "begged him" (δέοµαι, with the apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject
of the time element is the articulated infinitive εἶναι, "to be" (εἰµί, followed by
an accusative pronoun which recalls the LXX), rendering a hebraic phrase,
(eliminating the prepositional phrases for clarity), "And it was while he was..., a
man begged him...".
Luke redacted Mark and Matthew's hebraic repetitive καί, replacing them
with a chain of explanatory phrases joined cleverly with "ἰδὼν δὲ" and aorist
verbs (Greek syntax).
iii.) Exegesis
The use of the word 'face' in the narrative is a traditional Israelite manner of
expression. The phrase is used in over 90 verses in the LXX.95 It is a metaphor
for honor (Mark 12,14). The face is also the emotive center of the person, it
reflects everything that is the person. Falling on one's face would mean the
complete erasure of one's own honor in favor of the one they were revering, and
for this reason it is a most profound act. In Luke, Zachary's speech included the
phrase 'for you will go before the face of the Lord' (1,76) and also the man
Simeon, who stated that salvation had arrived 'which God has prepared before
the face of all peoples' (2,31). Later on will be encountered more of Luke's use
of the word 'face'.
Luke has emphasized the poor condition of the man; he is not 'a leper' as the
other synoptics have it, but full, complete with it – an extreme condition.
Leprosy had marked the man as a sinner in the eyes of his fellow man;
sickness and death were seen as punishments for sin to the Israelite mind, an
idea that the author of the book of Job tried to correct. Because leprosy is highly

95
There is also the phrase, “I will set my face (against)” in Lev. 17,10 ἐπιστήσω; 20,3 ἐπιστήσω.5
ἐπιστήσω. 20,6 ἐπιστήσω; Num. 24,1ἀπέστρεψεν. 2 Kings 12,18 ἒταζεν. has the king of Syria who “set
his face to go up to Jerusalem”. Also in Dan. 11,17, δώσει τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

contagious, he had also become an outcast from the community. Jesus cured the
leprosy and thereby not only removed the 'stain' or guilt of the sin, but also
restored him as a member of the community. Jesus then directed him to see a
priest to offer a suitable sacrifice to God, and also to stand as a witness to what
had taken place – aga
in, the importance of a 'witness'. Afterwards, the text states that Jesus cured
many others.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

C1.) 5,17-20, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts96

Matthew 9,2 Luke 5,17-20 Mark 2,1-5


17 1
καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν µια των Καὶ εἰσελθὼν πάλιν εἰς
ἡµερων καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν Καφαρναοὺµ διʼ ἡµερῶν
διδάσκων, καὶ ἦσαν ἠκούσθη ὅτι ἐν οἴκῳ ἐστίν.
2
καθήµενοι Φαρισαῖοι καὶ καὶ συνήχθησαν πολλοὶ
νοµοδιδάσκαλοι οἳ ἦσαν ὥστε µηκέτι χωρεῖν µηδὲ τὰ
ἐληλυθότες ἐκ πάσης κώµης πρὸς τὴν θύραν, καὶ ἐλάλει
τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ Ἰουδαίας αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον.
καὶ Ἰερουσαλήµ· καὶ δύναµις
κυρίου ἦν εἰς τὸ ἰᾶσθαι
3
2καὶἰδοὺ προσέφερον αὐτόν. καὶ ἔρχονται φέροντες πρὸς
αὐτῷ παραλυτικὸν ἐπὶ 18καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες φέροντες αὐτὸν παραλυτικὸν
κλίνης βεβληµένον. ἐπὶ κλίνης ἄνθρωπον ὃς ἦν αἰρόµενον ὑπὸ τεσσάρων.
παραλελυµένος καὶ ἐζήτουν
4
αὐτὸν εἰσενεγκεῖν καὶ θεῖναι καὶ µὴ δυνάµενοι
αὐτὸν ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ. προσενέγκαι αὐτῷ διὰ τὸν
19
καὶ µὴ εὑρόντες ποίας ὄχλον ἀπεστέγασαν τὴν
εἰσενέγκωσιν αὐτὸν διὰ τὸν στέγην ὅπου ἦν, καὶ
ὄχλον, ἀναβάντες ἐπὶ τὸ ἐξορύξαντες χαλῶσι τὸν
δῶµα διὰ τῶν κεράµων κράβαττον ὅπου ὁ
καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν καθῆκαν αὐτὸν σὺν τῷ παραλυτικὸς κατέκειτο.
πίστιν αὐτῶν εἶπεν τῷ κλινιδίῳ εἰς τὸ µέσον 5καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν
παραλυτικῷ· θάρσει, ἔµπροσθεν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ. πίστιν αὐτῶν λέγει τῷ
τέκνον, ἀφίενταί σου αἱ 20καὶ ἰδὼν τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν παραλυτικῷ·
ἁµαρτίαι. εἶπεν· τέκνον, ἀφίενταί σου αἱ
ἄνθρωπε, ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁµαρτίαι.
ἁµαρτίαι σου.

Form critically, this narrative is a pronouncement story ("who can forgive sins?").
As the narrative demonstrates that Jesus has the authority to forgive sin and because it
includes the title "Son of Man", it is also eschatological.
i.) Redaction
Mark appears to be the source for Luke's narrative; Matthew provides only a
brief summary of the events. Luke records at the beginning of his narrative who
was in attendance, Φαρισαῖος and νοµοδιδάσκαλος (which is considered more a
Greek term), whereas Mark added γραµµατεύς in verse 6 as an afterthought.
Luke also recorded in the introduction that the 'power of the Lord' (δύναµις
κυρίου) was there. He also redacted Mark's awkward ἀπεστέγασαν τὴν στέγην

96
This narrative is long, therefore it has been divided into two sections, “C1“ and “C2”.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

("they uncovered the cover") using ἀναβάντες ἐπὶ τὸ δῶµα διὰ τῶν κεράµων
("going up on the house through the tiles").
The preposition ἐνώπιον ('before', 'in front of') in verse 18 is believed to be a
creation of the Koine;97 although frequent in Luke and the LXX, it is "never
found outside the New Testament except occasionally in the papyri."98 It is often
used in the LXX (over 100 times) in the phrase ἐνώπιον κυρίου, "before the
Lord". In the NT, Mark and Matthew never used the word and John only used it
once in the gospel (20,30), but it is fairly frequent in the other NT writings. Luke
is striking in his use of the word; although it is distributed fairly evenly in the
gospel,99 in 14 out of the 20 instances used by Luke, it has the same meaning
that is found in the LXX.100
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἦν, "he was" (εἰµί, with an apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject of the time
element is the direct object µια των ἡµερων, "one of the days", rendering a
Hebrew-structured phrase, "and it was on one of those days [that] he was...".
The placement of ἐν µια των ἡµερων instead of an articulated infinitive at
the introduction alerts the reader that this narrative will announce a new
eschatological revelation. Particular Jewish terms in this narrative include
Φαρισαῖος and the naming of particular towns in Israel.
It is apparent that both writers are telling the same story in the same way,
but Luke is using different vocabulary. More importantly, Mark used
παραλυτικῷ and τέκνον to identify the recipient of the miracle, whereas Luke
instead placed emphasis on the faith of the ἄνθρωπος. He should have used
ἀνήρ, as he did for the small group of men in the same verse.
The exegesis for the narrative is placed at the end of the following section.

97
SOLLAMO, "Semitic Interference", 188.
98
SPARKS, ‘The Semitisms in St. Luke’s Gospel’, 133.
99
1,15; 1,17; 1,19; 1,75-76; 4,7; 5,18; 5,25; 8,47; 12,6-9; 13,26; 14,10; 15,10-18-21; 16,15; 23,14; 24,11-
43.
100
Exceptions are Luke 4,7; 8,47; 14,10; 16,15; 23,14; 24,11.

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C2.) 5,21-24, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts

Matthew 9,3-6 Luke 5,21-24 Mark 2,6-11


3 21 6
καὶ ἰδού τινες τῶν καὶ ἤρξαντο ἦσαν δέ τινες τῶν
γραµµατέων εἶπαν ἐν διαλογίζεσθαι οἱ γραµµατέων ἐκεῖ καθήµενοι
ἑαυτοῖς· γραµµατεῖς καὶ οἱ καὶ διαλογιζόµενοι ἐν ταῖς
Φαρισαῖοι λέγοντες· καρδίαις αὐτῶν·
7
τί οὗτος οὕτως λαλεῖ;
οὗτος βλασφηµεῖ. τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὃς λαλεῖ βλασφηµεῖ· τίς δύναται
βλασφηµίας· τίς δύναται ἀφιέναι ἁµαρτίας εἰ µὴ εἷς ὁ
ἁµαρτίας ἀφεῖναι εἰ µὴ θεός;
4 8
καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὰς µόνος ὁ θεός; καὶ εὐθὺς ἐπιγνοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς
22
ἐνθυµήσεις αὐτῶν εἶπεν· ἐπιγνοὺς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ πνεύµατι αὐτοῦ ὅτι οὕτως
ἱνατί ἐνθυµεῖσθε πονηρὰ τοὺς διαλογισµοὺς αὐτῶν διαλογίζονται ἐν ἑαυτοῖς
ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑµῶν; ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν πρὸς λέγει αὐτοῖς· τί ταῦτα
5
τί γάρ ἐστιν αὐτούς· τί διαλογίζεσθε ἐν διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις
εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν· ταῖς καρδίαις ὑµῶν; ὑµῶν;
23 9
ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁµαρτίαι, τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν
ἢ εἰπεῖν· ἔγειρε καὶ εἰπεῖν· ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ τῷ παραλυτικῷ· ἀφίενταί
περιπάτει; ἁµαρτίαι σου, ἢ εἰπεῖν· σου αἱ ἁµαρτίαι, ἢ εἰπεῖν·
6
ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι ἔγειρε καὶ περιπάτει; ἔγειρε καὶ ἆρον τὸν
24
ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι ὁ υἱὸς κράβαττόν σου καὶ
ἀνθρώπου ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐξουσίαν περιπάτει;
10
ἀφιέναι ἁµαρτίας—τότε ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀφιέναι ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι ἐξουσίαν
λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ· ἁµαρτίας — εἶπεν τῷ ἔχει ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου
ἐγερθεὶς ἆρόν σου τὴν παραλελυµένῳ· σοὶ λέγω, ἀφιέναι ἁµαρτίας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς
κλίνην καὶ ὕπαγε εἰς τὸν ἔγειρε καὶ ἄρας τὸ — λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ·
11
οἶκόν σου. κλινίδιόν σου πορεύου εἰς σοὶ λέγω, ἔγειρε ἆρον τὸν
τὸν οἶκόν σου. κράβαττόν σου καὶ ὕπαγε εἰς
τὸν οἶκόν σου.

i.) Redaction
The more important redactions in this second-half of the narrative include
Luke slightly better phrasing of the questions put by the Pharisees, τίς ἐστιν
οὗτος and τίς δύναται ἁµαρτίας ἀφεῖναι, rendering a better literary tone, "who is
this... who has power..."; these are identity questions that Luke repeats in his
gospel.101 Luke, similar to Matthew, redacted ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου καὶ from
Mark 6,9. Luke also changed the order in verse 24 of the phrase in Mark verse
10 (Matthew, verse 6) from εἰδῆτε ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου to
the phrase ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐξουσίαν ἔχει, placing first the "Son of Man"
who has authority.

101
7,49; 8,25; 9,9.

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The Ἐγένετο Phrases Tesina Sarah Gildea

Luke has added γραµµατεύς to the narrative and has dropped


νοµοδιδάσκαλος. In his conclusion to the narrative (verse 26), Luke exaggerated
Mark's response from the witnesses by having the paralytic δοξάζων τὸν θεόν
(praise God), the ἔκστασις ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας (ecstatic croud) who also ἐδόξαζον
τὸν θεὸν102 and were also ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου.
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
All the writers are a lot more in communion for this second half of the
narrative. All write that the Scribes what Jesus said was a blasphemy; all
emphasize that only God can forgive sins; all three state precisely, τί ἐστιν
εὐκοπώτερον ("which is easier"). All three writers have their narratives end with
a cure and everyone glorifying God.
iii.) Exegesis
In verse 18 it is a group of ἀνήρ who carried a single ἄνθρωπος. Luke wrote
'mankind' for an individual man who was forgiven of his sins as a consequence
of his faith in Jesus.
Why would the author use use ἀνήρ for the individual Peter (v. 8) and the
leper (v. 12), but then use ἄνθρώπος for the individual man in verses 18 and 20?
Was perhaps Luke tying the word ἄνθρωπος to 'sinful' humanity? The
apostles in the first narrative are called to catch ἄνθρωπος, humanity. How are
they to 'catch' or save humanity?
The word ἀνήρ has no etymological connection to ἄνθρωπος.103 Ἄνθρωπος
was used on 87 occasions in Luke's gospel.104 Not only in some narratives but
also in many parables a single ἄνθρωπος can serve as a metaphor for humanity
(4,33; 5,18-20; 6,6; 8,29.33.35; 10,30; 12,14; 14,2; 16,19, 18,10); in other

102
Also found in Luke 2,20; 5,25-26; 7,16; 13,13.
103
According to R. BEEKES, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, "ἀνήρ" and "Ἄνθρωπος" (Boston, 2010),
the etymology of ἀνήρ sees it as identical with Arm. ayr, gen. arn 'man' ... Italic ner- in Osc. nerum
'virorum', Lat. Nerō (Sabellic).
Ἄνθρωπος is dialectically from the Mycenian, a-to-ro-qo /anthrōkwos/. Derivatives include ἀνθρωπέν,
human skin (Hdt., Poll.); ἀνθρωπότης ‘humanity’ (Ph., S. E.). Adjectives include ἀνθρωπειος ‘human’
(Ion. Etc.). Denominative verbs for ἄνθρωπος include: 1. ἀνθρωπίζοµαι ‘to behave like a man’ (Ar.,
Luc.); thence ἀνθρωπισµός ‘humankind’ (Aristip.); ἀνθρωπεύοµαι [v.] ‘to behave like a man’ (Arist.); 3.
ἀνθρωπόοµαι ‘to be human’ (Plu.).”
104
By way of comparison, ἀνήρ was only used 26 times in the gospel. These numbers are in stark contrast
with Acts, where the author used ἀνήρ on 98 occasions, compared to only 45 uses for ἄνθρωπος.

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parables, ἄνθρωπος represents its antonym – God (14,16; 15,11; 16,1; 19,12;
20,9).105
Luke has a tendency to use ἄνθρωπος where the individual in the narrative
could be representative of all humanity, or its antonym, God.
Luke in this narrative has also introduced Jesus for the first time as "Son of
Man". There is no tradition of a Son of Man who confers forgiveness, but there
is "one like" a "son of man" who has "authority" (ἐξουσία) in Daniel, chapter 7.
The "son of man" portrayed in Daniel was presented to the "Ancient of days"
and was given "everlasting authority" (v. 14, καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ ἐξουσία... καὶ ἡ
ἐξουσία αὐτοῦ ἐξουσία αἰώνιος) over all people, tribes and tongues. This same
ideas are reiterated in verse 27. Whether Daniel had intended this "son of man"
figure as one Messiah or the nation of Israel is debated but not relevent here. The
question is, if Luke was influenced by the book of Daniel, how did he interpret
it? The Son of Man figure in Daniel is an eschatological judge and ruler, and
Luke appears to have applied that figure in Daniel to Jesus.
This is an eschatological moment. There was in Judaism a certain
expectation of eschatological forgiveness that can be witnessed through the
prophets, especially during the exile period. Jeremiah "gave oracles of hope for
the future, the most important being his prophecy of a new covenant. Many of
the 'Look, days are coming' oracles, primarily in chap. 31, speak of an indefinite
future, but one in which Yahweh's promises are to be fulfilled."106 Further, this
new covenant will be "grounded in a wholly new act of divine grace, i.e., the
forgiveness of sins (v. 34; cf. Ezek. 36,25-28)."107
In the first narrative the apostles were actively filling (ἔπλησαν, πίµπληµι)
the boats with fish and in the third narrative the crowds were filled
(ἐπλήσθησαν) with fear. It might also be beneficial to notice the active and
passive forms of πίµπληµι used for the different participants in these narratives.
In the first narrative those participants (the apostles) will be active members in

105
For the 26 occasions of ἀνήρ, only three are questionable (9,14; 11,31; 14,24).
Problem verses for ἄνθρωπος include 2,25; 22,10, but notice 7,31, ἄνθρωπος, "men of this generation"
and 11,31, ἀνήρ, "men of this generation".
106
J. R. LUNDBOM, Jeremiah Closer Up: The Prophet and the Book (Sheffield, 2010), 40-41.
107
LUNDBOM, Jeremiah Closer Up, 70. See also Isaiah 43,25-26; 44,22; Ezek. 16,63; Mic. 7,19.

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his ministry, whereas others, like the witnesses in the present narrative, can or
will be the recipients of this new eschatological gift.
The repeated use of the ἐγένετο phrases that introduced all three narratives
allowed the reader/listener to understand that the two previous miracles are
joined to the third. The repetition of other words in common with the first and
third narrative reinforce this observation. The miracle that Jesus preformed in
the second narrative rejoined wounded man to his earthly community, and the
catching of fish along with the cure of the leper were signs of something much
greater that Jesus could accomplish – removing sin and thereby rejoining man to
the heavenly community.
All three gospels writers state that Jesus healed the man after he commented
on everyone's faith (expressed through the work they preformed to get the sick
man in proximity to Jesus), but the Jewish listener or reader of Luke's gospel
was given more. Beginning with Peters' confession of sinfulness (ἀνὴρ
ἁµαρτωλός εἰµι), the chapter ends with Christ forgiving sin. From Peter and the
leper falling on their faces (προσπίπτω, πίπτω), the chapter ends with sinful man
'rising up' (ἀναστὰς ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν). The first narrative has Jesus stating, "from
now you all will be catchers of" ἄνθρωπος; in the last narrative Jesus catches
and saves ἄνθρωπος through the forgiveness of his sins. From the natural fear
expressed with Peter in verse 9 (θάµβος), the witnesses will grow in
understanding and develop a reverential fear (φόβος) in verse 26.

Just as these narratives in chapter 5 are linked with shared words and phrases, the
last narrative in chapter 5 will also be linked to the second narrative in chapter 6 with
the use of shared words and phrases. Here, Luke will again use the three–tiered
composition that was used in chapter 5 to lead his readers to another eschatological
revelation. Utilizing phrases only from the first formal Category "A", these narratives
announce that an eschatological prophecy will be fulfilled.

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VI. Chapter 6 – The Sabbath Events


This chapter provides testimony to the 'hardness' of the Pharisees and their
interpretation of the Law, demonstrated through their concern to not work on the
Sabbath, which is placed in a polemic with Jesus and his doctrine of compassion.
However, there is another, more important revelation.

A.) 6,1-5, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Text

Matthew 12,1-8 Luke 6,1-5 Mark 2,23-28


1Ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ 1Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν σαββάτῳ 23Καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς
ἐπορεύθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς διαπορεύεσθαι αὐτὸν διὰ σάββασιν παραπορεύεσθαι
σάββασιν διὰ τῶν σπορίµων, καὶ ἔτιλλον οἱ διὰ τῶν σπορίµων, καὶ οἱ
σπορίµων· οἱ δὲ µαθηταὶ µαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἤσθιον µαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤρξαντο ὁδὸν
αὐτοῦ ἐπείνασαν καὶ τοὺς στάχυας ψώχοντες ποιεῖν τίλλοντες τοὺς
ἤρξαντο τίλλειν στάχυας ταῖς χερσίν. στάχυας.
καὶ ἐσθίειν.
2οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἰδόντες 2τινὲς δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων
εἶπαν αὐτῷ· ἰδοὺ οἱ εἶπαν· τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ 24καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ἔλεγον
µαθηταί σου ποιοῦσιν ὃ ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν; αὐτῷ· ἴδε τί ποιοῦσιν τοῖς
οὐκ ἔξεστιν ποιεῖν ἐν 3καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς πρὸς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν;
σαββάτῳ. αὐτοὺς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς·
3ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· οὐκ οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε ὃ 25καὶ
λέγει αὐτοῖς· οὐδέποτε
ἀνέγνωτε τί ἐποίησεν ἐποίησεν Δαυὶδ ὅτε ἀνέγνωτε τί ἐποίησεν Δαυὶδ
Δαυὶδ ὅτε ἐπείνασεν καὶ ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ ὅτε χρείαν ἔσχεν καὶ
οἱ µετʼ αὐτοῦ, µετʼ αὐτοῦ [ὄντες], ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ µετʼ
4πῶς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν 4[ὡς] εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν αὐτοῦ,
οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοὺς οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοὺς 26πῶς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον
ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως τοῦ θεοῦ (ἐπὶ Ἀβιαθὰρ
ἔφαγον, ὃ οὐκ ἐξὸν ἦν λαβὼν ἔφαγεν καὶ ἔδωκεν ἀρχιερέως) καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους
αὐτῷ φαγεῖν οὐδὲ τοῖς τοῖς µετʼ αὐτοῦ, οὓς οὐκ τῆς προθέσεως ἔφαγεν, οὓς
µετʼ αὐτοῦ εἰ µὴ τοῖς ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ µὴ οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ µὴ τοὺς
ἱερεῦσιν µόνοις; µόνους τοὺς ἱερεῖς; ἱερεῖς, καὶ ἔδωκεν καὶ τοῖς
(verses 5,6,7 not in σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσιν;
Luke/Mark)
27καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· τὸ
σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον
5καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· κύριός ἐγένετο καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος
ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ υἱὸς διὰ τὸ σάββατον·
8κύριος
γάρ ἐστιν τοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. 28 ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς
σαββάτου ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ
ἀνθρώπου. σαββάτου.

Form critically, this is a pronouncement story, as it ends with the summary,


"therefore, the Son of Man is Lord of the sabbath." Jesus had already revealed himself
as the messianic figure who had been prophesied, and this pronouncement will lead the
listening audience to this new, eschatological revelation.

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i.) Redaction
It is believed that a good part of this narrative comes from Mark, however,
Luke included the word µόνος that is in Matthew (verse 4), and Luke's
conclusion is almost exactly the same as Matthew. He eliminated Mark 2,27 (as
did Matthew), and except for a few vocabulary fixes, Luke added nothing
substantial to the narrative, except the introductory phrase.
As mentioned previously, Luke changed the plural σάββασιν used by Mark.
Luke and Matthew redacted the extra phrase, "under Abiathar the high priest"
and Luke alone redacted the order of events regarding David – he 'entered',
'took', 'ate' and 'gave' the bread.
Luke also redacted the redundant verses 5-7 of Matthew, thereby bringing
the name David108 closer to the "Son of Man" title, first introduced in the last
narrative of chapter 5. Both statements emphasize the Lordship.109
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the infinitive
verb διαπορεύεσθαι, "to pass through" (διαπορεύοµαι, infinitive, rendering a
Greek st.). The subject of the time element is the direct object σάββατον,
"Sabbath" (Hebrew term), rendering a mixed Greek/hebraic phrase, "And it was
on a Sabbath, as he passed...".
iii.) Exegesis
Mark concludes with κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου.
Matthew and Luke's version has 'the Lord of the Sabbath is the Son of Man';110
κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
In the Jewish mind, the Lord of the Sabbath is Yahweh (Ex. 20,10);
σάββατα κυρίῳ τῷ θεῷ σου; Luke's wording equates the Lord of the sabbath
with the Son of Man, therefore, the Lord of the the Sabbath is Jesus,111 he is
greater than David because he is lord of the Sabbath, and this "lordship" is now
added to his authority (ἐξουσία, 5,24).112

108
David's actions had nothing to do with the sabbath, but was an example of legitimately breaking small
rules.
109
PLUMMER, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary, 168.
110
C. K. ROWE, Early Narrative Christology: The Lord in the Gospel of Luke (Berlin, 2006), 108.
111
ROWE, Early Narrative Christology, 109-110.
112
FITZMYER, Luke I-IX, 606.

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B.) 6,6-11, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Text


Matthew 12:9-13 Luke 6:6-11 Mark 3:1-6
6Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ
9Καὶ µεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν σαββάτῳ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτὸν 1Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς τὴν
ἦλθεν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν καὶ συναγωγήν. καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ
αὐτῶν· διδάσκειν. καὶ ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραµµένην
10καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος χεῖρα ἐκεῖ καὶ ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ἡ ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα.
ἔχων ξηράν. καὶ δεξιὰ ἦν ξηρά.
ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν 7παρετηροῦντο δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ 2καὶ παρετήρουν αὐτὸν εἰ
λέγοντες· γραµµατεῖς καὶ οἱ τοῖς σάββασιν θεραπεύσει
Φαρισαῖοι εἰ ἐν τῷ αὐτόν, ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν
σαββάτῳ θεραπεύει, ἵνα αὐτοῦ.
εἰ ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν εὕρωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ.
θεραπεῦσαι; ἵνα 8αὐτὸς δὲ ᾔδει τοὺς
κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ. διαλογισµοὺς αὐτῶν, εἶπεν
δὲ τῷ ἀνδρὶ τῷ ξηρὰν 3καὶ λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τῷ
(verses 11,12 not in Luke/Mark) ἔχοντι τὴν χεῖρα· ἔγειρε καὶ τὴν ξηρὰν χεῖρα ἔχοντι·
στῆθι εἰς τὸ µέσον· καὶ ἔγειρε εἰς τὸ µέσον.
ἀναστὰς ἔστη.
9εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς πρὸς 4καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· ἔξεστιν
αὐτούς· ἐπερωτῶ ὑµᾶς εἰ τοῖς σάββασιν ἀγαθὸν
ἔξεστιν τῷ σαββάτῳ ἀγα- ποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι,
θοποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι, ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀποκτεῖναι;
ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀπολέσαι; οἱ δὲ ἐσιώπων.
5καὶ περιβλεψάµενος
10καὶ περιβλεψάµενος αὐτοὺς µετʼ ὀργῆς,
13τότε λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ· πάντας αὐτοὺς εἶπεν αὐτῷ· συλλυπούµενος ἐπὶ τῇ
ἔκτεινόν σου τὴν χεῖρα. καὶ ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρά σου. ὁ πωρώσει τῆς καρδίας
ἐξέτεινεν καὶ δὲ ἐποίησεν καὶ αὐτῶν λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ·
ἀπεκατεστάθη ὑγιὴς ὡς ἡ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρα. καὶ
ἄλλη. αὐτοῦ. ἐξέτεινεν καὶ
11αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐπλήσθησαν ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ
ἀνοίας καὶ διελάλουν πρὸς αὐτοῦ.
ἀλλήλους τί ἂν ποιήσαιεν 6καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ
τῷ Ἰησοῦ. Φαρισαῖοι εὐθὺς µετὰ τῶν
14ἐξελθόντεςδὲ οἱ Ἡρῳδιανῶν συµβούλιον
Φαρισαῖοι συµβούλιον ἐδίδουν κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως
ἔλαβον κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν.
αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν.

In the first narrative from chapter 6, Jesus claimed to be Lord of the Sabbath; in
this second narrative, he demonstrated this claim with a miraculous cure, and this is
therefore form-critically, a miracle story.
i.) Redaction
Luke version is closer to Mark than Matthew. He embellished Mark's
account by adding Jesus was teaching, it was the right hand of the man, added

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καί to verses 6 and 7 and added and adapted many words and phrases that were
found in the third narrative of chapter 5: Both reference Jesus' teaching (5,17;
6,6); both have an unnamed man as the recipient of a miracle (using the
incorrect form ἄνθρωπος, 5,18; ἄνθρωπος, 6,6);113 Jesus knew "their thoughts"
(5,22; 6,8) and both men were placed εἰς τό µέσον (5,19; 6,8). Both narratives
also state that the witnesses "were filled", using the reflexive πίµπληµι
(ἐπλήσθησαν, 5,26 and 6,11), and the witnesses of 5,17 were filled with φόβος
when confronted with an event that placed “a particular emphasis on God’s
glory”, in contrast with the Pharisees in the present narrative who were instead
filled with madness.
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the infinitive
verb εἰσελθεῖν, "to enter" (εἰσέρχοµαι, infinitive, with Greek apodotic δέ,
rendering a Greek st.). The subject of the time element is the direct object
σάββατον, "Sabbath" (Hebrew term), rendering a mixed Greek/hebraic phrase,
"and it was on another sabbath he entered...".
iii.) Exegesis
This present narrative records another event taking place on another
sabbath. The Pharisees had created the image of themselves being little 'lords' of
the sabbath – religious police so to speak, who sought out those who had failed
to follow all the prescripts of the law. Peter referred to these laws as a "yoke"
which no one could bear.114 Jesus demonstrated that the obligation to rest from
all works had been reduced to an absurdity under the Pharisees through the
miraculous cure that he provided. The absurdity is triple: The Pharisees, by
challenging Jesus, were working on the Sabbath; Secondly, if Jesus were only a
prophet, he wouldn't have been personally responsible for the cure – God
worked through the prophets as a carpenter uses a hammer and therefore, he
wasn't actually doing any 'work'. Lastly, Jesus wasn't witnessed doing anything –
he didn't "lay his hands on him";115 he only spoke.

113
Luke returned to the use correct use of ἀνήρ in 6,8. On a textual critical note, there are no textual
witnesses that attempt to correct the terms.
114
Acts 15,10.
115
Luke 13,13.

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C.) 6,12-14, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Text


Matthew 10,1-4 Luke 6,12-14 Mark 3,13-19
12Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς 13Καὶ ἀναβαίνει εἰς τὸ ὄρος
1Καὶ προσκαλεσάµενος ἡµέραις ταύταις ἐξελθεῖν καὶ προσκαλεῖται οὓς ἤθελεν
τοὺς δώδεκα µαθητὰς αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ ὄρος αὐτός, καὶ ἀπῆλθον πρὸς
αὐτοῦ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς προσεύξασθαι, καὶ ἦν αὐτόν.
ἐξουσίαν πνευµάτων διανυκτερεύων ἐν τῇ 14καὶ ἐποίησεν δώδεκα [οὓς
ἀκαθάρτων ὥστε προσευχῇ τοῦ θεοῦ. καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόµασεν]
ἐκβάλλειν αὐτὰ καὶ 13καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἡµέρα, ἵνα ὦσιν µετʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἵνα
θεραπεύειν πᾶσαν νόσον προσεφώνησεν τοὺς ἀποστέλλῃ αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν
καὶ πᾶσαν µαλακίαν. µαθητὰς αὐτοῦ, καὶ 15καὶ ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν
2 Τῶν δὲ δώδεκα ἐκλεξάµενος ἀπʼ αὐτῶν ἐκβάλλειν τὰ δαιµόνια·
ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόµατά δώδεκα, οὓς καὶ 16[καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς
ἐστιν ταῦτα· πρῶτος ἀποστόλους ὠνόµασεν· δώδεκα,] καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνοµα
Σίµων ὁ λεγόµενος Πέτρος 14Σίµωνα ὃν καὶ ὠνόµασεν τῷ Σίµωνι Πέτρον,
Πέτρον ...

Form-critically, this is a pronouncement story.


i.) Redaction
Luke copied this account from Mark (and Matthew or "Q"), adding that
Jesus spent the night in prayer before choosing the apostles, but redacted the
phrase stating that Jesus gave the Apostles authority (ἐξουσία). This giving of
authority does not take place for Luke until chapter 9.
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the infinitive
verb ἐξελθεῖν, "to go out" (ἐξέρχοµαι, infinitive, rendering a Greek st.). The
subject of the time element is the direct object ταῖς ἡµέραις ταύταις, "these days"
(Hebrew prophetic phrase), rendering a mixed Greek/hebraic phrase, "And it
was in these days he went out...".
iii.) Exegesis
As observed earlier, only Luke used ταύταις ("these") with a "days"
expression, bringινγ salvation to the here and now. Luke emphasizes the prayer:
"Jesus went up to the mountain to pray and spent the night in prayer." After
which, he chose the apostles. This is an eschatological/soteriological moment,
because it is forseeing the role they will play in the future for the salvation of
mankind.
It has already been noted that in 5,24 Jesus has the ἐξουσία to forgive sin. In
verse 6,5 we learned that the Son of Man is κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου. As

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Lord, he has the ability to grant to his disciples a share of his ἐξουσία. It has
already been noted in the previous chapter that the cure of illness was a sign of
the forgiveness of sin. If Jesus can give the apostles power to preform exorcisms
and to heal, then he can also give the apostles the power in his name to forgive
sin.
It is enough to state here that if one holds the literary-critical view of Beyer
and others that Luke simply copied these narratives from previously written
Aramaic sources, then one is compelled to acknowledge that the seeds of the
Apostolic Institution are found in the earliest stages of a 'primitive gospel' or
'primitive Luke' and that it was not a later development.
If one is of the same opinion as Reiling, that "there is no reason to look for
another source for the use of the egeneto-phrase in the New Testament than the
LXX,"116 and further recognizes like Breukelman, that these phrases "prepare
the audience for some important event of a revelatory nature...",117 then one is
compelled to view the ἐγένετο phrase in 6,17 as pointing to the eschatological
and soteriological change in Jewish religious worship, with the choosing and
later appointment of the twelve. The ἐγένετο phrases are not coincidental, and it
is more likely that their additions are from the hand of one person and not
prepared by an early 'Christian community'.

At this stage in the gospel, it appears that Luke has delivered his message: Jesus
is the Messiah, Son of God, he can forgive sins, and the first hint that he will pass this
power on to select other individuals has been made with the selection of the word
ἀπόστολος, which etymologically means "to send". Luke now has the task to complete
his understanding of the historical life of Jesus, including his death and resurrection.
Jesus this far in the gospel has only identified himself to the general crowds as a prophet
and ‘Son of Man’, which is at least a prophetic figure. Luke the narrator and redactor
has identified him to his reading audience as much more.

116
J. REILING, “The Use and Translation of kai egeneto, ‘And it Happened’, in the New Testament”, The
Bible Translator 16. United Bible Societies (London, 1965), 154.
117
REILING, “The Use and Translation...", 157.

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VII. Chapter 7-8 – The Use of ἑξῆς and καθεξῆς


Chapters 7 and 8 have particular problems that are not easily resolved. If the
phrase in 7,11, "καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς ἐπορεύθη..."118 is accepted in this study, then
must also be accepted the phrase from 8,1, "καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς καὶ αὐτὸς
διώδευεν,"119 as the phrases are clearly similar.

A.) 7,11, Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς ἐπορεύθη εἰς πόλιν καλουµένην Ναῒν καὶ
συνεπορεύοντο αὐτῷ οἱ µαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ ὄχλος πολύς.

This sentence begins a narrative unique to Luke, where Jesus raised a man from
the dead during the man's funeral. Form critically, this is a miracle story.
i.) Composition of the Introduction
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
aorist verb ἐπορεύθη "he went" (πορεύοµαι). The subject of the time element is
the adverb ἑξῆς, "next, afterwards", rendering a Hebrew phrase, "And afterwards
he went out...".
Ἐξῆς ('next in order') is a hapax; it was used only five times in the LXX and
once in 3 Macc. Luke used it only once in the gospel and three times in Acts
(21,1; 25,17; 27,18).
ii.) Exegesis
One might expect an event like this would be introduced with ἐν ταῖς
ἡµέραις. Metzger instructed that with 'ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς' the reader or listener is to
think of χρόνῳ "soon afterward."120 However, if Luke had intended χρόνῳ, he
could have simply written χρόνῳ, as he did seven times in his gospel. Luke is
more careful with his wording than this; ἐν τω καιρός ἐκέινω – in that 'time',
'season', 'occasion' – it is also often used by Luke in a prophetic sense.121
This 'raised from the dead' narrative is reminiscent of Elijah (1 Kings 17,21-
22); in fact, Luke used the exact same phrase, "καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν τῇ µητρὶ
αὐτοῦ." Elijah was also expected to return to restore things (Mal. 3,23 [4,5]; Sir.
48,10), John the Baptist was promised to be like him, and Jesus was also

118
A few variants have ἐγένετο τῃ, or ἐγένετο ἐν τῃ. Although those forms are found frequently enough
in the LXX, they are not found in the NT, therefore favoring the current reading.
119
No variants for the entire sentence. 8,1 phrase ends with an imperfect, 3rd singular verb.
120
B. M. METZGER, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (Stuttgart, 20002), 114.
121
1,20; 4,13; 8,13; 12,42; 12,56; 13,1 18,30; 19,44; 20,10; 21,8; 21,24 and 36.

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compared to him. Where Elijah went to great physical effort to reanimate the
deceased person, Jesus stated rather effortlessly in this narrative, 'get up'. The
Christological implications are obvious, and the fact that Luke included it when
it is not in Matthew or Mark also distinguishes the narrative as being particularly
important to Luke.

B.) 8,1, Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς καὶ αὐτὸς διώδευεν κατὰ πόλιν καὶ κώµην
κηρύσσων καὶ εὐαγγελιζόµενος τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ οἱ δώδεκα σὺν αὐτῷ...

This sentence also begins a narrative unique to Luke and introduces Mary
Magdalen as well as other persons, followed by a parable. Form critically, this is a
story in the life of Jesus.
i.) Composition of the Introduction
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
imperfect verb διώδευεν "he traveled through" (διοδεύω, with Hebrew apodotic
καὶ). The subject of the time element is the adverb καθεξῆς, "in order/sequence",
rendering a Hebrew/Greek phrase, "And it was afterwards [that] he traveled
through...".
Καθεξῆς is a hapax (1,3; 8,1; Acts 3,24; 11,4; 18,23); it is not found in the
LXX, and was not used often in secular Greek.122 Because of the temporal
expression ἐν, the use of this word might be a literary replacement for ἡµέρα (as
in both 7,11 and here they stand in place of a noun), but its absence in the LXX
means that it would have had no special meaning for a Jewish audience.
However, the rare usage and predominent use by Luke suggests that a closer
look is necessary.
ii.) Exegesis
The only piece of information that would render this story of any interest for
this study is verse 8,10, where Jesus told his disciples, "To you all it is given to
know the mysteries of the kingdom of God, and to the rest in parables." This
statement reminds the reader of the special, chosen nature of the Apostles from
6,13; Now in chapter 8, they are given special insights into the teaching of the

122
Plutarch, Quaestiones Convivales, 615c, ‘µυρσίνην οὐ καθεξῆς βαδίζειν,”. Aelian, Varia Historia, 8.7,
“πέντε δὲ ἡµέρας καθεξῆς τοὺς γάµους ἔθυεν”. BEEKES, Etymological Dictionary, "εξῆς". Plutarch and
Aelian quotes courtesy of www.perseus.tufts.edu Accessed April 3, 2017.

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Messiah that were not given to the crowds. In 9,1 they will be given δύναµις and
ἐξουσία over all demons as well as the power to heal.
The previous narrative (7,36-49) also presented Jesus forgiving sins with the
Pharisees exclaiming, "Τίς οὗτός ἐστιν ὃς καὶ ἁµαρτίας ἀφίησιν" ('who is this
who also forgives sins?’), which is reminiscent of 5,21.
Did Luke intend to link chapter 7 to chapter 8, using the John the Baptist
narrative (7,18-29) in order to group; α. A 'raised from the dead' miracle; β. John
the Baptist as a witness; γ. forgiveness of sins and δ. commission of the
disciples?
Both narratives in chapters 7 and 8 are unique to Luke; both use key
aspects of the ἐγένετο phrases being investigated with the adaptation of the word
ἑξῆς, 'after'; the narratives serve to reinforce previous revelations, with the
addition of the "raised from the dead" miracle.
The repetition of previous eschatological revelations suggests that these two
narratives do not have the same literary value as the previous narratives, and
serve a lesser important function of repeating the important eschatological
message.

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VIII. Chapter 8,22-25 – Jesus' Power Over Nature,


Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Text

Matthew 8,23-27 Luke 8,22-25 Mark 4,35b-41


23 Καὶ ἐµβάντι αὐτῷ εἰς τὸ 22Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν µιᾷ τῶν 35bδιέλθωµεν εἰς τὸ πέραν.
πλοῖον ἠκολούθησαν ἡµερῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ἐνέβη εἰς 36καὶ ἀφέντες τὸν ὄχλον
αὐτῷ οἱ µαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. πλοῖον καὶ οἱ µαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ παραλαµβάνουσιν αὐτὸν ὡς
24 καὶ ἰδοὺ σεισµὸς µέγας καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς· ἦν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ, καὶ ἄλλα
ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, διέλθωµεν εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς πλοῖα ἦν µετʼ αὐτοῦ.
ὥστε τὸ πλοῖον λίµνης, καὶ ἀνήχθησαν. 37καὶ γίνεται λαῖλαψ
καλύπτεσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν 23πλεόντων δὲ αὐτῶν µεγάλη ἀνέµου καὶ τὰ
κυµάτων, αὐτὸς δὲ ἀφύπνωσεν. καὶ κατέβη κύµατα ἐπέβαλλεν εἰς τὸ
ἐκάθευδεν. λαῖλαψ ἀνέµου εἰς τὴν πλοῖον, ὥστε ἤδη
25 καὶ προσελθόντες λίµνην καὶ συνεπληροῦντο γεµίζεσθαι τὸ πλοῖον.
ἤγειραν αὐτὸν λέγοντες· καὶ ἐκινδύνευον. (Most of verse 38 not in Matt./Luke.)
κύριε, σῶσον, 24προσελθόντες δὲ
διδάσκαλε, οὐ µέλει σοι ὅτι
ἀπολλύµεθα. διήγειραν αὐτὸν λέγοντες· ἀπολλύµεθα;
26 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· τί ἐπιστάτα ἐπιστάτα, 39καὶ διεγερθεὶς ἐπετίµησεν

δειλοί ἐστε, ὀλιγόπιστοι; ἀπολλύµεθα. τῷ ἀνέµῳ καὶ εἶπεν τῇ


τότε ἐγερθεὶς ἐπετίµησεν ὁ δὲ διεγερθεὶς ἐπετίµησεν θαλάσσῃ· σιώπα,
τοῖς ἀνέµοις καὶ τῇ τῷ ἀνέµῳ καὶ τῷ κλύδωνι πεφίµωσο. καὶ ἐκόπασεν ὁ
θαλάσσῃ, τοῦ ὕδατος· ἄνεµος καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη
καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη καὶ ἐπαύσαντο καὶ ἐγένετο µεγάλη.
µεγάλη. γαλήνη. 40καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· τί δειλοί

25εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς· ποῦ ἡ


ἐστε; οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν;
27οἱ δὲ ἄνθρωποι πίστις ὑµῶν; φοβηθέντες δὲ 41καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον

ἐθαύµασαν λέγοντες· ἐθαύµασαν λέγοντες πρὸς µέγαν καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς


ποταπός ἐστιν οὗτος ὅτι ἀλλήλους· τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἀλλήλους· τίς ἄρα οὗτός
καὶ οἱ ἄνεµοι καὶ ἡ ἐστιν ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἀνέµοις ἐστιν ὅτι καὶ ὁ ἄνεµος καὶ ἡ
θάλασσα αὐτῷ ἐπιτάσσει καὶ τῷ ὕδατι, καὶ θάλασσα ὑπακούει αὐτῷ;
ὑπακούουσιν; ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ;

Form critically, this is a miracle story.


i.) Redaction
There is a lot more independence between the synoptic writers in this
narrative, although all three writers used the same present, middle of ἀπόλλυµι
('we are lost'). Luke appears to have derived his material from Mark, but two
phrases demonstrate that he may have also seen Matthew's account ("Q"): verse
24, προσελθόντες δὲ (“and they came”, using the conjunction δέ instead of καί)
and verse 25, ἐθαύµασαν λέγοντες ("they wondered, saying"). All three authors
address Jesus with a different title (διδάσκαλε, κύριε, ἐπιστάτα). Ἀφυπνόω
(ἀφύπνωσεν, to sleep) is a hapax, and is found no where else in Scripture. Luke
redacted certain details (as is typical of Lukan style, to give the story more

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clarity), and has been seen throughout the narratives studied so far, he often
changed the Hebrew syntaxed καί to the Greek δέ.
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite verb
ἐνέβη, "he went" (ἐµβαίνω, with the apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject of the
time element is the direct object µιᾷ τῶν ἡµερῶν (Hebrew prophetic phrase),
rendering a mixed Hebrew/Greek phrase, "and it was on one of those days [that]
he went..."123
iii.) Exegesis
Luke began with the messianic or eschatological phrase ἐγένετο δὲ + ἡµερα
form, and therefore the reader can confidently expect an important revelation.
This brief narrative demonstrates the divine nature of Jesus, exemplified here
through his power over nature, which was beyond the work of any prophet.
Notice here the difference between the introduction to this narrative and the
introduction from 7,11: Jesus was compared to a prophet in the narrative
beginning with 7,11, but in this narrative Jesus is portrayed as having power
well beyond any prophet. Luke concluded the narration with the rhetorical
question, "Who is this, that commands the winds and water, and they obey
him?" This rhetorical question has now become a frequent part of the conclusion
of his narratives,124 but this time the question is shared by all the synoptic
authors.

Following this narrative, there is a particularly great miracle (8,27) that is not
introduced with either Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν or καὶ ἐγένετο. This narrative is mentioned here
only to again demonstrate (like chapter 4) that the ἐγένετο phrases are used very
specifically by Luke. In this narrative, demons identified Jesus as the "Son of the most
high God." As was observed previously with verse 4,36, Luke was willing to record the
event, but not place as much emphasis on it as the other narratives being presently
studied, because the crowds rejected Jesus, and the demons do not profess faith, but
fear.

123
'He entered the boat' is a necessary phrase to make sense to the sentence, but it does not introduce the
narrative.
124
The question is also found in Mathew 8,27, only for this narrative; Luke used the question here and in
5,32; 7,49; 9,9; and an 'advanced' form in 20,2.

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IX. Chapter 9 – Narrative Shift to Jerusalem


Chapter 9 has exactly the same amount of qualifying ἐγένετο phrases as the first
chapter. It contains the Christological confession of Peter, the Transfiguration narrative
and also the beginning of Jesus' travel to Jerusalem.

A.) 9,18-22, Christological Identification by Peter,


Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Text
Matthew 16,13-20 Luke 9,18-22 Mark 8,27-30
13Ἐλθὼν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὰ 18Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι 27Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ
µέρη Καισαρείας τῆς αὐτὸν προσευχόµενον κατὰ οἱ µαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς
Φιλίππου ἠρώτα τοὺς µόνας συνῆσαν αὐτῷ οἱ κώµας Καισαρείας τῆς
µαθητὰς αὐτοῦ λέγων· τίνα µαθηταί, καὶ ἐπηρώτησεν Φιλίππου· καὶ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ
λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι αὐτοὺς λέγων· τίνα µε ἐπηρώτα τοὺς µαθητὰς
τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου; λέγουσιν οἱ ὄχλοι εἶναι; αὐτοῦ λέγων αὐτοῖς· τίνα
µε λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι
14οἱ δὲ εἶπαν· οἱ µὲν 19οἱ
δὲ ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν· εἶναι;
Ἰωάννην τὸν βαπτιστήν, Ἰωάννην τὸν βαπτιστήν, 28οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες
ἄλλοι δὲ Ἠλίαν, ἕτεροι δὲ ἄλλοι δὲ Ἠλίαν, ἄλλοι δὲ [ὅτι] Ἰωάννην τὸν
Ἰερεµίαν ἢ ἕνα τῶν ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν βαπτιστήν, καὶ ἄλλοι
προφητῶν. ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη. Ἠλίαν, ἄλλοι δὲ ὅτι εἷς τῶν
20εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς· ὑµεῖς δὲ προφητῶν.
15 λέγει αὐτοῖς· ὑµεῖς δὲ τίνα µε λέγετε εἶναι;
τίνα µε λέγετε εἶναι; Πέτρος δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς 29καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπηρώτα
16 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ Σίµων εἶπεν· αὐτούς· ὑµεῖς δὲ τίνα µε
Πέτρος εἶπεν· λέγετε εἶναι; ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ
σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ τὸν χριστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ. Πέτρος λέγει αὐτῷ·
θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος. 21ὁ δὲ ἐπιτιµήσας αὐτοῖς σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός.
παρήγγειλεν µηδενὶ λέγειν 30καὶ ἐπετίµησεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα
(verses 17-19 are unique to τοῦτο µηδενὶ λέγωσιν περὶ αὐτοῦ.
Matt.)
22εἰπὼν ὅτι δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ
20τότε διεστείλατο τοῖς ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν...
µαθηταῖς ἵνα µηδενὶ
εἴπωσιν ὅτι αὐτός ἐστιν ὁ
χριστός.

This narrative addresses Jesus' identity as the Christ of God, therefore form-
critically it is a story about Jesus which emphasizes his identity.
i.) Redaction
Luke redacted the geographical reference and instead used one of his more
widely used introduction formulas; he imitated the Hebrew ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν
twice and surprisingly didn't use Matthew's "Son of Man" nor "Son of the living
God". He did however, correct the use of ἄνθρωποι with ὄχλοι, and Luke also
added 'ancient' prophets that could have "risen", ἀνίστηµι.

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ii.) Composition of the Introduction


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἐπηρώτησεν, "he asked" (ἐπερωτάω, with an apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The
subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive εἶναι, "to be" (followed
by an accusative pronoun, which recalls the LXX). All these elements render the
hebraic phrase, "And it was while he was praying... [that] he asked them...".
iii.) Exegesis
Matthew's account gives the reader the impression that the crowds knew and
used the "Son of Man" title in reference to Jesus. Luke's account instead
associates the 'Son of Man' title with the aspect of suffering.
Here is also located the so-called “Big Omission” (Mark 6,45-8,26). This
omission allowed Luke to join Herod's question (9,9) 125 to the miraculous
feeding of the 5,000 (9,12-17) to Peter’s confession (present narrative), and then
the Transfiguration.
Peter’s denial (Mark 8,32b-33, ‘back away from me, Satan’) was eliminated
from Luke's account, not because Luke doesn't want to show the apostles in a
bad light,126 but from what has been seen of Luke's theology, a statement like
that would discredit Peter as a Christological witness. Just as Elizabeth was
'qualified' to be a witness and demons are not, Luke can not place Peter in the
position of being compared to a demon and then have him be a witness in Luke's
Christology. Peter's denial is irrelevant information for Luke at this point and
would only detract from his narrative.
The narrative ends with the confession of Peter; Jesus is (9,20) τὸν Χριστὸν
τοῦ θεοῦ. There is no miraculous event, therefore the narrative did not begin
with a stronger ἐγένετο phrase, but there is an explicit Christological title. Here
is placed a clear link between 'the Christ of God' and (verse 22) 'Son of Man'.

125
As noted, Luke has a tendency to place John the Baptist back into the story at precise points in his
gospel – where Luke reveals the divinity of Jesus.
126
Luke records Jesus correcting James and John: 9,46-48; 9,49-50; 9,54-55.

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B.) 9,28-36, The Transfiguration, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Text


Matthew 17,1-6 Luke 9,28-36 Mark 9,2-9
28Ἐγένετο δὲ µετὰ τοὺς λόγους
1Καὶ µεθʼ ἡµέρας ἓξ τούτους ὡσεὶ ἡµέραι ὀκτὼ [καὶ] 2Καὶ µετὰ ἡµέρας ἓξ
παραλαµβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν παραλαβὼν Πέτρον καὶ Ἰωάννην παραλαµβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς
Πέτρον καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ καὶ Ἰάκωβον ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τὸν
Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ προσεύξασθαι. Ἰάκωβον καὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην
καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς
ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατʼ ἰδίαν. 29καὶἐγένετο ἐν τῷ προσεύχεσθαι ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατʼ ἰδίαν
2καὶ µετεµορφώθη αὐτὸν τὸ εἶδος τοῦ προσώπου µόνους. καὶ µετεµορφώθη
ἔµπροσθεν αὐτῶν, καὶ αὐτοῦ ἕτερον καὶ ὁ ἱµατισµὸς ἔµπροσθεν αὐτῶν,
ἔλαµψεν τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ αὐτοῦ λευκὸς ἐξαστράπτων.
ὡς ὁ ἥλιος, τὰ δὲ ἱµάτια 3καὶ τὰ ἱµάτια αὐτοῦ
αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο λευκὰ ὡς τὸ 30 καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο ἐγένετο στίλβοντα λευκὰ
φῶς. συνελάλουν αὐτῷ, οἵτινες ἦσαν λίαν, οἷα γναφεὺς ἐπὶ τῆς
Μωϋσῆς καὶ Ἠλίας, γῆς οὐ δύναται οὕτως
3καὶἰδοὺ ὤφθη αὐτοῖς 31 οἳ ὀφθέντες ἐν δόξῃ ἔλεγον τὴν λευκᾶναι.
Μωϋσῆς καὶ Ἠλίας ἔξοδον αὐτοῦ, ἣν ἤµελλεν 4καὶ ὤφθη αὐτοῖς Ἠλίας
συλλαλοῦντες µετʼ αὐτοῦ. πληροῦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλήµ. σὺν Μωϋσεῖ καὶ ἦσαν
32 ὁ δὲ Πέτρος καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ συλλαλοῦντες τῷ Ἰησοῦ.
ἦσαν βεβαρηµένοι ὕπνῳ·
διαγρηγορήσαντες δὲ εἶδον τὴν
δόξαν αὐτοῦ καὶ τοὺς δύο ἄνδρας
τοὺς συνεστῶτας αὐτῷ.
33καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι
4 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος αὐτοὺς ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ εἶπεν ὁ Πέτρος 5 καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος
εἶπεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ· κύριε, πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν· ἐπιστάτα, λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ· ῥαββί,
καλόν ἐστιν ἡµᾶς ὧδε εἶναι· καλόν ἐστιν ἡµᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ καλόν ἐστιν ἡµᾶς ὧδε
εἰ θέλεις, ποιήσω ὧδε τρεῖς ποιήσωµεν σκηνὰς τρεῖς, µίαν σοὶ εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωµεν τρεῖς
σκηνάς, σοὶ µίαν καὶ καὶ µίαν Μωϋσεῖ καὶ µίαν Ἠλίᾳ, σκηνάς, σοὶ µίαν καὶ
Μωϋσεῖ µίαν καὶ Ἠλίᾳ µίαν. µὴ εἰδὼς ὃ λέγει. Μωϋσεῖ µίαν καὶ Ἠλίᾳ
5
ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος ἰδοὺ 34ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος µίαν.
νεφέλη φωτεινὴ ἐπεσκίασεν ἐγένετο νεφέλη καὶ ἐπεσκίαζεν 6 οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει τί ἀποκριθῇ,
αὐτούς, καὶ ἰδοὺ φωνὴ ἐκ αὐτούς· ἐφοβήθησαν δὲ ἐν τῷ ἔκφοβοι γὰρ ἐγένοντο.
τῆς νεφέλης λέγουσα· οὗτός εἰσελθεῖν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν νεφέλην. 7 καὶ ἐγένετο νεφέλη
ἐστιν ὁ υἱός µου ὁ ἀγαπητός, 35καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῆς ἐπισκιάζουσα αὐτοῖς, καὶ
ἐν ᾧ εὐδόκησα· ἀκούετε νεφέλης λέγουσα· οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἐγένετο φωνὴ ἐκ τῆς
αὐτοῦ. υἱός µου ὁ ἐκλελεγµένος, αὐτοῦ νεφέλης· οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ
6
καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ µαθηταὶ ἀκούετε. υἱός µου ὁ ἀγαπητός,
ἔπεσαν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον αὐτῶν 36καὶ ἐν τῷ γενέσθαι τὴν φωνὴν ἀκούετε αὐτοῦ.
καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν σφόδρα. εὑρέθη Ἰησοῦς µόνος. καὶ αὐτοὶ
ἐσίγησαν καὶ οὐδενὶ ἀπήγγειλαν
ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις οὐδὲν ὧν
ἑώρακαν.

Form critically, this is a divine event in the life of Jesus.


i.) Redaction
Luke redacted Mark (and Matthew's) "six days" to "about eight days" which
recalls Luke's interest in the meaning behind numbers, the number eight
signifying something that is above the natural order. Mark is probably more

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historically accurate, whereas Luke's version is more theological; he alone has


Moses and Elias ἐν δόξῃ and speaking of Jesus' ἔξοδος. All three synoptic
writers used σκηνάς, and all three direct the reader to the divinity of Jesus, but
Mark and Matthew wrote that the voice called Jesus his ἀγαπητός; Luke
redacted this for ἐκλελεγµένος, "his chosen one".
ii.) Composition of the Introduction and Verses 29, 33
Verse 28: Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the
finite verb ἀνέβη, "he went up" (ἀναβαίνω, with an apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The
phrase is missing the standard time element; there are instead two temporal
terms (µετὰ, "after"; ὡσεί, "about"). The subject of those temporal terms are
τοὺς λόγους τούτους and ἡµέραι ὀκτὼ (hebraic). The mixture of Greek and
hebraic elements renders the phrase, "And it was about eight days after... [that]
he went up...".
Verse 29: Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is
the "implied finite verb"127 with the subject compliment ἕτερον. The subject of
the time element is the articulated infinitive προσεύχεσθαι, "to pray"
(προσεύχοµαι, followed by an accusative pronoun, which recalls the LXX),
rendering a hebraic phrase, "And it was while praying... it became...".
Verse 33: Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is
the finite verb εἶπεν, "he said" (λέγω, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The
subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive διαχωρίζεσθαι, "to leave"
(διαχωρίζω, Hebrew st.), rendering the hebraic phrase, "And it was while
leaving... he said...".
The "eight days" phrase and the following two Hebrew syntaxed ἐγένετο
phrases (and the topic overall) draw sufficient attention to the importance of this
narrative.
iii.) Exegesis
It may be that with this unusual phrasing the writer was trying to place
emphasis on the statements regarding Jesus' suffering and glory, and at the same
time draw attention to the next narrative with the phrase, "eight days". There is

127
HOGETERP, DENAUX, Semitisms in Luke’s Greek, 303.

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no new eschatological message but a repetition and emphasis of previous


eschatological titles.
The mountain was the place of communion with God (6,12; 19,29; 22,39),
and the place where Jesus prayed to the Father. Moses and Elijah appeared ἐν
δόξη, "in glory", they spoke of his ἕξοδον, as if to compare their own 'exodus' to
his,128 and the use of the phrase 'eight days', the word 'face' and 'exodus' all serve
to introduce his 'ascension' in verse 51.
Mark didn't include these details and there is no reason to consider another
source other than Luke himself.
Σκηνάς refers to the old tent-style of temple, the temporary structure that
was used before the advent of a permanent building. Although the synoptic
authors state that Peter didn't know what he was saying, Luke introduced the
passage with a signal ἐγένετο phrase, showing his special interest in this aspect
of the event. His erroneous reaction demonstrates the realness of what Peter saw
– it was not a hallucination or dream – he could speak or respond to the
environment around him.
After Moses and Elijah leave, a voice from the cloud (always a symbol for
God) said "This is my beloved son," Jesus, marking the third Christological
moment in the gospel.129
Verse 36 has another 'orphaned' days phrase in the midst of other qualifying
phrases. It's use is curious, as its removal would not altar dramatically the
seriousness of the sentence.
The overall structure of the ἐγένετο phrases in chapter 9 reflect the literary
patterns in chapters 1 and 2. The phrases also reflect the patterns used in 5,12 and 5,17,
where Luke began the narrative with a lesser important ἐγένετο phrase, leading to the
more important, concluding narrative that utilizes a ἡµέρα form.
(9,18) καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι... Peters' confession.
(9,28) Ἐγένετο δὲ... ὡσεὶ ἡµέραι ὀκτὼ... 3 apostles go up the mountain.
(9,29) καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ προσεύχεσθαι... Jesus transfigured.
(9,33) καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι... Peter as witness.
(9,36) ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡµέραις... they told no one 'in those days'.

128
Moses represents taking the chosen people from captivity, and Elijah represents the Ascension.
129
The first two Christological moments were 1,35 and 3,22 (reaffirmed with the subsequent geneology,
v. 38).

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There are many occasions in the gospel when the truthfulness of an account is
verified through a witness, but on this occasion, the event is so fantastic that the
participants don't want to tell anyone what they have seen.

C.) 9,51, The Travel to Jerusalem


Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ συµπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡµέρας τῆς ἀναλήµψεως αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς τὸ
πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν τοῦ πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἰερουσαλήµ, ...

This narrative is form critically a story of Jesus.


i.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite verb
ἐστήρισεν, "he strengthened" (στηρίζω, with an apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The
subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive συµπληροῦσθαι, "to draw
near" (συµπληρόω, Hebrew st.), rendering a mixed Hebrew/Greek phrase, "And
it was when the days were drawing near... [that] he strengthened his face...".
Συµπληροῦσθαι is a hapax found also in 8,23 (idiomatic use)130 and Acts
2,1. It expresses the idea of God's plan being realised or fulfilled, as this
narrative marks the beginning of the progress of Jesus to Jerusalem to fulfill the
divine decree of the Passion that he had been announcing and will continue to
announce in 13,22; 17,11 and 18,31. ’Aναλήµψεως is also a hapax. The author
did not refer to something that could happen to any man – torture and death –
but to the unexpected 'carrying up' of Christ, which may remind the listener of
Elias (2 Kings 2,11, ἀναλήµφθη; Sirach 48,9, ἀναληµφθείς; 1 Macc. 2,58,
ἀναλήµφθη).
ii.) Exegesis
In this narrative is also the idiomatic expression πρόσωπον:
v. 51 ... he set his face to go to Jerusalem.
v. 52 ... he sent messengers (ἀγγέλους) before his face;131
v. 53 ... his face was of one going to Jerusalem.
This use is not found in the other Synoptic Gospels and reflects LXX
phrasing. With the change from µαθητής to ἄγγελος, Luke took the prophecy

130
M. ZERWICK, M. GROSVENOR, A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament (Roma, 1996),
206.
131
Instead of µαθητής for his disciples as in the verses 18,40 and 44.

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from Malachy 3,1132 and has attributed that prophecy to Jesus as the Lord, who
will send angels before his face to prepare his way to the temple – to go to
Jerusalem. Mark (1,2) and Matthew (11,10) are exegetical blends of this verse
and Isaiah 40,3 and had attributed both the LXX verses to John the Baptist. Luke
separated the two LXX verses; he used the Isaiah verse for John the Baptist, but
reserved Malachy for his own exegesis of the prophecy.

The prophetic use of these phrases and the demonstration through their use that
the prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus explains the necessity of Luke to introduce the Travel
to Jerusalem (beginning with 9,51) with an ἐγένετο phrase joined with the signal,
eschatological ἡµέρα.

132
Compare Malachi 3,1, ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐξαποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελον µου, καὶ ἐπιβλέψεται ὁδὸν πρὸ προσώπου
µου, καὶ ἐξαίφνης ἥξει εἰς τὸν ναὸν ἑαυτοῦ κύριος, ὃν ὑµεῖς ζητεῖτε, καὶ ὁ ἄγγελος τῆς διαθήκης, ὃν ὑµεῖς
θέλετε· ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται, λέγει κύριος παντοκράτωρ,
to Luke 9,51b, καὶ αὐτὸς τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν τοῦ πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἰερουσαλήµ. 52 καὶ ἀπέστειλεν
ἀγγέλους πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ.

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X. Chapters 11 through 20
After chapter 9, Luke continued his gospel occasionally utilizing introductions
from the less important categories described earlier.
It is understood by most exegetes that at the end of chapter 9 there is a change in
perspective with the gospel of Luke; the author is no longer focused on demonstrating
in a positive manner the divinity of Jesus, but now must concentrate on the redemptive
aspect of messiahship that was most difficult for Peter and the apostles to understand.

A.) 11,1-4, Comparison of the Synoptic Greek Texts

Matthew 6,9-13 Luke 11,1-4


1
καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐν τόπῳ τινὶ
προσευχόµενον, ὡς ἐπαύσατο, εἶπέν τις
τῶν µαθητῶν αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτόν· κύριε,
9Οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑµεῖς· Πάτερ δίδαξον ἡµᾶς προσεύχεσθαι, καθὼς καὶ
ἡµῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· ἁγιασθήτω τὸ Ἰωάννης ἐδίδαξεν τοὺς µαθητὰς αὐτοῦ.
ὄνοµά σου· 2εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς· ὅταν προσεύχησθε
10ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ λέγετε·
θέληµά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς· Πάτερ, ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνοµά σου· ἐλθέτω
11τὸν ἄρτον ἡµῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡµῖν ἡ βασιλεία σου·
σήµερον· 3τὸν ἄρτον ἡµῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δίδου ἡµῖν
12καὶ ἄφες ἡµῖν τὰ ὀφειλήµατα ἡµῶν, ὡς τὸ καθʼ ἡµέραν·
καὶ ἡµεῖς ἀφήκαµεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡµῶν· 4καὶ ἄφες ἡµῖν τὰς ἁµαρτίας ἡµῶν, καὶ γὰρ
13καὶ µὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡµᾶς εἰς πειρασµόν, αὐτοὶ ἀφίοµεν παντὶ ὀφείλοντι ἡµῖν· καὶ
ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡµᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ. µὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡµᾶς εἰς πειρασµόν.

Form-critically, this narrative is a story in the life of Jesus.


i.) Redaction
Luke redacted Matthew’s version of the prayer that is assumed to originate
from "Q". Most importantly, Luke changed ὀφειλήµατα (debt) to ἁµαρτίας
(sins). Luke also changed many of the tenses of other verbs from the aorist or
future to the present tense: the future form of ἀφήσει ('we will forgive') to the
present ἀφίοµεν ('we forgive'); the aorist of δίδωµι (δός) to the present (δίδου).
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb εἶπέν, "he said" (λέγω, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject of the
time element is the articulated infinitive εἶναι (εἰµί, followed by an accusative
pronoun, which recalls the LXX), rendering the hebraic phrase, "And it was
while he was praying... he said...".

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Luke in this verse used the same ἐν τῷ + infinitive + accusative pronoun


that he used in 5,12. Verses 5,12 and 11,1 have the additional similarity that
Jesus was in a certain 'place'; 9,18 and 11,1 have the similarity that Jesus was
engaged in prayer. In the present narrative, Jesus taught the disciples to pray the
Our Father.
iii.) Exegesis
There may be no "Semitic religious connotation of 'debt'"133 for Greeks, but
more importantly is Luke's consistent focus on ἁµαρτίας. The redactions from
Matthew's text further create a closeness to God (as if one were speaking
directly) in the prayer, they modify the stress on the "futuristic, eschatological
significance"134 again bringing salvation to the here and now, as reflected also
with Luke's use of ταύταις, "these" days.
The points of interest for this study are, "your kingdom, come"
(eschatological), and the forgiveness of sins (soteriological). Because this prayer
doesn't distinguish Jesus in any significant way, but still encorporates themes of
eschatological interest that have already been covered by Luke, it is introduced
with καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ + infinitive.
Luke also copied Matthew's ἐπιούσιος for the adjective which modifies the
noun, 'bread'. Some authors believe that this word may be a subtle Eucharistic
suggestion, but not everyone is in agreement.
The word οὐσία means not only 'substance' but also 'essence' in Greek. The
Latin substantia corresponded to οὐσία. Oὐσία is modified with the prefix ἒπι,
which can signify 'upon', 'over' or 'above'. From this prefix derives the idea of a
'supersubstantial' bread. However, in terms of chronology this would make no
sense; the Eucharistic 'bread' isn’t introduced until the Last Supper, therefore
readers of the gospel for the first time would not understand a Eucharistic bread.
One could go in another direction with the prefix, and understand that by 'above'
could also be meant something akin to 'more than'. 'More than bread' opens up a
broader understanding which includes satisfying all of our daily needs. If a
father is expected to provide for all the needs of his children, so much more so
then should we ask and expect of our heavenly Father. In other words, ask in

133
J. FITZMYER, The Gospel According to Luke X-XXIV (New Haven, CT, 1985), 897.
134
FITZMYER, The Gospel, X-XXIV, 899.

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prayer for everything you could possibly want or desire that you believe will
benefit your salvation. "Give us this day in abundance, ... ".

This narrative began the first of three in succession that treat of the importance
of prayer. This is followed by the parable on the affects of persistent prayer (11,5-8) and
sayings on the efficacy of prayer (11,9-13). The section ends with the promise of the
gift of the Spirit to be given to all who pray often. Thus we find justification for the
καὶ ἐγένετο introduction. The Holy Spirit who had been denied to the Israelites for four
hundred years (from the lack of phrophets) is now promised by Jesus to anyone who
prays often to God the Father.

B.) 11,27, Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ λέγειν αὐτὸν ταῦτα ἐπάρασά τις φωνὴν γυνὴ ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου
εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Μακαρία ἡ κοιλία ἡ βαστάσασά σε καὶ µαστοὶ οὓς ἐθήλασας.

Form critically, this narrative includes a prophecy about the death and Resurrection
of Jesus, and merits an ἐγένετο δὲ phrase.
i.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite verb
εἶπεν, "she said" (λέγω, without apod. καί, Hebrew st,). The subject of the time
element is the articulated infinitive λέγειν "to say" (λέγω, Hebrew st.). The
phrase ἐπάρασά τις φωνὴν is also a Hebraism, rendering a Hebrew/Greek
phrase, "And it was while he was speaking... she said...".
ii.) Exegesis
The theory so far presented here appears to fall apart with this verse, as
there is a strong ἐγένετο phrase, but this narrative begins by relating a story of
woman who responded rather crudely after a spiritual commentary of Jesus.
Others have struggled to understand "why Luke has put this episode here".135
Luke was directing his listeners not to the woman, but to the contrast
between her and the longer speech that follows regarding Jesus as the 'Son of
man' and his coming Passion. The present generation for Jesus was wicked,
greedy and demanding and he refused to give a 'sign' – σηµεῖον – except for that
of 'Jonah and the whale.' Luke's previous use of the word σηµεῖον is in 2,12,

135
FITZMYER, The Gospel, X-XXIV, 926.

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where the σηµεῖον is an infant in a manger, and 2,34, where Simeon states that
the infant Jesus as the σηµεῖον ἀντιλεγόµενον, the sign that will be denied. In
this present narrative, the σηµεῖον will be his Resurrection. This is the reason the
narrative begins with ἐγένετο δὲ - Luke's use of σηµεῖον is soteriological.
When writing of Jesus and his miraculous cures, Luke didn't call them
σηµεῖον but δύναµις ('power', 8,46; 9,1; 10,19 and 24,49). In contrast, John in
his gospel didn't use the word δύναµις but σηµεῖον, which is more in keeping
with Hebrew thought (a “sign” is symbolic of God's presence).

C.) 14,1, Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἐλθειν αὐτὸν εἰς οἶκόν τινος τῶν ἀρχόντων [τῶν]
Φαρισαίων σαββάτῳ φαγεῖν ἄρτον καὶ αὐτοὶ ἦσαν παρατηρούµενοι αὐτόν.

Form-critically, this is a pronouncement story.


i.) Composition of the Introduction
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἦσαν, "they were" (εἰµί, with apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject of the
time element is the articulated infinitive ἐλθεῖν, "to come/go" (ἔρχοµαι, Hebrew
st.), rendering the hebraic phrase, "And it was when he came into the house...
[that] they were...".
The καί at the introduction is copulative, so there will not be a profound
eschatological/Christological event. This narrative repeats a previous
eschatological revelation.
ii.) Exegesis
Luke has returned to the Sabbath revelation from chapter 6, with many
elements of this narrative similar to 6,6-11; in both, Pharisees 'watched' him,
Jesus challenged the Pharisees and their companions with the question “is it
lawful” to heal on the sabbath, and Jesus healed. The narrative in chapter 14
seems to be written with the presumption that one has read the narrative in
chapter 6, as it is much shorter than the ones presented there.
This is an example of the “Lukan practice of sounding important themes
more than once.”136

136
R. C. TANNEHILL, “Rejection by Jews and Turning to Gentiles: The Pattern of Paul’s Mission in Acts”
in J. B. TYSON, Luke-Acts and the Jewish People: Eight Critical Perspectives (Minneapolis, MN, 1988),
87.

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Why was the sabbath miracle in chapter 13,10 not initiated with an
ἐγένετο phrase? Perhaps for the same reason that it was a 'ruler of the
synagogue' and not a Pharisee who challenged Jesus; for the same reason that
Jesus 'laid his hands upon' the woman to heal her, whereas in most miracles he
only spoke. The narrative in chapter 13 was directed towards his Greek readers.

D.) 17,11, Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴµ καὶ αὐτὸς διήρχετο διὰ µέσον
Σαµαρείας καὶ Γαλιλαίας.

Form critically, this is a miracle story with moral implications, contrasting the
gratitude of a lowly Samaritan with the ingratitude of the Jews.
i.) Composition of the Introduction and Verse 14b
Verse 17,11, Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο
is the finite verb διήρχετο, "he passed" (διέρχοµαι, with apod. καί, Hebrew st.).
The subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive πορεύεσθαι, "to go"
(πορεύοµαι, Hebrew st.), rendering the hebraic phrase, "And it was while he was
going... [that] he passed..."
Verse 17,14b, Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ὑπάγειν αὐτοὺς ἐκαθαρίσθησαν.
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἐκαθαρίσθησαν, "they were cleansed" (καθαρίζω, without apod.
καί, Hebrew st.). The subject of the temporal expression is the articulated
infinitive ὑπάγειν, "to go away" (ὑπάγω, Hebrew st.), rendering the hebraic
phrase, "And it was while they were going away they were cleansed".
Luke has chosen here to add a second καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν + articulated infinitive
to this narrative, rendering special emphasis also to the conclusion to that event.
ii.) Exegesis
The narrative introduces the acceptance of non-Jews, which was a profound
change from previous practise among the Israelites, and had been prophesied.137
Here can be seen Luke tendency to have witnesses address Jesus as ἐπιστάτα,
Master,138 and they ask him to show mercy to them, which is to say that they
were asking for a cure.

137
A few examples are sufficient: Isaiah 49,6; 56,3-7; Jer. 16,19-21; Zech. 2,11.
138
5,5; 8,24; 8,45; 9,33; 9,49.

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This second καὶ ἐγένετο phrase alerts the audience to the miracle. The lepers
had been instructed to go to their priests,139 and on their way to obey this
instruction they are all cured, but only one Samaritan returned ὑπέστρεψεν µετὰ
φωνῆς µεγάλης140 δοξάζων τὸν θεόν,141 and ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον.142
The Samaritan who 'saw' the miracle in this case means something akin to
having an awakening. This translation of the word ἰδών is best illustrated in 2,17
where the shepherds 'seeing, they understood the word ...'
The difference between physical healing (purification from leprosy) and
salvation (v. 19, σῴζω) is also emphasized in this text, implying a new
relationship with Jesus.

E.) 17,26-28.
These verses are not officially a part of this study, as it is not written within the
narrative part, but as coming directly from Jesus. At the same time, it might appear
erroneous to exclude them.
Matthew 24,38 Luke 17,26
ὡς γὰρ ἦσαν ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις [ἐκείναις] καὶ καθὼς ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις Νῶε,
ταῖς πρὸ τοῦ κατακλυσµοῦ τρώγοντες καὶ οὕτως ἔσται καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις τοῦ υἱοῦ
πίνοντες, γαµοῦντες καὶ γαµίζοντες, ἄχρι τοῦ ἀνθρώπου·
ἧς ἡµέρας εἰσῆλθεν Νῶε εἰς τὴν κιβωτόν

i.) Redaction
Luke changed the wording of Matthew's account, moving the object of ἐν
ταῖς ἡµέραις to Noe instead of the flood, thereby creating a distinct comparison
between Noe and the Son of Man – between prophet and 'prophet'.
ii.) Exegesis
Luke was not content to remain with the Matthew account, but further
emphasized this apocalyptic warning with a second comparison, between Lot
and the Son of man (verse 28), “ὁµοίως καθὼς ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις Λώτ”.
139
The injunction to ‘show yourself to the priests’ should be understood in light of Luke 5,14; a. to make
an offering for their purification as Moses commanded, and b. to act as witnesses to the priests regarding
the miracle.
140
This phrase is used twice by Matthew (27,46.50), four times by Mark (1,26; 5,7; 15,34; 15,37) and six
times by Luke (4,33; 8,28 [Mk 5,7]; 17,15; 19;37; 23,23.46 [Mark 15,37]). In Acts it is also found in
7,57.60; 8,7; 14,10; 16,28; 26,24.
141
This phrase is found twice in Matthew (9,8; 15,31), once in Mark (2,12), but eight times in Luke (2,20;
5,25; 5,26; 7,16; 13,13; 17,15; 18,43 and 23,47).
142
Luke 5,12, but also found in Matthew 17,6; 26,39, 1 Cor. 14,25 and Rev. 6,16; 7,11; 11,16.

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This addition looks suspiciously like it came from the hand of Luke himself; the
other authors do not have it, it would be easy to imitate the style of the previous
verse, Luke was clearly familiar with the LXX, and the phrase is a repetition,
added for emphasis, which is a Lukan trait.
The dialogue is clearly eschatological/apocalyptical. The lack of
cosmological terminology does not renounce its apocalyptical form, as the
phrase καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡµέραις was often a part of the apocalyptical
literature, as previously noted.

F. 18,35-40
Matthew 20,29-34 Luke 18,35-40 Mark 10,46-52
35Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ 46Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς Ἰεριχώ.
29Καὶ ἐκπορευοµένων αὐτῶν ἐγγίζειν αὐτὸν εἰς Ἰεριχὼ Καὶ ἐκπορευοµένου αὐτοῦ
ἀπὸ Ἰεριχὼ ἠκολούθησεν τυφλός τις ἐκάθητο παρὰ ἀπὸ Ἰεριχὼ καὶ τῶν
αὐτῷ ὄχλος πολύς. τὴν ὁδὸν ἐπαιτῶν. µαθητῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ ὄχλου
36ἀκούσας δὲ ὄχλου ἱκανοῦ ὁ υἱὸς Τιµαίου
30 καὶ ἰδοὺ δύο τυφλοὶ διαπορευοµένου Βαρτιµαῖος, τυφλὸς
καθήµενοι παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἐπυνθάνετο τί εἴη τοῦτο. προσαίτης, ἐκάθητο παρὰ
ἀκούσαντες ὅτι Ἰησοῦς 37ἀπήγγειλαν δὲ αὐτῷ ὅτι τὴν ὁδόν.
παράγει, ἔκραξαν λέγοντες· Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος
ἐλέησον ἡµᾶς, [κύριε,] υἱὸς παρέρχεται. 47καὶ ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ
Δαυίδ. 38καὶ ἐβόησεν λέγων· Ναζαρηνός ἐστιν ἤρξατο
Ἰησοῦ υἱὲ Δαυίδ, κράζειν καὶ λέγειν· υἱὲ
31ὁ δὲ ὄχλος ἐπετίµησεν ἐλέησόν µε. Δαυὶδ Ἰησοῦ, ἐλέησόν µε.
αὐτοῖς ἵνα σιωπήσωσιν· οἱ δὲ 39καὶ οἱ προάγοντες 48καὶ ἐπετίµων αὐτῷ πολλοὶ
µεῖζον ἔκραξαν λέγοντες· ἐπετίµων αὐτῷ ἵνα ἵνα σιωπήσῃ· ὁ δὲ πολλῷ
ἐλέησον ἡµᾶς, κύριε, υἱὸς σιγήσῃ, αὐτὸς δὲ πολλῷ µᾶλλον ἔκραζεν· υἱὲ Δαυίδ,
Δαυίδ. µᾶλλον ἔκραζεν· υἱὲ ἐλέησόν µε.
32καὶ στὰς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Δαυίδ, ἐλέησόν µε. 49καὶ στὰς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν·
ἐφώνησεν αὐτοὺς καὶ εἶπεν· 40σταθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς φωνήσατε αὐτόν. καὶ
τί θέλετε ποιήσω ὑµῖν; ἐκέλευσεν αὐτὸν ἀχθῆναι φωνοῦσιν τὸν τυφλὸν
33 λέγουσιν αὐτῷ· κύριε, ἵνα πρὸς αὐτόν. ἐγγίσαντος λέγοντες αὐτῷ· θάρσει,
δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπηρώτησεν ἔγειρε, φωνεῖ σε.
ἀνοιγῶσιν οἱ ὀφθαλµοὶ ἡµῶν.
αὐτόν·

Although there is a miracle attached to the narrative, it is better left form-critically


as a proclamation story.
i.) Redaction
Mark and Matthew place Jesus coming out of Jericho; Luke has Jesus close
to the city. Mark has one blind man with a strong personal identification
(making his version more credible); Luke retains one blind man, but redacted the
details; Matthew has two blind men. Mark and Matthew have that the blind

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man/men heard noise and (the audience is led to presume that he) figured out
that Jesus was passing; Luke draws out the explanation with verses 36-37. Luke
redacted Mark's ῥαββουνί (10,51) to κύριε, as in Matthew. Mark has the blind
man somehow manage to come to Jesus, where Luke redacted this to have the
blind man brought to him (αὐτὸν ἀχθῆναι πρὸς αὐτόν). Matthew avoids the
movement.
ii.) Composition of the Introduction
Ἐγένετο δὲ is Greek syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite verb
ἐκάθητο, "he sat" (κάθηµαι, without an apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The subject of
the temporal expression is the articulated infinitive ἐγγίζειν, "to bring/come
near" (ἐγγίζω, followed by an accusative pronoun, which recalls the LXX),
rendering the mixed Greek/hebraic phrase, "And it was when he came near... he
sat...".
iii.) Exegesis
In this narrative, Jesus cured a blind man. After inquiring as to the noise
around him, the blind man continually cried out, "Jesus, son of David, show
mercy to me", until he was heard. The acclamation from a blind man is the
subject of the narrative. Luke naturally redacted Mark's account, but more
importantly, he changed Mark's ῥαββουνί (10,51) to κύριε.
This is the first time in Luke's gospel that the title, 'Son of David', is
expressly used, although it had been implied at the beginning of his gospel. Luke
switched the order of words from Mark's "son of David, Jesus" to "Jesus, son of
David", to more expressly identify Jesus. The title refers to the messianic
promise made to David that his offspring would establish an eternal kingdom (2
Sam. 7,12-16). This idea is continued in several pre-exile prophetic texts like
Isaiah 9,6-7; 11,1-9, and continues in second Isaiah 55,3, Jeremiah 23 and
especially in Ezekiel 24,23-24; 34,23; 37,24-25. In inter-testamental literature, in
the Psalms of Solomon, the specific title "Son of David" is used in a messianic
sense (17,21). Although previously in chapters 9-19 the comparisons were
between Moses and Jesus, Luke takes up again the Davidic relation; in the
encounter with the blind man emerges the messianity of Jesus as he approaches
the city of David.

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G. 20,1, Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν µιᾷ τῶν ἡµερῶν διδάσκοντος αὐτοῦ τὸν λαὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ καὶ
εὐαγγελιζοµένου ἐπέστησαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ γραµµατεῖς σὺν τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις

Form critically, this narrative is a pronouncement story.


i.) Composition of the Introduction
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἐπέστησαν, "they came upon" (ἐφίστηµι, without apod. καί, Hebrew st.).
The subject of the time element is the direct object µιᾷ τῶν ἡµερῶν "one of the
days" (Hebrew prophetic phrase), rendering the phrase (without the participle
phrases), "And it was on one of those days... they came upon [him]...".
This type of "days" phrase hasn't been used by Luke since 8,22. According
to the previous schema in 5,17 (an especially important passage) and 8,22, there
should be no doubt from the inclusion of ἡµέρα in this present narrative that
there is an important eschatological message in this narrative.
ii.) Exegesis
This narrative locates Jesus in the temple teaching, when suddenly his
authority (ἐξουσία) to teach was challenged by the chief priests and scribes.
Jesus refused to answer them (challenging their authority), and instead told a
parable (20,9–19), which summed up the history of the Israelite priests rejecting
and killing the prophets that God the Father had sent to them. The true meaning
of the parable was evident to the chief priests and other witnesses, as this is the
decisive moment when they become determined to kill Jesus. This narrative is
therefore a turning point in the gospel, indicating that Jesus, like the prophets
before him, will be killed at the hand of the chief priests.

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XI. Chapter 24 - The Resurrection


Luke ended his gospel with several 'rounds' of καὶ 'εγένετο ἐν + articulated
infinitive distributed evenly through the chapter. The καί may be considered emphatic –
this is the conclusion to all of the previous narratives, and these phrases accompany the
important events surrounding the Resurrection of Jesus.
All gospel authors report that the Resurrection took place on the Sabbath; only
Luke withheld the names of who came first to the tomb, using the pronoun ἦλθον. It is
not until verse 10 that the reader is informed that 'they' were particular women.

A.) 24,4, καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀπορεῖσθαι αὐτὰς περὶ τούτου καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο
ἐπέστησαν αὐταῖς ἐν ἐσθῆτι ἀστραπτούσῃ.

This phrase introduces the key moment of the chapter – the announcement of the
Resurrection. Form critically, this is a Resurrection story.
i.) Composition of the Introduction
Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb ἐπέστησαν, "they came upon" (ἐφίστηµι, with apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The
subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive ἀπορεῖσθαι, "to be
perplexed" (ἀπορέω followed by an accusative pronoun recalls the LXX usage),
rendering the hebraic phrase, "And it was while they were perplexed... [that] two
men...".
ii.) Exegesis
Verse 5, ἐµφόβων δὲ γενοµένων αὐτῶν. In this verse, Luke used another
form of φοβος, ἔµφοβος, which is a hapax (Luke 24,5.37; Acts 10,4; 24,25),
found once in Revelations, and in the LXX it is only found in Sirach (Ecclus.)
19,24.143 The addition of the prefix εµ adds emphasis (‘in’, ‘into’, ‘on’), and
signifies an extreme sense of holy fear, which would be a natural progression
from the previous uses of φοβος in the gospel. Previously, witnesses were struck
with φόβος in reaction to the divine interventions that took place; how much

143
Acts 10,4; 24,25. Revelations 11,13. Sirach 19,24, κρείττων ἡττώµενος ἐν συνέσει ἔµφοβος ἢ
περισσεύων ἐν φρονήσει καὶ παραβαίνων νόµον. “Better those with little understanding who fear God
than those of abounding intelligence who violate the law.”
There is another form, ἔκφοβος, found in Job 7,14. 33,16; Wis. 11,19. 17,18; Mic. 4,4; Nah. 2,12;
Zep. 3,13; Eze. 32,27. 34,28. 39,26; 1 Macc. 13,2. 14,12; 4 Macc. 9,5.

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more fear would be felt by encountering the empty tomb and the appearance of
angels?
In verse 7, the phrase τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὅτι δεῖ παραδοθῆναι εἰς χεῖρας
ἀνθρώπων ἁµαρτωλῶν... recalls word for work 9,44, ὁ γὰρ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου
µέλλει παραδίδοσθαι εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων. Here in verse 7 however, Luke
added ἁµαρτωλῶν – sinful mankind. The sinfulness of mankind in this phrase is
placed in juxtaposition with the son of man who is without sin. The addition of
ἁµαρτωλῶν also remind the reader of the specially noted narratives from
chapters 5 and 6 that focused on the forgiveness of sin, and Luke’s play on the
words ἀνήρ, ἄνθρωπος and ἁµαρτωλός that was observed in chapter 5. This
verse joins the death and resurrection of Jesus to the redemption of sinful man.
Here also is the use of ἀνίστηµι ('rise up') instead of ἐγείρω ("lift up" from verse
6).

The next two qualifying verses are contained within the "Emmaus" narrative.
For this reason, it would be best in this case to address the narrative first, and then
address the ἐγένετο phrases in relation to the narrative.

B.) Introduction to the Narrative of the Two Going to Emmaus

24,13, Καὶ ἰδοὺ δύο ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡµέρᾳ ἦσαν πορευόµενοι εἰς κώµην
ἀπέχουσαν σταδίους ἑξήκοντα ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλήµ, ᾗ ὄνοµα Ἐµµαοῦς,

Form critically, this is an appearance story.


i.) Exegesis in Relation to the Ἐγένετο Phrases
The narrative begins with the phrase Καὶ ἰδοὺ, which Luke used on 26
occasions in the gospel but only 8 times in Acts (spread evenly throughout the
work). Matthew used the same phrase 28 times in his gospel, but it was never
used by Mark or John, and is found only once in all the epistles (2 Cor. 6,9).
This verse introduces the 'two' going to Emmaus, which is about 11 kilometers
from Jerusalem.
This narrative is unique to Luke, whereas Mark only briefly addressed the
event (16,12-13). The source is unknown, but Mark's brief recollection may
demonstrate its historical truthfulness. There may even be exact quotes recorded
or copied by Luke from his source, such as the generalized mention of 'women'

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and 'men' in verse 22, γυναῖκές τινες and verse 24, τινες τῶν σὺν ἡµῖν, instead of
naming them, as Luke could have easily done. If these "two" did not recognize
Jesus and thought that he was a stranger, there would be no point in giving this
stranger exact names, and so they did not. One can wonder if an author, so eager
to prove his testimony, would consider this detail when he is known for having a
proclivity for repetition. However, this seems to be a chapter where Luke
witholds names, only to reveal or only partially reveal them later.
The narrative is divided into several sections, with the verse 13 introduction,
then the introduction of Jesus into the scene (v. 15, καὶ ἐγένετο + articulated
infinitive). Verse 19 serves as the introduction to the third section, where
Cleopas summarizes the life, death and 'disapparance' of Jesus, as well as the
expectations of his followers ("hoping that he is about to redeem Israel").
Section four begins with verse 25, with Jesus correcting the two with the
necessity of his passion and death. Section five places the group together in
Emmaus (v. 30, καὶ ἐγένετο + articulated infinitive), and finally the last part (v.
33) has the two returned to Jerusalem to discuss the events with the others.
The narrative states that these two left ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡµέρᾳ that Peter
discovered the empty tomb. How could Luke or any author possibly know this
curious detail? The phrase recalls all of the ἡµέρα phrases placed in decisive
areas of the gospel, although this phrase in verse 13 does not have the same
formulaic expression.

C.) 24,15, καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ὁµιλεῖν και συζητεῖν καὶ αὐτὸς Ἰησοῦς ἐγγίσας
συνεπορεύετο αὐτοῖς...

i.) Composition of the Introduction


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb συνεπορεύετο, "come/go with" (συµπορεύοµαι, with an apod. καί, Hebrew
st.). The subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive ὁµιλεῖν, "to talk"
(ὁµιλέω, followed by an accusative pronoun, which recalls the LXX), rendering
the hebraic phrase, "And it was while they were talking... [that] he went... ".
ii.) Exegesis
The verse merits an ἐγένετο phrase because it introduces the appearance of
the resurrected Jesus. This verse and verse 30 introduce two key moments of the

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history; in verse 15, Jesus is present and there is no "recognition"; in verse 30,
Jesus is present and there is "recognition". It should come as no surprise that
verse 30 is introduced with καὶ ἐγένετο.

D.) 24,30, καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ κατακλιθῆναι αὐτὸν µετʼ αὐτῶν λαβὼν τὸν ἄρτον
εὐλόγησεν καὶ κλάσας ἐπεδίδου αὐτοῖς, λαβὼν τὸν ἄρτον εὐλόγησεν καὶ κλάσας
ἐπεδίδου αὐτοῖς

i.) Composition of the Introduction


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the finite
verb εὐλόγησεν "he blessed" (εὐλογέω, without an apod. καί, Hebrew st.). The
subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive κατακλιθῆναι, "sitting
down" (κατακλίνω, followed by an accusative pronoun, which recalls the LXX),
rendering the hebraic phrase, "And it was while he was sitting, Jesus... blessed
the bread...".
ii.) Exegesis
Κατακλίνω (to sit down) is a hapax and found in 7,36-37; 9,14-15 and 14,8.
It was used on about ten occasions in the LXX. Just as anastasis "rising up" had
been a special word for Luke, so also 'sitting down', 'going down' and
'descending to be with them', which demonstrates the humility of Christ, who
reaches down to poor, suffering mankind.
Verse 31 uses the verb διηνοίχθησαν; the aorist, passive of διανοίγω, it
means to 'open up', 'reveal', but etymologically it means 'through' (διά) the mind
(νοίγω, from νόος).144 Διανοίγω represents an intentional divine opening of the
mind, therefore "their eyes were opened" is used here as a metaphor.
Verse 32 uses the same verb, ...διήνοιγεν ἡµῖν τὰς γραφάς, "while He
opened to us the scriptures." The author used of the same verb for the opening of
their eyes and the opening of the Scriptures. Again, this is a free choice by the
author to repeat the word. He could have used "explain" (ἐπιλύω) or "taught"
(διδάσκω). Just as their eyes were 'held back' and then 'opened' during the
breaking of the bread, in this verse their intellect ςασ opened to 'see' Jesus in the

144
Other words in this class include νοέω, to meditate; νόηµα, thought, intelligence; προνοία, provision
(to see in advance what will be needed in the future). Beekes, Etymological Dictionary, "νόος".

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scriptures. As Jesus is the scriptures (θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος, John 1,1), he is also the
bread.
Verse 35 repeats the story, ἐγνώσθη (γινώσκω, aorist) αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ κλάσει
τοῦ ἄρτου. "They told how they knew him in the breaking of the bread."
Why does Luke repeat the 'bread' story? Although many deny this is a
Eucharistic passage, the 'withholding' and 'opening' were of divine origin and the
divine event took place at this sensitive point in the narrative. It is not necessary
that these two know about the Last Supper event – all that is important is that the
event is told to others. Luke used the imperfect ἐπεδίδου, 'gave' the bread in
verse 30 because it was a singular event in the life of Cleopas, whereas the
'blessing' was written in the aorist (εὐλόγησεν).
Furthermore, one can not help but see the many parallels between this
account and the narrative of Philip and the eunich in Acts 8,26-39. In both we
have persons leaving Jerusalem (ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴµ, Lk. 24,13; Acts 8,26); Jesus,
then Philip both bring themselves near their unsuspecting party (Lk. 24,15,
συνεπορεύετο; Acts 8,29, πρόσελθε); the unsuspecting party express their
ignorance or confusion (Lk. 24,21-22; Acts 8,31); Jesus and Philip are invited to
join the party (Lk. 24,29; Acts, 8,31); Jesus, then Philip both explain Scriptures
regarding the same subject – his suffering and death (Lk. 24,27, ταῖς γραφαῖς;
Acts 8,35, τῆς γραφῆς); in both narratives, we find a sacrament (Lk. 8,30; Acts,
8,36.38); both Jesus, then Philip disappear (Lk. 24,31; Acts 8,39); finally, both
have the geographical detail “on their/the/his way” (Lk. 24,32.35, ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ;
Acts 8,36.39, κατὰ τὴν ὁδόν; γὰρ τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτοῦ). It would be difficult to
recognise all of these parallels and then reject the sacramental message in 24,35.
Luke joined this narrative to the next one in verse 36 with a simple
participle phrase (Ταῦτα δὲ αὐτῶν λαλούντων...). This narrative is another
appearance by Jesus to the apostles and others.
Verse 37 has the hapax θεωρεῖν, which is only used in the OT in Psalms
26,4 (27,4, where David desires to behold the beauty of the Lord) and in the
center of the prophetic narrative of Daniel (8,15) where it follows after the key
ἐγένετο phrase of this present chapter, καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ infinitive. Recall the
commentary from Luke 1,24, that the book of Daniel is noted for its themes of
resurrection, judgement and eschatology that was prevalent in later Judaism.

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This verb is used only here and in Acts 20,38 (in reference to those in Ephesus
who would never seeing Paul again). One can not say for certain, just on the
basis of one word, that Luke was here drawing an allusion to the book of Daniel.
Luke next records the narrative of Jesus demonstrating that he was not a
ghost by eating, and he again explained the scriptures being fulfilled (this time
using the simpler πληρόω form). In verse 45, Luke again used the same verb
διανοίγω where Jesus opened their minds to understand the scriptures.
He then explained (v. 47) that penance and remission of sin to all.
Along with the development of the revelation that Jesus is the Son of God,
the ἐγένετο phrased narratives drew the Jewish reader to narratives
demonstrating that Jesus had the power and authority to forgive sin; the reader
was further guided to narratives demonstrating the divine 'giving' of this power
to certain chosen men (the apostles); the reader now in the concluding directive
of Christ reads again the element of Christ's doctrine that holds special interest
to Luke the theologian.
Luke's redaction is strikingly different from Mark and Matthew's, who
placed primary emphasis on baptism and state nothing directly about the
remission of sins.

E.) 24,51, καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εὐλογεῖν αὐτὸν αὐτοὺς διέστη ἀπʼ αὐτῶν καὶ ἀνεφέρετο εἰς
τὸν οὐρανόν.

i.) Composition of the Introduction


Καὶ ἐγένετο is Hebrew syntax; the subject of the verb ἐγένετο is the
finite verb διέστη, "he departed" (διΐστηµι, without an apod. καί, Hebrew st.).
The subject of the time element is the articulated infinitive εὐλογεῖν, "to
bless" (εὐλογέω, with accusative pronoun, which recalls the LXX), rendering
the hebraic phrase, "And it was while he blessed them he departed from
them... ".
ii.) Exegesis
This last ἐγένετο passage emphasizes the 'blessing' given to the Apostles,
and stands to fulfill the lack of 'blessing' on the part of the priest Zachery at
the beginning of the Gospel. Thanks to the Risen Christ, God's blessing
reaches the people of God.

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Conclusion
The use of the phrases studied here has for a long time been a mystery to
theologians; many previous theories were at least true in part. They can be divided into
'categories', they are linked 'thematically' and they do have their foundation in the LXX.
Was Luke just artificially biblicizing his content?
What had been overlooked was the connection between the ἐγένετο forms and
the ἡµέρα phrases. Confusion also arose when comparing the grammar in the gospel to
Acts; they are two separate books written with different ends. The gospel is an
introduction, whereas Acts is a continuation. Luke as a tendency to use the ἐγένετο and
ἡµέρα phrases in his gospel when revealing a new eschatological/soteriological content.
Since there is no new eschatological content in Acts, the phrases were rarely used.
The LXX, especially the prophetic literature, provided Luke with the model for
the use of the ἐγένετο phrases, and combined with a time expression, Luke
communicated a theology through the placement of these phrases, forming a gospel that
was Christological and eschatological but also may have sounded somewhat
apocalyptical for his contemporary readers. In fact, no new eschatological revelation
takes place in the gospel without the use of the identified ἐγένετο forms. These phrases
in turn demonstrate to the reader the authors' hermeneutical design.
Luke wrote in what can be seen as a theological order while not neglecting the
historical order. The gospel concentrates on the special mission of Jesus: Luke spelled
out in slow order the titles that Jesus took for himself and those that were imposed upon
him from others ("prophet", "Messiah", "Son of God", "Son of Man", "Lord"); he
crafted his narratives to demonstrate that the miracles and cures were signs of his power
to forgive sin, and he used a play-on-words with ἀνήρ and ἄνθρωπος to suggest that the
forgiveness given to one man was symbolic for the whole of humanity. Luke then
directed the reader/listener to those certain individuals to whom Jesus gave the power
and authority to continue His mission. Afterwards, it was necessary to record the
completion of the mission of Jesus through his own passion, death and resurrection.
Even in the last chapter, Luke still placed emphasis on "sin", adding the word
"sinful" men when quoting 9,44, and verse 47 has Jesus reminding his apostles about
their mission to preach penance and the forgiveness of sins.
The theory presented here does not present any new theology; Luke has already
been recognized as an eschatological writer. These observations recognize what was

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already known, but at the same time present a new way of reading or viewing the
gospel, by observing how Luke used the elasticity of the language to communicate a
message. The observations presented here demonstrate another dimension to the
relationships between certain narratives. By focusing on just those narratives introduced
with the identified ἐγένετο forms, it perhaps can be better understood why the phrases
are so prominent in certain narratives and less so in others, and why certain words like
πίµπληµι appear and disappear in use. Luke's redactions render his narratives more
concise and draw the reader more directly to the message that he wanted to convey.

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