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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

Questão 01 - (ESCS DF/2011)


Dieting
That’s the way the cookie crumbles
One reason dieting does not work
Sep 2nd 2010

(1) IF, by chance, you are served an unusually large slice of pizza, compared with what others appear to
be getting, would that experience incline you, some minutes later, to eat more cookies or fewer when
platefuls came your way? That depends, it turns out, on whether you are on a diet. Those who are not eat
fewer cookies, whereas those who are see the excessive pizza as a licence to pig out. It is a demonstration
of what Janet Polivy, a psychologist at the University of Toronto, refers to as the “what the hell” effect—a
phenomenon familiar from real life to which Dr Polivy has given scientific respectability, most recently in a
paper published in the latest edition of Appetite.
(2) Dr Polivy and her colleagues recruited 106 female undergraduates on the pretext of rating a new brand
of cookie. The women were told not to eat for three hours before the experiment, so that they would all be
tested with the same level of hunger. An identical light lunch, it was explained, would be served to all.
(3) And the lunches were, indeed, identical in size—a standard slice of pizza—but the women were
encouraged to believe that they were not. Some of the volunteers got to see another person’s slice, just
before it was carried into that person’s separate test room. The slice in question, actually carried by a
member of the team, was either one-third larger or one-third smaller than the actual one that the
experimental subject was given to eat.
(4) After polishing off the pizza, the volunteers were presented with three generous platters of oatmeal-
raisin, chocolate-chip and double-chocolate-chip cookies, and asked to rate them. They could eat as many,
they were told, as they needed to reach their conclusion. What they did not know was that the plates were
weighed before and after their foray into the test room, so the researchers knew to the crumb what the
women had consumed.
(5) At various points, the volunteers were given questionnaires. One focused on mood, and inquired about
feelings like anxiety, sadness, depression and anger. Another asked about eating habits, including
questions on how often the volunteer dieted, how much time she spent thinking about food and whether
she ate sensibly in front of others only to splurge when alone.
(6) People who had not seen anyone else’s pizza slice and those who had been given what appeared to be
a small slice of pizza went on to eat the same amount of cookies. But the behaviour of those who thought
they had been given a large slice diverged. Non-dieters ate fewer cookies and dieters ate more.
(7) Dr Polivy’s guess is that non-dieters perceive that they may have overeaten, so they feel as though they
should take it easy on the dessert. Dieters, on the contrary, feel that the large slice has blown their diet
(and, even better, that this was not their fault), so they may as well make the most of it, and dig into the
cookies.
(8) Proving that is hard. Ask people about this sort of thing and they will lie—even to themselves. What the
study does do, though, is add to the evidence that dieting is harmful. People who diet deliberately ignore
cues like hunger and satiety. As a consequence, over time, they seem to lose the ability to use them.
Instead, eating falls under their conscious control. And that is no place for an instinct.
(http://www.economist.com/node/16943703)

The words that have the same relationship as MORE and FEWER in paragraph1 is:

a) real – actual;
b) same – identical;
c) inquired - questioned;
d) large - small;
e) whether - if.

Questão 02 - (FATEC SP/2010)


MOORE’S LAW DOESN’T MATTER

Back in 1965, Intel cofounder Gordon Moore predicted that the semiconductor industry could double the number
of transistors on a chip every 12 months (he later amended it to 24 months) for about the same cost. And for half a
century, Moore’s Law has held true, making computers cheaper and faster and more powerful. It seems almost
that long that experts have been warning that Moore’s Law would eventually run smack into the laws of physics,
bringing everyone’s giddy ride to an end. It hasn’t happened yet. Justin Rattner, the chief technology officer at
Intel, insists the company can keep doubling the number of transistors on a processor through several more
generations of chips over the next decade. The trouble isn’t capacity; it’s speed. A few years ago microprocessors
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reached 3GHz. You can’t make them faster, or they overheat and start to melt. To solve that problem, the industry
began making chips that do several tasks at once, instead of doing a single thing faster and faster. These days
we’re seeing dual-core and quad-core chips--in essence, processors with two or four tiny computer engines on a
single chip. Within a decade we will likely see chips with 100 cores, maybe even more, Rattner says.
But that raises a new problem: how to put those tiny side-by-side computer engines to good use. The operating
systems aren’t set up for it. Neither are the programming languages and development tools. Neither, in fact, are
the programmers themselves, who have all grown up writing software to run on a single engine--serially, that is,
not in parallel. “For 50 years we’ve done thigs one way, and now we’re changing to a different model,” says Craig
Mundie, chief research and strategy officer at Microsoft, which as the biggest maker of operating systems and
programming tools is leading the drive to solve the puzzle. It’s the biggest single change Microsoft has ever faced,
Mundie says.
Parallel computing has been around for a long time. But it’s mostly been confined to high-end supercomputers.
Writing programs for them is incredibly difficult and time-consuming. The challenge now is to make it possibleand
cheap--for ordinary programmers to write programs that run in parallel. Mundie predicts big things when (he
doesn’t say if) Microsoft works it all out. After all, the human brain is itself a massively parallel computer; writing
programs that can operate in parallel is the key to making computers that seem more like us and less like
machines. “In a sense we are trying to build a crude approximation of what nature does in your brain,” says 1
Mundie. “Parallelism is the only way I to get there.”
(LYONS, Daniel. Moore’s law doesn’t matter. In: Newsweek, August 2009, p.47)

Das frases reproduzidas a seguir, aquela que traz exemplos de graus de comparação está na alternativa

a) “Neither, in fact, are the programmers themselves, who have grown up writing softwares to run on a single
engine – serially, that is, not in parallel”.
b) “For 50 years we’ve done things one way, and now we’re changing to a different model”.
c) “Within a decade we will likely see chips with 100 cores, maybe even more, Rattner says”.
d) “Moore’s Law has held true, making computers cheaper and faster and more powerful”.
e) “Writing programs for them is incredibly difficult and time-consuming”.

Questão 03 - (UNIFOR CE/2009) Infuse Broadband and Technology Throughout


America's Education System

Some proficiency in math and science is a prerequisite for over 80 percent of our nation's fastest-growing
occupations. But, according to National Assessment of Educational Progress scores, [ADVERB] than one-third of
America's 8th graders are proficient in math. Approximately a quarter of 4th and 8th grade students are proficient
in science. The numbers are even worse for 12th graders.
Of particular concern is the fact that so few of America's children are studying science, technology,
engineering, and math (STEM) - areas that are key drivers of our nation's competitive leadership in technology-
based industries. In 2005, Tapping America's Potential (TAP), a coalition of the nation's leading business
organizations, established a goal of doubling by 2015 the 201,000 students then earning STEM bachelor's
degrees from America's universities. Recently, TAP announced that "little real progress had been made" and in
2008 only 24,000 more STEM degrees had been awarded. Today, only 7 percent of U.S. college students
presently major in math or science fields; of all industries that use technology, education is rated at the bottom;
and by 2010, assuming current trends continue, over 90 percent of all scientists and engineers will call Asia
"home."
(Adapted from
http://www.benton.org/initiatives/broadband_benefits/action_plan/education)

The correct form of [ADVERB] in the text is

a) most
b) above
c) least
d) over
e) fewer

Questão 04 - (UFPE/2002) TRIBES AND TRAILS

An eco-tourism TV show has been just financed to publicize abroad magnificent destinations in Brazil – such

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As Fernando de Noronha, Chapada Diamantina and the Highlands of Rio Grande do Sul – in addition to
everyday life of the inhabitants and daring sports activities.
(From: Tribes and Trails. ÍCARO Brasil, 188, April 2000, page 100.

The expression “such as”, in ref.1), can be substituted for:


01. like
02. unlike
04. for example
08. likewise
16. likely

Questão 05 - (UFPB/1999)

We humans have probed the heart of the atom, unraveled the mysteries of DNA, glimpsed the edges of space
and time. Yet when it comes to understanding life's place in the universe, we are mere children, standing on a
beach, staring uncomprehendingly at a vast, inscrutable ocean. Our predicament is not that we know nothing
about life; it is rather that nothing we know can be compared with anything anywhere else. All the creatures of the
earth — from worms to whales — are fundamentally cousins, linked by the same biochemistry, sharing the same
planetary home. But is the earth's biosphere the only one there is? So far none of the other planets or moons in
our solar system has been shown to harbor life. However given the vastness of the universe, the possibilities are
endless.

(The Sciences, July/August,1998.)


Look at the table:

NOUNS ADJECTIVES VERBS ADVERBS


I. Mysteries Inscrutable G limpsed uncomprehendingly
II. Endless Vastness Understan ding Unraveled
III. Children Biochemistry Given Staring
IV. predicament planetary shwn fundamentally

The correct items are only:


a) I and II
b) I and IV
c) II and III
d) II and IV
e) III and IV

Questão 06 - (UDESC SC/2012)


01
How do I get paid?

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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

All money generated by click throughs or customers signing on with a program are fed into a database on the
affiliated advertisers site and tallied automatically (1). The affiliated advertiser transfers, wires, mails the any
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money earned once an amount of $50 or more has been collected.

I only want certain types of ads on my site

With most affiliate advertisers you can determine exactly what kinds of ads appear on your site. The upside is you
have more control, the down side is it is more labor intensive managing the ads. When an ad is automatically
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generated, as is the case with Google AdSence, the nature of the ad depends on the content of your page
where (2) the ad is located. This means you have little or no control over the contents of the ads other than the
content of your web page.

It must (3) be hard to put the ads or banners up on the site


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In most cases it is a matter of cutting (4) the advertising code from the affiliated advertisers site and paste into
(5) your web page. No messing with images or writing copy for the advertisments.
Adapted from: www.bannermadness.com/articles.php Accessed on: March 25th, 2012.

Mark the correct sequence of grammar definitions from the underlined words, following the sequence of numbers
(1), (2), (3), (4) e (5).

a) ( ) subject, pronoun, verb, gerund, phrasal verb


b) ( ) adjective, objective adverb, auxiliary, past participle, phrasal verb
c) ( ) adverb, adverb, modal verb, gerund, preposition
d) ( ) adverb, possessive pronoun, modal, passive voice, subject
e) ( ) adverb, question word, simple past, past participle, noun

Questão 07 - (UEPB/2010)
WHERE THE RAINBOW ENDS

Where the rainbow ends


There’s going to be a place, brother,
Where the world can sing all sorts of songs,
And we’re going to sing together, brother,
You and I, though you’re white and I’m not.
It’s going to be a sad song, brother,
Because we don’t know the tune,
And it’s a difficult tune to learn.
But we can learn, brother, you and I.
There’s no such tune as a black tune.
There’s no such tune as a white tune.
There’s only music, brother,
And it’s music we’re going to sing
Where the rainbow ends.
by Richard Rive

The function of “where” in TEXT is

a) affirmative.
b) interrogative.
c) adverbial.
d) negative.
e) exclamatory.

Questão 08 - (UNIR RO/2009) Strategic Spending on Organic Foods

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Sweet bell peppers are among the vegetables high in


pesticides. (Richard Drew/Associated Press)
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I was reading today in The Times that organic food prices are rising. It reminded me of a really helpful list from
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the Environmental Working Group, a nonprofit research and advocacy organization, about how to be a strategic
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shopper when buying organic fruits and vegetables.
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While there is an ongoing debate about whether buying organic food really makes a difference in terms of health,
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the reality is that some consumers choose organic foods because they want to lower their exposure to pesticides.
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For those shoppers, it makes sense to know when to buy organic and which conventionally-grown foods are
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good enough because they already are low in pesticide residue.
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The Environmental Working Group tested dozens of fruits and vegetables to determine which foods are the worst
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offenders in terms of pesticide exposure. Some fruits and vegetables grown with conventional farming methods
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simply don’t absorb the pesticides. Some examples of vegetables and fruits with very low pesticide residues are
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onions, mangoes, asparagus, broccoli and eggplant. So whether you pick them up from the regular produce
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section or the organic aisle, your pesticide exposure is going to be low.
(Extraído de http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/04/18/
strategic-spending-on-organic-foods.
Acesso em 14/09/2008.)

Sobre a função morfológica dos vocábulos no texto, assinale a afirmativa correta.

a) shopper (ref. 3), lower (ref. 5) e whether (ref. 11) são adjetivos no grau comparativo de superioridade.
b) Environmental (ref. 2) e conventional (ref. 9) são substantivos.
c) While (ref. 4) e which (ref. 6) são conjunções subordinadas temporais.
d) worst (ref. 8) é o superlativo do adjetivo worried.
e) simply (ref. 10) e really (ref. 4) são advérbios.

Questão 09 - (UERJ/2009)

Political activism

Earlier this year I had the privilege to sit in on a lunch discussion with James Carroll, a Boston Globe
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columnist who was visiting my university to give a speech on his latest book. The dialogue eventually came
around to discussing the differences between youth protests today and those during the 1960s. He suggested that
youth in the latter period had more of an influence than today simply because they were able to involve politicians
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in their rallies, petitions and causes. Conversely, when today’s youth hold a demonstration in front of a
parliament building or contest a particular aspect of an institution, their forms of protest lack influence to cause
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change because they do not have any political figures or individuals involved in their particular protest.
At this point, the issue of how we as youth can attract politicians to become part of our campaigns and
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protests in order to successfully effect political change should be explored. First, we as Canadian youth must
become involved in organizations and groups that address current social and political issues that affect us.
Involvement increases youth awareness and influence. Groups or organizations that deal with issues such as the
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environment, poverty, gender equality and others that may be of interest to you are worth joining. Organizational
involvement gives youth a platform from which to express their opinions about issues of importance.
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Involvement does not have to be centred on issues on a grand scale; more local events may persuade you
to get involved. Joining an organization that is dedicated to, for example, preventing the closing of a local public
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school or big box stores from entering the neighbourhood, are also avenues where engaged youth can make a
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difference. By simply involving ourselves with these issues and organizations, we allow ourselves the opportunity
to meet people of influence, whether they be politicians or others who have a direct influence on social and
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political events in our communities, cities, provinces or country.
Involvement in community issues and political campaigns are great opportunities to gain access to individuals
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such as politicians and community leaders. These connections can then be used in our favour when attempting
to advance our own cause or demonstrations. Any argument will have a greater influence when it is supported by
members of the political community.
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If you are dedicated to making a difference in your community, or are dedicated to a cause and are
frustrated that your voice is not being heard, try to acquire political leaders’ attention and aid in pursuing causes
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that affect and concern youth. Our young political ancestors of the 1960s did this effectively; it is time that the
youth of the current generation learn from their example and attempt to gain established political support for our
causes.
Fausto
www.apathyisboring.com

Conversely, when today’s youth hold a demonstration in front of a parliament building or contest a particular
aspect of an institution, their forms of protest lack influence to cause change (l. 10-13)
The notion expressed by the underlined word is that of:

a) reiteration
b) alternation
c) opposition
d) conformation

Questão 10 - (UFMT/2008)
Taxing test for taxi drivers

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NEW DELHI taxi and rickshaw drivers are to be given a compulsory crash course in the English language to
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prepare them for the influx of tourists that will arrive in the city for the next Commonwealth Games.
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According to the Times of India, transport authorities want the cab drivers to achieve a 2,000-word vocabulary
by the time the games start in 2010.
“The programme is aimed at the cabbie or auto [rickshaw] driver because he is the first person a passenger
interacts with on arrival in the city,” said transport commissioner VS Madan. “That's why we want drivers to
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converse properly and not in sign language ,” he added.
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Under the programme, drivers will be taught English relevant to the needs of tourists. By the end of their course
drivers should be able to give directions and suggest good restaurants, among other useful tourist advice. The
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transport department will give the taxi drivers an English proficiency exam each year. In the first year, a driver is
expected to have learned 20 per cent of the vocabulary and be able to reply to questions such as, “Where can I
get a tourist map of the city?” In the second year, the driver should know 35 percent of the words. By the third year
the drivers are expected to have learned 50 per cent of the words. The transport department say that by the
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Commonwealth Games in four years, drivers will be able to converse confidently.
To help drivers the department is to provide special centres where drivers will be able to use audio visual aids to
help them become proficient. Audio tapes will also be provided so that the drivers will be able to listen in between
fares.
(EL Gazette. English Language Journal, Opening Doors Across the World. ISSUE NR 319, July, 2006.)

No texto, as expressões by the time (ref.2) e By the end (ref.3) estabelecem relações de
a) temporalidade.
b) causalidade.
c) seqüência.
d) concessão.
e) permissão.

Questão 11 - (UECE CE/2008)

It is impossible to define the now primary sense of literature precisely or to set rigid limits on its use. Literary
treatment of a subject requires creative use of the imagination: something is constructed which is related to ‘real’
experience, but is not of the same order. What has been created in language is known only through language,
and the text does not give access to a reality other than itself. As a consequence, the texts that make up English
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literature are a part and a product of the English language and cannot be separated from it. Among the various
ways of defining literature are to see it as an imitation of life, through assessing its effect on a reader, and by
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analyzing its form.
th
The imitation of life. Since at least the 4 century BC, when Aristotle described poetry as mimesis (imitation),
literature has been widely regarded as an imitation of life. The mimetic theory was dominant for centuries, only
falling into disfavor in the late 18th century with the rise of Romanticism, which took poetry to be essentially an
expression of personal feeling. In the 20th century, however, the idea of mimesis was revived.
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Effect on the reader. Reading literature is widely believed to develop understanding and feeling , by
complementing the primary experiences of life with a range of secondary encounters. Although the experience of
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literature is not the same as ‘real’ experience, it can have an influence that extends beyond the period of reading .
The response is inward and does not necessarily lead to physical movement or social action, although texts
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written as scripture or propaganda may have such results. In the 5-4 centuries BC, Plato acknowledged the
power of poetry, but distrusted its rhetorical effect and mythic quality. In the Phaedrus, he attacked the cultivation
of persuasion rather than the investigation of truth and in the Republic argued that, in an ideal state, poets would
have no educational role. Aristotle, however, thought that the catharsis or purgation experienced in witnessing a
tragic drama was beneficial. Generally, like Aristotle, critics have attached importance to the ethical purpose of
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literature and the morally uplifting value of ‘the best’ literature.
Analyzing form. A reader is unlikely to respond with interest to the discovery that a textbook is written in
continuous prose, with paragraphs and chapters. This is simply the accepted mode of referential writing. However,
confrontation with a sonnet or the structure of a novel raises questions about the author’s choice of form, a choice
often related to contemporary fashion as well as individual intention. The literary writer imposes on language a
more careful ordering than the choice of words and syntax that accompanies general communication.
Traditionally, literary texts have been easy to identify: an ode or a play is ‘literary’, but a menu or a telephone
directory is not. There is, however, an indeterminate area of essays, biographies, memoirs, history, philosophy,
travel books, and other texts which may or may not be deemed literary. […] Many texts appear therefore to have
literary aspects combined with other qualities and purposes, and ultimately individual or consensual choice must
decide which has priority. The word literature tends to be used with approval of works perceived as having artistic
merit, the evaluation of which may depend on social and linguistic as well as aesthetic factors. If the criteria of
quality become exacting, a canon may emerge, limited in its inclusions and exclusions, and the members of a
society or group may be required (with various degrees of pressure and success) to accept that canon and no
other.
Literature is an exceptional area of language use, which many people have regarded as the highest service to
which language can be put and the surest touchstone of good usage. Its creation is dependent on the resources
available to the author in any period, but those resources may be enriched and increased by a literary tradition in
which quotations from and allusions to ‘the classics’ abound and many words have literary nuances. In the 20th
century, much attention has been given to the language of literature and the question of whether there is in fact
distinctively literary language. Many features thought of as literary appear in common usage. Meter and formal
rhythm derive from everyday speech, words often rhyme without conscious contrivance, multiple meaning and
word associations are part of daily communication, and tropes and figures of speech are used in ordinary
language. However, literary language shows a greater concentration of such features, deliberately arranged and
controlled.
Literary language makes us pause to consider, reread, and assess in a way that would destroy the flow of other
modes of communication.
From: McARTHUR, Tom (ed.). The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1998.

The sentence: “Since at least the 4th century BC, when Aristotle described poetry as mimesis (imitation), literature
has been widely regarded as an imitation of life” contains a /an:
a) infinitive clause
b) adverb clause
c) object noun clause
d) subject noun clause

Questão 12 - (UFAM/2008) She is _________ living with her parents but she intends to move ________
a) still, again
b) still, soon
c) yet, soon
d) always, never
e) soon, yet

Questão 13 - (ESCS DF/2007)


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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

Germ - Chemo Combo Fights Cancer


Newswise - Bacteria that can cause deadly infections in humans and animals have shown promise in treating
cancer by “eating” tumors from the inside out. Now, two new studies at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center
have demonstrated that, combined with specially-packaged anticancer drugs, the bacterial therapy’s prospects for
cancer eradication have dramatically improved.
In mouse experiments reported in the November 24 issue of Science, the Hopkins researchers demonstrated that
genetically-modified bacteria called Clostridium novyi-NT (C.novy-NT) have a special taste for oxygen-starved
environments much like those found in the core of cancer cell clusters. The modified bacteria themselves are
relatively harmless, but their unmodified counterparts produce poisons that have killed some humans and cattle
when introduced into the bloodstream…
The combo approach temporarily wiped out both large and small tumors in almost 100 mice and permanently
cured more than two-thirds of them.
(adapted from http://interestalert.com/story/11230000aaa0112e.nw/ siteia/MEDICAL1/medical.html)

The underlined word in “permanently cured more than two-thirds of them” can be replaced by:
a) for sure;
b) for good;
c) for ages;
d) for granted;
e) for the time being.

Questão 14 - (PUC RS/2007)


GLOBAL WARMING
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On Feb. 2, 2007, the United Nations scientific panel studying climate change declared that the evidence of a
warming trend is “unequivocal”, and that human activity has “very likely” been the driving force in that change over
the last 50 years. The last report by the group, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in 2001, had
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found that humanity had “likely ” played a role.
The greenhouse effect has been part of the earth’s workings since its earliest days. Gases like carbon dioxide and
methane allow sunlight to reach the earth, but prevent some of the resulting heat from radiating back out into
space. Without the greenhouse effect, the planet would never have warmed enough to allow life to form. But as
ever larger amounts of carbon dioxide have been released along with the development of industrial economies,
the atmosphere has grown warmer at an accelerating rate. Since 1970, temperatures have gone up at nearly
three times the average for the 20th century.
Global Warming Science - The New York Times, May 6, 2007

“Likely” (line 07) indicates


a) permission.
b) necessity.
c) advisability.
d) probability.
e) preference.

Questão 15 - (UECE CE/2007)


TEXT

The movement known as Modernism began in the first decade of the 20th c. and was a reaction against all
aspects of Victorianism. Literary interest shifted from the external to the internal, to the psychology and.motivation
of characters and their roots in deeply shared experience, influenced by the theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl
Gustav Jung, and the anthropological relativism of J. G. Fraser. Joseph Conrad, D. H. Lawrence, and E. M.
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Foster, among others, explored mind and feeling in fiction still largely conventional in narrative and dialogue.
Virginia Woolf and James Joyce, however, experimented with the stream of consciousness to express a
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character’s thoughts more directly. Poetry broke even more radically with the past, replacing traditional prosody
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with free verse and favouring the shorter poem with sharp, concrete imagery. The American-born T. S. Eliot
became the most famous poet of the new style in England, while in Ireland W. B. Yeats started in Neo-Romantic
vein but developed new verse styles for his own mythology, and Hugh Mac-Diarmaid in Scotland sought a
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renaissance of literary Scots in tandem with verbal experiment and socialist politics.
Much of the literature of the period was marked by a more colloquial and relaxed use of language. The magisterial
tone and direct comment of 19th c. novelists changed into styles which allowed the reader a more open and less
directed approach to the text.
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Scenes and topics once banned from literature were now admitted, with hitherto taboo words appearing in print
and a more explicit presentation of sexuality and human differences. These traits increased in the years between
1918 and 1939, with a sense of the fragmentation of society and the dispersal of shared beliefs. Aldous Huxley
and Evelyn Waugh wrote of the frenetic escapism of the years after the First World War. Under the threat of a
second war, writers began to urge the need for commitment and political action, writers such as the poet W. H.
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Auden and the novelist George Orwell took strong left-wing stances, whileGraham Greene expressed a radical
Roman Catholic point of view. All of them sought to make their work popular, using as appropriate to their genre
the language of the thriller or the rhythm of popular dance music.
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After 1945, there was radical questioning of the47.basic savagery in human nature. William olding, Iris Murdoch,
Norman Mailer, and John Fowles brought this theme into fiction. The freedom to write explicitly of sex and
violence was taken further. Drama and the novel now presented the human dilemma in terms influenced by
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French existentialist philosophy. The theatre of the absurd, with Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter, took dramatic
speech away from the communicative and naturalistic to the inconsequential.
The term Postmodernism has been given to the extension of Modernism into a more radical questioning of the
integrity of language and the uncertainty of all linguistic performance.

In the sentence: “Under the threat of a second war, writers began to urge the need for commitment and political
action, writers such as the poet W. H. Auden and the novelist George Orwell took strong left-wing stances, while
Graham Greene expressed a radical Roman Catholic point of view.”, the part in italics is a/an:
a) Object noun clause.
b) Subject noun clause.
c) Adjective clause.
d) Adverb clause.

Texto comum às questões: 16 e 26.

Breaking an e-mail addiction

More people are finding it's easy to get a digital fix in our wired world

June 4, 2005 – When business owner Kevin Kelly wakes up, it’s the first thing on his mind. In the car on the way
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to work, at business meetings and even in the bathroom, Kelly’s e-mail is never more than a click away.
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Kelly is an admitted e-mail addict and says he Compulsively checks his e-mail inbox at least every five minutes.
35 27 2
“I have to keep up with them, so I check them very, very frequently ,” he said.
12
He ticks off all the places he checks his e-mail:
“In movie theatres, in a dentist chair, on ‘It’s a Small World’ [ride] at Walt Disney World.”
Millions of e-mail ‘junkies’ out there?
17 29
Dr. Dave Greenfield, of the Center for Internet Studies , said that Kelly’s level of e-mail Dependence can’t help
36
but impact a relationship.
37
“What we’ll usually see is a spouse who says, ‘He’s on the computer all the time, or checking [his] PDA 40 times
3 21
a day, and I feel like they’re not Really attending to me ,’” Greenfield said.
Kelly is certainly not alone. Experts estimate there are 190 million e-mail users worldwide, and Greenfield believes
28 6 38
that 6 percent of them could have some form of e-mail addiction – that’s roughly 11 million e-mail junkies .
Kelly’s wife says his e-mail “addiction” definitely affects their family.
7
“Physically he’s at all the school functions and he’s at all the vacations , but sometimes I’d like him to be there in
34 22 4 8
his mind more ,” she said. “He could sleep through our kids crying so loud , but if his phone says that he has a
13 18 14
new message, he instantly wakes up.” Even Kelly admits that he sometimes puts his digital gadgets over his
23
family. He says his kids say things like, “Daddy, put that down . Let’s play a game.”
But he says the call of his e-mail is hard to ignore.
30
“I think it’s a habit that’s hard to break,” he said.
What can you do to break the e-mail habit?
39 9
Regina Lewis, an America Online consumer Adviser , said that Kelly’s level of engagement with e-mail, personal
10 19
digital assistants and other parts of the wired world is extremely common for many reasons .
Lewis said that in our high-speed digital world, there is a blurring between home life and work life and the
24
proliferation of fun gadgets makes it easy – and often necessary – to keep up .
She offered some tips on “Good Morning America” on how to break an e-mail addiction:
Set a virtual start time and curfew. Don’t get online first thing in the morning or last thing at night.
15
Remember the rule of three. If something takes more than three e-mail exchanges , pick up the phone.
31 20
Don’t over reply . You don’t need to send those short, one-word replies , such as “thanks” or “yes.”
32
Store, don’t hoard. People keep way too many old e-mails in their inbox and waste a lot of time scrolling through
33
them all, says Lewis. Create folders to store important messages.

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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

26
If all else fails , try going cold turkey. Take a weekend off; you might be surprised to find the world doesn’t fall
25
apart if you don’t check your messages.
Excerto do texto disponível em <http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/print?id=819049>.

Questão 16 - (UEM PR/2007) Assinale a alternativa na qual o termo não é um advérbio.


a) “compulsively” (ref.1)
b) “frequently” (ref.2)
c) “really” (ref.3)
d) “so” (ref.4)
e) “reply” (ref.5)

Texto comum às questões: 17 e 18.

SPEAKING two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized
world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more
fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you
smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even
shielding against dementia in old age.
This view of bilingualism is remarkably different from the understanding of bilingualism through much of the
20th century. Researchers, educators and policy makers long considered a second language to be an
interference, cognitively speaking, that hindered a child’s academic and intellectual development.
They were not wrong about the interference: there is ample evidence that in a bilingual’s brain both language
systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system
obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in
disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive
muscles.
Bilinguals, for instance, seem to be more adept than monolinguals at solving certain kinds of mental puzzles.
In a 2004 study by the psychologists Ellen Bialystok and Michelle Martin-Rhee, bilingual and monolingual
preschoolers were asked to sort blue circles and red squares presented on a computer screen into two digital
bins — one marked with a blue square and the other marked with a red circle.
In the first task, the children had to sort the shapes by color, placing blue circles in the bin marked with the
blue square and red squares in the bin marked with the red circle. Both groups did this with comparable ease.
Next, the children were asked to sort by shape, which was more challenging because it required placing the
images in a bin marked with a conflicting color. The bilinguals were quicker at performing this task.
The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the
brain’s so-called executive function — a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for
planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include
ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding
information in mind — like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.
Why does the tussle between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of
cognition? Until recently, researchers thought the bilingual advantage stemmed primarily from an ability for
inhibition that was honed by the exercise of suppressing one language system: this suppression, it was thought,
would help train the bilingual mind to ignore distractions in other contexts. But that explanation increasingly
appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals even at
tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered
randomly on a page.
The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be more basic: a heightened ability to monitor
the environment. “Bilinguals have to switch languages quite often — you may talk to your father in one language
and to your mother in another language,” says Albert Costa, a researcher at the University of PompeuFabra in
Spain. “It requires keeping track of changes around you in the same way that we monitor our surroundings when
driving.” In a study comparing German-Italian bilinguals with Italian monolinguals on monitoring tasks, Mr. Costa
and his colleagues found that the bilingual subjects not only performed better, but they also did so with less
activity in parts of the brain involved in monitoring, indicating that they were more efficient at it.
The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age (and there is reason to believe
that it may also apply to those who learn a second language later in life).
In a 2009 study led by Agnes Kovacs of the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste, Italy, 7-
month-old babies exposed to two languages from birth were compared with peers raised with one language. In
an initial set of trials, the infants were presented with an audio cue and then shown a puppet on one side of a
screen. Both infant groups learned to look at that side of the screen in anticipation of the puppet. But in a later set
of trials, when the puppet began appearing on the opposite side of the screen, the babies exposed to a bilingual
environment quickly learned to switch their anticipatory gaze in the new direction while the other babies did not.

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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

Bilingualism’s effects also extend into the twilight years. In a recent study of 44 elderly Spanish-English
bilinguals, scientists led by the neuropsychologist Tamar Gollan of the University of California, San Diego, found
that individuals with a higher degree of bilingualism — measured through a comparative evaluation of proficiency
in each language — were more resistant than others to the onset of dementia and other symptoms of
Alzheimer’s disease: the higher the degree of bilingualism, the later the age of onset.
Nobody ever doubted the power of language. But who would have imagined that the words we hear and the
sentences we speak might be leaving such a deep imprint?
Source: www.nytimes.com

Questão 17 - (UECE CE/2012) Some sentences from the text have been modified to fit certain grammatical
structures.

The sentences “The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience
improves the brain’s so-called executive function…” and “But in a later set of trials, when the puppet began
appearing on the opposite side of the screen, the babies exposed to a bilingual environment easily switched their
gaze in the new direction[...] ” contain respectively a/an

a) adjective clause and a noun clause.


b) noun clause and an adverbial clause.
c) adverbial clause and an adjective clause.
d) noun clause and a noun clause.

Questão 18 - (UECE CE/2012) Some sentences from the text have been modified to fit certain grammatical
structures.

In the sentences “…in a bilingual’s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one
language[...]” and “The interference of one language on the other in the bilingual brain gives the mind a workout
that strengthens its cognitive muscles.”, one finds respectively a/an

a) relative clause and a time clause.


b) noun clause and an adverb clause.
c) adverb clause and an adjective clause.
d) adjective clause and a time clause.

Questão 19 - (PUC GO/2015)

Hermano não falava nunca de sua casa. Alegava não compreender muito bem porque o homem devia ter um lar.
O homem, diziam-lhe sempre, era o ser livre. Nem Deus o quis privar da liberdade. E Deus era o manda-chuva
do mundo. E seu criador. Um dia, entediado, ele começou a brincar com barro, na sua olaria. Nos quintais do
céu, Jeová havia mandado construir uma, para fabricar telhas e com elas consertar goteiras no purgatório.
Brincando, suas mãos infinitamente idosas fizeram uma travessura digna de boa surra. Criaram o Homem! Um
boneco de barro, metido a muita cousa. Mas Jeová se arrependeu da brincadeira. Vendo o que faria o boneco,
saído de si em momento de tédio, atirou-o num monte enorme de barro. E lá o deixou. Livre.
Deus não fez como seu Manoel açougueiro que criou a Regina e o Chiquinho – um casal de bonecos pretos – e
nunca mais os largou.
Hermano achava que o tal homem seria verdadeiramente livre se não tivesse todos os dias que ir a casa para
almoçar. Para tomar banho. Para dormir. E mexer numa tulha cheia de problemas mesquinhos. Falta de feijão;
educação, futuro, contas do padeiro, baratas e trabalho. Dogmas, normas, inibições. Para ele, o homem não era
livre. Livre, sim, era o burro. Um burro come onde encontra capim. Não tem que voltar, tarde da noite, para uma
cama no quarto de uma casa, numa rua de cidade. Quanta limitação! Qual, o homem não era livre.
[...]
(LEÃO, Ursulino. Maya. 2. ed. Goiânia: Kelps, 1975, p. 13. Adaptado.)

In the first sentence of text we can see the adverb “nunca”, which is “never” in English. Replacing the adverb
“nunca” (=never) for “às vezes” (=sometimes), read the sentences below.

I. Sometimes he talked about his house.


II. He sometimes talked about his house.
III. He talked sometimes about his house.
IV. He talked about his house sometimes.

Mark the only alternative with sentences in which “sometimes” is used correctly:
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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

a) All the sentences are correct.


b) Only sentences I and II are correct.
c) Only sentences I, II and IV are correct.
d) Only sentences III and IV are correct.

Questão 20 - (PUC RS/2015)


01 02
The agency has no offi cial plans for a mission to the Jovian moon, whose icy crust covers a watery ocean in
03 04
which life could theoretically exist. But spurred by intense congressional interest and several recent
05 06
discoveries, NASA is seeking ideas for instruments that could fl y on a mission to Europa.
07 08
The groundswell of enthusiasm is likely to be bolstered by the latest big news, reported on 7 September, that
09 10
there may be giant plates of ice shuffl ing around on Europa – much as plates of rock do on Earth (S. A.
11 12
Kattenhorn and L. M. Prockter Nature Geosci. 2014). Such active geology suggests that Europa’s icy surface
13 14
is connected to its buried ocean – creating a possible pathway for salts, minerals and maybe even microbes
15
to get from the ocean to the surface and back again.
16 17
Kattenhorn and Prockter propose a system of plate tectonics that involves a shell of ice a few kilometers
18 19
thick sliding around on warmer, more fl uid ice. When one plate hits another and begins to dive downwards –
20 21
or subduct – it melts and becomes incorporated in the underlying ice, the duo proposes.
22 23
Places have already been spotted on Europa where fresh ice crust is being born, but the latest research is
24
the fi rst to pinpoint where it might be going to die.
25 26
But without high-resolution images from more areas, researchers cannot tell whether subduction might also
27 28
be happening in other locations. If it turns out to be common, it might mean that the moon could be cycling
29 30
life-friendly compounds between the surface and the deep, and that substantially increases the chance that
31 32
its ocean is habitable, says Michael Bland, a planetary scientist at the US Geological Survey in Flagstaff,
Arizona.
33 34
The discovery adds to excitement set off in December, when scientists reported plumes of water vapour
35 36
spurting out at Europa’s south pole. The plumes have not been seen since, and they may or may not be
37 38
related to Europa’s newly appreciated system of plate tectonics. NASA now needs to fi gure out what kind of
39
mission might best explore these discoveries.
Adapted from http://www.scientifi camerican.com/article (acesso em setembro de 2014).

The “-ly” in “life-friendly” (Ref. 28) performs the same grammar role as in

a) sisterly.
b) gradually.
c) recently.
d) chiefl y.
e) gladly.

Questão 21 - (UDESC SC/2014)


Archaeologists use drones to study Peru's ruins
1 2
To get a bird's-eye view of ancient sites, archaeologists often turn to planes, helicopters and even hot air
3
balloons. But today researchers have access to more agile and less expensive technology to map, explore and
4
protect archaeological treasures: tiny airborne drones.
5 6
In Peru – the home of Machu Picchu and other amazing ruins – the government is planning to purchase
7
several drones to quickly and cheaply conduct archaeological surveys in areas targeted for building or
development, according to Reuters.
8 9
Archaeologists working in the country have already been using small flying robots to study ancient sites,
10
including the colonial Andean town Machu Llacta, and the San José de Moro burial grounds, which contain the
11
tombs of Moche priestesses. Some researchers have even built their own drones for less than $ 2,000,
Reuters reported.

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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

12 13
"It's like having a scalpel instead of a club," Jeffrey Quilter, an archaeologist at Harvard University, told the
14
news agency. "You can control it to a very fine degree. You can go up 3 meters and photograph a room, 300
15
meters and photograph a site, or you can go up 3,000 meters and photograph the entire valley."
16 17
Cheap and effective drones could be a boon for Peru's culture ministry, which has a modest budget and is
18
tasked with protecting more than 13,000 archaeological sites that are threatened by looters, squatters and
illegal mining, according to Reuters.
19 20
Elsewhere robots have enabled archaeological discovery. A remote-controlled robot the size of a lawn
21
mower recently found burial chambers inside the Temple of the Feathered Serpent, an ancient pyramid in
22
Mexico. And in Russia, researchers used a miniature airborne drone to capture images that could be used to
23
create a 3-D model of an ancient burial mound.
www.foxnews.com/tech/2013. Accessed on: 26/08/2013.

Some of the English grammar points which are present in line 16 are:

a) adverb, present simple, present perfect.


b) adjective, modal, relative pronoun.
c) adjectives, passive voice, simple past.
d) future perfect, possessive case, simple present.
e) present perfect, modals, simple past.

Questão 22 - (UDESC SC/2012)

Accessed on: March 25th, 2012.

Analyze the sentences which contain the correct grammar definition from words, as used in the text.

I. Outside: adverb of place; stuff: noun.


II. Commercially: adverb of manner; until: adjective.
III. Turned out: gerund; overnight: adverb of time.
IV. Stuff: noun; commercially: adjective.
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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

V. Were used and applied: passive voice; turned out: phrasal verb.

Mark the correct alternative.

a) I and V are correct.


b) I, II and V are correct.
c) III and IV are correct.
d) II and IV are correct.
e) All options are correct.

Questão 23 - (UFT TO/2009) The following sentence contains an adverb:

a) A lone attacker killed an American coach’s family member.


b) Officials peddled a relaxed, humane image.
c) But for Beijing, its soft-power campaign will do more for its overseas image.
d) The Olympics were undeniably a PR success.

Questão 24 - (UNIFOR CE/2000)

When Carmen Florencio was [TO NAME] director of the Monte Pascoal National Park, in 1997, she was thrilled.
How wouldn't be? This was Brazil's Plymouth Rock, the first patch of land the Portuguese navigators sighted when
they sailed into New World waters 500 years ago. The park was also one of the few surviving swaths of the
Atlantic Forest, one of the most splendid – and endangered – rain forests on the planet. But late last year a band
of 300 angry Pataxó Indians marched on Monte Pascoal. Wielding machetes and cudgels and painted for war,
they seized park headquarters, a Toyota jeep and park archives, and threw up makeshift huts. Officially, Florêncio
is still in charge, but don't tell that to the new management. Their defiant message is scrawled on a banner at the
park gate: MONTE PASCOAL BELONGS TO THE PATAXO!
(Newsweek, March 27, 2000)

Concerning the underlined adverb ago in the above text, one could say that
a) ago is wrong; past would be the correct word.
b) both ago and past are correct.
c) both since and ever are possible.
d) ago is correct but since is also possible.
e) ago is the only possible form.

Questão 25 - (UFMS/1998) Assinale a(s) sentença(s) na(s) qual(is) o advérbio de freqüência está corretamente
posicionado.
01. Peter is never late for dinner.
02. Mary sometimes does housework on Saturdays.
04. Mary takes often the dog for a walk.
08. Mary always reads the newspapers at some time during the weekend.
16. They usually don’t have breakfast.
32. They hardly ever have a heavy meal in the evening.
64. Peter brings Mary usually a cup of tea in bed.

Questão 26 - (UEM PR/2007) Assinale a alternativa correta de acordo com o texto.


a) “Roughly” (ref.6) significa aproximadamente.
b) “Vacations” (ref.7) tem o mesmo sentido de feriado.
c) “Loud” (ref.8) significa insistentemente.
d) “Engagement” (ref.9) tem o sentido de afinidade.
e) “Wired” (ref.10) dá a idéia de atualizado.

Questão 27 - (IME RJ/2006)


Leia o texto a seguir e escolha, na lista de frases que o segue, uma frase para completar cada uma das lacunas
numeradas do texto, tornando-o coeso e coerente. Escreva as respostas no CADERNO DE SOLUÇÕES.
Police Debate if London Plotters Were Suicide Bombers, or Dupes
By Elaine Sciolino
And Don Van Natta Jr.
Published in the New York Times, July 27, 2005.

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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

LONDON, July 26 - Within hours of the July 7 attacks here, many British police and intelligence officials
assumed that the four bombers had intended to die with their bombs. But in recent days, some police officials are
increasingly considering the possibility that the men did not plan to commit suicide (1.1) .

Investigators raising doubts about the suicide assumption have cited evidence to support this theory. Each of
the four men who died in the July 7 attacks purchased round-trip railway tickets from Luton to London. Ge rmaine
Lindsay's rented a car, which was left in Luton, (1.2) . A large quantity of explosives were stored in the trunk of
that car, (1.3) . Another bomber had just spent a large sum to repair his car. The men carried driver's licenses
(1.4) , unusual for suicide bombers. In addition, none left behind a note, videotape or Internet trail as suicide
bombers have done in the past (1.5) .

While some of these clues could be seen as the work of men intent on covering their trail, some investigators
increasingly believe that the men may have been conned into carrying the bombs onto the trains, leaving them,
(1.6).

There remains some evidence suggesting that these were suicide bombers, beyond the fact that all died in the
blasts. Their bodies, all of which were recovered, were positioned in a way that led investigators to make a
preliminary determination that these may have been suicide attacks. One of the remaining mysteries that neither
camp can explain away is that the attacker on the bus died 57 minutes after the blasts on the trains; (1.7) . The
bus bomber could support either theory. To further complicate the matter, there are conflicting witness accounts of
the behavior of the July 21 attackers. Some fled after the bombs failed to explode; (1.8) .

The suicide question has major implications not only for the investigation, but also for the assessment of the
terrorist threat that London faces. If the attacks were a suicide mission, they would be the first suicide bombings
on European soil, (1.9) . Suicide could indicate a higher level of commitment and point to the existence within
Britain of extremists willing to die for a cause. If the men were not suicide bombers, some of the most basic
assumptions of the investigation would change. On one level, the idea makes the plot less ominous. It is much
easier to recruit "mules" who will carry (1.10) . Several senior officials say a lively debate is under way within
the investigation and wider intelligence circles. Some say the initial hypothesis that the July 7 attacks were carried
out by determined fanatics willing to die in the name of a radical interpretation of Islam may have been too
simplistic.

The text tells of attacks which happened ...


a) in New York
b) in London
c) in Luton
d) in a city in Germany

Questão 28 - (UFSC/2006)
TEXT 1

INTERNET CHATTING

1. Seeing friends, playing sports, or watching movies – that’s what college students used to name as favorite
activities for their leisure, or free time. Today chatting is often on the list. Until recently chatting meant talking
informally with friends about anything at all. It meant talking face-to-face, for pleasure, usually for a short time.
Nowadays, technology allows chatting between groups of people sitting at their computers, sending messages
to each other over the Internet. Two or more people can be in a “chat room”, exchanging information about a
specific topic or about themselves. People of all ages are typing and reading messages to discuss things with
people all over the world.

2. Internet chatting is popular because it’s an easy way to have a social life. People can talk about a variety of
topics on chat sites – from sports, to art and music, to business, science, and health. With Internet chat,
making friends has become much easier. Typing on a computer takes away the shy or uncomfortable feelings
that often go along with meeting new people in person. On-line, people often feel freer to talk.

3. Using chat rooms can be interesting and fun, but sharing information with strangers requires that chatters take
precautions. One website publishes safety tips for people meeting on-line and off. The site advises chatters to
stay anonymous by not giving their real names or information about where they live and work. When chatters
meet in person, they should be careful to meet in a public place and bring friends along. Following these basic
rules helps keep people safe.
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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

HOWARD, L. & ADELSO-GOLDSTEIN, J. Read and Reflect. Oxford: OUP, 2004, p. 61, 62. (Adapted)

This is the last paragraph of text 1.


Select the CORRECT proposition(s) to fill in the gaps.

Psychologists today ______ note that people have a great ______ to connect with others, and in the ______
world this is not always easy. Chat rooms ______ new opportunities for connection. They ______ communities of
people with ______ interests, and sometimes, with long-lasting results.

01. always - importance - popular - imagine - enjoy - public


02. often - necessity - fast-paced - give - create - shared
04. usually - difference - future - change - realize - empty
08. seldom - definition - dangerous - take - watch - interior
16. frequently - need - modern - provide - unite - common

Questão 29 - (UFSCAR SP/2006)

According to When Teens Have Sex, a report released by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, roughly 40 percent
of American girls in their teen years become pregnant before age 20. Moreover, the one million pregnancies that
occur each year among women ages 15 to 19 result in 500,000 teen births – a serious economic and social
challenge for the United States.
‘This country has the highest teen birth rate among developed nations,’ said the Foundation Coordinator
William O’Hare. ‘The next closest, the United Kingdom, has a teen birth rate that is only about half that of America.
The problem of teen births is evident in every State. In fact, every U.S. State has a birth rate that is higher than
that of the United Kingdom.’
The report notes that despite recent downward trends, the teen birth rate in 1996 is still higher than it was a
decade earlier, and that demographic trends suggest that the number of births to teens is likely to increase by as
much as 14 percent by the year 2005.
‘As the children of the “little baby boom” swell the ranks of American teenagers over the next few years, the
absolute number of babies born to teenagers is likely to increase even if the birth rate remains constant’, said
O’Hare. And this implies more government attention to this section of the American population in social terms.
The report states that more than 75 percent of all unmarried teen mothers went on welfare within five years of
the birth of their first child before getting back to some kind of job. In addition, the report notes that in 1996, the
poverty rate for children born to teens was 42 percent, twice the overall rate for children.
‘We cannot afford to take the issue of teen pregnancy lightly. Children born to teenage parents are more likely
to be of low birth rate, to suffer with inadequate health care, to leave high school without graduating and more
likely to be poor, thus perpetuating a cycle of unrealized potential’, added Annie E. Casey, the Foundation
Program Director.
(The Annie E. Casey Foundation Bulletin, 2005, Adaptado.)

Nas duas ocorrências do último parágrafo do texto, a palavra likely pode ser substituída por
a) lately.
b) ultimate.
c) probable.
d) certainly.
e) appropriate.

Questão 30 - (UFMS/2006)
Pesticides Set Big Farms Against Small Farmers in Brazil
Written by Paulo Machado
Tuesday, 18 April 2006

01
The municipality of Lucas do Rio Verde, the second largest producer of grains in Brazil, suffered an
environmental disaster within its city limits.
Houses, fruit trees, ornamental and medicinal plants, and residents themselves were exposed to the effects of
an illegal application of pesticide spray.
05
According to the association of small producers, local syndicates, and experts, the toxic spray was a
desiccating herbicide used to speed up the soybean harvest, the crop that has reaped profits for the region's big
farmers.
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The toxic substance, which was spread illicitly by a single-engine plane at the beginning of March, is widely
10
used in soybean monoculture. As immediate effects, the product can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and headaches.
Over the long term it can cause cancer.
The victims included dozens of small domestic gardens, fruit trees, ornamental plants, the Medicinal Plant
Garden, which is linked to the Father Peter Foundation, and even some residents, who complained of diarrhea,
vomiting, and itching.
15
Around a week after the accident, two specialists arrived in the municipality to assess the impact of the
environmental disaster: Wanderley Antônio Pignati, a master of public health at the Federal University of Mato
Grosso (UFMT) and James Cabral, an agronomist with the Federation of Social and Educational Assistance
Organizations (FASE).
20
Together they investigated the contamination and drafted a warning which was sent to various municipal,
state, and federal health and sanitary surveillance agencies. The victims of the spraying include small producers
who live on the outskirts of town.
Ivo Casonato, a small farmer who lost his entire fruit and vegetable crop, said that he witnessed the moment
when the plane buzzed his property.
25
"The sky was overcast. On the horizon a curtain of water could be seen. On the other side of the Rio Verde,
less than 500 meters away, a plane was spraying pesticides on my neighbor's soybean plantations," he recounts.
Lindonésia Andrade, a biologist who is in charge of the Medicinal Garden, said that the toxic effects appeared
30
very quickly. The day after the spraying [March 2], the damage was visible throughout the city.
"Leaves looked like crushed and burned paper, while others turned full of holes, and necrosis [rot] began to
set in around the holes. On the fourth day the leaves entered total necrosis and started to fall," she recalls. After
the accident, the Public Defense Ministry instituted an administrative proceeding to investigate the facts. At the
35
request of the public prosecutor's office, the Lucas do Rio Verde Civil Police precinct opened a civil and criminal
inquiry.
Up to now, however, the forensic exams to identify the material evidence of the crime have not yet been
performed.
Agência Brasil
Source: http://www.brazzilmag.com/content/view/6125/53/

Considering the text “Pesticides Set Big Farms Against Small Farmers in Brazil”, it is true to state that
01. “within” on line 2 means “inside”.
02. “Around a week” on line 15 means “more than seven days”.
04. “widely used” on line 9 is the same as “extensively used”.
08. “The day after” on line 29 is the same as “previous day”.
16. “they“ on line 20 refers to “The victims of the spraying” on line 22.
32. “Up to now” on line 37 is the same as “so far”.

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Blog do Enem Inglês – Advérbios – Adverbs.

GABARITO:

1) Gab: D
2) Gab: D
3) Gab: E
4) Gab: VFVFF
5) Gab: B
6) Gab: C
7) Gab: C
8) Gab: E
9) Gab: C
10) Gab: A
11) Gab: B
12) Gab: B
13) Gab: B
14) Gab: D
15) Gab: D
16) Gab: E
17) Gab: B
18) Gab: C
19) Gab: C
20) Gab: A
21) Gab: B
22) Gab: A
23) Gab: D
24) Gab: E
25) Gab: 43
26) Gab: A
27) Gab: B
28) Gab: 18
29) Gab: C
30) Gab:

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