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4 PS OF MARKETING WITH THE

REFERENCE OF SUDHA DAIRY IN PATNA

Summer Training

Project Report
Submitted to the Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University,
Lucknow
In partial fulfillment of
The requirements for the award of the degree
Of
Master of Business Administration
(MARKETING)

SUBMITTED BY
AKHILESH KUMAR
Roll No. : 1780170018
Session : 2017-19

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF


VANDANA MAM
(Assistant Manager (Marketing))

G. L. Bajaj Institute of Technology & Management


Plot no-2, Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida-201306
STUDENT’S DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the survey, data collection and analysis work related to
Summer Training Project report titled "4 PS OF MARKETING WITH THE
REFERENCE OF SUDHA DAIRY IN PATNA” has been carried out
exclusively on my efforts under the guidance of VANDANA MAM.

I, further declare that this work was neither published nor submitted to any other
institution for award of any other degree or diploma.

(Signature)
AKHILESH KUMAR
Roll No. : 1780170018
Batch : 2017-19
G.L.Bajaj Institute of Technology & Management
SUPERVISOR’S CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Summer Training Project Report titled “4 PS OF


MARKETING WITH THE REFERENCE OF SUDHA DAIRY IN PATNA ”
is an original work carried out by Mr. AKHILESH KUMAR under my
supervision, in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of MBA
degree by the Abdul Kalam Technical University, Noida.

This is to further certify, to the best of my knowledge, that this work was neither
published nor submitted to any other institution for award of any other degree or
diploma.

Signature
(VANDANA MAM)
(Assistant Manager (Marketing))
Date:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to express my thanks to management of the Sudha dairy for
allowing me to complete my training there. I am thankful to Mr. Arvind Kumar,
Managing Director, who arranged my training programmed in the organization.

I am thankful to VANDANA MAM, Assistant Manager (Marketing), Sudha Dairy


(TIMUL), PATNA for his proper guidance, co-operation and valuable suggestions.
It would be difficult task to complete this project report without his co-operation
and guidance.

And lastly that name who encouraged and assists me, every time in my life. They
always tries to boost up my morality therefore I easily overcome all hindrances.
That name goes to my loving parents and all family members.

{AKHILESH KUMAR}
PREFACE
As a Master of Business Administration student, we should go through a practical
training for six weeks. The Project Training is an essential part in MBA curriculum. It
enables the student to share the experience in industry.

The topic of my project was "A Brief Study of Marketing Prospects of Sudha Large
Size Ice-cream with special reference to Sudha Dairy (TIMUL), PATNA ".

Then either we choose for ourselves, a problem research, which is to be solved during
these weeks training programme or organization itself, give the problem for research.
The problem research is generally chosen taking into consideration the weakness of
the organization , so that finally when the findings of the research come out through
researcher, it helps the organization to take remedial action.

To complete such a study required grasp information from the market. I have
conducted a detailed market survey in PATNA , I had gone through several Ice-cream
outlets, consumers and collected information regarding the Sudha Large Size Ice-
cream.

I want to point out a very important aspect of this training that is right from the stage
of formulating the research problem to the stage of report writing, my knowledge
specially as regards to marketing research, has undoubtedly enhance. It is not a
criticism rather than a humble approach of a student of Business Management to look
into the various problems and may have deficiencies, which have incurred due to my
lack of technical knowledge.
CONTENTS
Page No.
Executive Summary 01
Chapter - 1 02 - 06
 Introduction of the study
 Statement of the Problem
 Objective and Scope

Chapter - 2 07 - 37
 Company Profile

Chapter - 3 38 - 47
 Theoretical Aspect

Chapter - 4 57 - 60
 Research Methodology

Chapter - 5 61 - 85
 Data Analysis and Interpretation
 SWOT Analysis

Chapter - 6 86 - 89
 Findings
 Recommendation

Chapter - 7 90 - 98
 Conclusion
 Limitations
 Bibliography
 Questionnaire
Executive Summary

An organization must look into the needs and wants of their customers to be
successful. Marketing prospect is a term generally used to measure a customer’s
perception of a company’s products and services. That is the reason researchers
have continuously emphasized on the importance of consumer satisfaction.
Consumer satisfaction is important because many researchers have shown that
consumer satisfaction has a positive effect on an organization’s profitability.
Service quality is the fundamental factor to measure customer satisfaction at the
FMCG sectors.

This project report presents “4 PS OF MARKETING WITH THE


REFERENCE OF SUDHA DAIRY IN PATNA. This is a survey work for any
of the problem existing in the organization. The major purpose of this study is to
expose, express & analyses the situation existing in the organization by using
sales promotional tools and techniques. The questionnaire utilized was based on
the multiple choices that identifies quality dimensions in our environments.

During my summer training in Sudha, the basic focus of my training was on


Prospects of large size Ice-cream in PATNA . Under this project I had to find out
the different players carrying on business of Ice-cream in Patna and also their
market share in the same region. After that we had to make data analysis so that we
can recommend suggestion to the Sudha Ice-cream to increase its share in the
market in PATNA .
Chapter - 1

 Introduction of the study


 Statement of the Problem
 Objective and Scope
Introduction of the study

Management course is a course, which teaches the student to get the work done
properly on different available resources viz. man, machine, material, money etc.
So, that there can be satisfaction from both the organization side and worker side
who plays a significant role in achieving success. So for the fulfillment of
management course project training is required for each student in the different
concern to get accustomed to the situation of the concern. The main objective of
such training is to make proper implementation of theoretical ideas into the
practical aspect. In such a short span of training of six weeks, student learns to
develop their theoretical views in real life. Besides, this training is essential take
part with different personalities, to make decisions and after all to create a good
co-operative environment amongst the employees.

So, that in future, after completion of Management Course a student can adopt the
situation of the concern quickly based on his training ideas. The marketer’s job is
to understand the buyer’s decision at each stage and what influences are operating.
This understanding allows the marketer to develop an effective and efficient
market programme for the target market.
 Statement of the Problem

As we know that customer is the king of any business, It is essential to understand


customer expectations their preferences towards the product and their needs and
wants. Without understanding consumer behavior no companies can survive. It
serves as a feedback from the consumer and provide the companies the message
regarding the consumer attitudes, companies position, competition, opinions of the
consumer regarding the product etc. Now a days almost all the companies involves
in collecting the data from consumers regarding their product and brand. They
employee marketing people to let them know consumer behavior. By keeping all
this points in mind, as consumer behavior plays a vital role for any organization,
this project “PROSPECT OF SUDHA LARGE SIZE ICE-CREAM IN PATNA
“does the same.
 Objective of the study

Sudha Ice-cream is one of the best Ice-cream in Bihar today. It is involved in


marketing of Ice-cream products. The objective of the study is as follows :-
(1) The purpose of this study is to explore the market of Sudha with
comparison of its competitors.
(2) To know factors affecting the sale of Sudha ice-cream.
(3) To know consumers expectation with Sudha.
(4) To find out the market position of Sudha ice-cream.
(5) To know consumers most prefer and reason for it.
(6) To know which sales promotion schemes applied to increase the sales
of Sudha Ice-cream.
(7) To know the consumer taste preference toward the Ice-cream flavour taste
 Scope of the Study

The training in any organization gives an idea of different marketing activities and
also the decisions are taken tactfully when any problems comes to executives. So
the way of problem solving, right decision-making and knowledge of different
types of marketing activities gives much importance to this study.
Chapter - 2

Company Profile
Company Profile

Introduction to the Organization

This is an established fact that India is basically agriculturist country because of


80% of its population having dependence on agriculture. Besides, the production
of food grains milk is also produced in a large quantity in rural areas.

However, in absence of proper marketing facilities the economic condition of milk


producers were far from being satisfactory. The middlemen who used to pocket the
maximum amount of profit from the sale of milk and its product, giving very little
amount to the actual producers, were exploiting them. The individual milk
producers were not in position to press the middlemen to give reasonable return for
their milk products. They also had facilities to sale milk its product in big cities
which provide big market.

Some of the great Indian leaders realized the importance of co-operative societies
in such situation Mahatama Gandhi told that “A co-operative society should be
organized with the willing consent of the conversants with love and
understanding.”

The concept of the co-operative society for the milk producers was accepted to the
solution of difficulties. The idea was ideally welcomed by the milk producers who
quickly revised its importance and heartily participated in the new venture.

Tirhut Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Limited, PATNA Dairy, Bihar (Tag
Line "RISTA VISHWAS KA") is largest milk union in the eastern part of India -
an industrial deprived region, 14th January, 1991 was the day when PATNA Dairy
was handed over by Bihar State Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Limited
(COMPFED) to management of Milk Union.

The cooperative dairying in the region encompassing PATNA , Sitamarhi, Sheohar,


Motihari, Bettiah, Siwan and Gopalganj district, was in the doldrums. Production
had stagnated and per capita consumptin was falling down. Farmers in the village,
involved in dairying as an occupation, were compelled to sell milk to middle man
at low prices because of the absence of the effective regulatory market
intervention. In this worsening scenario the farmers of the region, under the
influence of the milk union decided to form dairy cooperatives and sell the milk
directly to the cooperative instead through the middle man route. Forming of
cooperative offered its own difficulties, here was an illiterate farming community
being told to form a modern cooperative and market their milk directly. It also met
with opposition from local operators, the middleman that it employed. The
cooperative struggled against all odds for year and it survived, and eventually it
thrived. Previously the milk procurement was as low as 30 TKPD and the lean
flush ratio was 1:2.5.

BACKGROUND
PATNA dairy was established as joint venture of Bihar State Government and
United Kingdom Freedom for Hunger campaign organization , UKFHC (United
Kingdom Freedom Hunger Corporation), provides various equipments and capital
this venture both Bihar Government and UKFHC jointly share the expenses in
which state government provided 50% as capital and 50% as loan. This dairy was
inaugurated on 12th March, 1982 with the capacity production of 25000 litres,
milk per day under Operation Flood programme.
For the rapid development of the programme and meeting the demands of milk
state wise under Operation Flood Scheme. State Government established an apex
Co-operation Milk Producers Federation (COMFED) on 18 th April, 1983. Under
this milk producing places formed at district level. Its objectives include increasing
the production of milk, its marketing providing pure milk and various milk
products to customers on 21st April, 1984. The whole established mechanism was
transferred into federation. This system help rural areas milk producers as they
started getting cost of their milk.

Keeping in view, all these development on 22 nd July, 1988 Tirhut Milk Producer
Co-operative Federation. A board of directors was established on 27 th February,
1989 from among the milk producer members.

On 14th January, 1991, PATNA dairy was handed over to federation management.
Now, under the able guidance of federation management which democratically
elected the body and the Managing Director which functioning properly and
effectively.

The products of dairy are marketed under the brand name of “SUDHA” . The dairy
has large network of retailers to sale its products.

Area of Operation
There are six district level Milk Producers' Cooperative Unions affiliated to the
Milk Federation. These milk unions are covering twenty-six districts and in
addition five districts are being covered by the Federation.

Different milk unions, which are organising the DCS network in these districts are
as follows:
i. Vaishal Patliputra Milk Union, Patna covering Patna, Vaishali, Nalanda, Saran
and Sheikhpura districts.

ii. DR Milk Union, Barauni covering Begusarai, Khagaria, Lakhisarai and part of
Patna Districts.

iii. Tirhut Milk Union, PATNA covering PATNA , Sitamarhi, Sheohar, East
Champaran, West Champran, Siwan and Gopalganj.

iv. Mithila Milk Union, Samastipur covering Samastipur, Darbhanga &


Madhubani districts.

v. Shahabad Milk Union, Ara covering Bhojpur, Buxar, Kaimur & Rohtas
districts.

VI. Vikramshila Milk Union, Bhagulpur: Covering Bhagulpur , mungar, Banka


and jamui Districts

The Milk Federation has already taken up organization of Dairy Co-operative


Societies (DCS) in the districts of Gaya, Jehanabad, Arwal and Nawada under
Magadh Dairy Project and work has been initiated by Kosi Dairy Project in
Saharsa, Supaul and Madhepura, Katihar, Purnia, Araria and Kishanganj districts.

The districts of East and West Singhbhum, Ranchi, Bokaro and Dhanbad now in
Jharkhand are being covered by the dairies directly under the control of Milk
Federation for the supply of milk and milk products to the urban consumers in
these cities. Procurement of milk has been taken up in Ranchi districts only.

Processing Capacities
Name of the Plant Capacity(TLPD) Management
Patna 150.0 VPMU
Barauni 300.0 BMU
PATNA 150.0 TMU
Samastipur 250.0 MMU
Arrah 100.0 SMU
Jamshedpur 100.0 COMFED
Ranchi 100.0 COMFED
Bokaro 100.0 COMFED
Bhagalpur 60.0 COMFED
Gaya 35.0 COMFED
Purnia 10.0 BMU

Kaimur 10.0 SMU


Gopalganj 10.0 TMU
Darbhanga 20.0 MMU
Biharsharif 400.0 COMFED
Total 1795.0

Milk Chilling Centres

Chilling centre Capacity(TLPD) Mgmt.


Hajipur 60.0 VPMU
Sitamarhi 20.0 TMU
Khagaria 40.0 BMU
Rosera 20.0 MMU
Kochas 10.0 SMU
Dumraon 10.0 SMU
Motihari 20.0 TMU
Total 180.0

Bulk Coolers

Mgmt. Nos. Capacity(TLPD)


VP Milk Union 34 97.0
DR Milk Union 22 89.0
Mithila Milk Union 19 85.0
Vikramshila Milk Union 17 57.0
Tirhut Milk Union 26 41.5
Shahabad Milk Union 18 47.0
Magadh Dairy Project 8 32.0
Kosi Dairy Project 7 32.0
Total 151 480.5

Other Plants

Plant Capacity
CFP, Patna 100 MTD
CFP, Ranchi 100 MTD
CFP, Kanti,Muz'pur 60 MTD
Ice-cream plant,Patna 3TLPD
Tirhut Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Limited, PATNA , Dairy, Bihar
AT A GLANCE

1. Year of Establishment 1982


2. Initial Plant Capacity 25000 Litres
3. Present Plant Capacity 100000 Litres
4. Handling Capacity 65000 Litres
5. Storing Capacity 127000 Litres

Chilling Centres at TIMUL


I. Sitamarhi 20000 LPD
II. Motihari 20000 LPD
III. Gopalganj 10000 LPD
IV. Sahebganj 4000 LPD
V. Betiah 4000 LPD

Number of Tankers

I. Small Tankers 15
II. Big Tankers 12

Marketing Areas
 PATNA
 Motihari
 Betiah
 Raxaul
 Sitamarhi
 Gopalganj
 Siwan
 Sahebganj

Number of Retail Outlets (PATNA ) : 527 Retail Points

Number of Employees :-
Officers 25
Skilled 194
Non-Skilled 423
Total 642

Milk and Milk Product

Tirhut dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh is the largest dairy in Bihar. The main
product of TIMUL is pasteurized milk . Its brand name is “SUDHA”.

Sl. No. Milk & Milk Products


1. Tonned Milk
2. Standard Milk
3. Gold Milk
4. Cow Milk
5. GSM (Gold Standard Milk)
6. Balushahi
7. Misthi Dahi
8. Fitness Dahi
9. P. Dahi
10. Honey Misthi Dahi
11. Ghee
12. R.T. Ghee
13. Gulabjamun
14. Honey
15. Lassi Sweet
16. Milk Cake
17. Khowa
18. Paneer
19. Peda
20. Rasogulla
21. Soanpapri
22. Surbhi
23. Table Butter

Customer Price of Sudha Products :-

Sl.No. Products Life Per Kg. Per Pack


1. Ghee 500 ml 6 Months 290.00 145.00
2. Ghee 200 ml 6 Months 300.00 60.00
3. R.T. Ghee 500 ml 6 Months 300.00 150.00
4. R.T. Ghee 1000 ml 6 Months 290.00 290.00
5. Ghee 15 Kr. Jar -- 4350.00 4350.00
6. Misti Dahi 5 Days 9.00 9.00
7. Honey Misti Dahi 5 Days 10.00 10.00
8. Fit. Dahi 500 grm. 5 Days 58.00 29.00
9. Fit. Dahi 200 grm. 5 Days 75.00 15.00
10. Plain Dahi 5 Kg. Jar 5 Days 300.00 300.00
11. Plain Dahi 18 Kg. Jar 5 Days 990.00 990.00
12. Balushahi 500 grm. 5 Days 170.00 85.00
13. Balushahi 250 grm. 5 Days 180.00 45.00
14. Balushahi 125 grm. 5 Days 200.00 25.00
15. Balushahi 10 Kg. Jar 5 Days 1250.00 1250.00
16. Balushahi 1 Kg. Tin --- 130.00 130.00
17. Peda 250 Grm. 7 Days 200.00 50.00
18. Peda 100 Grm. 7 Days 220.00 22.00
19. Table Butter 500 Grm. 12 Months 284.00 142.00
20. Table Butter 100 Grm. 12 Months 290.00 29.00
21. Table Butter 50 Grm. 12 Months 320.00 16.00
22. Lassi Sweet 200 ml --- 9.00 9.00
23. Mattha 200 ml -- 7.00 7.00
24. Surbhi 100 grm. 5 Days 12.00 12.00
25. Paneer 4 Kg. 10 Days 193.00 772.00
26. Paneer 500 grm. 10 Days 196.00 98.00
27. Paneer 200 grm.. 10 Days 200.00 40.00
28. Paneer 100 grm. 10 Days 220.00 22.00
29. Rasogulla 500 grm. 5 Days 150.00 75.00
30. Rasogulla 250 grm. 5 Days 160.00 40.00
31. Rasogulla 125 grm. 5 Days 176.00 22.00
32. Rasogulla 10 Kg. Jar. 5 Days 1100.00 1100.00
33. Rasogulla 5 Kg Jar 5 Days 575.00 575.00
34. Rasogulla 1 Kg. TIN --- 125.00 125.00
35. Litchi 50 grm. 18 Months 220.00 11.00
36. Litchi 100 grm. 18 Months 180.00 18.00
37. Litchi 250 grm. 18 Months 160.00 40.00
38. Litchi 500 grm. 18 Months 150.00 75.00
39. Gulab Jamun 125 grm. 7 Days 200.00 25.00
40. Gulab Jamun 250 grm. 7 Days 118.00 45.00
41. Gulab Jamun 500 grm. 7 Days 170.00 85.00
42. Gulab Jamun 5 Kg. Jar 7 Days 675.00 675.00
43. Gulab Jamun 10 Kg. Jar. 7 Days 1250.00 1250.00
44. Gulab Jamun 1 Kg TIN 4 Months 130.00 130.00
45. Khowa 500 Gm. --- 200.00 100.00
46. Milk Cake 100 Grm. 7 Days 220.00 22.00
47. Milk Cake 250 Grm. 7 Days 200.00 50.00
48. Soanpapadi 250 Grm. --- 248.00 62.00
49. Soanpapadi 400 grm. --- 225.00 90.00
50. Honey 50 grm. --- 420.00 21.00
51. Honey 100 grm. --- 400.00 40.00
52. Honey 250 grm. --- 328.00 82.00
53. Honey 500 grm. --- 260.00 130.00
54. Balushahi 5 Kg Jar 5 Days 675.00 675.00

Customer price of Sudha Milk :-


1
Sl.No. Products Life /2 Kg. 1 Kg.
1. Tonned Milk ---- 15.00 29.00
2. Standard Milk ---- 16.00 32.00
3. Gold Milk ---- 17.00 34.00
4. Cow Milk ---- 14.00 28.00
5. DTM ---- ---- ----
Marketing
A. Liquid Milk Marketing
In the initial years, the emphasis of Compfed was on organizing DCS and
educating farmers. In the initial years the milk sale moved at snail's speed
from Later, marketing was given a boost by considering it a thrust area. The
daily average milk marketing has now reached a level of about 97504.60
av/day during 2014-15.

In order to boost the sale of liquid milk, the diaries adopted the following
strategies:-
 Reaching close to the consumers by expanding the retail network and
establishing new whole day milk booths. Strengthening of door-
delivery system.
 Strengthening of marketing teams by inducting professionals and
better supervision.
 Service to retailers and redressed of consumer complaints.
 Liberalizing the terms for appointment of retailer’s viz. reduction in the
security deposits, facility for cash collection, increased commission, etc.
 Creating consumer awareness and education.

B. Milk Products Marketing


With a view to improve the financial viability of dairies, broaden the product
mix to serve a larger section of the population and improve the disposal of
milk procured by the DCS, the dairies have resorted to the production of long
shelf –life, value added and fresh milk products (indigenous milk based
products / sweets). The product mix comprises of Ghee, Table Butter, Ice
Cream, Dahi (Mishti and plain) Lassi Peda, Kalakand, Gulabjamun, Rasogulla,
Paneer (vacuum-packed), Milk Cake and Khoa. Besides these products,
surplus milk is conserved in the form of white butter, skim milk powder (SMP)
and whole milk powder (WMP), which are mainly consumed by own dairies.
Dairies are in the process of mechanizing the production processes for having
better hygiene, improved shelf life commercial production. All the products
are sold under ‘SUDHA’ brand name. Quantities of different products market
table below:

Year wise milk products marketing

Name of product 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15


Peda 25.13 31.03 38.20 40.82
Kalakand 11.49 13.96 15.91 15.50
Milk cake 2.25 3.32 3.55 2.12
Khoa mithai 0.46 0.04 0.32 0.09
Khoa 1.98 3.70 6.24 6.71
Paneer 32.17 45.12 61.37 54.40
Lassi 300.48 366.69 265.66 385.06
S.special 199.59 418.38 413.89 410.14
M.dahi 34.33 52.46 70.53 99.60
Plain dahi 27.91 28.95 35.73 57.46
Rassogulla 34.68 51.04 65.55 71.70
Gulab jamun 37.35 53.42 62.91 70.06
Gift pack 0.13 0.18 0.27 0.33
Ghee 35.38 44.51 40.53 51.79
MILK MARKETING OF PATNA MILK UNION:-

Milk and milk products marketing in PATNA milk union are done through proper
supply chain management. Here one distributor is appointed at each district/block
level. Under this distributor several retailer works .so products to the consumer is
reached through retailer/ samiti only. No direct sale of milk and milk product is
being made. In PATNA milk union totally there are 12 distributors and about 1034
retail outlets. Totally they cover the population of 7, 49,870 consumers. Here per
capita consumption is about 200ml per consumer. From the data it becomes clear
that about 1549 consumers are covered through single outlet.

From the factory milk reaches to the distributor and from here it reaches to retailer
and finally to consumer.

FACTORY

DISTRIBUTOR DISTRIBUTOR

RETAILER RETAILER

CONSUMER
Product Details

Tirhut dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh is the largest dairy in Bihar. The main
product of TIMUL is pasteurized milk . Its brand name is “SUDHA”.

PATNA dairy supply two types of products-


 Liquid Milk
 Milk product i.e. product from milk.

LIQUID MILK

Presently dairy markets two types of milk namely toned milk (TM) and
standard milk (SM) is also known as full cream milk. Besides two types of milk
dairy also produces other kinds of milk time to time as per demand. Milk is
categorized on the basis of the percentage of fact and solid Not Fat (SNF)
present in the milk. The percentage of these combinations that are Fat and
SNF includes water (87%) protein (3.5-5%) lactose (4.6-5%) mineral (0.7-
8.8%), carbohydrate (4-5%) etc. Liquid Milk is sold at a brand name of
“SUDHA”, thus standard milk is as follows:

Serial Milk Milk Type Fat SNF


No.
1. Sudha Gold Full Cream Milk 6.0% 9.0%
2. Sudha Gold Sudha Shakti 4.5% 8.5%
3. Sudha Gold Cow Milk 3.5% 8.5%
4. Sudha Healthy Toned Milk 3.0% 8.5%
5. Sudha Smart Double Toned Milk 1.5% 9.0%
Sudha Healthy

Product Details
Product Name Sudha Healthy (Toned Milk)
Description Pasteurized Sudha Milk meets the FSSAI Standards for
respective type of milk.
Packaging and 1000 ml Polypack - Bihar-Rs.30.00, Jharkhand-Rs.32.00,
MRP/Pack Delhi/NCR-Rs.34.00

500 ml Polypack - Bihar-Rs.15.00, Jharkhand-Rs.16.00,


Delhi/NCR-Rs.17.00
Product Specifications

Composition FAT(%) - 3.0 min

SNF(%) - 8.5 min

Nutritional Information
Nutritional Information(Approx. values)
Amount per 100 ml
Energy 58 Kcal
Energy from Fat 27 Kcal
Total Fat 3.0 g
Saturated Fat 1.9 g
Cholesterol 8.0 mg
Total Carbohydrate 4.7 g
Added Sugar 0.0 g
Protein 3.1 g
Calcium 150 mg
Phosphorous 130 mg
Sodium 50 mg
Thiamine 42.5 mcg
Riboflavin 120 mcg
Niacin 100 mcg
Folic Acid 7.5 mcg
Vit.A(Retinol) 32 mcg

Sudha Cow Milk

Product Details
Product Name Sudha Cow Milk
Description Pasteurized Sudha Milk meets the FSSAI Standards
for respective type of milk
Packaging Poly Pack – 500ml, 1000ml.
Product Specifications
Composition FAT(%) 3.5 min

SNF(%) 8.5 min

Nutritional Information(Approx. values)


Amount per 100 ml
Energy 63 Kcal
Energy from Fat 31.5 Kcal
Total Fat 3.5 g
Saturated Fat 1.7 g
Cholesterol 9.3 mg
Total Carbohydrate 4.7 g
Added Sugar 0
Protein 3.1 g
Calcium 150 mg
Phosphorous 130 mg
Sodium 50 mg
Thiamine 42.5 mcg
Riboflavin 120 mcg
Niacin 100 mcg
Folic Acid 7.5 mcg
Vit.A(Retinol) 37.3 mcg
Sudha Gold

Product Details
Product Name Sudha Gold (Full Cream Milk)
Description Pasteurized Sudha Milk meets the FSSAI
Standards for respective type of milk.
Packaging Poly Pack – 500ml, 1000ml.
Product Specifications
Composition FAT(%) 6.0 min

SNF(%) 9.0 min

Nutritional Information(Approx. values)


Amount per 100 ml
Energy 87 Kcal
Energy from Fat 54 Kcal
Total Fat 6g
Saturated Fat 3.8 g
Cholesterol 16 mg
Total Carbohydrate 4.9 g
Added Sugar 0
Protein 3.4 g
Calcium 159 mg
Phosphorous 138 mg
Sodium 53 mg
Thiamine 45 mcg
Riboflavin 127 mcg
Niacin 106 mcg
Folic Acid 7.9 mcg
Vit.A(Retinol) 64 mcg

Sudha Shakti
Product Details
Product Name Sudha Shakti (Standard Milk)
Description Pasteurized Sudha Milk meets the FSSAI
Standards for respective type of milk
Packaging Poly Pack – 500ml,1000ml.
Product Specifications
Composition FAT(%) 4.5 min

SNF(%) 8.5 min

Nutritional Information(Approx. values)


Amount per 100 ml
Energy 72 Kcal
Energy from Fat 40.5 Kcal
Total Fat 4.5 g
Saturated Fat 2.7 g
Cholesterol 12 mg
Total Carbohydrate 4.7 g
Added Sugar 0
Protein 3.1 g
Calcium 150 mg
Phosphorous 130 mg
Sodium 50 mg
Thiamine 42.5 mcg
Riboflavin 120 mcg
Niacin 100 mcg
Folic Acid 7.5 mcg
Vit.A(Retinol) 48 mcg

Sudha Smart
Product Details
Product Name Sudha Smart (Double Toned Milk)
Description Pasteurized Sudha Milk meets the FSSAI
Standards for respective type of milk
Packaging Poly Pack – 200ml,500ml.
Product Specifications
Composition FAT(%) 1.5 min

SNF(%) 9.0 min

Nutritional Information(Approx. values)


Amount per 100 ml
Energy 47 Kcal
Energy from Fat 13.5 Kcal
Total Fat 1.5 g
Saturated Fat 0.95 g
Cholesterol 04 mg
Total Carbohydrate 4.9 g
Added Sugar 0
Protein 3.4 g
Calcium 159 mg
Phosphorous 138 mg
Sodium 53 mg
Thiamine 45 mcg
Riboflavin 127 mcg
Niacin 106 mcg
Folic Acid 7.9 mcg
Vit.A(Retinol) 16 mcg
Milk Products
(1) GHEE
Ghee is manufactured in PATNA Dairy in the brand
name of "SUDHA" from January 1993.
Now a days Ghee is sold in all over the State and is
well accepted by the consumers.

(2) PEDA :-
This is a unique products of the Dairy which has started from November,
1992. Peda is traditionally porepared by mixing Khoa and sugar
in the ratio of 3:1.
It is used as a delicious sweet which is very popular in
North Bihar. Specially on the occasion of various religious festivals as saraswati
Puja, Durga Puja, ID-UL-Fitar and X-mas etc.

(3) PANEER :-
Paneer is a coagulated Milk product obtained by
coagulation of Milk and by addition of citric acid and
chena. it is started in December 1992.

It is used in the preparation of various types of sweets.


Also used in preparation of different vegetables sometimes. It is directly used by
patients.
(4) MISTI DAHI :-
It is another delicious item and most popular (Specially
in the summer season) milk products of PATNA Dairy. It was
started in February, 1994.
It is a part of very wide range of Bengali sweets that are
extremely popular in eastern part of country.

(5) LASSI :-
It is also a popular and delicious product of PATNA
Dairy, which has been launch in the market and it is the most
popular and liked by people in summer season. It was started
in April 1993.
It is very useful in the case of indigestion.

6) TABLE BUTTER :-
T. Butter is sold in the market as the brand name
of "SUDHA". It was started by PATNA Dairy in 100
gms. rappers in Oct., 1993. 'But in these days it is
available in 50 gms. of wrappers. Now a days it is also
available indifferent gms. of wrappers.

(7) SUDHA SURBHI :-


Sudha surbhi is an another innovation of its R & D wings in the year 1994-
95, it is product of chena and Rabri higher percentage of fat and protein. It is
marketed in hygienically packed and sealed with attractive cups of 100 gms.
(8) KALAKAND :-
Kalakand is an innovation of its R & D wing in the year
1998. It is very delicious and very popular product of SUDHA
Dairy. It is special product of Khoa.

(9) During the year 2001-03 some special sweets are introduced in the market
by the Sudha Dairy, like LEDIKENI, BALUSHAHI,
CHOCOBURFI.
These sweets are delicious and favourite in his North Bihar region.

(10) SALTED LASSI :-


Salted lassi is very recent product of Sudha Dairy. This is
introduced for specially the diabetic persons and it is very popular
among them.

(11) SUDHA RASSOGULLA :-


Sudha Ice-cream

Product Name: Sudha VANILLA Product Name: Sudha STRAWBEERY


Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml. Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml.

Product Name: Sudha BUTTER SCOTCH Product Name: Sudha CHOCOLATE


Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml. Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml.

Product Name: Sudha KEASR PISTA Product Name: Sudha TUTTY FRUITY
Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml. Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml.

Product Name: Sudha KAJU KISMIS Product Name: Sudha BLACK CURRENT
Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml. Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml.
Product Name: Sudha LOVE Product Name: Sudha MANGO
Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml. Pack Size : 100ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 4000ml.

Product Name: Sudha MANGO Product Name: Sudha PINEAPPLE


Pack Size : 30ml, 60ml. Pack Size : 60ml.
Organizational Structure

The Bihar state Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Limited (COMFED) is


registered under the head office at B-9, Sri Krishnapuri, Patna. It is owned by the
Bihar Government. The company has a chairman who is associated with the Board
of Directors.

The company is headed by Managing Director (MD). Next after the MD is the
General Manager (GM). There are six major departments as follows:
(i) Personnel
(ii) Finance
(iii) Marketing
(iv) Purchasing
(v) Procurement
(vi) Production

PATNA Dairy an unit of COMFED is situated at NH-28 about 6 KM west


of PATNA town at Kolhua Pagambarpur.

MARKETING DEPARTMENT AND OBJECTS


(I) The marketing department is the backbone of organization and plays very
important role.
(II) The Deputy Manager (Marketing) is the head and fully responsible for his
department.
(III) Administration is direct under the control of Managing Director.
(IV) Below the Deputy Manager (Marketing) there are marketing in-charge.
(V) There are four Assistants under Marketing In-charge.
OBJECTS
There are number of objectives of this department as follows:-
(i) Selling of milk and its products.
(ii) Supervision
(iii) Transporting
(iv) Accounting
(v) Appointment of retailers and whole sellers.
(vi) Market survey
(vii) Consumer contact
(viii) Advertisement
(ix) Sales Promotion
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Financial Status of the Organization
Competitors of the Organization

As we know that Shudha is a no.1 brand in dairy sector in North Bihar. But Sudha is not

milk producer in North Bihar. There are a lot of competitor in market such as Amul, Raj,

Amrit, Everyday, Nestle etc. But Amul is a very tough competitor of Sudha and its

product range is also wide. Customer always gives first priority to Sudha because this is a

local company and there are a large number of retailers of Sudha so that customers easily

reaches to the Sudha Parlour and purchase its product according to their need. But

sometime like festivals and matrimonial ceremony the demand of milk and its by product

become very high and then that time Sudha become unable to fulfill the requirement of

customer then customer take in use other company to fulfill their need.
Company Market Share
Sudha 46%
Raj 4%
Amrit 1%
Amulya 10%
Everyday 0.4%
Nestle 0.6%
Others 38%
Chapter - 3

THEORETICAL ASPECT
Theoretical Aspect

The prospect of any product depends upon the market demand and company’s
demand. The market demand is measured by using various demand forecasting
techniques, which is discussed below. But before that we should be familiar with
the basic terminology of the market as given bellow:

(a) Potential Market.


It is the set of consumer who profess a sufficient level of interest in a
market offer. However, consumer interest is not enough to define a market
for marketers unless they also have sufficient income and access to the
product.

(b) Available Market.


It is the set of consumer who have interest, income, and access to a
particular offer. For some market offers, the company or government may
restrict sales to certain groups.

(c) Target Market.


It is the part of the qualified available market the company decides to
pursue. The company might decide to concentrate its marketing and
distribution effort on the South Asian market.

(d) Penetrated Market.


It is the set of consumers who are buying the company’s product.
These definitions are useful tool for market planning. If the company
isn’t satisfied with its current sales, it can take a number of buyers from its
target marketing. It can lower the qualification for potential buyers. It can
expand its available market by opening distribution elsewhere or lowering
its price, or it can reposition itself in the minds of its consumers.

TECHNIQUES OF DEMAND FORECASTING

The various techniques of demand forecasting are given below:


1. Survey Method.
Survey method are generally used where the purpose is to make
short-run forecast of demand. Under this method, consumer surveys are
conducted to collect information about their intentions and future purchase
plans. This method includes:
(i) Survey of potential consumers to elicit information on their
intentions and plan,
(ii) Opinion polling of experts, i.e., opinion survey of market experts and
sales representatives and through market studies and experiments.

The following techniques are used to conduct the survey of


consumers and experts.
1.A. Consumer survey Methods- Direct interviews.
The consumer survey method of demand forecasting involves
direct interview of the potential consumers. It may be in the form of
1.A.a. Complete Enumeration Method.
In this method, almost all potential users of the product are
contacted and are asked about their future plan of purchasing the
product in question. The quantities indicated by the consumers
are added together to obtain the probable demand for the product.

1.A.b. Sample Survey Method.


Under this method, only a few potential consumers and users
selected from the relevant market through a sampling method are
surveyed. Method of survey may be direct interview or mailed
questionnaire to the sample-consumers.
1.A.c. The End-Use Method.
The end-use method of demand forecasting has a considerable
theoretical and practical value, especially in forecasting demand
for inputs. Making forecasts by this method requires building up
a schedule of probable aggregate future demand for inputs by
consuming industries and various other sectors.
1.B. Opinion Poll Methods.
The opinion poll methods aim at collecting opinions of those who
are supposed to possess knowledge of the market, e.g., sales
representatives, sales executives, professional marketing experts and
consultants. The opinion poll methods include:

1.B.a. Expert-opinion Method.


Firms having a good network of sales representatives can put
them to the work of assessing the demand for the areas, regions
or cities that they represent.

1.B.a.ii. Delphi Method.


Delphi method of demand forecasting is an extension of the
simple expert opinion poll method. This method used to
consolidate the divergent expert opinions and to arrive at a
compromise estimate of future demand. The process is simple.

1.B.b. Market Studies and Experiments.


An alternative method of collecting necessary information
regarding demand is to carry out market studies and experiments
on consumer’s behavior under actual, though controlled, market
conditions. This method is known in common parlance as market
experiment method.

1.B.b.i. Market Test.


Under this method, consumers are given some money
to buy in a stipulated store goods, with varying prices,
packaging, displays, etc. The
experiment reveals the consumers responsiveness to the
changes made in price, packages, displays, etc.

1.B.b.ii. Laboratory Test.


The laboratory experiments also yield the same
information as the market test but the former has an advantage
over the latter because of greater control extraneous factors and
its somewhat lower cost.

2. Statistical Method.
Statistical method which utilize historical and cross-section data for
estimating long-term demand. Statistical methods are considered to be
superior techniques of demand estimation for the following reasons.

(i) In the statistical methods, the element of subjectivity is minimum,


(ii) Method of estimation is scientific, as it is based on the theoretical
relationship between the dependent and independent variables,
(iii) Estimates are relatively more reliable, and
(iv) Estimation involves smaller cost.

Statistical methods of demand projection include the following


techniques:

2.A. Trend projection Methods.


Trend projection method is a ‘classical method’ of business
forecasting. This method is essentially concerned with the study of
movement of variables through time. The use of this method requires a
long and reliable time-series data.

2.A.a. Graphical Method.


Under this method, annual sales data is plotted on a graph
paper and a line is drawn through the plotted points.

2.A.b. Fitting Trend Equation: Least Square Method.


Fitting trend equation is a formal technique of projecting the
trend in demand. Under this method, a trend line is fitted to the time-
series sales data with the aid of statistical techniques.

2.A.c. Box-Jenkins Method.

Box-Jenkins method of forecasting is used only for short-term


predictions. Besides, this method is suitable for forecasting demand
with only stationary time-series sales data. Stationary time-series
data is one which does not reveal a long-term trend. In other words,
Box-Jenkins techniques can be used only in those cases in which
time-series analysis depicts monthly or seasonal variation recurring
with some degree of regularity.

2.B. Barometric Method of Forecasting.

The barometric method of forecasting follows the method


meteorologists use in weather forecasting. Meteorologists use the
barometer to forecast weather conditions on the basis of movements of
mercury in the barometer.

The indicators used in this method are classified as:

2.B.a. Leading indicators.

The leading series consists of indicators which move up or


down ahead of some other series. Some examples of the leading
series are:
(i) Index of net business (capital) formation,
(ii) New orders for durable goods,
(iii) New building permits,
(iv) Change in the value of inventories,
(v) Index of the prices of the materials, and
(vi) Corporate profits after tax.
2.B.b. Coincidental indicators.
It is one that move up or down simultaneously with the level
of economic activity. Some examples of the coincidental series are:
(i) Number of employees in the non-agricultural sector,
(ii) Rate of unemployment,
(iii) Gross national product at constant prices,
(iv) Sales recorded by the manufacturing, trading and the retail
sectors.
(a) Lagging indicators.
The lagging series, consists of those indicators which follow a
change after some time-lag. Some of the indices that have been
identified as lagging series by the NBER are:
(i) Labour cost per unit o f manufactured output,
(ii) Outstanding loans, and
(iii) Lending rate for short-term loans.

2.C. Econometric Methods.


The econometric methods combine statistical tools with economic
theories to estimate economic variables and to forecast the intended
economic variables. The forecasts made through econometric methods
are much more reliable than those made through any other method. The
econometric methods are, therefore, most widely used to forecast
demand for a product, for a group of products and for the economy as a
whole. Our concern here is primarily to explain econometric methods
used for forecasting demand for a product.

The econometric methods are briefly described here under two basic
methods.
2.C.a. Regression Method.
Regression analysis is the most popular method of demand
estimation. This method combines economic theory and statistical
techniques of estimation.

2.C.a.i. Simple or Bivariate Regression Technique.


In simple regression technique, a single independent
variable is used to estimate a statistical value of the
‘dependent variable’ that is, the variable to be forecast.

2.C.a.ii. Multi-variate Regression.


The multi-variate regression equation is used where
demand for a commodity is deemed to be the function of
many variavbles or in cases in which the number of
explanatory variables is greater than one.

2.C.b. Simultaneous Equations Model.


In explaining this model, it will be helpful to begin with a
comparison of simultaneous equation method with regression
method. We may recall that regression technique of demand
forecasting consists of a single equation. In contrast, the
simultaneous equations. These equations are generally, behavioral
equations, mathematical identities and market-clearing equations.

Product demand in the market can be simultaneously find out along with the
companies product demand.

Company demand
It is the company’s estimated share of market demand at alternative levels
of company marketing effort in a given time period. It depends or how the
company’s products, services, prices and communications are perceived relative to
the competitors. It other things are equal the company’s market share will depend
on the relative scale and effectiveness of its market expenditures. Marketing model
builders have developed sales response function to measure how a company’s sales
are affected by its marketing expenditure level, marketing mix and marketing
effectiveness.
Marketing research

Marketing research involves conducting research to support marketing activities,


and the statistical interpretation of data into information. This information is then
used by managers to plan marketing activities, gauge the nature of a firm's
marketing environment and attain information from suppliers. Marketing
researchers use statistical methods such as quantitative research, qualitative
research, hypothesis tests, Chi-squared tests, linear regression, correlations,
frequency distributions, poisson distributions, binomial distributions, etc. to
interpret their findings and convert data into information. The marketing research
process spans a number of stages, including the definition of a problem,
development of a research plan, collection and interpretation of data and
disseminating information formally in the form of a report. The task of marketing
research is to provide management with relevant, accurate, reliable, valid, and
current information.

A distinction should be made between marketing research and market research.


Market research pertains to research in a given market. As an example, a firm may
conduct research in a target market, after selecting a suitable market segment. In
contrast, marketing research relates to all research conducted within marketing.
Thus, market research is a subset of marketing research.

Marketing environment

Staying ahead of the consumer is an important part of a marketer's job. It is


important to understand the "marketing environment" in order to comprehend the
consumers concerns, motivations and to adjust the product according to the
consumers needs. Marketers use the process of marketing environmental scans,
which continually acquires information on events occurring out side the
organization to identify trends, opportunities and threats to a business. The six key
elements of a marketing scan are the demographic forces, socio-cultural forces,
economic forces, regulatory forces, competitive forces, and technological forces.
Marketers must look at where the threats and opportunities stem from in the world
around the consumer to maintain a productive and profitable business.

The market environment is a marketing term and refers to factors and forces that
affect a firm’s ability to build and maintain successful relationships with
customers. Three levels of the environment are: Micro (internal) environment -
forces within the company that affect its ability to serve its customers. Meso
environment – the industry in which a company operates and the industry’s
market(s). Macro (national) environment - larger societal forces that affect the
microenvironment.

Market segmentation

Market segmentation pertains to the division of a market of consumers into


persons with similar needs and wants. For instance, Kellogg's cereals, Frosties are
marketed to children. Crunchy Nut Cornflakes are marketed to adults. Both goods
denote two products which are marketed to two distinct groups of persons, both
with similar needs, traits, and wants. In another example, Sun Microsystems can
use market segmentation to classify its clients according to their promptness to
adopt new products.

Market segmentation allows for a better allocation of a firm's finite resources. A


firm only possesses a certain amount of resources. Accordingly, it must make
choices (and incur the related costs) in servicing specific groups of consumers. In
this way, the diversified tastes of contemporary Western consumers can be served
better. With growing diversity in the tastes of modern consumers, firms are taking
note of the benefit of servicing a multiplicity of new markets.

Market segmentation can be viewed as a key dynamic in interpreting and


executing a logical perspective of Strategic Marketing Planning. The manifestation
of this process is considered by many traditional thinkers to include the
following;Segmenting, Targeting and Positioning.

Types of market research

Market research, as a sub-set aspect of marketing activities, can be divided into the
following parts:

 Primary research (also known as field research), which involves the


conduction and compilation of research for a specific purpose.
 Secondary research (also referred to as desk research), initially conducted
for one purpose, but often used to support another purpose or end goal.

By these definitions, an example of primary research would be market research


conducted into health foods, which is used solely to ascertain the needs/wants of
the target market for health foods. Secondary research in this case would be
research pertaining to health foods, but used by a firm wishing to develop an
unrelated product.

Primary research is often expensive to prepare, collect and interpret from data to
information. Nevertheless, while secondary research is relatively inexpensive, it
often can become outdated and outmoded, given that it is used for a purpose other
than the one for which it was intended. Primary research can also be broken down
into quantitative research and qualitative research, which, as the terms suggest,
pertain to numerical and non-numerical research methods and techniques,
respectively. The appropriateness of each mode of research depends on whether
data can be quantified (quantitative research), or whether subjective, non-numeric
or abstract concepts are required to be studied (qualitative research).

There also exist additional modes of marketing research, which are:

 Exploratory research, pertaining to research that investigates an assumption.


 Descriptive research, which, as the term suggests, describes "what is".
 Predictive research, meaning research conducted to predict a future
occurrence.
 Conclusive research, for the purpose of deriving a conclusion via a research
process.

Marketing planning
The marketing planning process involves forging a plan for a firm's marketing
activities. A marketing plan can also pertain to a specific product, as well as to an
organization's overall marketing strategy. Generally speaking, an organization's
marketing planning process is derived from its overall business strategy. Thus,
when top management are devising the firm's strategic direction or mission, the
intended marketing activities are incorporated into this plan. There are several
levels of marketing objectives within an organization. The senior management of a
firm would formulate a general business strategy for a firm. However, this general
business strategy would be interpreted and implemented in different contexts
throughout the firm.

Marketing strategy

The field of marketing strategy considers the total marketing environment and its
impacts on a company or product or service. The emphasis is on "an in depth
understanding of the market environment, particularly the competitors and
customers."

A given firm may offer numerous products or services to a marketplace, spanning


numerous and sometimes wholly unrelated industries. Accordingly, a plan is
required in order to effectively manage such products. Evidently, a company needs
to weigh up and ascertain how to utilize its finite resources. For example, a start-up
car manufacturing firm would face little success should it attempt to rival Toyota,
Ford, Nissan, Chevrolet, or any other large global car maker. Moreover, a product
may be reaching the end of its life-cycle. Thus, the issue of divest, or a ceasing of
production, may be made. Each scenario requires a unique marketing strategy.
Listed below are some prominent marketing strategy models.

A marketing strategy differs from a marketing tactic in that a strategy looks at the
longer term view of the products, goods, or services being marketed. A tactic refers
to a shorter term view. Therefore, the mailing of a postcard or sales letter would be
a tactic, but changing marketing channels of distribution, changing the pricing, or
promotional elements used would be considered a strategic change.

Buying behavior
A marketing firm must ascertain the nature of customers' buying behavior if it is to
market its product properly. In order to entice and persuade a consumer to buy a
product, marketers try to determine the behavioral process of how a given product
is purchased. Buying behavior is usually split into two prime strands, whether
selling to the consumer, known as business-to-consumer (B2C), or to another
business, known as business-to-business (B2B)

B2C buying behavior


This mode of behavior concerns consumers and their purchase of a given product.
For example, if one imagines a pair of sneakers, the desire for a pair of sneakers
would be followed by an information search on available types/brands. This may
include perusing media outlets, but most commonly consists of information
gathered from family and friends. If the information search is insufficient, the
consumer may search for alternative means to satisfy the need/want. In this case,
this may mean buying leather shoes, sandals, etc. The purchase decision is then
made, in which the consumer actually buys the product. Following this stage, a
post-purchase evaluation is often conducted, comprising an appraisal of the
value/utility brought by the purchase of the sneakers. If the value/utility is high,
then a repeat purchase may be made. This could then develop into consumer
loyalty to the firm producing the sneakers.

B2B buying behavior

Relates to organizational/industrial buying behavior. Business buy either wholesale


from other businesses or directly from the manufacturer in contracts or
agreements. B2B marketing involves one business marketing a product or service
to another business. B2C and B2B behavior are not precise terms, as similarities
and differences exist, with some key differences listed below:

In a straight re-buy, the fourth, fifth and sixth stages are omitted. In a modified re-
buy scenario, the fifth and sixth stages are precluded. In a new buy, all stages are
conducted.

Use of technologies

Marketing management can also rely on various technologies within the scope of
its marketing efforts. Computer-based information systems can be employed,
aiding in better processing and storage of data. Marketing researchers can use such
systems to devise better methods of converting data into information, and for the
creation of enhanced data gathering methods. Information technology can aid in
enhancing an MKIS' software and hardware components, and improve a
company's marketing decision-making process.

In recent years, the notebook personal computer has gained significant market
share among laptops, largely due to its more user-friendly size and portability.
Information technology typically progresses at a fast rate, leading to marketing
managers being cognizant of the latest technological developments. Moreover, the
launch of smartphones into the cellphone market is commonly derived from a
demand among consumers for more technologically advanced products. A firm can
lose out to competitors should it ignore technological innovations in its industry.

Technological advancements can lessen barriers between countries and regions.


Using the World Wide Web, firms can quickly dispatch information from one
country to another without much restriction. Prior to the mass usage of the
Internet, such transfers of information would have taken longer to send, especially
if done via snail mail, telex, etc.

Recently, there has been a large emphasis on data analytics. Data can be mined
from various sources such as online forms, mobile phone applications and more
recently, social media.
Services marketing
Services marketing relates to the marketing of services, as opposed to tangible
products. A service (as opposed to a good) is typically defined as follows:
 The use of it is inseparable from its purchase (i.e., a service is used and
consumed simultaneously)
 It does not possess material form, and thus cannot be touched, seen, heard,
tasted, or smelled.
 The use of a service is inherently subjective, meaning that several persons
experiencing a service would each experience it uniquely.

For example, a train ride can be deemed a service. If one buys a train ticket, the
use of the train is typically experienced concurrently with the purchase of the
ticket. Although the train is a physical object, one is not paying for the permanent
ownership of the tangible components of the train.

Services (compared with goods) can also be viewed as a spectrum. Not all
products are either pure goods or pure services. An example would be a restaurant,
where a waiter's service is intangible, but the food is tangible.


Chapter - 5

Research Methodology
Research Methodology

This chapter describes the research methodology which is applied during this
whole project work. Here we describe what we believe and apply method for
collecting data and analyzing for this project.

We will examine the following concepts:


Sources of data
Methods of data collection
Instrument used
Techniques of analyses

The success or failure of my research report depends to great extent on the


methodology for collecting information and data from internal and external
sources. It deals with research design used, data collected method used, and
fieldwork carried out, analysis and interpretation done.

Data Collecting Method


There are two types of data:
(i) Primary
(ii) Secondary
The primary data collected with a following methods.
(A) Interview :- Concerned officers and employees of Sudha Dairy were
interviewed.

(B) Questionnaire :- A questionnaire was developed to know the response of


consumers about special product. Further suggestions were also invited from them.
The Secondary data collected from:
(A) Annual reports of Company and
(B) Relevant Files of Sudha Dairy.

Sampling Plan
Here decision regarding following aspects are taken:-
(A) Universe as a population:-
In our pace population includes all the consumers of Sudha Ice-cream
Product.

(B) Sampling Unit:-


Who is to be surveyed? In this study sampling unit combination of one in
one house in the family were asked to be giving their opinion.
(C) Sample size:-
A sample size of 100 respondents were for this study.
(D) Sample procedure:-
In this study, help of sample random sampling method were taken.
(E) Contact Method:-
Personal contacts were made by the chosen sample.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


In order to analysis the data obtained from questionnaire various
statistical tools were used like the average, percentage, histograms and
pie diagrams were used. There are very simple to draw and easy to
understand.
Chapter - 6

Data Analysis and Interpretation


Data Analysis and Interpretation
I collected opinions of Two hundred respondents of different areas of PATNA
area through survey on the basis of random. These are the following opinions
which important for study point of view:-

Respondent’s age wise classification -?


Total No. of respondent – 200
Age group Respondents Percentage
Up to 30 98 49%
30-40 42 21%
40-50 38 19%
Above 50 22 11%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
From the above table it is inferred that most of the customer belongs
to young blood group (up to 30) it means that they are very rational, energetic
person to take your decision self.

Respondent’s opinion about monthly income:-


Total No. of respondent – 200
Income respondents Percentage
<10,000 94 47%
10,000-20,000 48 24%
20,000-30,000 38 19%
>30,000 20 10%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
From the above table it is inferred that most of the respondents in
PATNA are very low income group.
Showing the respondents awareness about the Sudha Ice-cream
products

Total No. of respondent – 200

Sources Respondents Percentage


Yes 134 67
No 66 33
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
Above table indicates that 67% of the respondents are aware of the
Sudha ice-creams and noticed consistency in the quality of the product
whereas 35% are not aware of the product.
Criteria of selection by customer :-

Criteria of selection No. of Respondents Percentage


Taste 36 18%
Brand 58 29%
Available 38 19%
Price 14 07%
Quality 54 27%
Total 200 100%

Interference : In the above table and chart, the criteria of selection of


customers found that, 18% Taste, 29% Brand, 19% Availability, Price 07% and
Quality 27%. So, most of the customer likes the on the basis of Brand.

Respondents Know about various sources of awareness:-


Total No. of respondent – 200

Brand name Respondents Percentage


Advertisements 30 15%
Friends 52 26%
Retailers 30 15%
Relatives & 78 39%
Others 10 5%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
From above Table-2 & Graph-2, it is clear that the Mechanics are the
best source of information of Sudha’s ice-creams (39%) followed by friends
(26%), shop keeper of a retail shop and advertisement (15% each) and 5%
respondents aware through other source.
No. of respondent who uses Sudha’s ice-creams :-

Total No. of respondent – 200

Reason type Respondents Percentage


Yes 80 40%
No 90 45%
Used in the Past 30 15%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
It can be inferred that 55% respondents used the Sudha's ice-creams, among
them 40% are the current users and rest of the 15% are used in the past.
No. of respondent who uses Sudha’s Large Size ice-creams :-

Total No. of respondent – 200

Reason type Respondents Percentage


Domestic Use 60 30%
In Party /Marriage 110 45%
Other 30 15%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
It can be inferred that 45% respondents used the Sudha's Large ice-creams in
Parties or Marriage Ceremony, 30% Uses in his home, among them 15% are
uses of Sudha Large Size ice-cream in other occasion such as festival, birthday
celebrations etc.
Respondents about purchasing medium:-

Total No. of respondent – 200

Purchasing medium Respondents Percentage


Direct 56 28%
Retail counter 128 64%
Salesmen 16 8%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
In this table it is clear that most of the customers purchase their product
from retail counter. Direct Selling is also a part of distribution of Sudha Ice-
cream Products.
Respondents for choosing Sudha Products :-

Variable Respondents Percentage


Price 43 21.5%
Quality 142 71%
Availability on time 6 3%
Any other 9 4.5%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
Most of respondent’s opinion is that they prefer Sudha Ice-cream for
their quality assurance.
How do you like the taste the Sudha Ice-cream ?

Total No. of Respondents = 100

Opinion No. of Respondents Percentage


Average 50 25%
Good 70 35%
Very Good 80 40%
Total 200 100%

Interference : It is evident from above Pie Chart I found that 40% respondents said
very good taste about Sudha Ice-cream.
Respondent’s opinion about Sudha Ice-cream packaging:-

Variable Respondents Percentage


Very good 67 33.5
Good 93 46.5
Normal 32 16
Not good 8 4
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
Most of the customer are satisfied their packaging but some of them
are want some improvement in their packaging.
Respondent’s opinion of Advertisement is the major buying decisions
makers for customers :-

Advertising has a Respondents Percentage


major influence in
your Purchase
Yes 128 64%
No 72 36%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
From the above table it is observed that 64% of the respondents agree
with the fact that advertisement is the key influencer in buying and the rest
36% respondents are not agreed.
Sudha Ice-cream is comparatively better than all other local Products in
market ?

Total No. of Respondents = 200

Opinion No. of Respondents Percentage


Yes 180 90%
No 20 10%
Total 200 100%

Interference : It is evident from above Pie Chart that most of the respondents
i.e 90% are said about Sudha Ice-cream is better than other.
Respondent’s opinion about time consideration:-

Variable Respondents Percentage


Yes 54 27%
No 146 73%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
Most of the respondent’s main problem is availability on time. From the
above table it is clear that maximum customers are not satisfied their time
management.
Respondent’s opinion about satisfaction level towards Sudha Ice-cream
products:-

Particulars Respondents percentage


Highly satisfied 134 67%
Satisfied 44 22%
Normal 23 11.5%
Dissatisfied 12 6%
Highly dissatisfied 7 3.5%
Total 200 100%

Inference:-
From the above data it is clear that most of the respondents are highly
satisfied with Sudha Ice-cream products.
Respondent’s opinion about satisfaction level towards price of Sudha
Ice-cream products :-
Total No. of Respondents = 200

Response No. of Respondents Percentage


Yes 158 79%
No 42 21%
Total 200 100%

Interference : In my survey, I have found that maximum respondents are


satisfied with the price of Sudha Ice-cream products.
Respondent’s opinion about satisfaction level towards taste of Sudha Ice-
cream products?

Total No. of Respondents = 200

Response No. of Respondents Percentage


Yes 164 82%
No 36 18%
Total 200 100%

Interference : In my survey, I have found that 82% respondents are satisfied


with the Taste of Sudha Ice-cream Products and only 18% respondents are not
satisfied with the Sudha Ice-cream Products.
How do you like the services of the company ?

Total No. of Respondents = 200

Opinion No. of Respondents Percentage


Average 70 35%
Good 90 45%
Very good 40 20%
Total 200 100%

Interference : When I asked to the respondents 'How do you like the services of
the company', 35% respondents said Average, 45% said Good and 20% said Very
good.


SWOT Analysis

Strength :-
 It is reputable organization and is well known all over Bihar as well as some
other neighouber like - U.P., Jharkhand, Kolkata, Delhi and Odisha. Even
the company sold the products. Even the company sold the products in
foreign country like - Nepal.
 Quality Conscious/Purity :- They maintain a high quality and purity of
sudha products like - milk and milk products.
 Good Relation :- Company flowing the good relation between customer
they provide social relation between customer as well as distributor and
retailer.
 Market share :- Company retained the 35% market share. Its doing very
good in millk and milk area. There is no competitor to compete to the
organization.
 No. of diversity business :-
 Sudha Milk
 Sudha milk products.
 Sudha Animal food.

Weakness :-
 Short time Approach :- Lack of emphasis on the collecting of milk from
rural area.
 Very little advertisement.
 Lack of product in crisis situation.
 Lack of competitor to grow fast in milk field.

Threats :-
 Govt. Regulation.
 Corporate Shortage problem.
 Political issue.
 From the competitor.

Opportunity :-
 The company have big opportunity to enhance the business in different state
(Upto Lucknow they are going to expand).
 The company is going to sell the product of Sudha 10,000 ton in capital of
India on this Dipawali.
 In Bihar they are going to expand 125 Cr. in Biharsarif to established a
plant.
 And also in Gopalganj they are expanding money to establish a plant soon.
 They are going to come in powder product field in the market.
Chapter - 6

 Findings
 Recommendation
Findings

A market research has been concluded on survey on satisfaction level of SUDHA


Ice-cream in PATNA district, to gauge the satisfaction level of customers with the
product and to understand their expectation, needs and performance which will be
helpful for the management to adopt innovative sudha in product and service
aspects.

After the analysis it is clear that the majority of respondents are aware of all
products of SUDHA in PATNA region .Every consumer will like to buy this
product and it is popular from all the categories of people. Sudha Ice-cream is top
in the list among different brand PATNA region and share of sudha ice-cream is
increasing very gradually and it is good sign for the SUDHA Company.

From the responses got from the survey done through assignment and through my
observations I have been able to find the following facts:
 Most of the customer belongs to young blood group (up to 30) it means
that they are very rational, energetic person to take your decision self in
my survey.
 Most of the respondents in PATNA are very low income group in my
survey.
 In my survey, I found that 67% of the respondents are aware of the
Sudha ice-creams and noticed consistency in the quality of the product
whereas 35% are not aware of the product.
 In my survey, I found that most of the customer likes the ice-cream on
the basis of Brand.
 It is found that maximum no. of respondents uses large size ice-cream
in parties and other social occasions.
 It is found that the Mechanics are the best source of information of
Sudha’s ice-creams (39%) followed by friends (26%), shop keeper of a
retail shop and advertisement (15% each) and 5% respondents aware
through other source.
 It can be inferred that 55% respondents used the Sudha's ice-creams,
among them 40% are the current users and rest of the 15% are used in
the past.
 It is clear that most of the customers purchase their product from retail
counter. Direct Selling is also a part of distribution of Sudha Ice-cream
Products.
 Most of respondent’s opinion is that they prefer Sudha Ice-cream for
their quality assurance.
 In my survey, I found that I found that 40% respondents said very good
taste about Sudha Ice-cream.
 Most of the customer are satisfied their packaging but some of them are
want some improvement in their packaging.
 It is observed that 64% of the respondents agree with the fact that
advertisement is the key influencer in buying and the rest 36%
respondents are not agreed.
 Most of the respondents i.e 90% are said about Sudha Ice-cream is
better than other.
 Most of the respondent’s main problem is availability on time. From the
above table it is clear that maximum customers are not satisfied their
time management.
 It is clear that most of the respondents are highly satisfied with Sudha
Ice-cream products.
 I have found that maximum respondents are satisfied with the price of
Sudha Ice-cream products.
 I have found that 82% respondents are satisfied with the Taste of Sudha
Ice-cream Products and only 18% respondents are not satisfied with
the Sudha Ice-cream Products.
Recommendation

“However efficient a system may be,


There is always a scope for improvement”
After analyzing and interpreting the data which was gathered from the customer
through questionnaire, would like to suggest these points of improvement which
may be essential for the organization.
 Company doesn’t have any brand ambassador for the promotional and
expansion activities of Sudha Ice-cream products to acquire more market
share so it is require for the company.
 Company has to develop marketing and advertising strategy for acquiring
better market share.
 Company could have to give gift offer and gift hampers to regular
customers for customer delight.
 Introduce some innovation in products such as change the packaging style.
 Home delivery system for Sudha products can be introduced.
 Most of the customers say that Ice-cream should be available on early
morning. Because, time management is the main problem in PATNA .
 Management should be install own retail shop in every Chowk for regulate
price fluctuation and time problem.
 Company should concentrate on order of parties for large size ice-cream.
Chapter - 7

 Conclusion
 Limitation
 Bibliography
 Questionnaire
Conclusion

A market research has been concluded on survey on prospects of Sudha Ice-cream


product in PATNA , to gauge the satisfaction level of customers with the product
and to understand their expectation, needs and performance which will be helpful
for the management to adopt innovative sudha product and service aspects.

After the analysis it is clear that the majority of respondents are aware of all
products of Sudha Ice-cream in PATNA region. Every consumer will like to buy
this product and it is popular from all the categories of people. Sudha Ice-cream is
top in the list among different brand in PATNA region and share of Ice-cream is
increasing very gradually and it is good sign for the Sudha.

1. Sudha is top in the list among different brands of Ice-cream in PATNA .


2. Most of customer prefer Sudha product than other.
3. Share of Ice-cream is increasing very gradually and it is good sign for
the Sudha company.
4. Best season for Sudha product is the time of April to August and also
Festival like Durga puja, ID, Bakrid, Holi and Marriage Season.
5. Sudha is not properly aware of the promotional activities regarding product.
Limitations

(i) Limitation of time :-


The time allowed for the study was not sufficient , so it was not possible to
adopt full methodology within the stipulated time.
(ii) Limitation of finance :-
It had not been possible to make in depth study in above respect due to the
limitation of finance.
(iii) Limitation of area :-
It was not possible to survey the PATNA due to the lack of time and
finance.
(iv) Some other Limitations :-
(a) More stress was given on primary data as it was difficult to collect
secondary data from organization.
(b) The result of Survey are based upon crucial assumptions like -
 The respondents know the right answer to the question put to
them.
 They are willing to give the right answer.
(c) All the conclusion and suggestion will be made in the feedback
obtained from survey on the basis of responses given by respondents.

In spite of all those limitations efforts were made on my part to come out
with whatever possible information was gathered and give view/points on it in the
form of suggestion at the concluding part of this project.
Bibliography

(A) Books :
 Kotler, Philip, Marketing Management. (The millenium edition).
 Ramaswami, V.S., and Namakumari, S., Marketing Management:
Planning Implementation and concept . (The India, Context)
 Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology
 Chuna wala, S.A., Sethia, K.C. foundation of advertising
 Subrato Sen Gupta : Brand Positioning
(B) News Paper:
 The Economic Times
 Times of India
 Business Standard
 Business Line
(C) Magazine :
 The Economic Times
 Business Today
 4p's
 Business World
 Business Cronicle
 Yojna
(D) Journal :
 The Indian Journal of Marketing
 Marketing Mastermind
 Advertisement express
(E) Internet :
www.comfed.com
www.google.co.in
Questionnaire
Name:-
Address:-
1. Respondent’s age wise classification -?
(a) Up to 30 (b) 30-40
(c) 40-50 (d) Above 50

2. Respondent’s opinion about monthly income ?


(a) <10,000 (b) 10,000-20,000
(c) 20,000-30,000 (d) >30,000

3. Showing the respondents awareness about the Sudha Ice-


cream products-
(a) Yes (b) No

4. Criteria of selection by customer :-


(a) Taste (b) Brand
(c) Available (d) Price
(e) Quality

5. Respondents Know about various sources of awareness :-


(a) Advertisements (b) Friends
(c) Retailers (d) Relatives &
(e) Others

6. No. of respondent who uses Sudha's ice-creams :-


(a) Yes (b) No
(c) Used in the Past

7. No. of respondent who uses Sudha's Large Size ice-creams :-


(a) Domestic Use (b) Party/Marriage
(c) Other
8. Respondents about purchasing medium:-
(a) Direct (b) Retail counter
(c) Salesmen

9. Respondents for choosing Sudha Products :-


(a) Price (b) Quality
(c) Availability on time(d) Any other

10. How do you like the taste the Sudha Ice-cream ?


(a) Average (b) Good
(c) Very Good

11. Respondent’s opinion about Sudha Ice-cream packaging:-


(a) Very good (b) Good
(c) Normal (d) Not good

12. Respondent’s opinion of Advertisement is the major buying


decisions makers for customers :-
(a) Yes (b) No

13. Sudha Ice-cream is comparatively better than all other local


Products in market ?
(a) Yes (b) No

14. Respondent’s opinion about time consideration:-


(a) Yes (b) No

15. Respondent’s opinion about satisfaction level towards Sudha


Ice-cream products:-
(a) Highly satisfied (b) Satisfied
(c) Normal (d) Dissatisfied
(e) Highly dissatisfied
16. Respondent’s opinion about satisfaction level towards price of
Sudha Ice-cream products :-
(a) Yes (b) No

17. Respondent’s opinion about satisfaction level towards taste of


Sudha Ice-cream products?
(a) Yes (b) No

18. How do you like the services of the company ?


(a) Average (b) Good (c) Very good

19. Any other opinion about Sudha Ice-cream ?


...............................................................................................................

Date: - signature
