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S.

Raja Rajeshwary
Outcomes
 Towards the end of lecture, you should be able to:
1. Explain causes of sand production
2. Describe consequences of sand production
3. Describe methods to predict sand production
4. Describe sand control techniques
Definition
Sand control is…..

the limitation of sand production


to an acceptable level

Wells completed with sand control* are designed to:


• retain load bearing solids
• but produce fines

*The term “exclusion” can be misleading


Experience with Sand
 ~70% of the Malaysian fields have sanding problems

 In Malaysia, we have :
 sand production from both oil and gas fields
 no issues with the water injectors
 access to most equipment
 homogeneous and heterogeneous sands
 run various types sand control: IGP, ESS, SAS, SCON
 no experience of horizontal GPs
Areas Requiring Sand Management
Sand control usually required in areas with newer sediments:

 Malaysia
 Brunei
 Australia
 China
 UKCS
 Nigeria
 West Africa
 Gulf of Mexico
 Venezuela
Process Of Sand Management
Prediction
Sanding Sanding not
anticipated anticipated
Sanding
possible

Control
Selection:
Exclusion Control Maybe control - Longevity
(maybe (maybe (exclusion - Productivity
control) exclusion) unlikely) - Functionality
- Cost

Completion, Fit For Purpose


Factors Increasing Sand Formation
• Decline of reservoir presssure (increase of overburden pressure)

• Cementing Material, Degree of Consolidation

• Fluid Viscosity, Production Velocity, Drag Forces

• Increasing water production (destroys


intergranular cementing material)

• Formation damage
(increases drawdown)
What’s Influences Sanding?
Rock
stresses can The pore
10k
cause sand pressure
PSI
failure supports
the sand

High
velocity of
viscous fluid
Oil or Gas can move
Rock sand
Strength Water can
weaken
sand
Causes of Sand Production (I)
 Time Dependence
 decreasing reservoir pressure increases the effective stress on
the grains (overburden is constant)
 Fluid Flow
 fluid velocity and viscosity contributes to the pressure drop
near the wellbore (drag force)
 production induces stress on the formation sand
 induced stress > formation stress  sand production

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Causes of Sand Production (II)
 Geological Factors
 tertiary age reservoirs, usually shallow depths
 unconsolidated
 Impairment on Natural Consolidation
 high compressive strength
 internal pore pressure supports the overburden

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Causes of Sand Production (III)
Mutiphase Flow
 Water production may dissolve natural cementing
materials weakening the intergranular bonds;
 Water production may mobilize fines resulting in
plugging of the pore structure.

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Consequences of Sand Production
1. Accumulation downhole
2. Accumulation in surface equipment
3. Erosion of downhole/surface equipment
4. Collapse of the formation
Sanding Prediction - Why
Sand Control Sand Control Sand Control?

Zero strength Very very weak Very weak Weak


Dry sand Damp sand Weakly-cemented Stronger cement
high F lower F
Prediction of sand failure
When a well is drilled in un-consolidated (loose-grained)
sand, sand is produced together with well fluid.

Sand production can


I. erode

Equipment

Wellbore

II. plug flowlines

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Prediction of sand failure
At low rates, little or no sand may be produced.
At high rates, large quantities may be produced.
In flowing wells, sand can erode chokes and can be
accumulated in separators.
In pumping wells, sand can erode down-hole pumping
equipment
Without sand control, oil production of wells will lead to
uneconomical.
Therefore, Sand exclusion methods are required.
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Prediction of sand failure
Sand production is a two stage process
1- Failure of the rock

2- Transport of the failed materials into the well bore

Sand production will only be observed once both these


processes have occurred.

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Prediction of sand failure
How to predict sand failure?

1. Formation strength test


2. Sonic log
3. Porosity
4.Drawdown
5. Multiphase flow

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Prediction of sand failure
Experience
Analogy
Special Well Test
Core Inspection and Testing

Measurements
Log Interpretation
Correlations
Sand Control Techniques
1. Maintenance and workover

2. Rate restriction

3. Selective completion practices

4. Prevent sand production mechanically by screen or gravel pack.

5. Chemically consolidate the formation sand near the wellbore


using resinous material.

6. Inject resin-coated gravel into the perforations to pack and


stabilize the perforations.

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