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Welding International 1994 8 (10) 804-807

Selected from Revista de Soldadura 1994 24 (1) 14-18; Reference RS/94/1/14; Translation 1639

Welding characteristics and corrosion resistance of the

new nitrogen-alloyed steel X 2 CrNiMnMoN 24 17 6 4

Thyssen Edelstahlwerke AG, Krefeld


Thyssen Schweisstechnik GmbH, Bochum

Summary: Remanit 4565 S is a newly developed austenitic (Remanit 4565 S) which combines high mechanical
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stainless steel with high nitrogen content. Its characteris- strength and excellent corrosion resistance properties
tic features include better mechanical strength and tough- (Table 1).
ness values, delayed precipitation of carbides and inter-
metallic phases, as well as improved corrosion resistance. Table 1 Chemical composition, % by weight, and mechanical
This material can be used for fabrication by welding properties of Remanit 4565 S (X 2 CrNiMnMoN 24 17 6 4) steel
without risk of pore formation. Using the filler metals
SG-NiCr 20 Mo 15 (Thermanit Nimo C) or SG-NiCr 28 C Si Mn Cr Ni Mo N
Mo (Thermanit 30/40 E) according to the field of <0.03 <1.0 5-7 23-25 16-18 4-5 0.4-0.6
application, joints produced by the TIG process are as
RPo.2 Rm A5 A,
corrosion resistant as the base metal. N/mm2 N/mm2 % J
>420 800-1000 >30 >70
PREN: >50
A few years ago, austenitic stainless steels only attained
yield strength values of about 200 N/mm2 but the With a PREN value of approximately 52, the pitting and
progress subsequently achieved has made it possible to crevice corrosion resistance of Remanit 4565 S is compar-
develop stainless steels with higher strength. More recent- able with that of the nickel-based Alloy 625 which has
ly, investigations have been carried out with the objective high corrosion resistance (Fig. 1 and 2).
of improved corrosion resistance, which has been made The properties of Remanit 4565 S have already been
possible by improving production techniques and ascer- described.2'3"6 The present work summarises investiga-
taining the alloying effects of the elements, particularly in tions subsequently carried out on fabrication by welding
Cr-Ni-Mo steels. and the effect on corrosion resistance.
It is now well known that resistance to pitting and 100
Alloy 625 ^
crevice corrosion can be related to the chemical composi- (9 Mo) D ^ D
tion of the steel. The critical pitting temperature (CPT) 80
and the critical crevice temperature (CCT) are related to
the chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen contents in 8. 60 .. <s^ 1,3974
accordance with the following formula which defines the E

pitting resistance equivalent (PREN) (Ref. 1): •I 40- .^^0.904.1,.

PREN = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 30 x %N ^^22/05
316 L /
demonstrating the important influence of nitrogen on 1 20
corrosion resistance, as well as the beneficial effects it has
on Cr-Ni-Mo alloys such as: 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
PREN = % Cr + 3,3 • % Mo + 30 x% N
improved mechanical strength; 1 Critical pitting temperature of various stainless steels and the
nickel-based alloy. Alloy 625 (10% FeCU 6H2O).
improved toughness;
improved resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion;
delayed precipitation of carbides and intermetallic
phases during ageing. Welding characteristics and corrosion
This last characteristic has been especially taken into
account when welding nitrogen-alloyed Cr-Ni-Mo steels. Corrosion resistance is generally affected by the welding
The most recent investigations carried out have made it process, and in particular by the changes undergone by
possible to develop the steel X 2 CrNiMnMoN 24 17 6 4 the microstructure.
Nitrogen-alloyed steel 805

Table 2 Typical chemical composition of base metal and filler


Cr Ni Mo Other elements
Remanit 4565 S 23-25 16-18 4-5 Mn: 5-7 N; 0.4-0.6 >5O!6

Thermanit Nimo C
(NiCr20Mol5) 20 Rem. 15 69
Thermanit Nimo
C22 (NiCr21MoW) 21 Rem. 13.5 W: 3; V: 0.3 65
Thermanit 30/40 E
0 (NiCr29Mo) 29 36 3.8 Cu : 1.8 41.5
°25 30 35 40 45 50
PRE, = %Cr + 3,3 • % Mo + 30 * % N

2 Critical crevice corrosion temperature for various steels and for the Table 3 Welding processes
nickel-based alloy. Alloy 625 (10% FeC13 6H20).

Base metal Heat input,

Garner 1985 Process thickness, mm Filler metal kJ/cm
316 L I Without welding
3,2 1 1 TIG weldir g without
TIG 8 Nimo C, 30/40 E Low
317 L
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' filler metal MMA 3-8 Nimo C 7-8.5

1,4439 4,3 SAW 12-20 NimoC 10-11.3
Va ues: %Mo MIG/MAG 8-12 Nimo C, Nimo C22 7-21
904 L 4,2
Laser 1.5 0.96
^ 6 , 6
2 3
254 SMO _J 6,1
Normally, steels with 6% Mo are welded using a type
Ladwein 1989 625 nickel-based filler metal with 9% Mo, SG-NiCr 21
I.4565S i ^4,5 Mo 9 Nb, but the 625 filler metal is not suitable for alloy
20 40 60 80 100 steels with a high nitrogen content. Due to absorption of
Critical pitting temperature. °C
nitrogen from the base metal, a Cr-Nb-nitride phase
3 Critical pitting temperature for various stainless steels, without forms with the niobium contained in Alloy 625.
welding and welded by the TIG process without filler metal.
This phase, known as *z\ causes embrittlement and
thus gives rise to inadequate elongation and toughness
Garner7 has observed that a marked temperature drop values.
critical for pitting occurs in the as-welded state (without It is therefore recommended that welding should be
filler metal) in various stainless steels. As can be confirmed carried out with a nickel-based filler metal with 15% Mo,
by the results obtained in the ferric chloride test, the SG-NiCr 20 Mo 15 (Thermanit Nimo C), which presents
difference between the welded and unwelded states in- similar mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.
creases with increasing molybdenum content and pitting
resistance equivalent (Fig. 3). The drop in the critical
pitting temperature is more significant for steels with 6% Welding tests
Mo. Various welding procedures were adopted, using different
The behaviour of Remanit 4565 S is completely differ- filler metals and base metals of different sizes. Details are
ent. It has been ascertained that, even with a molybdenum summarised in Tables 2 and 3. The welded samples are
content of 4.5%, the drop in the CPT, in steels in the designated by the welding procedures, filler metal and
as-welded state, was only 15-20 CC. The unfavourable base metal thickness.
behaviour of steels with 6% Mo is due to the tendency of Generally, the arc welding process using a tungsten
molybdenum to segregation during solidification. With a electrode (TIG or GTAW) is used to deposit beads with
molybdenum content of 'only' 4.5 % the high PREN of 52 the highest possible corrosion resistance. To weld these
is obtained by the addition of nitrogen; in this way, samples, the filler metals Thermanit Nimo C and Ther-
Remanit 4565 S presents less tendency towards segrega- manit 30/40 E were used.
tion of the molybdenum. Due to the reduced degree of For the arc welding process using protective gas
segregation and the high diffusion rate of the nitrogen, the (MIG/MAG or GMAW), pulsing techniques were gen-
form in which Remanit 4565 S solidifies is more homo- erally adopted, using gas protection based on argon with
geneous; local differences in the pitting resistance equival- Thermanit Nimo C and Nimo C 22 as filler metals. It is
ent are less significant. frequently recommended that arc welding processes with
coated electrodes (MMA or SMAW) and submerged-arc
welding (SAW) should not be used to deposit high-quality
Filler metals
welds due to contamination of the weld metal. These
In order to offset a reduction in the pitting corrosion processes are very popular, however, and so they have
resistance of the weld metal, nickel-based filler metals been included in this study. For tests using the SAW
with high molybdenum contents are used. The weld metal process on 12 and 20 mm base metal an aluminate flux
presents high pitting resistance equivalents and is as and a basic fluoride flux were used in conjunction with
resistant to pitting corrosion as the base material. Thermanit Nimo C.
806 Ark et al

900 120
Rm , , -

80 —tii:
500- _, is'*' ! 60 'O; N

:o' O" ;o :«>; :Ki:

• <M.
(M :»;

:o o: o ;O. *J :
:o :<»• 'li.' :o :
40 —
o- ,o o. 'O- o-
| E: ;! u 'o,
,2 E iii &
•z «: :5; ;
Z :Z
o 'o-
S it; o
E :E: J' :o
'»' :* : :E; ;5:
:z; —s; —
• *

:« :*: Z :

D :£: !a o 6 20
2 0 — !z:
^ i - ; IK)!
i i —- i i: k; - ! iit'
•; —:?:—:*!-:»:
i :
i ;
IS - s; '»• ; k.

100 :
o>: ' O >
• O'

I •o;
E- % :°

4 Tensile strength values of welded joints. 7 Critical pitting temperature for welded joints in ferric chloride tests.

can be ascribed to impurities present in the weld metal,
compared with the weld metal in samples obtained by the
TIG process.
All samples prepared by MMA welding and SAW
jS 3 0
welding using the fluoride basic flux showed high elonga-
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tion and toughness values.


< 20
CO j
— — — — :
— -

o• o'
ifi ;o

O Pitting corrosion
I 0 • : | ; - :5i - :.£
• - ;i: -
i|: — — :I; - ! l; - :iI - il
•;z • i

• * '

'1 k
. *
• o
'• s

All samples prepared with the nickel-based filler metal
•> •i ;E •

2 Thermanit Nimo C show excellent CPT values in the

5 Elongation values of tensile specimens. ferric chloride solution (Fig. 7), with some even reaching
the same values as the base metal without welding. The
lower values were obtained from the sample prepared by
the MMA process (with base metal thickness 3 mm); this
may be related to the high level of dilution of the base
150 —

metal. The laser welded sample also only reached 65 °C,
but even this value is higher than that obtained with the
100 — ;£J ;
other high-alloy austenitic steels.4
5 •CD
i?l1 .CM •
• N
The CPT values of about 90 °C for the SAW samples
were surprising because they were expected to have lower
•7: ' 11. :o • O
> O
;o :
0 :F
50 —
• 0
: : 0'
; Ej •2 ; ;z;
corrosion resistance due to less-clean weld metal.8
: *:
' • * ;
'. * ' ;»: ;*
• X

• o-
i : *'
; 0
•0 !
;E -
£ The MIG/MAG samples present CPT values of 80 °C,
including that obtained with high heat input, 21 kJ/cm2.
;0 .m

6 Results from impact tests. It was not established whether differences in the chemical
compositions of the filler metals (Thermanit Nimo C - C
To complete the tests, sheets 1.5 mm thick were laser 22) had any effect.
welded. This process is attracting increasing interest for Thermanit 30/40 E gave a CPT value of only 55 °C, due
longitudinal seam welding of thin tubes without filler to the fact that its PREN value was only 41.5.
Corrosion in acids
Two samples prepared by the TIG process using Ther-
Investigations and results manit Nimo C and Thermanit 30/40 E were tested in
Mechanical tests contact with oxidising acid solutions according to ASTM
Standards A 262 Prac. B and Prac. C. In these tests,
Mechanical properties were determined by tensile tests corrosion behaviour was the opposite of behaviour in the
and impact tests (when possible) on flat samples in the pitting solution.
direction transverse to the welding directions. Results are The weight losses for Thermanit Nimo C were 2.5-4
shown in Fig. 4-6. times greater than those for Thermanit 30/40 E (Fig. 8).
All samples which cracked in the weld bead zone, Oxidising acids require steels with high chromium
except the sample which was laser welded, complied with contents, so that Thermanit Nimo C failed (only 20% Cr)
the minimum yield strength specified for the base metal. while the resistance of Thermanit 30/40 E with 30% Cr
The minimum tensile strength value specified was met content was as high as that of the base metal.
more or less by some samples while others did not reach it.
The reason for this was the lower tensile strength of all the
weld metals obtained with Thermanit 30/40 E and Conclusions
Thermanit Nimo C (700 N/mm2). The lower values The new austenitic stainless steel with high nitrogen
obtained with the samples welded by the MMA process content, Remanit S (X 2 CrNiMnMoN 24 17 6 4) gives
Nitrogen-alloyed steel 807

A 262 Proc. C A 262 Prac. B metal have the same pitting resistance as the base metal,
Test-Huey Test-Streicher and their mechanical properties are equivalent. Due to
delayed precipitation of carbides and intermetallic
Nimo C NimoC phases, Remanit 4565 S can be welded with high heat
0,2 The different oxidising media require filler metals with
higher chromium contents in order to obtain the same
30/40 E level of corrosion resistance. In this case, welding must be
4565 S
carried out with filler metals which have high chromium
i contents, such as Thermanit 30/40 E.
Remanit 4565 S also presents excellent resistance in the
8 Results from corrosion tests in oxidising media. as-welded state to corrosion in different media. In many
cases, using Remanit 4565 S is an economic alternative to
high mechanical strength and toughness values as well as nickel-based alloys.
excellent corrosion resistance in different types of me-
dium, particularly those which lead to crevice and pitting
corrosion. References
Fabrication by welding with Remanit 4565 S can be
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1 Gümpel P and Michel E: Thyssen Edelstahl Tech Ber 1986 12

carried out by all the usual welding processes without any 181-189.
risk of porosity appearing. 2 Gümpel P, Ladwein T and Michel E: Thyssen Edelstahl Tech Ber
Compared with steels having 6% Mo, the high PRE N 1988 14 12-25.
3 Arlt N, Grundmann R and Gmpel P: 11th int Corrosion cong,
value of Remanit 4565 S is obtained with high nitrogen Florence, 2-6 Apr 1990, conf proc vol 5, 355-362.
contents and a comparatively low molybdenum content. 4 Gümpel P and Ladwein T: 'High strength austenitic stainless steel
In the fusion zone, considerably less segregation of for use in marine environments'. 8th int conf on 'Offshore
mechanics and arctic engineering', The Hague, 19-23 Mar 1989.
molybdenum occurs. Even in the as-welded state (without 5 Arlt N, Grundmann R and Gmpel P: UK Corrosioa 89, Black-
filler metal), the CPT values are found to be about 70 °C, a pool, 8-10 Nov 1989, conf proc vol 2, 239-252.
value which exceeds the value obtained for comparable 6 Grundmann R, Arlt N and Ladwein T: Tappi J 1990 73 (12).
7 Garner A: Met Prog 1985 31.
steels. 8 Merz D, Proveleit B and Thiessen W: Z Werkstofftechnik 1981 12
The welds deposited using Thermanit Nimo C filler 19.