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sensors

Review
Deployment of a Smart Structural Health Monitoring
System for Long-Span Arch Bridges: A Review and
a Case Study
Zengshun Chen 1,2 , Xiao Zhou 1 , Xu Wang 1,3,4, *, Lili Dong 1, * and Yuanhao Qian 1
1 State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Mountain Bridge and Tunnel Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong
University, Chongqing 400074, China; zchenba@connect.ust.hk (Z.C.); zhouxiaocqjtu@gmail.com (X.Z.);
armelejos@hotmail.com (Y.Q.)
2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,
Hong Kong, China
3 The Key Laboratory for Health Monitoring and Control of Large Structures, Shijiazhuang 050043, China
4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign,
Urbana, IL 61801, USA
* Correspondence: xuwang@cqjtu.edu.cn (X.W.); 925858@swansea.au.uk (L.D.)

Received: 25 July 2017; Accepted: 11 September 2017; Published: 19 September 2017

Abstract: Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for surveillance and evaluation of existing
and newly built long-span bridges has been widely developed, and the significance of the technique
has been recognized by many administrative authorities. The paper reviews the recent progress of
the SHM technology that has been applied to long-span bridges. The deployment of a SHM system
is introduced. Subsequently, the data analysis and condition assessment including techniques on
modal identification, methods on signal processing, and damage identification were reviewed and
summarized. A case study about a SHM system of a long-span arch bridge (the Jiubao bridge in
China) was systematically incorporated in each part to advance our understanding of deployment
and investigation of a SHM system for long-span arch bridges. The applications of SHM systems of
long-span arch bridge were also introduced. From the illustrations, the challenges and future trends
for development a SHM system were concluded.

Keywords: structural health monitoring; smart system; long-span arch bridge; intelligent
management

1. Introduction
With the development of economy and society, many long-span bridges have been built or
are under construction all over the world, i.e., the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (suspension bridge,
main span 1991 m) in Japan, the Sutong Bridge (main span 1088 m) in China, the Chaotianmen Bridge
(arch bridge, main span 552 m) in China [1,2]. The long-span bridges should meet the requirement
of the serviceability, safety and sustainability during the operation stage. However, global climate
change tends to present many challenges for long-span bridges such as stronger hurricanes and
faster material deterioration. A considerable number of long-span bridges were destroyed due to
natural and man-made hazards. For example, the famous Tacoma Narrow Bridge collapsed due
to the strong wind [3], the I-35W Bridge in USA collapsed in 2007 was initiated by buckling at
the portions connecting the diagonal members under compressive axial loads, and the Wenchuan
earthquake happened in China in 2008 leaded to the collapse of many bridges [4]. Due to the appealing
appearance and the good mechanical properties, many long-span arch bridges have also been widely
built worldwide. The deterioration of main arch rings, arch column, tie rod or hanger rod of an
arch bridge is mainly caused by vehicle load, environmental hazard, man-made hazard and their

Sensors 2017, 17, 2151; doi:10.3390/s17092151 www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors


Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 2 of 21

coupled effects. The serviceability, safety and sustainability of the long-span bridges including arch
bridges have received much attention by administrative authorities. A structural health monitoring
(SHM) system that is used for surveillance, evaluation and assessment of the condition of existing
long-span bridges has been widely developed, and the recently-developed long-term SHM system is
one of cutting-edge systems for monitoring the serviceability, safety, and sustainability of long-span
bridges [5].
SHM systems take advantage of new sensing technologies that have been developed over the
past two decades. Fiber Optic Sensors (FOP) and wireless techniques have been widely used because
of the advantages and the huge benefits for applications characterized by a difficult access to the
structure [6,7]. The miniaturization of sensors, represented by the so-called Micro Electro-Mechanical
Systems (MEMS) has also received much attention [8,9]. The company, Intelligent Sensing for
Innovative Structures (ISIS, Canada), has equipped up to six bridges with fiber optic sensing systems
that allow remote monitoring since 1993 [10]. The Siggenthal Bridge in Switzerland which is an arch
bridge with the main span of 117 m has installed 58 FOPs [11]. Other bridges, such as the Ebian
Dadu river arch bridge in China [12], the Flexi-Arch in United Kingdom [13], the Versoix Bridge in
Switzerland [14] and the Yonghe Bridge in China [15], adopted the FOP for sensing. The studies
and applications have pointed out that FOP sensor has a long sensing range and the capability of
providing strain or temperature at every spatial resolution along the entire sensing fiber, imbedded in
or attached to the structures, using the fiber itself as the sensing medium, and have affirmed that FOP
sensors are more accurate and reliable than other sensors (i.e., strain gauge) [16–19]. Wireless sensors
have also been widely employed and installed in SHMs of bridges [20–22]. All the investigations and
applications of wireless sensors have indicated that it is potential to employ the wireless technique in
bridge monitoring and management.
Taking advantage of the new sensing techniques, long-term SHM systems for long-span bridges
have been developed. A SHM system has been implemented in the Lupu bridge which is a steel
half-trough tied arch bridge and the second longest arch bridge in the world. The temperature, strain,
acceleration, and wind effect of the bridge were monitored by the system [23]. Alamdari et al. [24] have
presented a large scale SHM application for the Sydney Harbour Bridge which is an arch bridge with
a main span of 503 m. The performance and structural damages of a subset of 800 jack arches under
the traffic lane 7 were analyzed based on the data acquired from the SHM system. Magalhaes et al. [25]
have developed a SHM system for the Infante D. Henrique Bridge in Portugal which is a concrete arch
bridge with a main span of 280 m, to evaluate the usefulness of approaches based on modal parameters
tracking for SHM of bridges. Ding et al. [26] have investigated dynamic characteristics of the hanger
vibration of a high-speed railway arch bridge, the Dashengguan Yangtse River Bridge in China,
by using the data observed from a SHM system. Apart from the above SHM systems, many other SHM
systems have been installed in long-span bridges [27–29]. Typical examples include the Sutong bridge
(1088 m, a cable-stayed bridge in China) [30,31], the Tsingma bridge (1337 m, a suspension bridge in
Hong Kong) [32], the Tatara Bridge (890 m, a cable-stayed bridge in Japan), the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge
(1991 m, a suspension bridge in Japan) [33], the Great Belt East Bridge (1624 m, a suspension bridge in
Denmark) [34], the Normandie Bridge (856 m, a cable-stayed bridge in France) [35], the Commodore
Barry Bridge (548 m, a truss bridge in USA) [36], and the Confederation Bridge (250 m, a box girder
bridge in Canada) [37]. In Hong Kong and mainland China alone, more than 80 bridges had been
equipped with SHM systems by the year of 2016 [17]. These SHM systems advance our understanding
of development of a long-term system. More importantly, the data observed from the SHM systems
can be utilized for evaluating the serviceability, safety, and sustainability of long-span bridges.
Many researches have made the efforts to the parameter identification, damage detection,
model updating, safety evaluation and sustainability assessment of long-span bridges by using
the data observed from SHM systems. Rainieri and Fabbrocino [28,38–41] have identified modal
parameters of civil structures including arch structures based on the data observed from SHM systems
by using modal-based damage detection algorithms. Kurt et al. [42] proposed a new nonlinear
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 3 of 21

Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 3 of 21


model updating strategy based on global or local nonlinear system identifications. The reduced-order
al. [43] have
models of a presented
dynamicalapplications
system have of different
been proposedvibration-based
and updated damage baseddetection
on SHM methods
observedby using
data.
up-to-date multivariate statistical analysis techniques based on the data
Comanducci et al. [43] have presented applications of different vibration-based damage detection observed from a SHM system
of a long-span
methods archup-to-date
by using bridge. Themultivariate
results focusing on theanalysis
statistical assessment of the minimum
techniques based ondetectable damage
the data observed
severity
from using
a SHM different
system of a techniques
long-span arch are anticipated
bridge. The to contribute
results focusing a more
on the aware use of monitoring
assessment of the minimum data
and reliance over related health state assessment information. Li et al.
detectable damage severity using different techniques are anticipated to contribute a more aware[44] have investigated damage
identification
use of monitoringof a streamline bridge model
data and reliance by using
over related SHMstate
health observed data. Liinformation.
assessment and Ou [45] Li andet Li
al.et[44]
al.
[46] have summarized bridge health diagnosis based on SHM systems.
have investigated damage identification of a streamline bridge model by using SHM observed data.
Li and The
Oudevelopment
[45] and Li et al. of [46]
modern information bridge
have summarized and communication
health diagnosissystem,based onsignal processing
SHM systems.
technology, internet andof
The development structural
modernanalysis significantly
information advances the application
and communication and improvement
system, signal processing
of the SHM internet
technology, systems.and Despite theseanalysis
structural advancements, thereadvances
significantly still exist the
big application
challenges in andSHM, which need
improvement of
to be
the SHMaddressed
systems.inDespite
the future,
thesesuch as the improvement
advancements, of the
there still exist bigaccuracy
challenges ofina SHM,
sensory system,
which needhigh-
to be
frequency in
addressed andtheaccurate data as
future, such sampling, data mining
the improvement andaccuracy
of the knowledge of a discovery,
sensory system,diagnostic methods,
high-frequency
the analyzing and modeling the bigdata observed from the SHM system
and accurate data sampling, data mining and knowledge discovery, diagnostic methods, the analyzing utilized for decision making
on maintenance
and modeling theand management
bigdata observed from[6,31,47–52].
the SHMThis study
system explores
utilized the recent
for decision progress
making of the SHM
on maintenance
of long-span arch bridges. Section 1 briefly introduces the background
and management [6,31,47–52]. This study explores the recent progress of the SHM of long-span of SHM systems for long-span
arch
arch bridges.
bridges. Section
Section 2 reviews
1 briefly the deployment
introduces of SHMofsystems
the background SHM systemsfor long-span arch bridges.
for long-span Section
arch bridges.
3 summarizes
Section 2 reviews thethe
approaches
deployment for of
data
SHM analysis,
systemsmodeling and safety
for long-span evaluation
arch bridges. of long-span
Section 3 summarizes arch
bridges. Based on Sections 2 and 3, Section 4 summarizes the challenges
the approaches for data analysis, modeling and safety evaluation of long-span arch bridges. Based on and future trends in SHM
systems 2for
Sections long-span
and 3, Sectionarch bridges. Section
4 summarizes 5 summarizes
the challenges and futurethe application
trends in SHM of SHM
systemssystems in arch
for long-span
bridges. It should be noted that a case study about SHM of a long-span arch
arch bridges. Section 5 summarizes the application of SHM systems in arch bridges. It should be noted bridge (Jiubao Bridge in
China) is incorporated in each section for explanation. Section 6 concludes
that a case study about SHM of a long-span arch bridge (Jiubao Bridge in China) is incorporated in the main contribution of
the present
each sectionstudy.
for explanation. Section 6 concludes the main contribution of the present study.

2. Deployment of SHM Systems for Long-Span Arch Bridges

2.1. Overview of
2.1. Overview of aa SHM
SHM System
System
As mentioned before,
As mentioned before, the
themain
maingoal
goalof of a SHM
a SHM system
system is tois the
to serviceability,
the serviceability, safety,
safety, and
and sustainability of long-span arch bridges. To achieve the goal, a long-term SHM system
sustainability of long-span arch bridges. To achieve the goal, a long-term SHM system should include should
include at least
at least five five integrated
integrated sub-systems
sub-systems [30,53],
[30,53], as shown as in
shown
Figurein1.Figure 1.

Figure 1.
Figure 1. Subsystems of aa long-term
Subsystems of long-term SHM
SHM system.
system.

In Figure 1, the function of each sub-system is briefly summarized as: (1) the sensory sub-system
In Figure 1, the function of each sub-system is briefly summarized as: (1) the sensory sub-system
is utilized for sensing the information of the working environment of a bridge and various factors
is utilized for sensing the information of the working environment of a bridge and various factors that
that affect the safety of the bridge, such as wind speed and wind direction, environmental
affect the safety of the bridge, such as wind speed and wind direction, environmental temperature
temperature and humidity monitoring, bridge load vehicle, vibration, structural temperature, strain,
main beam linear, support displacement and cable tension; (2) the data acquisition and transmission
subsystem is used to sample and transmit the information sensed by the sensory subsystem; (3) the
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 4 of 21

and humidity monitoring, bridge load vehicle, vibration, structural temperature, strain, main beam
linear, support displacement and cable tension; (2) the data acquisition and transmission subsystem is
used to sample and transmit the information sensed by the sensory subsystem; (3) the data processing
and analysis subsystem is used to process and analyze the obtained data so that the data can be
conveniently utilized for further analysis; (4) the data management subsystem is used to receive and
storage the observed data; (4) the structural health evaluation subsystem is utilized to evaluate and
assess the condition of a long-span arch bridge; (5) the decision-making and management sub-system
reflects the condition of the monitored objective, which is easily utilized by bridge manager to make
decisions about the objective, such as maintenance, repair, reinforcement and re-built of the objective.
A SHM system including the subsystems is envisaged to (1) obtain numerous situ data that can be
utilized for leading-edge research; (2) provide real-time information for safety assessment; (3) provide
information for prioritizing bridge maintenance and repair; (4) detect anomalies in loading, response,
deterioration and damage to ensure structural operation safety; (5) validate design assumptions and
parameters that are benefit for improving design specifications and guidelines [54]. The deployment
of each sub-system is reviewed below.

2.2. Sensory Sub-System


As pointed out in a previous study [49], there are mainly three aspects considered in a sensory
sub-system: the variable type, the sensor type, and the positioning of the installation of sensors.
The variables are categorized into load and environmental actions, global response, and local
response. Specifically, the load and environmental actions mainly include vehicle load, wind load,
earthquake ground motion, vessel collision, temperature, humidity, etc. The global response mainly
includes acceleration, deformation whereas the local response includes strain, cable tension force
(hanger), displacements of joints and bearings, crack and fatigue of elements, as well as responses
of piers. Based on the variables in a SHM system, sensors should be installed to be able to
measure: vehicle loads, wind speeds & direction, environmental temperature & humidity, vibration,
structural temperature, strain, main beam deflection, bearing displacement, and cable tension force.
Vehicle loads including traffic flow, vehicle speed and vehicle weight of each axle, numbers of
axles are often acquired by a weigh-in-motion (WIM) system [55,56]. A WIM system should be installed
in all lanes of a cross section of an arch bridge. When a vehicle passes through the bridge, it provides
a reference for the establishment of the bridge traffic load model and the evaluation of the bridge.
Aerodynamics of a long-span bridge are complicated due to the complex wind-induced vibrations
in cross-wind direction, i.e., buffeting, vortex shedding, flutter and the combined interaction [57–59].
Mechanical and ultrasonic anemometers are often applied to monitor the variation of wind speed
and wind direction at a bridge site. The data collected at the site can be used to identify wind
characteristics (e.g., mean wind speed, prevalent wind direction, turbulence intensity, and wind
power spectrum) and to evaluate the effect of wind on a bridge. Compared with mechanical
anemometers, ultrasonic anemometers have the characteristics of high-precision, high resolution,
durability, long life-span and maintenance free; However, their disadvantage is that the range is
relatively small.
The effect of earthquake on piers of a bridge can be obtained by using three-direction seismometers
which should be installed on piles of bridge piers or installed at the free field far away from the bridge.
The vessel collision can also be obtained by using accelerometer or seismometer installed on the piles
of bridge piers.
It should be noted that the main load-carrying member of an arch bridge is the arch ring,
the vibration of which should be well monitored. The vibration as well as the dynamic characteristics
of the arch and the main girder in real-time, can be recorded by using acceleration sensors. The sensors
record the major loads and accidents that the arch and the main girder experience. The acquired data
provides the data support for the damage evaluation of the bridge. The displacement can be observed
by pressure transmitter sensor.
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 5 of 21

Strain is one of the most important variables and it directly reflects the condition of a monitoring
bridge. The measured data can be utilized for safety and sustainability evaluation, and fatigue
assessment. There are many types of strain gauge, such as a traditional strain gauge, a vibrating-wire
strain gauge and optical fiber Bragg grating (FPG) strain sensors. Due to the advantages of the FPG
stain gauge mentioned before, FPG stain sensors are widely used by a SHM system [60]. The Boguan
Bridge, Yingzhou Bridge, Xinguang Bridge, Tongshunlu Bridge, and Ebian Dadu Bridge, which are
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cable force
force
theforce of
forceand
force of short
and
sub-system
and short suspender,
wind-rain
wind-rain induced cable
are summarized
suspender,
induced cable hanger
hanger and
vibration,
vibration, and
and
and inoutside
fiber
Table
outside
fiber of
brag grating test-force
of1.prestressed
brag prestressed
grating cables
test-force
cables
test-force
rings
to are
[15,31,61].
monitor used to
suspender
[15,31,61].
rings are monitor the force of short suspender,
wind-rain induced cable hanger
vibration, and
and outside
fiber of
brag prestressed
grating cables
test-force
are used
[15,31,61].
rings used to
[15,31,61].
rings are used to monitor
to monitor the
monitor the force
the force of
force of short
of short suspender,
short suspender, cable
suspender, cable hanger
cable hanger and
hanger and outside
and outside of
outside of prestressed
of prestressed cables
prestressed cables
cables
[15,31,61].
rings Thesensors
are
The
[15,31,61]. sensors
used to oftenutilized
monitor
often utilized
the ininaaof
force sensory
short
sensory sub-system
suspender,
sub-system aresummarized
cable
are summarized
hanger and ininTable
Table
outside of1.1.
prestressed cables
The
[15,31,61].
The
[15,31,61].sensors
sensors often
often utilized
utilized in
in a a sensory
sensory sub-system
sub-system are
are summarized
summarized in
in Table
Table 1.
1.
The
[15,31,61].
The Table
sensors 1.
oftenSensors
utilized often
in a utilized
sensory in a sensory
sub-system are sub-system.
summarized in Table 1.
The sensors
The sensors often
sensors often utilized
often utilized
utilized
in
in
in
aa sensory
sensory sub-system
sub-system are
are summarized
summarized in
in Table
Table 1.
1.
The sensors often Table1.
utilized
Table
Table
in aaSensors
sensory
1.Sensors
sensory sub-system
often
sub-system
often utilized are
utilizedininaare summarized
asensory
sensory
summarized in
sub-system.
in
sub-system. Table
Table 1.
1.
Table 1.
Table 1. Sensors
1. Sensors often
Sensors often utilized
often utilized in
utilized in aaa sensory
in sensory sub-system.
sub-system.
Monitoring ItemMonitoring Item Variables
Monitoring Item Table
Table 1.
1. Sensors
Variables
Sensors
Variables often
often utilized
utilized in
in aa sensory
Sensors sensory
Sensors
sensory
Sensors
sub-system.
sub-system.
sub-system.
Examples
Examples
Examples
Monitoring Item Table 1. Sensors
Sensors often
Variables
Table 1. often utilized
utilized in
inSensors
a sensory
a sensory sub-system.
sub-system. Examples
Monitoring Item
Monitoring Item Variables
Variables Sensors
Sensors Examples
Examples
Monitoring
Monitoring Item
Item Variables
Variables Sensors
Sensors Examples
Examples
Monitoring
Monitoring Item
Item Variables
Variables Sensors
Sensors Examples
Examples
Weigh-in-motion
Weigh-in-motion
Weigh-in-motion (WIM)
(WIM)
(WIM)
Vehicleload
Vehicle load Weigh-in-motion
Weigh-in-motion (WIM) (WIM)
Vehicle
Vehicle load
load Weigh-in-motion
Weigh-in-motion (WIM)
Vehicle load
Vehicle
Vehicle load Weigh-in-motion (WIM) (WIM)
Vehicle load
Vehicle load
load
Weigh-in-motion
Weigh-in-motion (WIM)
Camera (WIM) /
Vehicle load Camera
Camera ///
Camera
Camera
Camera
Camera ///
Camera
Camera /
Camera //
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic anemometer
anemometer
anemometer
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic anemometer
anemometer
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic anemometer
anemometer
Ultrasonic anemometer
Ultrasonic anemometer
Windload
Wind loadWind load Ultrasonic anemometer
Wind
Wind load
load
Wind
Wind load
Wind load
Wind load
load
Loadsandand Wind load Mechanical
Mechanical
Mechanical anemometer
anemometer
anemometer
Loads Mechanical
Mechanical anemometer
anemometer
Loads
Loads and
and
Loads and Environmental Mechanical anemometer
Environmental
Loads and Mechanical
Loads and
Environmental
Loads and Mechanical anemometer
Mechanical anemometer
anemometer
Environmental actions
Environmental
actions
Loads and
Environmental
actions Mechanical anemometer
Loads and
Environmental
actions
Environmental
actions
Environmental
actions
Environmental
actions
actions
actions Earthquakeground
Earthquake ground
actions Earthquake
Earthquake ground
ground Seismometer
Seismometer
Earthquake ground motion
Earthquake
motion
motion ground Seismometer
Seismometer
Seismometer
Earthquake
motion
Earthquake ground
ground Seismometer
motion
Earthquake
motion ground Seismometer
Earthquake
motion ground Seismometer
Seismometer
motion
motion Seismometer
motion
Vesselcollision
Vessel collision Accelerometer/Seismometer
Accelerometer/Seismometer
Vessel
Vessel collision
Vessel collision Accelerometer/Seismometer
collision Accelerometer/Seismometer
Accelerometer/Seismometer
Vessel
Vessel collision Accelerometer/Seismometer
Vessel collision
Vessel collision
collision
Accelerometer/Seismometer
Accelerometer/Seismometer
Accelerometer/Seismometer
Vessel collision Accelerometer/Seismometer
Temperatureand
Temperature and Temperatureand
Temperature andhumidity
humidity
Temperature
Temperature and
and Temperature
Temperature and
and humidity
humidity
humidityand
Temperature
humidity Temperature
Temperature sensor
sensor
and and humidity
humidity
Temperature
Temperature and humidity
humidity
Temperature and
and Temperature
Temperature sensorand
and humidity
humidity
humidityand
Temperature
humidity Temperature sensor
sensor
sensor and humidity
Temperature
humidity and Temperature sensorand humidity
humidity
Vibration
humidity
Vibration sensor
Accelerometer
sensor
Accelerometer //
humidity
Vibration sensor
Accelerometer //
Vibration Accelerometer
Vibration Vibration
Vibration Accelerometer
Accelerometer
Accelerometer ///
Vibration
Vibration Accelerometer
Pressure
Pressure transmitter
transmitter
Accelerometer /
Vibration
Displacement
Displacement Accelerometer
Pressure
Pressure transmitter
transmitter //
Displacement
Displacement Pressuresensor/GPS
transmitter
sensor/GPS
GlobalResponse
Response Displacement Pressure
Pressure
Pressure transmitter
transmitter
sensor/GPS
transmitter
Global Displacement
Displacement sensor/GPS
Pressure transmitter
sensor/GPS
Global
Global Response
Response Displacement
Displacement Pressure
sensor/GPS transmitter
sensor/GPS
Global
Global Response Response Displacement sensor/GPS
sensor/GPS
Global Response
Global Response
Response sensor/GPS
Opticalfiber
fiberBragg
Bragggrating
grating
Global
Global Response Strain Optical
Strain Optical
Optical fiber
fiber Bragg
Bragg grating
grating
Strain
Strain (FPG)
Optical
(FPG) strain
fiber
strainBraggsensors
grating
sensors
Strain Optical
(FPG)
Optical
Optical fiber
strain
fiber
fiber BraggBragg
Bragg grating
sensors
grating
grating
Strain (FPG)
Optical
(FPG) strain
fiber
strain sensors
Bragg grating
sensors
Strain Strain
Strain Optical
(FPG) fiber
strainBragg grating
sensors
Strain (FPG)
(FPG)
(FPG)strain
strain
strain sensors
sensors
sensors
Bearing (FPG) strain sensors
Magnetostrictive
Bearing Magnetostrictive
Bearing
Bearing Magnetostrictive
Magnetostrictive
displacement
Bearing
displacement displacement
Magnetostrictive
displacement sensors
sensors
Bearing
displacement
Bearing Magnetostrictive
displacement
Magnetostrictive sensors
displacement
Bearing
displacement displacement
Magnetostrictive
Magnetostrictive
displacement sensors
displacement
sensors
Local Response
Local Response Bearing
displacement
Bearing displacement Magnetostrictive
displacement sensors
Local displacement displacement sensors
Local Response
Local Response
Response
displacement
displacement displacement
sensors sensors
displacement sensors
Local Response Hanger
Hanger rod/Cable Fiber
rod/Cable Fiber braggrating
brag gratingtest-force
test-force
Local Response Hanger rod/Cable Fiber
Local Response
Local ResponseLocal Response Hanger
Hanger rod/Cable
force
rod/Cable
force Fiber brag
Fiber brag grating
brag grating test-force
test-force
rings test-force
grating
rings
Hanger
Hanger rod/Cable
force
rod/Cable Fiber
Fiber brag
brag grating
rings
grating test-force
test-force
Hanger force
rod/Cable
force Fiber brag rings test-force
grating
rings
Hanger rod/Cable Fiber
Fiber bragbrag grating
grating test-force
test-force
Hanger rod/Cable force
force
force
rings
rings
rings
force rings
rings
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 6 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 6 of 21

2.3.
2.3. Data
Data Acquisition
Acquisition and
and Transmission
TransmissionSub-System
Sub-System
The
The datadataacquisition
acquisition andand transmission
transmission sub-systemsub-system
mainly mainly
includes includes selecting
selecting data data
acquisition
acquisition devices and method, and sampling modes, as well as
devices and method, and sampling modes, as well as the transmission technology. Paek and Caffrey the transmission technology.
Paek and Caffrey
[62] have [62] have
introduced introduced the
the deployment deployment
experiences andexperiences
evaluatedand the evaluated
performance the performance
of a multi-hop of
awireless
multi-hop wireless
data data acquisition
acquisition system
system (called (called Wisden)
Wisden) for SHMfor ofSHM of structures.
structures. The system
The system has
has been
been validated
validated by employing
by employing the the system
system to atolarge
a large structure.
structure. NiNietetal.al.[63]
[63]have
haveintroduced
introduced a wireless
wireless
system
system that is isutilized
utilizedfor forsynchronous
synchronousacquisition
acquisition of of strain
strain andand temperature
temperature datadata
and and real-time
real-time data
data transmission from substations to office. It consists of three parts: WiFi
transmission from substations to office. It consists of three parts: WiFi router, wireless bridge, and router, wireless bridge,
and antenna.
antenna. Li andLi and Ou [49,64]
Ou [49,64] havehave introduced
introduced the details
the details of design
of design approaches
approaches of a of a data
data acquisition
acquisition and
and transmission
transmission systems.
systems. From From
thethe above
above studies,
studies, a frameworkfor
a framework fordata
dataacquisition
acquisition andand transmission
transmission
sub-system
sub-system is brieflybrieflysummarized
summarizedininFigure Figure2. 2.
It isItnot
is not
hardhard to design
to design this sub-system.
this sub-system. However,
However, there
there still exists
still exists problems
problems for high-frequency
for high-frequency and accurate
and accurate acquisition
acquisition and transmission.
and transmission. The sampling
The sampling rate
rate for dynamic
for dynamic signalsignal
should should
followfollow the Nyquist
the Nyquist Shannon Shannon sampling
sampling theorem. theorem.
RelatedRelated
samplingsampling
theory
theory
can refer can previous
refer previous
studiesstudies [65,66].
[65,66]. Additionally,
Additionally, thethe signaldistortion
signal distortioncaused
caused by by long-distance
long-distance
transmission
transmission should should also
also be
be well
well concerned
concerned [67].[67].

Figure 2.
Figure 2. A
A framework
framework of
of data
data acquisition
acquisition and
and transmission
transmission sub-system.
sub-system.

2.4. Data Processing, Management, and User Interface


2.4. Data Processing, Management, and User Interface
The data processing and management system can process all dynamic and static data during the
The data processing and management system can process all dynamic and static data during
whole life cycle of a bridge, including the query, storage, etc. of the data. It also releases information
the whole life cycle of a bridge, including the query, storage, etc. of the data. It also releases
to user interface. Based on the equipment in the monitoring center, remote monitor of full-bridge can
information to user interface. Based on the equipment in the monitoring center, remote monitor
be achieved. The center is mainly equipped with server group, central network switching equipment,
of full-bridge can be achieved. The center is mainly equipped with server group, central network
server maintenance equipment, optic fiber grating strain acquisition station, workstations and other
switching equipment, server maintenance equipment, optic fiber grating strain acquisition station,
equipment.
workstations and other equipment.
The structural health evaluation subsystem can evaluate the safety of bridge according to the
The structural health evaluation subsystem can evaluate the safety of bridge according to
information on the strain, deformation, temperature and cable force signals at the key parts of the
the information on the strain, deformation, temperature and cable force signals at the key parts
bridge. Corresponding analysis and evaluation methods will be introduced in Section 3. According
of the bridge. Corresponding analysis and evaluation methods will be introduced in Section 3.
to monitoring data, the identification of structural state and damage can be completed. Intelligent
According to monitoring data, the identification of structural state and damage can be completed.
early warning analysis platform can provide alarm monitoring scheme in real-time, which send
Intelligent early warning analysis platform can provide alarm monitoring scheme in real-time,
monitoring report on a daily basis. Once an early warning signal is generated, the alert would be
which send monitoring report on a daily basis. Once an early warning signal is generated, the alert
released immediately.
would be released immediately.
The user interface of off-line data analysis is developed by proper software programs, i.e.,
The user interface of off-line data analysis is developed by proper software programs, i.e.,
MATLAB and .NET platform, VB, C++. It consists of several modules for the relative of parameters,
MATLAB and .NET platform, VB, C++. It consists of several modules for the relative of parameters,
nonlinear regression, cable force, vibration, etc. Through the user interface, the condition of a bridge
nonlinear regression, cable force, vibration, etc. Through the user interface, the condition of a bridge
can be easily monitored.
can be easily monitored.
2.5. Deployment of SHM for a Long-Span Arch Bridge

2.5.1. Description of an Arch Bridge


To illustrate the deployment of a SHM system for an arch bridge, the Jiubao Bridge is taken as a
case study. The Jiubao Bridge is a tied-arch bridge and it has been built in 2012 in Hangzhou, China.
The overall length of the bridge is 1855 m with the span arrangement of 55 m +2 × 85 m +90 m (north
approach span) +3 × 210 m (main navigation span) + 90 m +9 × 85 + 55 m (south approach span). The
main navigational span with an arrangement of 3 × 210 m was constructed by the continuous hybrid
arch-girder superstructure combined with a steel-beam arch composite system. The bridge deck is
composed of open steel boxes and concrete slabs (in Figure 3).
The
Sensors substructure
2017, 17, 2151 of the main bridge is made of V-shape and thin-wall piers. The superstructure 7 of 21
of the main bridge is of steel birder composite beams, which is continuous with arrangement of 188
m +22 m +188 m +22 m +188 m. The substructure of the approach bridge is made of single-plant and
2.5. Deployment
hollow piers, and of the
SHM forcap
pile a Long-Span Arch Bridge
adopts chamfer rectangle form. The pile foundation adopts five 1.8 m
diameter cast-in-situ concrete piles with the length of 90–95 m. The approach bridge is 85 m as
2.5.1. Description of an Arch Bridge
standard span, of which the superstructure is design as single box and single chamber section of large
To illustrate
cantilever the deployment
and constant height, and of continuous
a SHM system for anofarch
box beam bridge, the
steel-concrete Jiubao Bridge
composite girderisbridge.
taken
as a To
caseacquire
study. theThebehaviors
Jiubao Bridge is a tied-arch of
and performance bridge
real, and it hasbridges
full-scale been built in 2012
under real in Hangzhou,
loadings and
China. The overall length of the bridge is 1855 m with the span arrangement
environmental conditions and to further ensure the safety, serviceability, durability, andof 55 m +2 × 85 m +90 m
(north approach
sustainability ofspan) +3 × 210
the bridge, m (main
a smart SHMnavigation
systemspan) + 90 m +9of×automatic
that consists 85 + 55 m (south approach span).
data acquisition and
The main navigational
monitoring subsystem, span data with an arrangement
management of 3 × 210
and processing m was constructed
subsystem, monitoringby and
the continuous
evaluation
hybrid arch-girder
subsystem, superstructure
comprehensive combined
pre-alarming with aevaluation
and safety steel-beamsubsystem
arch composite system.
has been The bridge
implemented to
deck
the is composed of open steel boxes and concrete slabs (in Figure 3).
bridge.

Figure 3. Overview of the Jiubao Bridge.


Figure 3. Overview of the Jiubao Bridge.

2.5.2. Overview of the SHM System


The substructure of the main bridge is made of V-shape and thin-wall piers. The superstructure
The
of the entire
main system
bridge consists
is of of fourcomposite
steel birder main components,
beams, whichincluding automatic with
is continuous data arrangement
acquisition and of
monitoring subsystem, data management and processing subsystem, monitoring
188 m +22 m +188 m +22 m +188 m. The substructure of the approach bridge is made of single-plant and evaluation
subsystem,
and hollowcomprehensive
piers, and the pile pre-alarming,
cap adoptsand safetyrectangle
chamfer evaluation subsystem.
form. The pileSensors are used
foundation to first
adopts five
convert the collected
1.8 m diameter data into
cast-in-situ electrical
concrete (light)
piles with signal. The of
the length data acquisition
90–95 units deployed
m. The approach bridgeinisthe
85main
m as
box girderspan,
standard thenof allow
which to the
upload the data toisthe
superstructure collection
design station
as single box in thesingle
and middle and lower
chamber sectionreaches of
of large
main arch.and
cantilever Finally, the data
constant is transferred
height, to the monitoring
and of continuous box beamcenter. By providing
of steel-concrete effectivegirder
composite information
bridge.
sources or mechanical indexes to other subsystems, the program is set according
To acquire the behaviors and performance of real, full-scale bridges under real loadings and to the demands,
which could achieve
environmental conditionsintelligent controlensure
and to further monitoring parameters
the safety, of the
serviceability, collection.
durability, andBased on the
sustainability
monitoring
of the bridge,data,a the
smarttechnical state and
SHM system bearing
that capacity
consists assessment
of automatic datawas evaluated,and
acquisition which provide
monitoring
asubsystem,
scientific basis
datafor maintenance.
management and processing subsystem, monitoring and evaluation subsystem,
The data acquisition
comprehensive pre-alarming and and
transmission scheme of
safety evaluation the automatic
subsystem monitoring
has been implemented system toisthe
composed
bridge.
of a data acquisition station in the external field, a server group in monitoring center and a fiber
2.5.2. Overview
optical of the SHMnetwork.
signal transmission System Field data acquisition station consists of several data acquisition
modules, and the
The entire modules
system can of
consists ensure the stability,
four main durability
components, and high
including precision
automatic dataofacquisition
the systemand by
using advanced and mature products. In order to ensure the reliability
monitoring subsystem, data management and processing subsystem, monitoring and evaluation of signal transmission, FDDI
double loopcomprehensive
subsystem, topology is used as opticaland
pre-alarming, fiber signal
safety transmission
evaluation network.
subsystem. Details
Sensors of thetodata
are used first
acquisition and transmission of automatic monitoring system are presented in
convert the collected data into electrical (light) signal. The data acquisition units deployed in the Figure 4.
main box girder then allow to upload the data to the collection station in the middle and lower
reaches of main arch. Finally, the data is transferred to the monitoring center. By providing effective
information sources or mechanical indexes to other subsystems, the program is set according to the
demands, which could achieve intelligent control monitoring parameters of the collection. Based on
the monitoring data, the technical state and bearing capacity assessment was evaluated, which provide
a scientific basis for maintenance.
The data acquisition and transmission scheme of the automatic monitoring system is composed
of a data acquisition station in the external field, a server group in monitoring center and a fiber
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 8 of 21

optical signal transmission network. Field data acquisition station consists of several data acquisition
modules, and the modules can ensure the stability, durability and high precision of the system by using
advanced and mature products. In order to ensure the reliability of signal transmission, FDDI double
loop topology is used as optical fiber signal transmission network. Details of the data acquisition and
Sensors 2017,
transmission of17,automatic
2151 monitoring system are presented in Figure 4. 8 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 8 of 21

Figure 4. Flowchart of data acquisition and transmission of automatic monitoring system.


Figure 4. Flowchart of data acquisition and transmission of automatic monitoring system.
2.5.3. Sensory Sub-System
Figure 4. Flowchart of data acquisition and transmission of automatic monitoring system.
2.5.3. SensorySensors
Sub-System
are installed to the bridge to obtain wind speeds & direction, environmental temperature
& humidity, vehicle loads, vibration, structural temperature, strain, main beam deflection, bearing
2.5.3. Sensory
Sensors are Sub-System
installed to the bridge to obtain wind speeds & direction, environmental
displacement, and cable tension force. Eleven types of sensors were mounted on the bridge, including
temperature &
Sensors humidity,
are
wind velocity vehicle
installed to theloads,
and direction bridgevibration,
sensors, structural
to obtain wind
temperature and speeds temperature,
humidity& sensors,
direction, strain,sensors,
main temperature
environmental
acceleration beam
speed deflection,
& humidity,
bearing and axle vehicle
displacement, loads,
meters,and vibration,
cable
digital tension
camera, structural temperature,
force. Eleven
temperature sensors, types of
pressure strain, mainwere
sensors
transmitter, beammounted
deflection,
displacement onbearing
sensors, the bridge,
displacement,
strain and
sensors, cable tension
pressure ring, force.
and Eleven
vibration types
sensors. of sensors
There are were
333 mounted
sensors in on
total
including wind velocity and direction sensors, temperature and humidity sensors, acceleration sensors,the bridge,
installed on including
the
bridge. Sensors installed insensors,
the arch temperature
bridge are listed in humidity
Table 1. Figure 5 shows the layout of sensors speed
speedwind velocity
andinstalled and direction
axle meters,
on the
digital camera, temperature
main bridge.
and
sensors, sensors,
pressure acceleration
transmitter, sensors,
displacement sensors,
and axle meters, digital camera, temperature sensors, pressure transmitter, displacement sensors,
strain sensors, pressure ring, and vibration sensors. There are 333 sensors in total installed on the
strain sensors, pressure ring, and vibration sensors. There are 333 sensors in total installed on the
bridge. Sensors installed in the arch bridge are listed in Table 1. Figure 5 shows the layout of sensors
bridge. Sensors installed in the arch bridge are listed in Table 1. Figure 5 shows the layout of sensors
installed on the
installed on main
the mainbridge.
bridge.

Figure 5. Cont.
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 9 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 9 of 21

Pressure Transmitter Wind velocity and direction sensor Three-direction acceleration sensor Acceleration sensor

Strain sensor Camera Displacement sensor

Temperature sensor Weighing sensor Pressure ring

Figure 5. Layout of sensors on Jiubao Bridge.


Figure 5. Layout of sensors on Jiubao Bridge.
2.5.4. Data Acquisition and Transmission Sub-System
2.5.4. Data Acquisition and Transmission Sub-System
The main optical fiber transmission network includes FDDI double ring optical Ethernet
transmission
The network
main optical and transmission
fiber field bus transmission
network network.
includesFDDIFDDIdoubledouble ringring
optical Ethernet
optical Ethernet
transmission
transmission network
network and consists of field
field bus integrated data
transmission acquisition
network. FDDIstation
double andring
server groupEthernet
optical of
monitoring center through the optical fiber link. Field data acquisition
transmission network consists of field integrated data acquisition station and server group of station links acquisition
module or sensor communicate to bus transmission network. To avoid signal distortion caused by
monitoring center through the optical fiber link. Field data acquisition station links acquisition
long-distance transmission, the method of extensive distribution of the system sensors, centralized
module or sensor communicate to bus transmission network. To avoid signal distortion caused by
control, distributed acquisition, local storage and data uploading pattern are employed in the field
long-distance transmission,
data acquisition the method
station, which includesofcollection
extensive distribution
host and severalof the system
acquisition sensors,
modules centralized
(Figure 4).
control, distributed acquisition, local storage and data uploading pattern
The acquisition module and the acquisition host are connected to RS485 bus. The various modules are employed in the field
data can
acquisition station, which
collect different signals includes
such as collection host and
voltage, current andseveral acquisition
temperature modulessignals
and humidity (Figure 4).
The acquisition
corresponding module
to windandvelocity
the acquisition
and windhost are connected
direction, to deviation
alignment, RS485 bus. of The various
tower, modules can
displacement,
temperature
collect and humidity
different signals such asand other parameters.
voltage, current andThe length of RS485
temperature bus connection
and humidity is about
signals 1200
corresponding
meters and can be increased by the RS485 repeaters.
to wind velocity and wind direction, alignment, deviation of tower, displacement, temperature and
humidityThe andsignal
othercollected from vibration
parameters. The length sensors is firstly
of RS485 bustransferred
connection to signal
is aboutconditioning
1200 meters by electric
and can be
cable, and then is transferred to the PCI dynamic data acquisition card for collection. Acquisition
increased by the RS485 repeaters.
computer and dynamic data card use PCI bus to perform the data acquisition, transmission and
The signal collected from vibration sensors is firstly transferred to signal conditioning by
storage.
electric cable, and thentheisreflected
After receiving transferred
light byto FBG
the demodulator,
PCI dynamicthedata acquisition
calculation of wave card for can
length collection.
be
Acquisition
completed.computer
And then and dynamic
the data data card
from calculation will use PCI and
be stored busat to
the perform
same time the data
upload acquisition,
to the data
transmission and storage.
base in monitoring center. The network topology diagram is shown in Figure 6.
AfterTraffic
receiving the reflected
flow monitoring light
system is by FBG demodulator,
responsible the calculation
for weigh in motion of wave
(WIM), velocity length can be
measurement
and statistics of vehicle flow. Traffic flow monitoring system terminal communicates
completed. And then the data from calculation will be stored and at the same time upload to the data by computers
base in
in monitoring
monitoringcenter andThe
center. fiber ethernet,topology
network and the monitoring
diagram isdata storein
shown inFigure
local data
6. base and upload
to server in preparation for invoking and querying. The network
Traffic flow monitoring system is responsible for weigh in motion (WIM), velocity topology diagram of traffic flow
measurement
monitoring system is shown in Figure 7.
and statistics of vehicle flow. Traffic flow monitoring system terminal communicates by computers
in monitoring center and fiber ethernet, and the monitoring data store in local data base and upload
to server in preparation for invoking and querying. The network topology diagram of traffic flow
monitoring system is shown in Figure 7.

2.5.5. Data Processing, Management, and User Interface


The industrial acquisition PC located in the steel box girder of the bridge connected with the
monitoring center device by the trunk optical cable, and data exchange is fulfilled by the switches
installed in the monitoring center. The function and topology structure of the devices in monitoring
center are shown in Figure 8.
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 10 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 10 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 10 of 21

Figure 6. Framework
Framework of dataacquisition
acquisition and transmission network topology for stress-strain and
Figure 6. Frameworkofofdata
Figure 6. and
data acquisition transmission
and network
transmission topology
network for stress-strain
topology and cable
for stress-strain and
cable force monitoring.
force
cable monitoring.
force monitoring.

Figure 7. Flowchart of data acquisition and transmission network topology for traffic flow.
Figure
Figure 7.
7. Flowchart
Flowchart of
of data
data acquisition
acquisition and
and transmission
transmission network
network topology
topology for
for traffic flow.
traffic flow.
2.5.5. Data Processing, Management, and User Interface
2.5.5. Data Processing, Management, and User Interface
The industrial acquisition PC located in the steel box girder of the bridge connected with the
The industrial acquisition PC located in the steel box girder of the bridge connected with the
monitoring center device by the trunk optical cable, and data exchange is fulfilled by the switches
monitoring center device by the trunk optical cable, and data exchange is fulfilled by the switches
installed in the monitoring center. The function and topology structure of the devices in monitoring
installed in the monitoring center. The function and topology structure of the devices in monitoring
center are shown in Figure 8.
center are shown in Figure 8.
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 11 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 11 of 21

Figure 8. Diagram of equipment function in monitoring center.


Figure 8. Diagram of equipment function in monitoring center.

3. Data Analysis and Condition Evaluation


3. Data Analysis and Condition Evaluation
3.1. Techniques
3.1. on Modal
Techniques on Modal Identification
Identification
By using
By using the
the response
responseobserved
observedfrom
fromaaSHM
SHMsystem,
system,dynamic
dynamic parameters
parametersof of
a structure cancan
a structure be
obtained. The conventional methods used for modal identification include the peak-picking
be obtained. The conventional methods used for modal identification include the peak-picking (PP) (PP)
method, the
method, therandom
random decrement
decrement technique
technique (RDT),
(RDT), the frequency
the frequency domaindomain decomposition
decomposition (FDD)
(FDD) method,
as well as some time-domain covariance-drive methods reported in a previous study [68]. The[68].
method, as well as some time-domain covariance-drive methods reported in a previous study PP,
The PP, RDT and FDD methods ae well as their combinations that are often utilized for
RDT and FDD methods ae well as their combinations that are often utilized for modal identification modal
identification
are introducedare introduced below.
below.

3.1.1. The
3.1.1. The Peak-Picking (PP) Method
Peak-Picking (PP) Method
A straightforward
A straightforward way way to
to estimate
estimate the
the modal
modal parameters
parameters of
of aa structure
structure subjected
subjected to
to ambient
ambient
excitations, i.e.,
excitations, i.e., traffic,
traffic, wind,
wind, micro-earthquakes,
micro-earthquakes, is is the
the so-called
so-called PP
PP method.
method. This
This method
method is is named
named
after the
after the key
key step
step of
of the
the method
method thatthat the
the identification
identification ofof the
the eigenfrequencies
eigenfrequencies as the peaks
as the peaks of
of aa
spectrum plot. Under the conditions of well-separated eigenfrequencies, the natural frequency of
spectrum plot. Under the conditions of well-separated eigenfrequencies, the natural frequency of aa
structure can
structure canbebeevaluated
evaluated by by picking
picking the peak
the peak of theofresponse
the response spectrum.
spectrum. The spectrum
The spectrum can be
can be obtained
obtained by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a time series of response. Due to its simplicity
by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a time series of response. Due to its simplicity in implementation, in
implementation, the method is widely used for modal identification
the method is widely used for modal identification in many studies [69,70]. in many studies [69,70].
Sensors 2017,
Sensors 2017, 17,
17, 2151
2151 12 of
12 of 21
21

3.1.2. The Random Decrement Technique (RDT) Method


3.1.2. The Random Decrement Technique (RDT) Method
Despite the advantages of PP method, i.e., straightforward and simplicity, it is hard to be used
for dampingthe
Despite andadvantages
mode shapeof PP method, i.e., The
identification. straightforward and simplicity,
RDT was introduced it is in
by Cole hard to be
1960s used
and for
1970s
damping and mode shape identification. The RDT was introduced by Cole in 1960s and
[71,72]. Since then, it has become one of the most popular methods used for modal identifications. 1970s [71,72].
Since then, itsignals
The output has become one of
obtained the most
from a SHMpopular
system methods
can be used for modal
extracted identifications.
by using the RDT methodThe output
that
signals obtained from a SHM system can be extracted by using the RDT method that averages
averages time series x(tn ) when a trigger condition is fulfilled (a level crossing trigger of trigger level time
series x (tn ) when a trigger condition is fulfilled (a level crossing trigger of trigger level a is supposed).
a is supposed). The result of the averaging process is called a random decrement signature D XX (τ )
The result of the averaging process is called a random decrement signature DXX (τ ).
.
1 1N N
τ )(τ=) = ∑xx((ttnn +
DXXD(XX +τ τ) )|x (xt(n t)n=) a= a (1)
(1)
NNn=n1=1

At each
At each time
time instant,
instant,the
theresponse
responseobserved
observedfrom
froma SHM
a SHM system
system includes three
includes components:
three components: the
response to an initial displacement, the response to an initial velocity, and the response
the response to an initial displacement, the response to an initial velocity, and the response to to random
input loads
random inputduring the timethe
loads during span
timebetween the initial
span between state and
the initial statethe
andregraded timetime
the regraded instant [73].[73].
instant By
averaging a large number of time segments of the response, the random part of
By averaging a large number of time segments of the response, the random part of the response will the response will
disappear and
disappear and the
the response
response ofof the
the system
system corresponding
corresponding to to the
the initial
initial condition
condition defined
defined by by the
the trigger
trigger
is remained,
is remained,containing
containingthethebehavior
behaviorofofthe
thesystem.
system.TheThebasic
basicconcept
concept ofof
thethe RDT
RDT is also
is also interpreted
interpreted in
in Figure
Figure 9. 9.

Figure 9. Basic concept of the RDT after


Figure 9. after [74].
[74].

The RDT
The RDT has
hasbeen
beenwidely
widelyused in in
used civil structures
civil in damping
structures estimation,
in damping frequency
estimation, and mode
frequency and
shape identification [75–77]. The RDT has also been extensively developed in line
mode shape identification [75–77]. The RDT has also been extensively developed in line withwith time domain
time
identification
domain methods,methods,
identification such as the
suchIbrahim time domain
as the Ibrahim method,method,
time domain the eigensystem method.method.
the eigensystem Details
about the combined application can be found in a previous study [74].
Details about the combined application can be found in a previous study [74].

3.1.3. The Frequency Domain


3.1.3. Domain Decomposition
Decomposition (FDD)
(FDD) Method
Method
The FDD
FDD technique
technique that has
has been
been extensively
extensively used for modalmodal identification
identification was proposed by
al. [78].
Brincker et al. [78]. The efficiency of the technique
technique has beenbeen validated
validated and and widely
widely used
used for
for modal
modal
identification of
identification of output
output systems
systems [79,80].
[79,80]. The
The technique
technique isis briefly
briefly recalled
recalled below.
below.
The first step to obtain the PSD matrix of ambient responses, jω)). . The
responses, SSyyyy (( jω The output
output PSD
PSD is
is then
then
decomposed
decomposed at discrete frequencies ωω=
discrete frequencies = ωωii by
by using
using the
the singular
singular value
value decomposition,
decomposition, expressed
expressed asas

Syy ( jω)i )== U


S yy( jω U iG U HH
(2)
i i Gii Ui i (2)
That the matrix U = [U , U i 2 , , U in ] is a matrix of the singular vectors; G i is the diagonal
That the matrix Ui i = [Ui1i1 , Ui2 , · · · , Uin ] is a matrix of the singular vectors; Gi is the diagonal
matrix of
matrix of the
the scalar
scalar singular
singular values.
values. Close
Close to to aa peak
peak corresponding
corresponding to to the
the k-th
k-th mode
mode in
in the
the spectrum,
spectrum,
only a possible close mode is dominant and the PSD matrix approximates
only a possible close mode is dominant and the PSD matrix approximates to a rank-one matrix to a rank-one matrix is
is
decomposed as
decomposed as
H
SyyS(yyjω( ij)ω =
i) = U
Ui1iG1Gi1i 1U
U i1H
i1
ωω ii →→ω ω
k k
(3)
(3)
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 13 of 21

Therefore, the corresponding first singular value is the auto-spectral density function of a single
degree of freedom (SDOF) system, and the first singular value is an estimate of the mode shape.
From the density function obtained around the peak of the PSD, the natural frequency, damping ratio,
and mode shape can be conveniently obtained. In order to get the PSD function of a SDOF system, the
modal assurance criterion (MAC) is adopted. Details can be found in previous studies [78].
By using the above techniques, the modal parameters of an arch bridge can be identified and the
identified results can be utilized for further analysis.

3.2. Methodologies on Signal Processing


Many mathematic models have been developed to process signals observed from a SHM system
in association with time domain, frequency domain, or time-frequency domain. The models mainly
include statistical time series (STS) models, and Kalman Filter (KF), fast fourier transform (FFT),
short-time FFT (SFFT), wavelet transform (WT), S-transform (ST), fast ST (FST), Hilbert transform (HT),
Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC), Blind Source Separation
(BSS), etc. By using the methods, the features of a structure, i.e., frequency, damping, damage, can be
extracted based on vibration data obtained from a SHM system. For the purpose of convenient
selection and use of the mentioned models above, the advantages and disadvantages of the models are
summarized in Table 2.

Table 2. Methods for signal processing after [81].

Methods Advantages Disadvantages


Linear model; Sensitive to noise;
STS
Ease of implementation Only used for linear systems
Time consuming;
Good signal-noise ratio;
KF Requires parameter calibration;
Good estimation of change in time
Limited convergence speed and tracking accuracy
Nonlinear model; Not applicable for complex system;
Model linear and nonlinear systems; Requires calibration to find model order;
FFT
Ease of implementation; Sensitive to noise;
Simplicity Only frequency domain representation
High resolution in frequency domain;
MUSIC Time consuming
Closely-spaced modes can be estimated
Ease of implementation; Requires large quantity of samples;
SFFT Time-frequency domain representation; Limited time-frequency resolution;
Simplicity Not applicable for nonlinear and transient signals
Good time-frequency resolution; Spectral leakage;
Good signal-noise ratio; Requires several levels of decomposition;Mother
WT
A mother wavelet can be used for different wavelet will affect the result;
application ‘End effect’ is significant
Good time-frequency resolution; Time consuming;
ST
Spectrum can be localized in time domain Requires calibration
Time saving;
FST Good time-frequency resolution; The application in SHM systems need exploring
Spectrum can be localized in time domain
Good time-frequency resolution;
High signal-to-noise ratio; Mode-mixing;
HHT
Adaptive method; Requires calibration
Ease of implementation
Good signal-noise ratio; Require calibration
BSS Closely-spaced modes can be estimated; Nonlinear and transient signals cannot be analyzed
Good accuracy to separate frequency components adequately
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 14 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 14 of 21

3.3. Damage Identification


3.3. Damage
Damage Identification
identification is one of the most important aspects for health evaluation of a structure
based on the data obtained from
Damage identification is onea of
SHM the system. Researchers
most important havefor
aspects made
healththeir great efforts
evaluation of ato explore
structure
relatedonmethods
based the data and theories
obtained fromfor damage
a SHM identification
system. Researchers ofhave
structures. The great
made their modal-based
efforts to damage
explore
detection is one of traditional methods that are utilized for damage
related methods and theories for damage identification of structures. The modal-based damage identification. The basic idea of
detection is one of traditional methods that are utilized for damage identification. The basic idea oftheir
the method is that the modal parameters (i.e., frequency, damping ratio, mode shape, or the
combinations)
method aremodal
is that the functions of the physical
parameters properties
(i.e., frequency, of a structure
damping ratio, mode andshape,
changes caused
or their by damage
combinations)
willfunctions
are thereforeoflead to changes
the physical in modal
properties of a parameters.
structure andUsually,
changes damage
caused by will decrease
damage will the mass lead
therefore and
stiffness
to changesofinamodal structure. The modal-based
parameters. Usually, damage damage detectionthe
will decrease method
mass and mainly includes
stiffness several
of a structure.
categories:
The modal-basedmodaldamage shape detection
change method, modal includes
method mainly shape curve severalmethod, sensitivity-based
categories: modal shape changeupdate
method, stiffness change method, frequency-response method,
method, modal shape curve method, sensitivity-based update method, stiffness change method, and combined modal parameter
method [82]. Among
frequency-response them, and
method, mode shape method
combined is often used
modal parameter method for [82].
damageAmong detection
them, modeas it is less
shape
affected by environment [83]. The modal assurance criterion (MAC)
method is often used for damage detection as it is less affected by environment [83]. The modal has been developed, which can
be used for measuring mode shape changes over the entire span of
assurance criterion (MAC) has been developed, which can be used for measuring mode shape changes a structure [84]. Kim et al. [85]
later updated
over the entirethe MAC
span of and developed
a structure the Kim
[84]. coordinate modal
et al. [85] laterassurance
updatedcriterion
the MAC (COMAC) that can
and developed
monitor modal node displacement to detect and localize damage.
the coordinate modal assurance criterion (COMAC) that can monitor modal node displacement Most recently, Magalhaes and
Caetano
to detect [25]
andidentified the damage
localize damage. Most of recently,
an arch bridge basedand
Magalhaes on vibration
Caetano [25] dataidentified
observed from a SHM
the damage
system
of an archby bridge
using an basedautomated
on vibrationoperational modal analysis.
data observed from a SHM Liu system
et al. [86] proposed
by using a damage
an automated
detection model
operational modal that is relatedLiu
analysis. to the
et al.curvature of a concrete
[86] proposed a damage bridge. The efficiency
detection model thatof theis model
relatedhas to
beencurvature
the validatedofbya experiment.
concrete bridge.Materazzi and Ubertini
The efficiency of the[29] have has
model investigated the damage
been validated detection
by experiment.
of long-span
Materazzi andsuspension
Ubertini [29] bridges by using modal
have investigated eigenproperties.
the damage detection Hanif et al. [87]
of long-span has proposed
suspension bridgesa
simulation based damage detection method based on linear and nonlinear
by using modal eigenproperties. Hanif et al. [87] has proposed a simulation based damage detection analysis. The method has
been validated
method based on through
linear comparing
and nonlinear the analysis.
result with Thethat in previous
method has been studies.
validated through comparing
Despite the recent progress
the result with that in previous studies. in models and theories of damage detection, there still exist many
challenges [84]: (1) environmental and operational variability,
Despite the recent progress in models and theories of damage detection, there which will affect the stiffness andmany
still exist mass
in a nonlinear
challenges [84]:manner and thus affect
(1) environmental and modal properties;
operational (2) separating
variability, which will environmental variation
affect the stiffness from
and mass
damage, which is a big challenge even though there are such techniques,
in a nonlinear manner and thus affect modal properties; (2) separating environmental variation from i.e., the Least Trimmed
Squares (LTS)
damage, whichregression algorithm
is a big challenge even andthough
the Minimum
there areCovariance
such techniques,Determinant
i.e., the(MCD) estimator
Least Trimmed
[88]; (3) errors in non-modal based damage detection; (4) Damage localization.
Squares (LTS) regression algorithm and the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator [88];
(3) errors in non-modal based damage detection; (4) Damage localization.
3.4. Some Results of a Long-Span Arch Bridge
3.4. Some Results of a Long-Span Arch Bridge
Section 2.5 introduces the deployment of a SHM system for a long-span arch bridge (the Jiubao
Bridge in China).
Section Throughthe
2.5 introduces thedeployment
system, some of a data
SHMabout
systemdeformation, temperature,
for a long-span arch bridgewind speed,
(the Jiubao
vehicle,inetc.
Bridge was Through
China). observed.theTaking
system,thesome
1-day observed
data data for an example,
about deformation, the wind
temperature, resultsspeed,
on observed
vehicle,
deformation,
etc. temperature,
was observed. Taking thetime-history
1-day observed winddataspeed,
for anstatistical analysis
example, the resultsofonwind speed,
observed statistical
deformation,
analysis of vehicle
temperature, speed, wind
time-history statistical analysis
speed, of vehicle
statistical axle-weight
analysis and vibration
of wind speed, statistical mode areofdepicted
analysis vehicle
in Figure
speed, 10.
statistical analysis of vehicle axle-weight and vibration mode are depicted in Figure 10.

38

37.5

37

36.5

36

35.5
0 156 312 468
Time (min)
(a) (b)

Figure 10. Cont.


Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 15 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 15 of 21

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
Wind speed (m/s)
(c) (d)
10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Vihicle axle-weight (Kips)
(e) (f)

Figure10.
Figure 10.Monitoring
Monitoringinterface:
interface:(a)
(a)observed
observeddeformation;
deformation;(b) (b)temperature;
temperature;(c)(c)time-history
time-historywind
wind
speed; (d) statistical analysis of wind speed; (e)statistical analysis of vehicle speed; (f) statistical
speed; (d) statistical analysis of wind speed; (e)statistical analysis of vehicle speed; (f) statistical analysis
ofanalysis
vehicle of vehicle axle-weight.
axle-weight.

In Figure 10a,b, the start point ‘0’ is corresponding to zero o’clock. Figure 10a shows that the
In Figure 10a,b, the start point ‘0’ is corresponding to zero o’clock. Figure 10a shows that the
deformation of the bridge increases with time until a peak occur at the time around 800 min past zero
deformation of the bridge increases with time until a peak occur at the time around 800 min past zero
o’clock (around 15:00 o’clock). The deformation is mainly affected by vehicle flowrate and the result
o’clock (around 15:00 o’clock). The deformation is mainly affected by vehicle flowrate and the result
therefore suggests that the vehicle flowrate is maximum around 15:00 o’clock. Figure 10b indicates
therefore suggests that the vehicle flowrate is maximum around 15:00 o’clock. Figure 10b indicates
that the lowest temperature occurs at the time around 230 min past zero o’clock (around 4:00 o’clock),
that the lowest temperature occurs at the time around 230 min past zero o’clock (around 4:00 o’clock),
and the maximum temperature is close to 38 °C that is identical to the temperature observed by the
and the maximum temperature is close to 38 ◦ C that is identical to the temperature observed by the
China Meteorological Administration. Figure 10c,d show that the wind speed is around 1.25 m/s and
China Meteorological Administration. Figure 10c,d show that the wind speed is around 1.25 m/s and
it substantially obeys to the normal distribution. At high wind speeds (i.e., typhoon), the measured
it substantially obeys to the normal distribution. At high wind speeds (i.e., typhoon), the measured
wind speed would be of non-stationary feature and it does not obey the normal distribution any more
wind speed would be of non-stationary feature and it does not obey the normal distribution any
[89]. Figure 10e,f are obtained based on one-month vehicle data observed from the SHM of the bridge.
more [89]. Figure 10e,f are obtained based on one-month vehicle data observed from the SHM of the
Figure 10e,f suggest that the vehicle speed substantially obeys the normal distribution whereas the
bridge. Figure 10e,f suggest that the vehicle speed substantially obeys the normal distribution whereas
vehicle axle-weight obeys the bimodal distribution. This is identical to a previous study [56].
the vehicle axle-weight obeys the bimodal distribution. This is identical to a previous study [56].
The time-history response (acceleration) of the bridge measured from the SHM system can be
The time-history response (acceleration) of the bridge measured from the SHM system can be
found in a previous study [90]. By using proper analytical method (i.e., the PP method) illustrated
found in a previous study [90]. By using proper analytical method (i.e., the PP method) illustrated
above, some features (i.e., frequency) of the bridge are obtained. The power spectral density of all
above, some features (i.e., frequency) of the bridge are obtained. The power spectral density of
vibration-monitoring points is depicted in Figure 11. Figure 11 indicates that the fundamental
all vibration-monitoring points is depicted in Figure 11. Figure 11 indicates that the fundamental
frequency of the bridge measured by the SHM system is around 0.5 Hz that is identical to that
frequency of the bridge measured by the SHM system is around 0.5 Hz that is identical to that
calculated by using a 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) method (0.518 Hz) reported in the previous
calculated by using a 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) method (0.518 Hz) reported in the previous
study [90]. The above results suggest that the deployment of the SHM of the long-span arch bridge
study [90]. The above results suggest that the deployment of the SHM of the long-span arch bridge
is reliable.
is reliable.
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 16 of 21
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 16 of 21

Power spectral density

Figure 11. Average


Figure 11. power spectral
Average power spectral density
density of
of all
all vibration-monitoring
vibration-monitoring points
points after
after [90].
[90].

4. Applications of SHM Systems for Arch Bridges


4. Applications of SHM Systems for Arch Bridges
In the 1950s, the United States and some other developed countries established a substantial
In the 1950s, the United States and some other developed countries established a substantial
number of codes and standards for bridge inspection and retrofit. However, due to technology
number of codes and standards for bridge inspection and retrofit. However, due to technology
limitations at that time, artificial method was the only way for bridge testing, which leads to
limitations at that time, artificial method was the only way for bridge testing, which leads to significant
significant discrepancies between field measurements and real conditions. With the constant
discrepancies between field measurements and real conditions. With the constant improvement of
improvement of bridge health monitoring and diagnostics system in 1980s, the first batch of health
bridge health monitoring and diagnostics system in 1980s, the first batch of health monitoring system
monitoring system was established and applied to multiple bridges, e.g., the Foyle Bridge in the
was established and applied to multiple bridges, e.g., the Foyle Bridge in the United Kingdom [91],
United Kingdom [91], the Skarnsundet cable-stayed bridge in Norway [92], and the Sunshine Skyway
the Skarnsundet cable-stayed bridge in Norway [92], and the Sunshine Skyway Bridge in the
Bridge in the United States [93]. Since then, SHM systems have been implemented in many long-span
United States [93]. Since then, SHM systems have been implemented in many long-span bridges
bridges in China, Japan, America, Europe. Most of them equipped with SHM systems are cable-
in China, Japan, America, Europe. Most of them equipped with SHM systems are cable-stayed bridges,
stayed bridges, and the number of arch bridges is relatively small (around 14%). Table 3 presents 10
and the number of arch bridges is relatively small (around 14%). Table 3 presents 10 typical long-span
typical long-span arch bridges in the world that have been equipped with SHM systems.
arch bridges in the world that have been equipped with SHM systems.
Table 3. Main arch bridges in the world equipped with SHM systems.
Table 3. Main arch bridges in the world equipped with SHM systems.
Main
No.
No.
Project Name
Project Name
Location Main Span (m)
Location
Sensors [17,33]
Sensors [17,33]
Span (m)
11 Lupu
Lupu bridge
bridge Shanghai,
Shanghai, China China
550 550 (2)–(4),
(2)–(4), (9)(9)
22 Banghwa
Banghwa Bridge
Bridge Seoul,Seoul,
Korea Korea
540 540 (1)–(5),
(1)–(5),(8)(8)
33 Sydney
SydneyHarbour
HarbourBridge [24,94]
Bridge [24,94] Sydney, Australia
Sydney, Australia
503 503 (2)–(5)
(2)–(5)
4 Mingzhou Bridge Zhejiang, China 450
(1)–(7), (10), (11)–(12)
5
4 Mingzhou
Boguan Bridge
Bridge Zhejiang,
Liaoning, China
China
450 430
(1)–(7), (10), (11)–(12)
(1)–(4), (7)
75 Boguan
Caiyuanba Bridge
Bridge [95] Liaoning,
Chongqing, ChinaChina
430 420 (1)–(4),
(2)–(5), (10)(7)
87 Caiyuanba
Maocao StreetBridge
Bridge [95] Chongqing,
Hunan, China China
420 368 (2)–(5),
(1)–(5), (10)
(7), (12)
98 YongheStreet
Maocao bridgeBridge Guangxi, ChinaChina
Hunan, 368 338 (1)–(5), (7),(7),
(1)–(5), (12)(12)
10
9 Dashengguan Yangtze
YongheRiver
bridgeBridge [26] Jiangsu, China
Guangxi, China
338 336 (3)–(4), (7),
(1)–(5), (6) (12)
10 Note: (1) anemometer, (2) temperature sensor,
Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge [26] (3) strain gauge, (4)
Jiangsu, China accelerator, (5)
336 displacement transducer,
(3)–(4), (6)
(6) velocimeter, (7) global positioning system, (8) tiltmeter, (9) level sensing station, (10) cable tension force,
Note:
(11) (1) anemometer,
ultrasonic (2) direction
wind speed and temperature sensor,
instrument, (12)(3) strain
video gauge, (4) accelerator, (5) displacement
camera.
transducer, (6) velocimeter, (7) global positioning system, (8) tiltmeter, (9) level sensing station, (10)
cable tension force, (11) ultrasonic wind speed and direction instrument, (12) video camera.
From the above illustration, SHM systems for long span cable-stayed bridges and suspension
From
bridges have thebeen
above illustration,
widely developed SHM systems
all over for long
the world, butspan cable-stayed
the systems bridges arch
on long-span and suspension
bridges are
bridges have
relatively beenThe
limited. widely
studydeveloped all over
is anticipated the world,
to advance but the systemsonon
our understanding long-span and
deployment archstudy
bridges
of
are relatively
SHM limited.
of long-span archThe study is anticipated to advance our understanding on deployment and
bridges.
study of SHM of long-span arch bridges.
Sensors 2017, 17, 2151 17 of 21

5. Challenges and Future Trends


With the development of society, many progresses have been archived in the area of SHM of
civil structures. However, there still exist many challenges. Though many studies [49,96] have
summarized and recognized the challenges and future trends of SHM for civil structures, the field of
SHM develops rapidly, and visions should be up-to-date in time. The challenges and future trends are
summarized below.

• The main challenge for a SHM system is to obtain the exact damaged structural model. One the
important ways to solve the problem is to develop advanced sensors. The stability, durability,
and accuracy of sensors are of great important in developing a reliable SHM system. With the
development of smart materials, high quality sensors are anticipated to be developed and utilized
in SHM systems;
• Wireless sensing technologies or mobile wireless sensing technologies with high-frequency range
and high accuracy should be developed;
• Data-driven science and technologies, including highly efficient data acquisition, data storage
technologies, data management technologies, data processing technologies, data analysis and
modeling technologies are important issues. New technologies, i.e., big data and cloud
technologies, artificial intelligence, deep learning, are anticipated to be used to solve the issues;
• Identify damage accurately and quantitatively. The challenges of damage identification include
(1) environmental and operational variability, which will affect the stiffness and mass in
a nonlinear manner and thus affect modal properties; (2) separating environmental variation from
damage, which is a big challenge even though there are such techniques; (3) errors in non-modal
based damage detection; (4) Damage localization. New science and technologies are anticipated
to be developed to solve the challenges;
• Other challenges, i.e., long-term condition assessment, life-cycle ultimate capacity prediction.

In a future SHM system, data is anticipated to be accurately collected, transmitted, stored,


and analyzed in a short time by a SHM system where it is in conjunction with a structural control
system. In a word, a future SHM system must realize the goal, evaluating the serviceability, safety,
and sustainability of structures effectively.

Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Mountain Bridge and
Tunnel Engineering (Chongqing Jiaotong University) fund (Grant No. CQSLBF-Y16-16), the Engineering Research
Center of Bridge Structure and Material in the Mountainous Area Fund (Grant No. QLGCZX-JJ2015-6),the general
project of foundation and frontier research of Chongqing (Grant No. cstc2017jcyjAX0187), the Construction
Technology Project of Ministry of Transport (Grant No. 2015318814190), the Key project of foundation and frontier
research of Chongqing (Grant No. cstc2015jcyjBX0022), the Application Foundation Research Project of Ministry
of transport (Grant No. 2013319814180), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51708074,
Grant No. 51478071, and Grant No. 51408087).
Author Contributions: Zengshun Chen wrote the manuscript. Xiao Zhou worked together on the writing and
revision of the manuscript. Xu Wang and Lili Dong gave some meaningful guidance on the analysis and writing
of this manuscript; Yuanhao Qian helped to organize the manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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