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# THE LAPLACE

TRANSFORM
Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
LAPLACE TRANSFORM
The Laplace Transform is one of the mathematical
tools used for the solution of linear ordinary differential
equations.
Two attractive features to use Laplace Transform
instead of using classical method are:
üThe homogeneous equation and the particular integral
of the solution are obtained in one operation.
üThe Laplace Transform converts the differential
equation into an algebraic equation in “s”. It is then
possible to manipulate the algebraic equation by
simple algebraic rules to obtain the solution in the
s-domain. The final solution is obtained by taking the
inverse Laplace Transform. 1
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
A HISTORICAL NOTE

## Marquis Pierre-Simon De Laplace Oliver Heaviside

(1749-1827) (1850-1925)
ü French mathematician and ü Eccentric British Engineer.
ü Paper published in 1779 - possible;
Applications to differential ü The innovator of lowpass filters;
equations; ü Operational mathematics used do
ü Traite de Mechanique Celeste. solve linear integro-differential
equations. 2
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
DEFINITION OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM
¥
if f (t )e -σt dt < ¥ for some finite real σ o then
ò 0
¥ 1 c + j¥
- st st
f (t )e dt \ f (t ) = F ( s ) e ds for c ³ σ o
0
F ( s) = ò - ò
2πj c - j¥
F ( s ) = L[ f (t )] \ f (t ) = L-1[ F ( s )]
L L-1
f (t ) ¾
¾® F ( s ) \ F ( s ) ¾¾® f (t )
üThe variable s =s+jw is referred to as the
LAPLACE OPERATOR.
üThe defining F(s) as shown in the above equations
is also known as the UNILATERAL LAPLACE
TRANSFORM.
3
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
The Unilateral LAPLACE TRANSFORM
f1(t) f2(t)

f 2 (t ) = f1 (t ) t ³0
0 t 0 t
L L
¾®
f1 (t ) ¾ F1 ( s ) ¾®
f 2 (t ) ¾ F2 ( s )
F1 ( s ) = F2 ( s )
üAll information contained in f(t) prior to t=0 is
ignored or considered to be zero. This assumption
does not impose any limitation on the applications
of the Laplace Transform to linear system
problems (Physical System à Causal System).
4
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Example - Unit Step
f(t) g(t)

1 1

0 t 0 t

ì1 t > 0
f (t ) = µ(t)í \ F ( s) = G ( s)
î0 t < 0

+¥ 1
- st
1 - st
µ(t)e dt = - e =
0
F ( s ) = L[ µ(t)] = ò
s 0 s
+¥ +¥
- σt
F ( s ) is valid only if µ(t)e e -σt dt < ¥
0
ò 0
dt = ò
which means that Re{s} must be greater than zero.
5
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Example - Exponential Pulse
f (t ) = e - αt µ(t) ; where α is a real constante.
-( s + α )t + ¥
+¥ e 1
- αt - st
e e dt = - =
0
F ( s) = ò
s+α 0
s+α
+¥ +¥
- αt - σt
F ( s ) is valid only if e e e -( σ + α ) t dt < ¥
0
ò 0
dt = ò
which means that Re{s} must be greater than -α.
f(t) jw

1 “s” Plane

-a s

0 t Region of convergence

6
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Example - Unit Impulse

dm(t) ìï + ¥ 0 t¹0
f (t ) = δ(t) = =í
dt ïîò-¥ δ(t)dt = 1 t = 0
F ( s ) = 1 for all s \ Region of Convergence = all s

ε®0
1
d (t) ε

0 t ε 0 ε t
-
2 2
A unit impulse and its approximation.

7
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Example - Sinusoid Signal

1 jω t
f(t) = cos(ω t ) µ(t) = e + e - jω t µ(t)[ ]
2
1
F ( s ) = L e jω t µ(t) + e - jω t µ(t)
[ ]
2
1é 1 1 ù
F ( s) = ê + ú for Re{s ± jω } = Re{s} > 0
2 ë s - jω s + jω û
s
F(s) = 2 2
\ Region of Convergence = Re{s} > 0
s +ω

8
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Example – Pulse Signal
f(t) f(t)
1 1

0 2 t 0 2 4 t
¥ ¥
- st
f(t)e - st dt
0 0-
F(s) = ò - f(t)e dt F(s) = ò
0 0 0
647 4 8 647 4 8 647 4 8
2 ¥ 2 4 ¥
- st - st - st
0 2 0 2 4
= ò - 1e dt + ò 0e - st dt = ò - 0e dt + ò 1e dt + ò 0e - st dt
- st 2 - st 4
e 1 e 1 -4 s -2 s
=- = (1 - e - 2 s ) =- = - (e - e )
s 0-
s s 2
s
1 1
F ( s ) = (1 - e - 2 s ) for all s F ( s ) = (1 - e - 2 s )e - 2 s for all s
s s
9
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
A Short Table of Laplace Transform 1
δ(t) Û 1
1
µ(t) Û
s
1
t µ(t) Û
s2
n!
t n µ(t) Û
s n +1
1
e -α t µ(t) Û
s+α
1
t e -α t µ(t) Û
(s + α )2
n!
t n e -α t µ(t) Û
(s + α )n+1
s
cos(ω t) µ(t) Û
s 2 + ω2 10
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
A Short Table of Laplace Transform 2
ω
sin(ω t) µ(t) Û
s 2 + ω2
s+α
e -α t cos(ω t) µ(t) Û
(s + α )2 + ω2
ω
e -α t sin(ω t) µ(t) Û
(s + α )2 + ω2
(r cos θ )s + (r α cos θ - r ω sin θ )
re -α t cos( ω t + θ ) µ(t) Û
s 2 + 2α s + (α 2 + ω 2 )
0.5 r e j θ 0.5 r e - j θ
re -α t cos( ω t + θ ) µ(t) Û +
s+α - j ω s+α + j ω
As + B
re -α t cos( ω t + θ ) µ(t) Û
s 2 + 2α s + C
A2 C + B 2 - 2 A B α -1 α A - B
r= ; θ = tan ω = C - α2
C - α2 A C - α2
é B-α A ù
e -α t ê A cos( ω t) +
ω
sin( ω t)ú µ(t) As + B
ë û Û
s 2 + 2α s + C
ω = C - α2
11
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
The Laplace Transform Properties 1
Addition f 1(t) ± f 2(t) F1(s) ± F2(s)
Scalar Multiplication k f(t) k F(s)
d f(t)
Time Differentiation sF(s) - f(0 - )
dt
2 *
d f(t) 2 -
s F(s) - s f(0 ) - f (0 - )
dt 2
d 3 f(t) * **
3 2 - -
s F(s) - s f(0 ) - s f (0 ) - f (0 - )
dt 3
t 1
Time Integration f( τ )dτ F(s)
ò 0- s
t 1 1 0-
f( τ )dτ
ò-¥
F(s) + ò f(t)dt
s s -¥
Time Shift f(t - to )µ (t - to ) F(s)e - s to to ³ 0
Frequency Shift f(t)e ± α t F(s m α)

12
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
The Laplace Transform Properties 2
d F(s)
Frequency Differentiation - t f(t)
ds
f(t) ¥
Frequency Integration F(z)dz
t òs

1 æsö
Scaling f(α t)\ α ³ 0 Fç ÷
α èαø
Time Convolution f 1(t)*f 2(t) F1(s) F2(s)
1
Frequency Convolution f 1(t) f 2(t) F1(s)*F2(s)
2π j
Initial Value f(0 + ) lims ®¥ sF(s) \(n > m)
Final Value f(¥) lims ®0 s F(s)
Poles of s F(s) in LHP

13
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Periodic Function
f(t) = f(t - nT) n = 0, 1, 2,...
f 1(t) = [µ (t) - µ(t - T)]f(t)
1
F(s) = -Ts
F1(s) F1(s) = L[f 1(t)]
1- e
f(t) f1(t)
Example: Vo Vo

0 τ T T +τ t 0 τ t
¥
f(t) = å f 1(t - nT)
n =0

L Vo
¾®
f 1(t) = Vo [µ (t) - µ(t - τ )] ¾ F1(s) = (1 - e - s τ )
s
Vo 1 - e - s τ
F(s) =
s 1 - e -Ts 14
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Example – Using unit step function to
compose signal and time shifting
f(t) g(t)
1 1

0 1 2 3 t 0 1 2 4 t

## f(t) = t µ (t) - t µ (t - 1) g(t) = (t - 1) µ (t - 1) - (t - 1)µ (t - 2)

+ µ (t - 1) - µ (t - 3) + µ (t - 2) + µ (t - 4)
f(t) = t µ (t) - (t - 1) µ (t - 1) g(t) = (t - 1) µ (t - 1) - (t - 2)µ (t - 2)
- µ (t - 3) - µ (t - 4)
1 1 - s 1 -3s 1 - s 1 -2 s 1 -4 s
F(s) = 2 - 2 e - e G(s) = 2 e - 2 e - e
s s s s s s
g(t) = f(t - 1) µ(t - 1)
15
G(s) = F(s)e - s
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Example – Time shifting
f(t)
s + 3 + 5e -2s
F(s) = 2
(s + 1)(s + 2)
s+3 5e - 2s
F(s) = +
(s + 1)(s + 2) (s + 1)(s + 2) 0 1 2 3 t
142 4 43 4 142 4 43 4
F1(s) F2(s)e -2s

## s+3 2 1 f(t) = t µ (t) - t µ (t - 2)

F1(s) = = -
(s + 1)(s + 2) (s + 1) (s + 2) - 2(t - 3) µ (t - 2) + 2(t - 3) µ (t - 3)
5 5 5
F2(s) = = - f(t) = t µ (t) - 3(t - 2)µ (t - 2)
(s + 1)(s + 2) (s + 1) (s + 2)
f 1(t) = (2e -t - e - 2t )u(t) + 2(t - 3) µ (t - 3)
f 2(t) = 5(e -t - e - 2t )u(t) 1
-t - 2t
F(s) = 2 1 - 3e - 2s + 2e -3s
[ ]
f(t) = (2e - e )u(t) s
+ 5[e -(t - 2) - e - 2(t - 2) ]u(t - 2)

16
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Rational Functions and
Partial Fraction Expansion
bm s m + bm -1 s m -1 + ... + b1 s + b0 P(s)
F(s) = n n -1
=
s + an -1 s + ... + a1 s + a0 Q(s)
F(s) is improper if m ³ n and proper if m < n.
An improper function can always be separated into the
sum of a polynomial in s and a proper function.
Example: 2 s 3 + 9s 2 + 11s + 2 s 2 + 4s + 3
2 s 3 + 9s 2 + 11s + 2
F(s) = 2 s 3 + 8s 2 + 6 s 2s + 1
s 2 + 4s + 3
s -1 s 2 + 5s + 2
F(s) = 21s2+ 31 + s 2 + 4s + 3
Polynomial in s 14243 s 2 + 4s + 3
Proper Function
s -1
17
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
Method of Clearing Fraction
s 3 + 3s 2 + 4s + 6 k1 k2 k3 k4
F(s) = = + + +
(s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 3)2 s + 1 s + 2 s + 3 (s + 3)2
To determine the unknowns terms, we clear fractions by
multiplying both sides by (s+1)(s+2)(s+3)2 to obtain:
s 3 + 3s 2 + 4s + 6 = k1(s 3 + 8s 2 + 21s + 18) + k 2(s 3 + 7s 2 + 15s + 9)
+ k3(s 3 + 6s 2 + 11s + 6) + k4(s 2 + 3s + 2)
= s 3(k1 + k 2 + k3 ) + s 2(8k1 + 7k 2 + 6k3 + k4 )
+ s(21k1 + 15k 2 + 11k3 + 3k4 ) + (18k1 + 9k 2 + 6k3 + 2k4 )
k1 + k 2 + k3 =1 k1 = 1, k 2 = -2, k3 = 2, k4 = -3
8k1 + 7 k 2 + 6k3 + k 4 = 3 1 2 2 3
F(s) = - + -
21k1 + 15k 2 + 11k3 + 3k 4 = 4 s + 1 s + 2 s + 3 (s + 3)2
18k1 + 9k 2 + 6k3 + 2k 4 = 6 Straightforward and applicable to
all situations 18
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
The Heaviside “Cover-Up”
Cover-Up - Unrepeated Factor of Q(s)
bm s m + bm -1 s m -1 + ... + b1 s + b0 P(s)
F(s) = n n -1
= m<n
s + an -1 s + ... + a1 s + a0 Q(s)
P(s) k k k
= = 1 + 2 + ... + n
(s + λ1 )(s + λ2 )...(s + λn ) s + λ1 s + λ2 s + λn
k r = (s + λr )F(s) s = - λ r = 1,2,...,n
r

Example: 2s 2 + 9s - 11 k1 k k 3 1 2
F(s) = = + 2 + 3 = + -
(s + 1)(s - 2)(s + 3) (s + 1) (s - 2) (s + 3) (s + 1) (s - 2) (s + 3)
2s 2 + 9s - 11 2 - 9 - 11 - 18
k1 = (s + 1) = = =3
(s + 1)(s - 2)(s + 3) s = -1 ( - 1 - 2)( - 1 + 3) - 6
2s 2 + 9s - 11 8 + 18 - 11 15
k 2 = (s - 2) = = =1
(s + 1)(s - 2)(s + 3) s = 2 (2 + 1)(2 + 3) 15
2s 2 + 9s - 11 18 - 27 - 11 - 20
k3 = (s + 3) = = = -2
(s + 1)(s - 2)(s + 3) s = -3 ( - 3 + 1)( - 3 - 2) 10
19
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
The Heaviside “Cover-Up”
Cover-Up - Complex Factor in F(s)
Example: 4s 2 + 2s + 18 4s 2 + 2s + 18
F(s) = 2
=
(s + 1)(s + 4s + 13) (s + 1)(s + 2 - j3)(s + 2 + j3)
k k2 k3
F(s) = 1 + +
s + 1 s + 2 - j3 s + 2 + j3
4s 2 + 2s + 18
k1 = (s + 1) 2
=2
(s + 1)(s + 4s + 13) s = -1
4s 2 + 2s + 18 o
k 2 = (s + 2 - j3) = 1 + j2 = 5e j63.43
(s + 1)(s + 2 - j3)(s + 2 + j3) s = -2 + j3
4s 2 + 2s + 18 o
k3 = (s + 2 + j3) = 1 - j2 = 5e - j63.43
(s + 1)(s + 2 - j3)(s + 2 + j3) s = -2 - j3
o o
2 5e j63.43 5e - j63.43
F(s) = + +
s + 1 (s + 2 - j3) (s + 2 + j3)

20
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
The Heaviside “Cover-Up”
Example: 4s 2 + 2s + 18 k1 c1 s + c2
F(s) = = +
(s + 1)(s 2 + 4s + 13) s + 1 s 2 + 4s + 13
4s 2 + 2s + 18
k1 = (s + 1) 2
=2
(s + 1)(s + 4s + 13) s = -1
4s 2 + 2s + 18 2 c1 s + c2
= +
(s + 1)(s 2 + 4s + 13) s + 1 s 2 + 4s + 13
4s 2 + 2s + 18 = 2(s 2 + 4s + 13) + (c1 s + c2 )(s + 1)
4s 2 + 2s + 18 = (2 + c1 )s 2 + (8 + c1 + c2 )s + (26 + c2 )
c1 = 2 , c2 = -8
2 2s - 8
F(s) = + 2
s + 1 s + 4s + 13
21
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
The Heaviside “Cover-Up”
Cover-Up - Quadratic Factor - Short-Cuts
4s 2 + 2s + 18 k1 c1 s + c2
Example 1: F(s) = 2
= + 2
(s + 1)(s + 4s + 13) s + 1 s + 4s + 13
4s 2 + 2s + 18
k1 = (s + 1) 2
=2
(s + 1)(s + 4s + 13) s = -1
4s 2 + 2s + 18 é 2 c1 s + c2 ù
= +
(s + 1)(s 2 + 4s + 13) s =0 êë s + 1 s 2 + 4s + 13 úû s =0
18 c
= 2 + 2 \ c 2 = -8
13 13
ì é 4s 2 + 2s + 18 ù ü ì é 2 c1 s + c2 ù ü
s
í ê 2 úý = s
í ê + 2 ú ý
î ë (s + 1)(s + 4s + 13) û þ s ®¥ î ë s + 1 s + 4s + 13 û þ s ®¥
2 2s - 8
4 = 2 + c1 \ c1 = 2 \ F(s) = + 2
s + 1 s + 4s + 13 22
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
The Heaviside “Cover-Up”
Cover-Up - Quadratic Factor - Short-Cuts
2s 2 + 4s + 5 k1 c1 s + c2
Example 2: F(s) = 2
= + 2
s(s + 2s + 5) s s + 2s + 5
2s 2 + 4s + 5
k1 = s 2 = 1 \ F(0) = ¥
s(s + 2s + 5) s =0
2s 2 + 4s + 5 é1 c1 s + c2 ù
= +
s(s 2 + 2s + 5) s =1 êë s s 2 + 2s + 5 úû s =1
11 c +c
= 1 + 1 2 \ c1 + c2 = 3
8 8
ì é 2s 2 + 4s + 5 ù ü ì é1 c1 s + c2 ù ü
s
í ê 2 úý = s
í ê + 2 ú ý
î ë s(s + 2s + 5) û þ s ®¥ î ë s s + 2s + 5 û þ s ®¥
1 s+2
2 = 1 + c1 \ c1 = 1 \ c2 = 2 ® F(s) = + 2
s s + 2s + 5 23
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
Repeated Factor in Q(s)
P(s)
F ( s) =
(s + λ)r(s + α1 )(s + α2 )...(s + α j )
Repeated Factors
64444 47444448
a0 a1 ar -1
F ( s) = + + ... +
(s + λ)r (s + λ)r -1 (s + λ)
k1 k2 kj
+ + + ... +
s + α s + α2 s+α
1414442 44443j
Unrepeated Factors ® Heaviside

(s + λ)r F(s) = a0
s=- λ

d
(s + λ)r F(s)
[ ] = a1
ds s =- λ

1 di r
ai = i
(s + λ)
[ F(s) ] , i = 0,1,...,r - 1
i! ds s =- λ 24
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
Repeated Factor in Q(s) - Example
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13 2 1 3 1
F(s) = 3
F(s) = 3
+ 2
+ +
(s + 1) (s + 2) (s + 1) (s + 1) (s + 1) s + 2
a0 a1 a2 k
F(s) = + + +
(s + 1)3 (s + 1)2 (s + 1) s + 2
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13
k = (s + 2) 3
=1
(s + 1) (s + 2) s = -2

3
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13
a0 = (s + 1) 3
=2
(s + 1) (s + 2) s = -1
3 2
d é 3 4s + 16s + 23s + 13 ù
a1 = ê(s + 1) 3 ú =1
ds ë (s + 1) (s + 2) û s = -1
3 2
1 d2 é 3 4s + 16s + 23s + 13 ù
a3 = 2 ê
(s + 1) 3 ú =3
2! ds ë (s + 1) (s + 2) û s = -1 25
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
Mixture of the Heaviside and Clearing Fractions
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13 a0 a1 a2 k
F(s) = = + + +
(s + 1)3(s + 2) (s + 1)3 (s + 1)2 (s + 1) s + 2
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13
k = (s + 2) =1
(s + 1)3(s + 2) s = -2

3
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13
a0 = (s + 1) 3
=2
(s + 1) (s + 2) s = -1

## Multiply both sides by (s + 1)3(s + 2) , yields

4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13 = 2(s + 2) + a1(s + 1)(s + 2) + a2(s + 1)2(s + 2) + (s + 1)3
= (1 + a2 )s 3 + (a1 + 4a2 + 3)s 2 + (5 + 3a1 + 5a2 )s + (4 + 2a1 + 2a2 + 1)
1 + a2 = 4 ü 5 + 3a1 + 5a2 = 23ü a1 = 1
ý or ýÞ
a1 + 4a2 + 3 = 16 þ 4 + 2a1 + 2a2 + 1 = 13þ a2 = 3
2 1 3 1
F(s) = + + +
(s + 1)3 (s + 1)2 (s + 1) s + 2 26
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
Mixture of the Heaviside and Short Cuts
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13 a0 a1 a2 k
F(s) = = + + +
(s + 1)3(s + 2) (s + 1)3 (s + 1)2 (s + 1) s + 2
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13
k = (s + 2) 3
=1
(s + 1) (s + 2) s = -2

3
4s 3 + 16s 2 + 23s + 13
a0 = (s + 1) =2
(s + 1)3(s + 2) s = -1

## Multiply both sides by s and then let s ® ¥ , yields

4 = a 2 + 1 Þ a2 = 3
There is now only one unknown a1 , which can be readily found by
setting to any convenient value, say = 0.
13
2 = 2 + a1 + 3 + 1 2 Þ a1 = 1
2 1 3 1
F(s) = + + +
(s + 1)3 (s + 1)2 (s + 1) s + 2 27
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Partial Fraction Expansion
Improper F(s) with m=n
bn s n + bn -1s n -1 + ... + b1s + b0
F(s) = n
s + an -1s n -1 + ... + a1s + a0
k1 k k
F(s) = bn + + 2 + ... + n
s + λ1 s + λ2 s + λn
The coefficients k1 , k 2 ,...k n are computed as if F(s) were proper.
Example:
3s 2 + 9s - 20 3s 2 + 9s - 20
F(s) = = \ m = n = 2 with bn = b2 = 3
s2 + s - 6 (s - 2)(s + 3)
3s 2 + 9s - 20 k k
F(s) = = 3+ 1 + 2
(s - 2)(s + 3) s-2 s+3
3s 2 + 9s - 20 12 + 18 - 20 10
k1 = (s - 2) = = =2
(s - 2)(s + 3) s = 2 (2 + 3) 5
3s 2 + 9s - 20 27 - 27 - 20 - 20 2 4
k3 = (s + 3) = = =4 F(s) = 3 + +
(s - 2)(s + 3) ( - 3 - 2) -5 s-2 s+3
s = -3
28
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Modified Partial Fractions
ks k
Often we require the form rather than . This can be achived by expanding
(s + λ)r (s + λ)r
F(s)
s into partial fractions. F(s) 5s 2 + 20s + 18 a a3 a4
1 a2
= = + + +
s s(s + 2)(s + 3)2 s s + 2 (s + 3) (s + 3)2
Example: 5s 2 + 20s + 18 18 18
a1 = s = 2
= =1
s(s + 2)(s + 3)2 s =0
2(3) 18
5s 2 + 20s + 18
F(s) = 5s 2 + 20s + 18 20 - 40 + 18 - 2
(s + 2)(s + 3)2 a2 = (s + 2) = = =1
s(s + 2)(s + 3)2 s = -2
- 2(1) -2

2
5s 2 + 20s + 18 45 - 60 + 18 3
a4 = (s + 3) = = =1
s(s + 2)(s + 3)2 s = -3
- 3( - 1) 3
ì é 5s 2 + 20s + 18 ù ü ì é1 1 a3 1 ùü
ís ê 2 úý
= ís ê + + + 2 úý
î ë s(s + 2)(s + 3) û þ s ®¥ î ë s s + 2 (s + 3) (s + 3) û þ s ®¥
F(s) 1 1 2 1
a3 = -2 \ = + - +
s s s + 2 (s + 3) (s + 3)2
s 2s s
F(s) = 1 + - +
s + 2 s + 3 (s + 3)2 29
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Finding the Inverse Transform
Examples: 7s - 6 7s - 6 4 3
F(s) = = = +
s 2 - s - 6 (s + 2)(s - 3) s + 2 s - 3
f(t) = 4e - 2t + 3e 3t u(t)
( )
Improper
647
4 48 4
2 2
2s + 5 2s + 5 7 13
F(s) = 2 = = 2+ -
s + 3s + 2 (s + 1)(s + 2) s +1 s + 2
f(t) = 2 δ(t) + 7e -t - 13e - 2t u(t)
( )
o o
6(s + 34) 6 5e j126.9 5e - j126.9 6 - 6s - 54
F(s) = = + + = +
s(s 2 + 10s + 34) s s + 5 - j3 s + 5 + j3 s s 2 + 10s + 34
f(t) = 6 + 10e -5t cos(3t + 126.9 o ) u(t)
[ ]
8s + 10 2 2 2 6
F(s) = = - - +
(s + 1)(s + 3)3 s + 1 s + 2 (s + 2)2 (s + 2)3
f(t) = 2e -t - (2 + 2t - 3t 2 )e - 2t u(t)
[ ]
30
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
The Time-Differentiation Property
Example: Find the Laplace Transform of the signal f(t) in
Figure below using table and the Time-Differentiation
and Time-Shifting properties of the Laplace Transform.
2
f(t)

0 1 2 3 t d2 f
df 2
= δ(t) - 3 δ(t - 2) + 2 δ(t - 3)
1 dt
dt
t
æ d2 f ö
Lçç 2 ÷÷ = L[δ(t) - 3δ (t - 2) + 2δ (t - 3)]
-2 è dt ø
2
s 2 F(s) - 0 - 0 = 1 - 3e - 2s + 2e -3s
d2 f 1 - 2s - 3s
1 F(s) = 1 - 3e + 2e
dt 2
s2
( )
t

-3

31
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Initial and Final Value
The initial value theorem states that f(t) and its derivative
df/dt are both Laplace Transformable, then f(0 + ) = lim sF(s)
s ®¥
provided that the limit on the right-hand side of former
equation exists. Comment: The Initial value theorem
should be applied only if F(s) is strictly proper, because
for m ³ n, lims®¥ sF(s) does not exist, and the theorem
does not apply.

The final value theorem states that if both f(t) and df/dt
are Laplace Transformable, then lim f(t) = lim sF(s)
t ®¥ s ®0
provided that sF(s) has no poles in the right-half plain
(RHP) or on the imaginary axis. Comment: If there is a
pole on the imaginary axis, then lims®0 sF(s) does not
exist. If there is a pole in the RHP, limt®¥ f(t) does not
exist. 32
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Initial and Final Value (Examples)
2 2s 2
F(s) = F(s) = 2
1 - e-s s +s+4
2 f(0 + ) = lim sF(s) = does not exist
f(0 + ) = lim sF(s) = lim = s -s
=¥ s ®¥
s ®¥ s ®¥ 1- e
f(¥) = lim sF(s) = does not exist 2s 2
s ®0 f(¥) = lim sF(s) = lim = s 2 =0
s ®0 s ®0 s +s+4

10(2s + 3)
F(s) =
s(s 2 + 2s + 5) 2s 2
F(s) = 2
10(2s + 3) s -s+4
f(0 + ) = lim sF(s) = lim =0
s ®¥ s ® ¥ (s 2 + 2s + 5) f(0 + ) = lim sF(s) = does not exist
s ®¥
10(2s + 3) f(¥) = lim f(t) = does not exist
f(¥) = lim sF(s) = lim 2 =6 s ®¥
s ®0 s ®0 (s + 2s + 5)

33
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Time Convolution and Frequency Convolution
f 1(t) Û F1(s) and f 2(t) Û F2(s)
f 1(t)*f 2(t) Û F1(s)F2(s)
1
f 1(t)f 2(t) Û [F1(s)*F2(s)]
2π j
Time Convolution for Zero-State System- Example

h(t) H(s)
f(t) y(t)=f(t)*h(t) Û F(s) Y(s)=F(s)H(s)

1 1
f(t) = e - 2t u(t) Û h(t) = e -t u(t) Û
s+2 s +1
y(t) = f(t)*h(t) = e - 2t u(t)*e -t u(t) Û Y(s) = F(s)H(s)
1 1 æ 1 1 ö -t - 2t
Y(s) = =ç - ÷ Û y(t) = e - e u(t) ( )
(s + 2) (s + 1) è s + 1 s + 2 ø

34
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Solution of Differential and Integro-Differential Equations - 1
d2y dy df - - - 4t
2
+ 5 + 6y = + f \ y(0 ) = 2 , y'(0 ) = 1 , f(t) = e u(t)
dt dt dt
dy - d2y
Û sY - y(0 ) = sY - 2 \ 2 Û s 2Y - sy(0 - ) - y'(0 - ) = s 2Y - 2s - 1
dt dt
1 df s s
F(s) = \ Û sF - f(0 - ) = -0 =
s+4 dt s+4 s+4
s 1
(s 2Y - 2s - 1) + 5(sY - 2) + 6Y = +
s+4 s+4
s +1 s +1
(s 2 + 5s + 6)Y - (2s + 11) = Þ (s 2 + 5s + 6)Y = (2s + 11) +
s+4 1 424 3 s+4
initial condition terms {
input terms

2s + 11 s +1 é 7 5 ù é-1 2 2 32ù
Y (s) = + = - + + -
s124+25s4+36 (s + 4)(s 2 + 5s + 6) êë s + 2 s + 3 úû êë s + 2 s + 3 s + 4 úû
144 42444 3
zero-input component zero -state component

## y(t) = (7e - 2t - 5e -3t )u(t) + ( - 1 e - 2t + 2e -3t - 3 e -4t )u(t)

1442443 144 2 44424424443
zero -input response
zero-state response

## y(t) = ( 13 e - 2t - 3e -3t )u(t) + ( - 3 e -4t )u(t) = ( 13 e - 2t - 3e -3t - 3 e -4t )u(t)

1424424443 144 2244 3 2 2
natural- response forced - response 35
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Solution of Differential and Integro-Differential Equations - 2
3

2.5

1.5

0.5

t 0
dy dy
Û sY - y(0 - ) = sY - 2 -0.5

+ 2y + y ò y(τ )dτ = 10u(t) \
dt dt -1
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5
0-
t
1 (10)
Y ò -¥ y(τ )dτ Y Cvc(0 - ) Y 5 Y 2
ò -¥ y(τ )dτ Û + = + = + = +
s s s s s s s s
5Y 10 10
sY - 2 + 2Y + + = Þ (s 2 + 2s + 5)Y = (2s - 10) + 10 {
s s s 1 424 3 input terms
initial condition terms

2s 10 10
Y (s) = - 2
+ 2
+ 2s
s12 4 44 + 5 s
424444 + 2s + 5
3 14 s +22s4
+35
zero -input component zero-state component
-t o -t -t
y(t) = [154e 4cos(2t + 26.6 ) - 5e sin(2t)] u(t) + [5e sin(2t)] u(t)
4444424444444 3 1442443
zero -input response zero -state response
-t o
y(t) = [154e 4cos(2t + 26.6 )] u(t) + 0{ = [ 5e -t cos(2t + 26.6 o ) u(t) ]
44244443 forced - response
natural- response 36
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
The Analysis of Electrical Networks:
The Transformed Network

37
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
The Transformed Network: Example

24(s + 2)
Y1(s) =
s 2 + 7s + 12
Y1(s) 1 4 24(s + 2) - 24 48
+ [Y1(s) - Y2(s)] = Y1(s) = = +
s 5 s (s + 3)(s + 4) s + 3 s + 4
1 6 s
- Y1(s) + Y2(s) + Y2(s) = 2 y1(t) = ( - 24e -3t + 48e -4t )u(t)
5 5 2
é1 1 1 ù
+ - ú Y (s) é4 ù 4(s + 7)
ês 5 5 é 1 ù
ê 1 6 s úê ú = êsú Y2(s) =
s 2 + 7s + 12
ê - + ú ëY2(s)û êë 2 úû
ë 5 5 2û 4(s + 7) 16 12
Y2(s) = = -
(s + 3)(s + 4) s + 3 s + 4
y2(t) = (16e -3t - 12e -4t )u(t)
38
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Zero-State Response:
The Transfer Function of an LTIC System

P(s)
H(s) H(s) =
F(s) Y(s)=F(s)H(s) Q(s)

The Transfer Function is the ratio of Y(s) to F(s) when all the
initial conditions are zero (when the system is in zero state):
Y(s) L[zero - state response]
H(s) = =
F(s) L[input]
P(s) and Q(s) are polynomial in “s”. The Q(s) is called characteristic
equation of the system. The roots of Q(s) and P(s) are called “poles” and
“zeros” respectively of the system. The system’s order is given by the
number of poles (n=order). Therefore, the poles of H(s) are the
characteristic roots of the system.
Using other approach, H(s) can also be defined as the Laplace Transform of
the impulse-response when the system is in zero-state.
39
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
The System Stability:
The Transfer Function of an LTIC System

ü An LTIC system is asymptotically stable if and only if all the poles of its
transfer function H(s) are in the LHP. The poles may be repeated or
unrepeated.
ü An LTIC system is unstable if and only if either one or both of the
following conditions exist: (i) at least one pole of H(s) is in the RHP; (ii)
there are repeated poles of H(s) on the imaginary axis.
ü An LTIC system is marginally stable if only if there are no poles of H(s)
in the RHP, and there are some unrepeated poles on the imaginary axis.

40
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Transfer Function – Example 1
ü Show that the transfer function of (a) an ideal delay of T seconds is e-sT;
(b) an ideal differentiator is s; (c) an ideal integrator is 1/s.
L
(a) y(t) = f(t - T) ¾
¾® Y(s) = F(s)e - sT
Y(s)
H(s) = = e - sT
F(s)

df
(b) y (t ) =
dt
Y(s) = sF ( s ) [ f (0 - ) = 0 for a causal signal]
Y(s)
H(s) = =s
F(s)

t 1
L
¾® Y(s) = F(s)
0
(c) y(t) = ò f(τ(τ) ¾
s
1
H(s) =
s
41
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Transfer Function – Example 2
ü Find the transfer function relating the output vo(t) to the input f(t) of the
network in fig. below. Find the zero-state response vo(t) if the input
voltage is f(t)=te-tu(t).

L
¾
¾®

Vo(s) 1
V1 - F V1 V1 - V2 = H(s) = 2
(1) ® + + =0 F(s) s + 2s + 2
1 1/s s
L 1
V1(1 + s + 1/s) - V2(1/s) = F f(t) = te -t u(t) ¾
¾® F(s) =
(s + 1)2
V2 - V1 V2
(2) ® + =0 1 1
s 1 Vo ( s ) = H ( s ) F ( s ) =
- V1(1/s) + V2(1/s + 1) = 0 (s + 1)2 s 2 + 2s + 2
jπ - jπ
2
1 + s + 1/s F 1 0.5e 0.5e 2
Vo(s) = 2
+ +
- 1/s 0 (s + 1) s +1- j s +1+ j
V2 = Vo =
1 + s + 1/s - 1/s
- 1/s 1/s + 1 vo(t) = te -t + e -t cos t + π 42
[ ( 2
)] u(t)
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Analysis of Active Circuits
Operational Amplifier and its equivalent circuit.

Û
A typical op amp has a very large gain. The voltage gain A is
typically 105 to 106. The output impedance is very high (typically
106W for BJT to 1012W for Bi-FET), and the output impedance is very
low (50 to 100W). For most applications, we are justified in assuming
the gain A and the input impedance to be infinite and the output
impedance to be zero.

Vo Rf Vo æ R ö
Vin = 0 \ I in = 0 Þ H(s) = =- H(s) = = çç 1 + f ÷÷
Vi Ri Vi è Ri ø
43
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Analysis of Active Circuits - Exercises
ü Find the transfer function for the circuits shown in figures below.

Vo 1 Vo
Ans. : (Integrator) H(s) = =- Ans. (Differentiator) H(s) = = - sRC
Vi sRC Vi
ü For the circuit shown in figure below calculate C1 and C2 knowing
that R1= 3KW and R2= 6KW to match with the following transfer

function H(s) = 2
10 6 .
s + 50s + 10 6

## Ans. : C1 = 5.6nF C2 = 10uF

44
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.
Block Diagrams

H(s)
F(s) Y(s)

## H1(s) H2(s) = H1(s)H2(s)

F(s) Y(s) F(s) Y(s)

H1(s)
+
+
= H1(s)+H2(s)
F(s) Y(s) F(s) Y(s)
H2(s)

E(s) G(s)
+ G(s)
- =
F(s) Y(s) F(s) 1+G(s)H(s) Y(s)

H(s)
45
The Laplace Transform
Electrical Circuits - Celso José Faria de Araújo, M.Sc.