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UNIT 3

certain criteria.

METHODOLOGY

It is a branch of pedagogics dealing with analysis and evaluation of subjects to be taught and of the
methods of teaching them.

Basic Principles of Language Learning

 Language learning is developmental process


 Existing knowledge contributes to better understanding.
 Language learning is an active process.
 psycho-motor activity
 language processing activity

LOCALIZATION OF LANGUAGE IN BRAIN

LEFT RIGHT
HEMISPHERE HEMISPHERE
(analytic) ( creative )
- Analytic • holistic
thought thought
- logic • intuition
- Language • creativity
- Science and • art and
math music
 Paul Broca also specified the location of the language part in the brain which is at the front part
of the left hemisphere known as Broca’s area
 A decade later, a German Neurologist, Carl Wernicke has discovered another variety of aphasia
at the temporal lobe of left hemisphere known Wernicke’s area.
 Broca’s area + Wernicke’s area = language function (lateralization)

LOCALIZATION OF LANGUAGE IN BRAIN

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING

 Language learning is a decision making process.


-enhance critical thinking
-Developmental process of knowledge takes place.
 Language learning is not just a matter of linguistic knowledge.
-Linguistic knowledge and cognitive capacity should be developed together.
 Language learning is not the learner’s first experience with language.
- learners are already competent in communication.
 Learning is an emotional experience.
- create positive emotions
 Language learning is to large extent incidental.
- Language can be learned in many ways.
 Language learning is not systematic.
- learners should create their internal system inside the brain.
TECHNIQUES (A)

Types of Techniques Explanation

Gaps Gaps create the demand of thinking in the learning


process. There are varies of gaps:

a) Information Gaps
b) Media Gaps
c) Reasoning Gaps
d) Memory Gaps
e) Jigsaw Gaps
f) Opinion Gaps
g) Certainty Gaps

TECHNIQUES (B)

Variety In order to get the repetition necessary to help learning, there must be a
variety to keep the mind alert. Variety can be achieved in:

Medium: text, speech


Classroom Organization: pair work, group
Learner Roles: presenter, negotiator
Exercise, activity, task
Skills: , listening, speaking
Topic
Focus: fluency, discourse

Prediction Using existing knowledge of pattern or system to assume or anticipate a


novel situation.

TECHNIQUES (C)

Enjoyment Necessary in order to engage the learner’s mind. It doesn’t matter how
relevant a lesson is, if it bores the learners it is a bad lesson.

An Integrated Using a range of skills increases the range of activities in the classroom.
Methodology

Coherence The progress of lesson should be clear. Each stage should be in order to
ensure a smooth flow of process.

Preparation An early planning on what is needed to be taught in the lesson. Also


normally interpreted as the teacher planning the stages of the lesson.
TECHNIQUES (D)

Involvement Participation of the student in both cognitively and emotionally in the lesson.

Creativity Lesson should include activities that allow varies answer level of responses,

Atmosphere The cultivation of a cooperative social climate within the classroom.

Eg. A teacher who is unsure of the materials or who actively dislikes the subject area will
project a different ambience.

LANGUAGE LEARNING TASK

Role Play and Simulations

 Role play - involves the learner taking on a different role and even identity from his or her usual
one.

 Simulations - is frequently longer than a role play and allow the student to maintain his or her
normal persona.

 Roles of simulation:

A) Motivate learner.

B) Give opportunities for meaningful practice of the language learnt.

C) Inject a feeling of realism.

D) Use as an assessment technique.

E) Encourage creativity.

Project work

 Group project

 Mini research project

 Literature based project

Oral Presentation

 Most common last task type in ESP.

 Project such as written report, case studies and mini research are required to do oral
presentation in the end.
 All the language skills are involved.

 Communication and professional skills as main focus.

As any language teaching course has certain evaluation requirements, but in ESP these requirements
are brought into focus by the fact that the ESP course normally has specified objectives. Two levels of
evaluation have thus been brought into prominence:
education.

indicators.