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Inspir@tion 2011 “Sustainable

Efficiency”
Topic: Fix the basic – Solving Power Quality at Root
Presenter: John Cheng, PhD, CEng, CEM, CEA
Company: Schneider Electric South East Asia (HQ) Pte Ltd
Agenda

● Remember the lifecycle solutions for energy efficiency?

● Passive energy efficiency – Why Power Quality?

● Case studies – Symptoms and Solutions

● Conclusion

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EE fundamental

Measure

1. Energy audit
and metering

Monitor Fix the basics

4. Monitoring 2. Low consumption


and consulting devices
services Automate Power quality
Power reliability
3. Solutions in :
● building management
● power management
● motor control
● lighting control

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Power Quality vs. Power Reliability

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Power Quality Terminologies

Categories Typical Duration Types


1. Transients < 1 cycle Oscillatory, Impulse
2. Short Duration Variations ½ cycles – 1 min Sags, Swells, Interruptions

3. Long Duration Variations > 1 min Undervoltages, Overvoltages,


Sustained interruptions
4. Voltage Imbalance Steady state
5. Waveform Distortion Steady state Harmonics, Notches
6. Voltage Fluctuations Intermittent Flickers

7. Frequency Variations < 10 sec

Source: IEEE STD 1159

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Why Power Quality?

● Power Quality and Energy Efficiency are very much related.


● Example (1): Install VSD to vary the speed of a pump or fan to save energy.
However, it will generate harmonics into the system.
● Example (2): Install PFC to avoid utility penalty, increase system capacity,
etc. However, plant has harmonic that might cause resonant with
unprotected PFC.

● Need to build a strong PQ foundation in the plant before implement any


EE improvement

● Solve PQ now & save money and time and complexity when
implementing EE next.

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Case Study #1

● Symptom:
● Reactive power charges in the utility bill.
● Power quality meter show the following reading:

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Power Factor in Linear System

kVAR
Reactive Power

kW
Active Power
kVA
Apparent
Power

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Power factors in nonlinear system

S = kVA
S kVA P2 Q2 D2
Q = kVAr
(Apparent Power) (Reactive Vrms I rms
Power)
Vk2rms I k2rms
D = kVAH
θTPF (Distortion Power)
k 1

(True/Total Power Factor)


V1rms I1rms 1 THDV2 1 THD I2
P = kW
(Real Power)
S1 1 THDV2 1 THD I2
Displacement Power Factor kW
(Fundamental Components): cos dispPF
S1

Distortion Power Factor 1


cos distPF
(Harmonic Components): 1 THDV2 1 THD I2

True/Total Power Factor : cos TPF cos dispPF cos distPF

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Case Study #1: Possible causes

● Identify the Source


● Which power factor?
●Displacement = 0.753 lag
●True = 0.609 lag
●Distortion = 0.809 lag

● Possible Root Cause


● Displacement power factor source:
● Inductive loads such as motors, etc.
● Distortion power factor source
● Harmonic generated loads
● True power factor
● Combined both displacement and distortion

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Case Study #1: Solutions

● Recommended Solutions
● Displacement power factor solutions
●Detuned power factor
●Hybrid VAR compensator (HVC)

● Distortion power factor solutions


●Active Harmonic Filter
●Passive Filter

● True power factor solutions


●By improving individual power factors
●Combined solution: Active Harmonic Filter

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Case Study #2

● Symptom
● Hot distribution equipment/transformer.
● At times quite noisy.
● Power quality meter show the following reading:

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K-Factor: What is it?

● K = „Konstant‟ (standard measure of the ability of a transformer to withstand


nonlinear loads)
● K-factor definition according to UL1562:
● A rating optionally applied to a transformer indicating its suitability for use
with loads that draw nonsinusoidal currents.
● K-factor formula:

● K-factor transformers:
● Examples of K-rating range: K-4, K-9, K-13, K-20, K-30, K-40, K-50
● The higher the K-rating, the higher the ability to handle more harmonic
current. (not harmonic filter)
● Related standards in IEEE Std 1100, IEEE Std 141, IEEE Std 242, IEEE Std
C57.110
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Case Study #2: Solutions

● Recommended Solutions
● K-rated transformer
● Derating of conventional transformer (K-1) – See the example shown in the
diagram (IEEE Std 1100)
● Active Harmonic Filter to filter out the harmonic current.

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Case Study #3

● Symptom
● It was reported that the THDi is very high.
● Power quality meter show the following reading:

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THDi Clarification

● THDi is about 170%. Is it a serious problem?

● The formula for THDi:

● Example1:
● Assume numerator is 50A.
● i1 = 100A
● THDi = 50%

● Example 2:
● During no load condition, i1 = 0A
● THDi = ∞.

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Case #3: Find the root cause

● Check the current reading. Is it a real issue?


● THDi = 170%
● I rms = 27A
● Harmonic current is about 45A.
● Countercheck with THDv, whether THDv<5%?

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Case #3: Solution

● To reduce THDi, there are various method to reduce it:


● System solutions:
●AHF

● Load-based solutions:
●Passive filter
●Active-front-end devices

Current

Voltage

Active Front End

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Case Study #4

● Symptom
● Nuisance breaker tripping, e.g. RCCB, etc.
● Power quality meter show the following reading:

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Further investigation: Voltage waveform
P h a s e A -B V o lta g e
e 1 2 8 P o in ts / C y c le

300
g

200
l t a

100
0
o

-1 0 0
V

-2 0 0
-3 0 0
l
t a

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
n

M illis e c o n d s
e
m
a
d

P h a s e A -B V o lta g e
n

S p e c tr a l a n a ly s is ( c y c le r a n g e 1 - 4 ) - 1 2 8 P o in ts / C y c le
u
F
f

3 .5
o

3 .0
e

2 .5
g
t a

2 .0
n

1 .5
e

1 .0
r c

0 .5
e

0 .0
P

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
H a r m o n ic s

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l
t a
Further investigation: Current waveform

n
e
m
a
d
P h a se A C u rre n t P h a se A C u rre n t

n
1 2 8 P o in ts / C y c le S p e c tr a l a n a ly s is ( c y c le r a n g e 1 - 4 ) - 1 2 8 P o in ts / C y c le

u
F
t

f
n

2 0 .0

o
1000
1 7 .5
r r e

e
500 1 5 .0

g
1 2 .5

t a
0
1 0 .0
u

n
e
-5 0 0 7 .5
C

r c
5 .0
-1 0 0 0 2 .5

e
t a
0 .0

P
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

n
M illis e c o n d s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

e
H a r m o n ic s

m
a
d
P h a se B C u rre n t P h a se B C u rre n t

n
S p e c tr a l a n a ly s is ( c y c le r a n g e 1 - 4 ) - 1 2 8 P o in ts / C y c le

u
1 2 8 P o in ts / C y c le

F
t

f
1 7 .5
n

o
1500
1 5 .0

e
r r e

1000

g
500 1 2 .5

t a
0 1 0 .0

n
u

-5 0 0 7 .5

e
5 .0

r c
-1 0 0 0
C

-1 5 0 0 2 .5
e
l
0 .0
t a
P
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
n
e 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
M illis e c o n d s
H a r m o n ic s
m
a
d

P h a se C C u rre n t P h a se C C u rre n t
n

S p e c tr a l a n a ly s is ( c y c le r a n g e 1 - 4 ) - 1 2 8 P o in ts / C y c le
u

1 2 8 P o in ts / C y c le
F
t

f
o
n

1500 20
e
r r e

1000
g

15
t a

500
0
n

10
u

-5 0 0
r c

-1 0 0 0 5
C

-1 5 0 0
0
P

Schneider Electric - EE – Dr. John Cheng – May 2011


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 6 0 21 6 5
M illis e c o n d s H a r m o n ic s
Case Study #4: Solutions

● Reduce harmonic distortion:


● Load based solutions:
●Passive filter
●Active harmonic filter

● Replace RCCB to handle high frequency noise:


● Example:
●„SI‟ type of RCCB (Super Immunized)
– Filtering of high frequencies
– Filtering of transients
●Type B RCCB

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Case Study #5

● Symptom:
● Customer received complains from neighboring residential regarding light
flicker and headache.

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Further investigation
Phase A-B Voltage Phase A Current
RMS Analysis RMS Analysis

110
100
12500 90
80
12250 70
RMS

RMS
60
12000 50

250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250
Milliseconds Milliseconds

Phase C-A Voltage Phase C Current


64 Points / Cycle
64 Points / Cycle

20000 100
15000 50
10000
0
5000
0 -50
Current
-5000 -100
Voltage

-10000 -150
-15000 -200
-20000
900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Milliseconds
Milliseconds

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Case Study #5: Solutions
HVC

2000
Vars Leading/Lagging
1500

1000 Fixed Kvar


Load
500
Accusine
0 Result Kvar
0

8
10

12

14

16

18
-500

-1000
Time in cycles

● HVC (AccuSine PFC + PF caps – Reactive only)


● Caps on line all the time
● AccuSine HVC adjusts PF to attain unity DPF
● Cycle-by-cycle response
● Voltages to 33 kV (6.6 kV shredder in France, 12.47 kV in US automotive site)
● Reactive and load current balancing
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Case Study #6

● Symptom:
● High frequency noise heard when the capacitor is turned on.
● Moment later, MV capacitor fuse blew.

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Further investigation: Voltage spectrum

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Further investigation: Current spectrum

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Case study #6: Solutions

● The source of harmonic is from upstream.

● Remove the MV capacitor bank.

● Install HVC to compensate the reactive power.


HVC

2000
Vars Leading/Lagging

1500

1000 Fixed Kvar


Load
500
Accusine
0 Result Kvar
0

8
10

12

14

16

18

-500

-1000
Time in cycles

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Conclusion

● Understand the installation & process limitation well before


applying any PQ mitigation solutions and also EE projects.

● Understand the advantages and limitation of each PQ mitigation


solutions – No one solution fit all!

● A cost effective solution requires a minimum knowledge of the


installation and it is often a combination of several solutions, and also
constant monitoring of the plant.

3 main
messages

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Q uestions
&
A nswers
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T hank You
for your attention

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