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What is welding?

Welding is a materials joining process which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to suitable temperatures with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of filler material. Welding is used for making permanent joints. It is used in the manufacture of automobile bodies, aircraft frames, railway wagons, machine frames, structural works, tanks, furniture, boilers, general repair work and ship building.

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Definition

Types

Classification

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Plastic Welding or Pressure Welding

The piece of metal to be joined are heated to a plastic state and forced together by external pressure (Ex) Resistance welding

Fusion Welding or Non-Pressure Welding

The material at the joint is heated to a molten state and allowed to solidify (Ex) Gas welding, Arc welding

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Definition

Types

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Arc welding

Carbon arc Metal arc Metal inert gas Tungsten inert gas Plasma arc Submerged arc Electro-slag Oxy-acetylene Air-acetylene Oxy-hydrogen

Newer Welding

Electron-beam Laser

Gas Welding

Related Process

Oxy-acetylene cutting Arc cutting Hard facing Brazing Soldering

Resistance Welding

Butt Spot Seam Projection Percussion

Thermit Welding

Solid State Welding

Friction Ultrasonic Diffusion Explosive

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Definition

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Electric arc welding

The fusing of two or more pieces of metal together by using the heat produced from an electric arc welding machine.

Advantages
play

‡Inexpensive power source ‡Relatively inexpensive equipment ‡Welders use standard domestic current. ‡Portable equipment is available ‡Process is fast and reliable ‡Short learning curve ‡Equipment can be used for multiple functions

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Introduction

Machine

Welded Joint

Position

Welds

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Welded Joint

Electric arc welding uses the same five (5) types of joints

Lap

Corner Butt

T

Edge
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Horizontal

Welded Position

Flat

Vertical Up

Vertical Down

Overhead

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Types of welds

1. Surface 2. Groove 3. Fillet 4. Plug 5. Slot

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Types of welds

Surface

Groove

Surface welds are welds were a material has been applied to the surface of another material. May or may not be blended with the work piece.

Fillet

Plug

Two common applications are for hard surfacing

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Types of welds

Groove welds are used to fuse the sides or ends of two pieces of metal

Surface

.

Groove
Fillet

Plug

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Types of welds

Surface

Fillet welds have a triangular cross section and are used to fuse two faces of metal that are at a 90 degree angle to each other.

Groove

Fillet
Plug

Lap Joint Outside Corner T Joint

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Types of welds

Plug welds are used to attach two surfaces together when a complete joint is not required and the design does not allow for any weld bead outside the dimensions of the metal.

Surface

The holes can be made with a drill bit or punch.
Groove

Fillet

The weld is completed by establishing the arc on the bottom plate and then continuing to weld until the hole is full.

Plug

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Power Supply

The current for arc welder can be supplied by line current or by an alternator/generator. The amount of heat is determined by the current flow (amps) The ease of starting and harshness of the arc is determined by the electrical potential (volts).

Electrical Circuit

Welding current adjustments can include:
Amperage Voltage Polarity High frequency current Wave form

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Power Supply

Electrical Circuit

An electrical circuit is a complete path for electricity. Establishing an arc completes an electric circuit .

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Arc Welding Requirements

Application

Process SMAW

Heat Electric Arc Electric Arc

Shielding Inert Gas (Flux) Inert Gas (Cylinder)

Filler Material Stick Electrode Wire Electrode

GMAW

In this class you will have the opportunity to use two (2) arc welding processes: SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding)
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rc Welding Requirements

Application in gas factory

Arc Welding is required to do following works in gas factories:

To join this

To join this To join this

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Safe Practices
ell Dressed Welder

Welders need protection from: ± Arc¶s rays

±

Welding fumes

Heat

Shielding

±

Sparks

±

Contact with hot metal

Electric Arc

Inert Gas (Cylinder)

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A Well Dressed Welder

Heat Electric Arc Electric Arc

Shielding

Inert Gas (Cylinder)

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Machine

We found three types of welding machines ,they are    AC Welding Machine DC Welding Machines AC/DC Welders

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Machine

AC Welding Machine 

Most common type found in homes, farms, etc. Good for farm repairs, light jobs. Low cost

DC Welding Machines

AC/DC Welders

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Machine

AC Welding Machine

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Often generator type machines Diesel or gasoline engine driven Portable Expensive

DC Welding Machine
AC/DC Welders

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Machine

AC Welding Machine

‡ ‡ ‡

Can weld in AC or DC polarity Less expensive than DC machine Quieter than DC machine

DC Welding Machine

AC/DC Welders

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Arc Welding
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Welding Arc Welding Safe Practices

OVERVIEW

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Project Focus

This project focus on the arc welding as well as its application of gas factories to make LPG gas cylinders. This project describe basic steps of making of gas cylinders in factories.

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Basic steps

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Steps Making of gas cylinders

The basic steps of making a gas cylinders is shown below:

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Basic steps

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