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exame de ribots autonomos

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Solution of Problem 1

A convenient choice of generalized coordinates is q = (x y θ φ θt )T (see figure), i.e., a set of generalized

coordinates for the tricycle plus an additional coordinate for the trailer. In the following, both two-wheel

axles are assimilated to a single wheel located at the axle midpoint. The robot has then three wheels: the

tricycle front wheel, the tricycle rear wheel, and the trailer wheel.

yf tricycle

Pf

trailer !

y P "

Pt !t

"t

yt

xt x xf

The kinematic constraints acting on the robot are therefore three (one “pure rolling” condition for each

wheel):

ẋ sin θ − ẏ cos θ = 0

ẋt sin θt − ẏt cos θt = 0,

where (xf , yf ) and (xt , yt ) are the Cartesian coordinates of Pf (the centre of the tricycle front wheel) and

Pt (the trailer axle midpoint), respectively. Being

xf = x + ` cos θ

yf = y + ` sin θ

and

xt = x − `t cos θt

yt = y − `t sin θt

ẋ sin θ − ẏ cos θ = 0

ẋ sin θt − ẏ cos θt + `t θ̇t = 0,

or, in Pfaffian form

ẋ

ẏ

sin θ − cos θ 0 0 0

sin(θ + φ) − cos(θ + φ) −` cos φ 0 0 θ̇ = AT (q)q̇ = 0.

sin θt − cos θt 0 0 `t φ̇

θ̇t

Note that the submatrix consisting of the first two rows and the first four columns of AT coincides

with the constraint matrix for the bicycle. A basis for the null space of AT can then be easily written by

“completing” the basis found for the bicycle (in particular, the rear-wheel drive version, since we have a

real-wheel drive tricycle here) with a suitable fifth element. One easily obtains

cos θ 0

sin θ 0

G(q) = tan φ/` = g 1 (q) g 2 (q) .

0

0 1

− sin(θt − θ)/`t 0

The kinematic control system is then

q̇ = g 1 (q) v + g 2 (q) ω,

where v and ω are respectively the driving and the steering velocity of the tricycle.

Clearly, the above kinematic model is associated to the particular choice of q made at the beginning. A

different choice would have led to a different model - although equivalent via a change of coordinates. For

example, choosing q 0 = (x y θ φ δ)T , with δ = θ − θt , leads to

q̇ 0 = g 01 (q 0 ) v + g 02 (q 0 ) ω,

with

cos θ 0

sin θ 0

0 0

g 01 (q 0 ) g 02 (q 0 )

G (q ) =

tan φ/` 0 =

.

0 1

tan φ/` − sin δ/`t 0

Solution of Problem 2

Consider the following outputs:

y1 = x + ` cos θ + b cos(θ + φ)

y2 = y + ` sin θ + b sin(θ + φ)

with b 6= 0. They represent the Cartesian coordinates of a point B lying on the line passing through the

front axle midpoint and oriented as the front wheels; in particular, B is located at a distance b from the

midpoint (see figure).

The time derivatives of y1 and y2 are

ẏ1 cos θ − tan φ(sin θ + b sin(θ + φ)/`) −b sin(θ + φ) v v

= = T (θ, φ) .

ẏ2 sin θ + tan φ(cos θ + b cos(θ + φ)/`) b cos(θ + φ) ω ω

Matrix T (θ, φ) has determinant b/ cos φ, and is therefore always invertible under the assumption that b 6= 0

and |φ(t)| ≤ π/2. It is then sufficient to use the following input transformation

v −1 u1

= T (θ, φ)

ω u2

2

B

b #

!

y "

ẏ1 = u1

ẏ2 = u2

θ̇ = sin φ(cos(θ + φ)u1 + sin(θ + φ)u2 )/`

φ̇ = −(cos(θ + φ) sin φ/` + sin(θ + φ)/b)u1

−(sin(θ + φ) sin φ/` − cos(θ + φ)/b)u2 .

u1 = ẏ1d + k1 (y1d − y1 )

u2 = ẏ2d + k2 (y2d − y2 ),

with k1 > 0, k2 > 0, guarantees exponential convergence to zero of the Cartesian tracking error, with decou-

pled dynamics on its two components. Note that the orientation and the steering angle, whose evolutions

are governed by the third and fourth equation, are not controlled.

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