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Lecture 11

Waveforms and Pulse Compression

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Guest Lecturer

Radar Systems Course 1

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Block Diagram of Radar System

Transmitter

Power Waveform

Propagation Amplifier Generation

Medium

Target

Radar T/R

Cross Switch

Section

Antenna

Receiver

Converter Compression (Doppler Filtering)

User Displays and Radar Control

Parameter

Tracking Thresholding Detection

Estimation

Data

Recording

Photo Image

Courtesy of US Air Force

Radar Systems Course 2

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Outline

– Matched filters

• Pulse Compression

– Introduction

– Linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveforms

– Phase coded (PC) waveforms

– Other coded waveforms

• Summary

Radar Systems Course 3

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

CW Pulse, Its Frequency Spectrum, and

Range Resolution

1 μsec pulse Frequency spectrum of pulse

3 20

Bandwidth

Pulsewidth

Power (dB)

Amplitude

2 10

1

T T

1 0

0 -20

1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (μsec)

Frequency (MHz)

cT

• Range Resolution ( Δ r ) Δr =

2

– Proportional to pulse width ( T )

c

– Inversely proportional to bandwidth ( B = 1 / T ) Δr =

2B

1 MHz Bandwidth => 150 m of range resolution

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 4

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Outline

– Matched filters

• Pulse Compression

– Introduction

– Linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveforms

– Phase coded (PC) waveforms

– Other waveforms

• Summary

Radar Systems Course 5

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Matched Filter Concept

2E

Matched N0

Filter

Fourier Transform

Amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude

Phase

Phase

N0

– For rectangular pulse, matched filter is a simple pass band filter

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 6

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Matched Filter Basics

whose output will optimize the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N)

• For white Gaussian noise, the frequency response, H(f ), of

the matched filter is Complex conjugate

H ( f ) = A S ∗ ( f ) e −2 π j f t m

– The transmitted signal is s( t )

∞

∫

− 2 π jf t

– And S( f ) = s ( t ) e dt

−∞

– Amplitude and phase of Matched Filter are

H ( f ) = S( f ) φ MF (f ) = − φ S (f ) + 2π f t m

Radar Systems Course 7

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Matched Filter Basics (continued)

classic derivation for the matched filter frequency response

for a simple pulse in Gaussian noise

– The interested student can read and follow it readily

noise ratio depends only on ;

– The total energy of the received signal, and

– The noise power per unit bandwidth

2E

≤

N

average signal-to-noise, that differs from the above result by a factor

of 2 (half of the above )

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 8

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Matched Filters – A Look Forward

signal only competes with uniform white Gaussian noise

echoes from the various types of clutter, this is far from

true

– Ground, rain, sea, birds, etc

– These different types of backgrounds that the target signal

competes with have spectra that are very different from

Gaussian noise

with clutter will be discussed in lectures 12 and 13

Radar Systems Course 9

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Matched Filter Implementation

by Convolution

• Matched filter is implemented by “convolving” the reflected

echo with the “time reversed” transmit pulse

• Convolution process:

– Move digitized pulses by each other, in steps

– When data overlaps, multiply samples and sum them up

∞

y[k ] = ∑ h[n] x[k − n]

n = −∞ 3

Matched Filter

Output of

2

0

No overlap – Output 0 Time

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 10

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation of Matched Filter

echo with the “time reversed” transmit pulse

x[n ] 1 h[− n ]

Reflected echo Time reversed pulse

• Convolution process:

– Move digitized pulses by each other, in steps

– When data overlaps, multiply samples and sum them up

∞

y[k ] = ∑ h[n] x[k − n] y[k ]

n = −∞ 3

Matched Filter

Output of

2

0

No overlap – Output 0 Time

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 11

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation of Matched Filter

echo with the “time reversed” transmit pulse

• Convolution process:

– Move digitized pulses by each other, in steps

– When data overlaps, multiply samples and sum them up

∞

y[k ] = ∑ h[n] x[k − n] y[k ]

n = −∞ 3

Matched Filter

Output of

2

0

One sample overlaps 1x1 =1

Time

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 12

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation of Matched Filter

echo with the “time reversed” transmit pulse

• Convolution process:

– Move digitized pulses by each other, in steps

– When data overlaps, multiply samples and sum them up

∞

y[k ] = ∑ h[n] x[k − n] y[k ]

n = −∞ 3

Matched Filter

Output of

2

0

Two samples overlap (1x1) + (1x1) = 2

Time

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 13

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation of Matched Filter

echo with the “time reversed” transmit pulse

• Convolution process:

– Move digitized pulses by each other, in steps

– When data overlaps, multiply samples and sum them up

∞

y[k ] = ∑ h[n] x[k − n] y[k ]

n = −∞ 3

Matched Filter

Output of

2

0

Three samples overlap (1x1) + (1x1) + (1x1) = 3

Time

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 14

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation of Matched Filter

echo with the “time reversed” transmit pulse

• Convolution process:

– Move digitized pulses by each other, in steps

– When data overlaps, multiply samples and sum them up

∞

y[k ] = ∑ h[n] x[k − n] y[k ]

n = −∞ 3

Matched Filter

Output of

2

0

Two samples overlap (1x1) + (1x1) = 2

Time

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 15

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation of Matched Filter

echo with the “time reversed” transmit pulse

• Convolution process:

– Move digitized pulses by each other, in steps

– When data overlaps, multiply samples and sum them up

∞

y[k ] = ∑ h[n] x[k − n] y[k ]

n = −∞ 3

Matched Filter

Output of

2

0

One sample overlaps 1x1 =1

Time

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 16

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation of Matched Filter

echo with the “time reversed” transmit pulse

• Convolution process:

– Move digitized pulses by each other, in steps

– When data overlaps, multiply samples and sum them up

∞

y[k ] = ∑ h[n] x[k − n] y[k ]

n = −∞ 3

Matched Filter

Output of

2

0

Use of Matched Filter Maximizes S/N

Time

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 17

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Outline

– Matched filters

• Pulse Compression

– Introduction

– Linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveforms

– Phase coded (PC) waveforms

– Other coded waveforms

• Summary

Radar Systems Course 18

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Motivation for Pulse Compression

• High range resolution is important for most radars

– Target characterization / identification

– Measurement accuracy

– Bandwidth is inversely proportional to pulsewidth

– High peak power is required for large pulse energy

– Arcing occurs at high peak power , especially at higher

frequencies

Example: Typical aircraft surveillance radar

1 megawatt peak power, 1 microsecond pulse, 150 m range resolution,

energy in 1 pulse = 1 joule

To obtain 15 cm resolution and constrain energy per pulse to 1 joule implies 1

nanosecond pulse and 1 gigawatt of peak power

– Airborne radars experience breakdown at lower voltages than

ground based radars

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 19

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Motivation for Pulse Compression

• Radars with solid state transmitters are unable to operate at

high peak powers

– The energy comes from long pulses with moderate peak

power (20-25% maximum duty cycle)

– Usually, long pulses, using standard pulsed CW waveforms,

result in relatively poor range resolution

short pulse if it is modulated in frequency or phase

allows a radar to simultaneously achieve the energy of a

long pulse and the resolution of a short pulse

waveforms

– Linear frequency modulated (FM) pulses

– Binary phase coded pulses

Radar Systems Course 20

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Pulse Width, Bandwidth and Resolution

for a Square Pulse

Resolution: Pulse Length is Larger than Target Length

Cannot Resolve Features Along the Target

Δr =cT

2

Δr= c

2B

Pulse Length is Smaller than Target Length

Can Resolve Features Along the Target

0

RCS (dB)

High Bandwidth

Relative

Metaphorical Δr = .1 x Δ r

-20

Example : BW = 10 x BW

-40 Low Bandwidth

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 21

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Frequency and Phase Modulation of Pulses

a long pulse, increasing the time-bandwidth product

• Signal must be processed on return to “pulse compress”

Square Pulse Coded Waveform Modulated Waveform

Pulse Width, T Pulse Width, T Pulse Width, T

τ

Frequency F1 Frequency F2

Bandwidth = 1/T Bandwidth = 1/τ Bandwidth = ΔF = F2 - F1

Time × Bandwidth = 1 Time × Bandwidth = T/τ Time × Bandwidth = TΔF

Viewgraph courtesy of MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 22

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Outline

– Matched filters

• Pulse Compression

– Introduction

– Linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveforms

– Phase coded (PC) waveforms

– Other coded waveforms

• Summary

Radar Systems Course 23

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Linear FM Pulse Compression

T

Amplitude

Output of Pulse

Time Compression Filter

Amplitude

Frequency of transmitted pulse as

a function of time

f2

Frequency

B= f2 - f1 2 Time

Time B

f1 Bandwidth

Product = BT

T Time

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 24

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Linear FM Pulse Compression

Output of Pulse

T Compression Filter

Amplitude

Time

Amplitude

Frequency of transmitted pulse as 2 Time

a function of time B

f1

B= f1 – f2

Frequency

Bandwidth shift in Doppler frequency, there

f2

Product = BT is a coupling of the range and

Doppler velocity measurement

T Time

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 25

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Range Doppler Coupling with FM Waveforms

Frequency vs. Time

Frequency

B

Transmitted Waveform Waveform Slope =

T

Time

Frequency

t Received Waveform

from a stationary target at

range R = c t / 2

Time

Frequency

t+T target at range R 1 = c (t + T) / 2 or from a moving

target at R = c t / 2 , with Doppler frequency,

f D = Bt / T

Time

Frequency modulated waveforms

Radar Systems Course 26

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Linear FM Pulse Compression Filters

implemented digitally

– A / D converters can often provide the very wide bandwidths

required of high resolution digital pulse compression radar

– Narrowband Pulse Compression

– High Bandwidth Pulse Compression (aka “Stretch

Processing”)

Radar Systems Course 27

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Linear FM Pulse Compression by Digital

Processing

and generated at low power levels by digital methods, when

A / D converters are available with the required bandwidth

and number of bits

• Digital methods are stable and can handle long duration

waveforms

• The same basic digital implementation can be used with :

– multiple bandwidths

– multiple pulse durations

– different types of pulse compression modulation

– good phase repeatability

– low time sidelobes

– when flexibility is desired in waveform selection

Radar Systems Course 28

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation Methods for LFM Pulse

Compression

Received Echo Pulse

Transmitted

(Reference)

Signal

Received Echo Transform Discrete Fourier

Transform

Transmitted

Discrete Fourier

(Reference)

Transform

Signal

Radar Systems Course 29

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Reduction of Time (Range) Sidelobes

– 13.2 db time (range) sidelobe

– High sidelobes can be mistaken for weak nearby targets

– Klystrons, TWTs and CFAs operate in saturation

– Solid state transmitters can, but most often don’t have this

capability

Higher efficiency

Seldom done

by applying an amplitude weighting on the receive pulse

– Typical Results

Mismatch loss of about 1 dB

Peak sidelobe reduced to 30 dB

Radar Systems Course 30

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Narrowband Pulse Compression

• Used for NB waveforms

– Receive LFM wide pulse

– Wide pulsewidth for good detection

– Process signal to narrow band - pulse range resolution

Frequency

Reference LO

F1 F2 F3

1 2 3

T URN T URN URN Return

RE RE RET

TIME Reference LO

Narrowband Output

20

A/D Digital Matched

Converter Down FFT IFFT

Filter

Conv 0

-20

0 5 10

Relative Range (km)

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 31

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Wideband Stretch Processing - Overview

instantaneous bandwidth of the linear FM waveform is

greater than the sampling rates of available A/D converter

technology

yield high range resolution (commensurate with that very

high bandwidth) over a limited range window by processing

the data in a manner that makes use of the unique range-

Doppler coupling of linear FM waveforms

*Note: Dr. W. Caputi was awarded the IEEE Dennis Picard Medal in 2005 in recognition of his development of this

technique and other significant achievements

Radar Systems Course 32

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Stretch Processing Example

Wideband Linear FM Pulse at X-Band

with 1000 μsec pulse length

Frequency (GHz)

10.5

9.5

0 1000

Time (microseconds)

0 150

Range (km)

Radar Systems Course 33

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Example of Stretch Processing

at 600 km corresponds to a range of 150

km

Δr = c Δt / 2

Frequency (GHz)

corresponds to a (4 μsec

9.5 pulse delay

1 μsec = 150 m

Time (microseconds)

Range (km)

Radar Systems Course 34

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Example of Stretch Processing

targets at 600 km and 600.006 corresponds to a range of 150

km

km

Δr = c Δt / 2

Frequency (GHz)

10.5

corresponds to a (4 μsec

pulse delay

9.5

1 μsec = 150 m

Time (microseconds)

Range (km)

Radar Systems Course 35

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Example of Stretch Processing

Return from the 2 targets at 600 km and 600.006 km

Frequency (GHz)

10.5

9.5

Time (microseconds) 1 GHz in 1000 μsec

corresponds to a range of 150

10.5

Expansion of above Graph km

Echo from target

at 600 km

Δr = c Δt / 2

Frequency (GHz)

9.5

Echo from target corresponds to a (4 μsec

at 600.006 km

pulse delay

1 μsec = 150 m

0 4000 4000.04

Time (microseconds)

0 600 600.006

Range (km)

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 36

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Example of Stretch Processing

10.5 Reference Ramp with a Linear FM

Frequency (GHz)

Same Slope as

Transmitted Pulse

9.5

corresponds to a range of 150

0 3999.96 4000 4000.04 km

Time (microseconds)

Δr = c Δt / 2

0 600 600.006

599.994 Range (km)

Likewise, 600 m range extent

0 6 12 600 corresponds to a (4 μsec

Range Window (m)

pulse delay

Return from 2 targets

at 1 μsec = 150 m

600 km and 600.006 km

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 37

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Example of Stretch Processing

fT

Target Frequency (KHz)

Target Relative Range (m)

R T = c / 2 fT

fT = B t R

12 80

6 40

0

0 0.04 0.08 4

Time (μsec)

time delay through ΔR = c Δt / 2

The relative time delay is related to is related to the above target

frequencies through the slope of the FM waveform

Radar Systems Course 38

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Example of Stretch Processing

fT

Target Frequency (KHz)

Target Relative Range (m)

12 80 R T = c / 2 fT

6 40 fT = B t R

0

0 0.04 0.08 4

Time (μsec)

time delay through ΔR = c Δt / 2

The relative time delay is related to is related to the above target

frequencies through the slope of the FM waveform

Radar Systems Course 39

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Implementation of Stretch Processing

– Receive waveform mixed with similar reference waveform prior to A/D conversion

– Frequency representation of resulting sinusoids translates into range of targets

RP

C HI

FREQUENCY

NCE

E FERE

R Mixer

F1 F2

R N1 2

R ET

U

E TUR N Return

R

Wideband Input

Wideband Output

Signal Amplitude

Amplitude (dB)

A/D Digital Transversal

Complex

Converter Down Equalization

FFT

Conversion & Weighting

0 6 12 Delta Range = 1m Delta SNR=10

μsec Delta SNR = 10dB Hamming Weighting

0 5 10

SNR= ~54 dB Range (m)

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 40

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Linear FM - Summary

– Especially if stretch processing is not appropriate

– -13.2 dB to -30 dB sidelobes with 1 dB loss

– Sometimes of little consequence

Radar Systems Course 41

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Outline

– Matched filters

– Introduction

– Linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveforms

– Phase coded (PC) waveforms

– Other coded waveforms

• Summary

Radar Systems Course 42

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Binary Phase Coded Waveforms

Binary Phase

Coded Waveform • Changes in phase can be used

to increase the signal

Pulse Width, T bandwidth of a long pulse

• A pulse of duration T is divided

into N sub-pulses of duration τ

• The phase of each sub-pulse is

changed or not changed,

according to a binary phase

code

• Phase changes 0 or π radians

τ (+ or -)

• Pulse compression filter output

Bandwidth = 1/τ will be a compressed pulse of

width τ and a peak N times that

Pulse Compression Ratio = T/τ of the uncompressed pulse

Used with permission

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 43

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Matched Filter - Binary Phase Coded Pulse

Time 0 Time 1 Example - 3 Bit Barker Code

+ +

+ + Seven Time Steps of Delay Line

+ Output 0 + Output -1 4

Compressed Pulse

Time 2 Time 3

+ +

+ + 3

2

+ Output 0 + Output +3

Time 4 Time 5

+ + 1

+ +

0

+ Output 0

Time 6

+ Output -1

+

+ -1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time

+ Output 0

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 44

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Example - 13 Bit Barker Code

T = 13 τ

τ

1

either 0 (+) or π (-) relative to the un-coded pulse

13

Pulse Compression Ratio = 13

T

Sidelobe Level -22.3 dB for 13 Bit Barker Code

- 13 τ -τ 0 τ 13 τ

T T

Auto-correlation function of above pulse, which represents the

output of the matched filter

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 45

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Tapped Delay Line

Input for

generation

Matched

of 13 bit τ τ τ τ τ τ τ τ τ τ τ τ filter

Barker

input

coded + + + + + – – + + – + – +

signal

∑

Output waveform

With

τ = time between subpulses

13 bit Barker code

Radar Systems Course 46

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Barker Codes

2 +-,++ - 6.0

3 ++- - 9.5

4 ++-+,+++- - 12.0

5 +++-+ - 14.0

7 +++--+- - 16.9

11 +++---+--+- - 20.8

13 +++++--++-+-+ - 22.3

• The 0, and π binary phase codes that result in equal time

sidelobes are called Barker Codes

• Sidelobe level of Barker Code is 1 / N2 that of the peak

power ( N = code length)

• None greater than length 13

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 47

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Range Sidelobe Comparison

Binary Phase Coded Waveform Output of Pulse Compression

(7 bit Barker code) 0

Power in dB

-10

+++ +

Time -20

-10 -5 0 10 20

Range (sub-pulses)

Linear FM Waveform 0

(unweighted)

Power in dB

-20

T -40

-60

-20 -10 0 10 20

0

Time

Power in dB

-20

-40

Linear FM Waveform

(Hamming sidelobe weighting)) -60

-20 -10 0 10 20

Range in meters

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 48

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Outline

– Matched filters

• Pulse Compression

– Introduction

– Linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveforms

– Phase coded (PC) waveforms

– Other coded waveforms

Linear recursive sequences

Quadriphase codes

Polyphase codes

Costas Codes

• Summary

Radar Systems Course 49

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Linear Recursive Sequences

(Shift Register Codes)

• Used for N >13

• Shift register with feedback & modulo 2 arithmetic which

generates pseudo random sequence of 1s & 0s of length 2N-1

– N = number of stages in shift register

– Also called :

Linear recursive sequence (code)

Pseudo-random noise sequence (code)

Pseudo-noise (PN) sequence (code)

Binary shift register sequence (code)

• Different feedback paths and initial settings yield different

different sequences with different sidelobe levels

• Example 7 bit shift register for generating a pseudo random

linear recursive sequence, N = 127 and 24 dB sidelobes

Modulo 2

Adder

Output

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 50

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Quadriphase Codes

codes

– Poor fall off of radiated pattern

– Mismatch loss in the receiver pulse compression filter

– Loss due to range sampling when pulse compression is

digital

• Description of Quadriphase codes

– Obtained by operating on binary phase codes with an

operator

– 0, π/2, π, or 3π/2

– Between subpulses the phase change is π/2

– Each subpulse has a 1/2 cosine shape

Rather than rectangular

– Range straddling losses are reduced

Radar Systems Course 51

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Polyphase (Frank) Codes

• Produces lower range sidelobes than binary phase coding

• Tolerant to Doppler frequency shifts

– If Doppler frequencies are not too large

Pulse Compression Ratio N = M x M = 25

M x M Matrix Defining Peak sidelobe 23.9 dB

Frank Polyphase Code Basic phase increment 2π/5 = 72 degrees

0000... 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 2 3 . . . (N-1) 0 72 144 216 288

0 2 4 6 . . . 2(N-1) 0 144 288 72 216

0 3 6 9 . . . 3(N-1) 0 216 72 288 144

. 0 288 216 144 72

. The phases of each of the M2 subpulses are found by

0 (N-1). . . (N-1)2 starting at the upper left of the matrix and reading each row

in succession from left to right. Phases are modulo 360

degrees

IEEE New Hampshire Section

Radar Systems Course 52

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Costas Codes

manner

• A pulse of length T is divided into M contiguous subpulses

• The frequency of each subpulse is selected from M

contiguous frequencies

• The frequencies are separated by the reciprocal of the

subpulse, ΔB = M/T

– There are B / M different frequencies

– The width of each subpulse is T / M

– The pulse compression ratio is B T = M2

• Costas developed a method of selection which minimizes

the range and Doppler sidelobe levels

Radar Systems Course 53

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Other Coded Waveforms

frequency coding radar waveforms.

– They are covered in the text, and as expected, each have their

strengths and shortfalls

– Non-linear FM Pulse compression

– Non-linear binary phase coded sequences

– Doppler tolerant pulse compression waveforms

– Complementary (Golay) Codes

– Welti Codes

– Huffman Codes

– Variants of the Barker code

– Techniques for minimizing the sidelobes with phase coded

waveforms

Radar Systems Course 54

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Summary

may be achieved by using pulse compression techniques

• Modulation of long pulses, in frequency or phase, are

techniques that are often for pulse compression

– Phase-encoding a long pulse can be used to divide it into binary

encoded sub-pulses

– Linear frequency modulation of a long pulse can also be used to

achieve the same effect

• Other methods of pulse coding

– Linear recursive sequence codes

– Quadraphase codes

– Polyphase codes

– Costas codes

– Non-linear FM

Radar Systems Course 55

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

References

New York, 3rd Ed., 2001

2. Barton, D. K., Modern Radar System Analysis, Norwood,

Mass., Artech House, 1988

3. Skolnik, M., Editor in Chief, Radar Handbook, New York,

McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 2008

4. Skolnik, M., Editor in Chief, Radar Handbook, New York,

McGraw-Hill, 2nd Ed., 1990

5. Nathanson, F. E., Radar Design Principles, New York,

McGraw-Hill, 1st Ed., 1969

6. Richards, M., Fundamentals of Radar Signal Processing,

McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005

7. Sullivan, R. J., Radar Foundations for Imaging and

Advanced Concepts, Scitech, Raleigh, 2000

Radar Systems Course 56

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Acknowledgements

Radar Systems Course 57

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

Homework Problems

– Problems 5-11 , 5-2, 5-3

– Problems 6-17, 6-19 , 6-20, 6-21, 6-22, 6-25, 6-26, 6-27, 6-28

Radar Systems Course 58

Waveforms & PC 1/1/2010 IEEE AES Society

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