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A MINOR PROJECT REPORT ON

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC) PRODUCTS:


A NEW ECO-FRIENDLY & NOVEL MATERIAL FOR
CONSTRUCTION
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

Award of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING

Submitted by

CHIRANJIB SENAPATI CHINMAYA KUMAR RAY RAJESH SAHO


1621320066 1621320063 1621320163

CHANDRABHANU SETHI SATYABRAT PRADHAN PRITIPRAGYAN SETHY


1621320060 1621320208 1501320078

SUBHRAJYOTI RAY KAJAL KIRAN BASKEY DIPTIBAIRIGANJAN DAS


1621320216 1501320062 1621320081

BHAJAGOBINDA HANSDAH MUKESH KUMAR KOURA BIJAY MAJUMDAR


1621320040 1621320131 1621320045

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARYAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,

ARYA VIHAR, BHUBANESWAR-751025

2018-19
ARYAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,

ARYA VIHAR, BHUBANESWAR-751025

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled “ AUTOCLAVED AERATED

CONCRETE (AAC) PRODUCTS: A NEW ECO-FRIENDLY & NOVEL MATERIAL FOR


CONSTRUCTION” submitted by BHAJAGOBINDA HANSDAH, BIJAY MAJUMDAR,
CHANDRABHANU SETHI, CHIRANJIB SENAPATI, CHINMAYA KUMAR RAY,
DIPTIBAIRIGANJAN DAS, KAJAL KIRAN BASKEY, PRITIPRAGYAN SETHY,
RAJESH SAHOO, SATYABRATA PRADHAN, SHUBHRA JYOTI RAY, MUKESH
KUMAR KOURA bearing regd.no. 1621320040 , 1621320045 , 1621320060 ,
1621320066 , 1621320063 , 1621320081 , 1501320062 , 1501320078 , 1621320163 ,
1621320208 , 1621320216 , 1621320131 respectively, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of bachelor of technology (bput), Rourkela, in civil
engineering ,is a bonafide work carried out by them under the supervision and guidance
of Asst. Prof. Baroda prasan sahoo during the 7th semester for the academic session
2018-2019.

Signature of the H.O.D Signature of Guide

Prof. M.P. Panda Asst. Prof. Baroda prasan Sahoo


Department of civil engg. Department of civil engg.
` `

Abstract

Brick is the most commonly used building material for construction. The CO2 emissions
in the brick manufacturing process affect the green environment. Therefore, focus should be now
more on seeking eco – friendly solutions for greener environment. Analysis of conventional and
non – conventional material on cost, energy consumption and carbon emission parameters helps
in highlighting suitable options for sustainable construction. AAC block, an eco – friendly
material, gives a prospective solution to building construction. In this paper, attempt has been
made to replace the red bricks with eco – friendly AAC blocks. The usage of AAC block reduces
the cost of construction up to 20% as reduction of dead load of wall on beam makes it a
comparatively lighter member. The use of AAC block also reduces the requirement of materials
such as cement and sand up to 50%. .

AAC is delivered from the regular materials lime, sand, concrete and water, and a little
measure of rising operator. In the wake of blending and trim, it is then autoclaved under warmth
and weight to make its interesting properties. AAC has great warm protection and acoustic
ingestion properties. AAC is fire and irritation safe, and is monetarily and ecologically better
than the more customary basic building materials, for example, solid, wood, block and stone.
AAC blocks are lightweight and offer ultimate workability, flexibility and durability. Its
composition includes sand, water, quicklime and cement. AAC offers fantastic chances to expand
building quality and in the meantime lessen costs at the development site. AAC is created out of
a blend of quartz sand and additionally pummeled fly slag (PFA), lime, concrete, gypsum, water
and aluminum and is solidified by steam-curing in autoclaves. Therefore of its brilliant
properties, AAC is utilized as a part of many building developments, for instance in private
homes, business and mechanical structures, schools, healing facilities, lodgings and numerous
different applications. AAC contains 60% to 85% air by volume.

Keywords: Autoclave aerated concrete blocks, Aluminum powder paste, Fly ash, Light Weight,
Silica sand.

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Acknowledgement

The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from
many people and I am extremely privileged to have got this all along the completion of my
project. All that I have done is only due to such supervision and assistance and I would not forget
to thank them.

I respect and thank Prof. M.p. panda, for providing me an opportunity to do the project work in
our college and giving us all support and guidance which made me complete the project duly. I
am extremely thankful to her for providing such a nice support and guidance, although he had
busy schedule managing the corporate affairs.

I owe my deep gratitude to our project guide Asst. Prof. Baroda prasan sahoo, who took keen
interest on our project work and guided us all along, till the completion of our project work by
providing all the necessary information for developing a good system.

I would not forget to remember Lect. Sambit Parida, of Civil Engineering Department for their
encouragement and more over for their timely support and guidance till the completion of our
project work.

I am thankful to and fortunate enough to get constant encouragement, support and guidance
from all Teaching staffs of civil engineering department which helped us in successfully
completing our project work. Also, I would like to extend our sincere esteems to all staff in
laboratory for their timely support.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE NO.

Abstract I

Acknowledgements II

List of tables V

List of figures V

Chapter

1. Introduction 01

1.1 Overview 01

1.2 Objectives 03

1.3 Scope of the study 03

2. Literature review 04

2.1 Introduction 04

2.2 Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) 04

2.3 AAC thermal performance 06

3. THEORY 08

3.1 Introduction 08

3.2 Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) 08

3.3 Features of AAC product 10

3.4 Raw material, source & availability 11

3.5 Equipment‟s 14

4. METHODOLOGY 17

4.1 Raw material preparation and storage 17

4.2 Dosing and mixing 17

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4.3 Casting , foaming & procuring 17

4.4 Cutting 18

4.5 Autoclaved curing 18

4.6 Grouping 18

4.7 Uses of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) 20

4.7.1 Blocks 21

4.7.2 Panels 21

4.8 Design consideration 21

4.8.1 Moisture consideration 21

4.9 Advantage and disadvantages of AAC blocks 22

4.9.1 Advantages of using AAC block 22

4.9.2 Disadvantages of using AAC block 23

5. Result analysis 24

5.1 Determinations of unit weight or bulk density and moisture


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content.

5.1.1 Comparison of properties 26

5.1.2 Comparison of specific gravity 26

5.1.3 Comparison of moisture content 27

5.1.4 Comparison of unit weight 28

5.1.5 Comparison of cost 30

5.2 Determination of compressive strength 31

5.2.1 Comparison of compressive strength 32

6. Conclusions 34

List of references 36

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LIST OF FIGURE
Fig no. Page no.
2.01 Chemistry notation of AAC composition 05

2.02 General arrangement of wall construction 06

2.03 AAC wall temperature difference 07

2.04 Example of delayed heat flow 07

3.01 Photograph of plant equipment 15

4.01 AAC block production layout plan & process 19


4.02 Process flow chart of AAC 20
5.01 Graph representation - 1 29
5.02 Graph representation - 2 30
5.03 Graph representation - 3 33

LIST OF TABLE
Tab no. Page no.
3.01 Physical properties of fly ash 11
3.02 Physical properties of hydrated lime 12
3.03 Physical properties of the cement 13
3.04 Physical properties of gypsum 13
3.05 Raw material processing equipment 14
3.06 Pouring processing equipment 14

3.07 Cutting processing equipment 15

3.08 Hardening or curing process equipment 15


5.01 Comparison of specific gravity 27
5.02 Comparison of moisture content 28
5.03 Comparison of unit weight. 29
5.04 Comparison of cost. 30
5.05 Comparison of compressive strength 33

VI
CHAPTER – 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW
Bricks remain one of the most important building materials in the country & it is a
building material which is used to make walls, pavements and other elements in construction.
Brick making is a traditional industry in India, generally confined to rural areas. The continuation
use of clay bricks in construction industry is leading to the extensive loss of fertile top soil which
could be a devastating environmental hazard. In recent years, with expanding urbanization and
increasing demand for construction materials, brick kilns have to grow to meet the demand. It has
directly or indirectly caused a series of environmental and health problems. At a local level, in
the vicinity of a brick kiln, environmental pollution from brick-making operations is injurious to
human health, animals and plant life. At a global level, environmental pollution from brick-
making operations contributes to the phenomena of global warming and climate change. Extreme
weather may cause degradation of the brick surface due to frost damage. Global warming and
environmental pollution is now a global concern. Various types of blocks can be used as an
alternative to the red bricks, to reduce environmental pollution and global warming.

AAC blocks may be one of the solutions for brick replacement. Autoclaved Aerated
Concrete (AAC) is one of the eco – friendly and certified green building materials. AAC is
porous, non-toxic, reusable, renewable and recyclable. Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, also known
as air Crete, is a lightweight, load-bearing, high insulating, durable building product, which is
produced in a wide range of sizes and strengths. AAC offers incredible opportunities to increase
building quality and at the same time reduce costs at the construction site.

The Autoclaved Aerated Concrete material was invented by a Sweden Architect, Johan
Axel Eriksson in 1924. It has become one of the most used building materials in Europe and is
rapidly growing in many other countries around the world. AAC is produced out of a mix of
quartz sand or pulverized fly ash, lime, cement, gypsum/anhydrite, water and aluminum and is
hardened by steam-curing in autoclaves. Due its excellent properties, AAC is used in many
building constructions, such as in residential homes, commercial and industrial buildings,
schools, hospitals, hotels and many other applications. AAC replaces clay bricks which are
environmentally unsustainable.

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The first attempt to produce Powdered Aluminum and In 1917, a Dutch patent was
AAC was done by Mr. E. Calcium Hydroxide were used registered using yeast as an
Hoffman, in 1889. The as aeration agents in Aerating agent.
aeration was produced by cementitious mixtures by
carbon dioxide generated in Aylsworth & Dyer in the
the reaction between USA in 1914.
Hydrochloric Acid and
Limestone.

Being aerated, it contains 50 - 60 % of air, leading to light weight and low thermal conductivity.
The characteristic of AAC is helpful in green housings and saves fertile lands and a solution for
fly ash disposal.

The use of metal powders as a The first documented attempt Autoclaved aerated concrete
Hydrogen gas forming agents at autoclaving aerated is a versatile lightweight
was developed further by concrete was in 1923 in construction material and
Grosahe in Berlin in 1919. Sweden. usually used as blocks.

The finished product is up to five times the volume of the raw materials used, with an air
content of 70% to 80%. Due to this large increase in volume, AAC is very resource efficient. The
high consumption of raw materials by the construction sector, results in chronic shortage of
building materials and the associated environmental damage.

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1.2 OBJECTIVES

This research was conducted to better understand certain material properties of AAC
manufactured in India and the recommended complementary wall elements such as its cement
based plasters and jointing adhesive. The study was also conducted to define the properties
expected from a compatible neighboring material for AAC.

The objectives of this report are:

(1) To describe the process used in the manufacture of Autoclaved aerated concrete,
(2) To present an overview on the use and properties of Autoclaved aerated concrete products,
and
(3) To provide a listing of standards and related documents developed for autoclaved aerated
concrete.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The present study was limited to reviewing existing information. No laboratory or field
tests were conducted. The major sources of information were:
(1) Discussions with researchers knowledgeable with autoclaved aerated concrete technology;
(2) Representatives of manufacturers of autoclaved aerated concrete products.
As a construction material which has achieved worldwide use, the body of technical
information on autoclaved aerated concrete including research reports, standards, design criteria,
codes of practice, and related documents is extensive. A bibliography of archival literature
having 492 citations was published in 1983 .The bibliography is included in a Proceeding of an
International Symposium entitled "Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, Moisture and Properties" .In
1954, Valore gave a review of methods of preparation and physical properties of moist-cured and
high-pressure steam-cured cellular concretes, ranging in density from 160 - 1600 kg/m3. The
review covered three decades beginning in the mid-1920s.

It is noted that at least one process for aerating and autoclaving a lightweight aggregate
structural concrete has been described in the literature .This lightweight aggregate concrete has a
higher density and greater strength than autoclaved aerated concrete. The scope of the present
study precluded a review of this material and other lightweight aggregate concretes.

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Chapter - 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION
From most of literature it was observed that, AAC blocks are relatively new material in
construction industry. Despite of drastic growth in manufacturing of AAC blocks, market share
of AAC blocks is very small as compared to red clay bricks. As on the basis of soil consumption
of AAC blocks, it has zero soil consumption. Primary raw material for AAC blocks is fly ash. Fly
ash is industrial waste generated by coal based thermal power plants. Clay bricks of one sq. ft.
carpet area consume 25.5 kg of top soil. AAC block consumes 1 kg of coal whereas Clay bricks
consume 8 kg of coal. AAC Blocks with CO2 emission is 2.2 kg per sq. ft. area as compared to
clay. Brick which emits 17.6 kg per sq. ft. of CO2. Hence it environment friendly too. In market
AAC Blocks are available in sizes 600/625 X 200/240 X 100-300 mm whereas clay bricks are
available in sizes 225 X 100 X 65 mm. Experiment shows that compressive strength of AAC is
3-4 N/m2 whereas clay brick have 2.5-3 N/m2. This means high compressive strength of AAC
blocks over Clay Bricks. On the basis of density of both the blocks, AAC have 500-700 Kg/m3
whereas clay bricks have 1800 kg/m3 which indicates light weight nature of AAC blocks over
clay bricks. Due to this, dead weight of the structure is reduced to far more extent and hence the
structural members passes on reduced sizes and reduced reinforcement; this indicates economy
attained by the structure constructed using AAC Blocks. AAC Blocks is also for better material
providing 30% more insulation and sealing from the environment.

2.2 AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC)


AAC is applied as a material for wall construction in residential and commercial
buildings. It is a building material widely used in Europe for many years and now it is finding its
place in the Malaysia market as well. Is a unique building material made from quartzite silica
sand, water, lime, cement and anhydrite, which are processed with a gas-forming aluminum
paste, to create a highly porous, lightweight, insulating mineral product? The manufacturing
process of AAC is a precast product manufactured by combining silica (either in form of sand or
recycled fly ash), cement, lime and water, and pouring it into a mold. The AAC is cut into blocks
or panels which are then steam and pressure-cured in an autoclaved (Stefan Schnitzler, October
2006). AAC‟s structural appearance resembles that of Styrofoam – a solid matrix skeleton
surrounding thousands of pores (Georgiades et al. 1991). Besides that, these pores form from the

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most distinguishing and important feature of the AAC and the total porosity (by volume) for the
most common AAC approaches percentage of between 75 and 90 (Wagner et al. 1995).

Figure 2.01: Chemistry notation of AAC composition


The AAC was invented since a long time ago. It was developed by a Swedish architect
and inventor Johan Axel Eriksson and then was patented in 1924. At that time, the architect was
looking for building material that had the properties of wood good thermal insulation, solid
structure, easy to work with and handle but without the disadvantages of combustibility, decay
and the termite damage. In the early 1950's the first residential applications became popular with
the introduction of a home construction division called Hebbel Haus (Hebbel: History of AAC,
2010). According to Stefan Schnitzler, (October 2006), AAC is not a new building materials that
developed in Sweden in response to increasing demands on the timber supplies.

Figure 2.02: General arrangement of wall construction

AAC is a lightweight manufactured building stone which comprised of all natural raw materials.
AAC is used in wide range of commercial, industrial, and residential applications and has been in
use in Europe for over 70 years, the Middle East for the past 40 years and South Africa and

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Australia for over 70 years. The using of AAC for building gives more advantages. The ability of
a product material use, utilize recycled product and avoid toxic emissions are the key factor in
determining whether a product qualifies as “green” or can be used in a sustainable manner
besides reduces the additional material use and minimizes waste and pollution.
2.3 AAC THERMAL PERFORMANCES

AAC is a unique building concept since it helps to save on CO2 pollution by lowering the
cooling or heating cost by more than half. The AAC materials provide a comfortable
environment which satisfies other demands required for today‟s building materials. The block‟s
structure of the buildings which contains air pockets will give the same thermal properties in all
directions since the air is one of good insulator. According to the Energy Performances Index
(EPI) which the index cannot exceed the value of 100, a comparison have been made between the
AAC home with Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) home. The result from the comparison shows
AAC received a value of 84.4 and the CMU house received 89.71 and this shows that AAC is 5%
more energy efficient than CMU house (MHE International, LLC 2004-2012). The thermal
performances of any building material may determine several factors and may not be assumed
either effective of ineffective on the basis one of the thermal performances factors such as the
thermal conductivity, K, material resistance, R and the heat transmission coefficient, U. A
previous study on AAC from MHE International shows the results regarding to the thermal
performances of AAC. For thermal conductivity, K which measures the conductivity of the
building material where the major factors is the density. AAC with 32 pcf “pound per cubic foot”
of design density weight performs 10 times better than 150 pcf concrete and as half as good as
polystyrene insulation board.

Figure 2.03: AAC Wall Temperature Difference

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While the R-value depends on the material thickness and the density where it shows the
resistance of a material to conduct or allow heat flow which a 32 pcf AAC material, 8” thick,
performs again 10 times better than a 150 pcf concrete wall 8” thick. But their 8” AAC wall
performs up to 70% as good as 3 ½ batt insulation. For the heat transmission coefficient U-value,
which is defined as how much heat transmits through 1 sqft of a building envelope in 1 hour. The
results of the study shows heat is required to raise 1 lbs of material by 1 degree Fahrenheit it
shows clearly that it takes 20% more heat to raise the temperature of an AAC building than of an
concrete building and it takes 35% more heat to heat up an AAC building then an 3 ½ batted
insulated wood frame house (MHE International 2004-2012).

Figure 2.04: Example of delayed heat flow.

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Chapter - 3
THEORY

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The aerated concrete is a one types of lightweight concrete. Aerated concrete is also well-
known as a cellular concrete. It can be divided into two main types according to the method of
production. They are foamed concrete (non-autoclaved aerated concrete (NAAC)) and
autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC).

i) Foamed concrete is produced by injecting preformed stable foam or by adding a special


air-entraining admixture known as a foaming agent into a base mix of cement paste or
mortar (cement+water or cement+sand+water).

ii) The AAC is produced by adding in a predetermined amount of aluminum powder and
other additives into slurry of ground high silica sand, cement or lime and water. The
background of foamed concrete began much later than lightweight aggregate concrete.
Foamed concrete is not a particularly new material, it is first recorded use date back to
the early 1920s. Beside the AAC began approximately 100 years ago. In 1914, the
Swedes first discovered a mixture of cement, lime, water and sand that was expanded by
the adding aluminum powder to generate hydrogen gas in the cement slurry. Prior to that,
inventive minds had tried beaten egg whites, yeast and other unusual methods of adding
air to the concrete. It was reported that foamed concrete was developed in Europe over
60 years ago and has since then been on the international market for more than 20 years.

3.2 AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

It is a LWC which is made up of cement, sand, lime, gypsum, water and small quantity Al
powder. It‟s also known as air Crete because it entrains air into it. It contains nearly about 50-
60% of air voids. It is a porous material and containing uniform air pockets which make it light
in weight therefore it is termed as aerated concrete. In the manufacturing of AAC, the raw
materials are thoroughly mixed with water in definite proportion as per the required density and
after that expansion agent like Al powder is added to the mixture so that volume is increased
about 2-5 times of its original volume.

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Cement + water → C-S-H gel +3Ca (OH) 2


2Al + 3Ca (OH) 2 + 6H2O →3 CaO.Al2 O3 + 3H2
Aluminum powder + Calcium hydroxide → Tricalcium hydrated + Hydrogen
The target density of AAC achieving ranges between 451-1000 kg/m3 and codal provision
(IS 2185.3.1984)

The block hardness is being achieved by cement strength, and instant curing mechanism
by autoclaving. Gypsum acts as a long term strength gainer. The finished product is a 2.5 times
lighter Block compared to conventional Bricks, while providing the similar strengths. The
specific gravity stays around 0.6 to 0.65. This is one single most USP of the AAC blocks,
because by using these blocks in structural buildings, the builder saves around 30 to 35 % of
structural steel, and concrete.

The major raw material Fly-Ash, an indispensable by-product of Thermal Power Plants, is
an environmental threat across the globe. Power plants are facing an ever increasing challenge
disposal of this polluting agent. This unit is proposed to manufacture AAC Bricks & Blocks by
consuming the Fly-Ash as one of the prime raw material. Secondly, it also helps environment by
saving the invaluable top soil by not using them in brick making like conventional brick making.
Thirdly, they need no burning, thus further enhancing their Eco-Friendly Brand. The steam
curing requires far less fuel, compared to the backing for each cubic meter of Bricks.

AAC Blocks are largely used in various constructions, such as load bearing and pillar
structure Buildings, Boundary walls, Roads, Culverts, Pavements, and wherever conventional
bricks can be used. The general AAC blocks fall in the strength zone of 30- 60 Kg/Cm2, thus is
having comparable strength as conventional Bricks. These Blocks gain strength over a period of
time up to 2 years, where as the conventional bricks tend to lose strength over a period of time.

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These green bricks can attain very regular and uniform shapes. As no burning is involved,
so the shape also remains unchanged. As a result, the final Brick work with these green bricks
consumes less mortar to build, less mortar to plaster. Further, the AAC being a concrete itself, it
forms a more uniform bond with cement mortar, giving almost a homogeneous structure. Not
only this, even exposed brickwork (without plastering) is a good durable structure. So people
prefer to leave the Green Bricks Brickworks in garages, boundary walls etc. un-plastered.

3.3 FEATURES OF AAC PRODUCTS


Lightweight
AAC blocks possess a cellular structure created by the unique manufacturing process.
Millions of tiny air cells impart AAC blocks very light weight structure. Density of these
lightweight blocks usually ranges between 550 – 700 kg/m3.

Ease of Use
AAC blocks are very easy to work with. These blocks can be cut or drilled using normal
tools used with wood. Since AAC is steam-curried, it is ready to be used as soon as it comes out
of autoclave.

Long Life
AAC does not rot or deteriorate over time. Structures built with AAC have a long life and
retain good finish even after decades.

Eco-friendly
AAC has excellent thermal insulation property leading to lower energy requirements for
heating and cooling. AAC serves as one stop solution for structure, insulation, and fire
protection. Use of AAC eliminates use of different materials for structure, insulation, and fire
protection as these requirements are met by only using AAC. Using AAC is a must for any green
building project. AAC is manufactured with industrial waste like fly ash and pond ash.

Thermal Insulation
Cellular structure of AAC creates millions of tiny air pockets. These air pockets give AAC
very good insulating properties. Better insulation translates to lower cost for heating and cooling.

Fire Resistance
AAC offers amazing fire resistance. 8” wall made from AAC blocks can resist fire for up to
seven hours.

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Sound Insulation
Tiny air pockets created during production of AAC stop sound from travelling one end of
the wall to another. Sound insulation of a wall built using AAC is much higher than a wall.

3.4 RAW MATERIALS, SOURCES AND AVAILABILITY.


Fly Ash

Key ingredient for manufacturing aac blocks is silica rich material like fly ash. Fly ash raw
material is freely available in thermal power plants. Most of the aac companies in India use fly
ash to manufacture aac blocks. Fly ash is mixed with water to form fly ash slurry. Slurry thus
formed is mixed with other ingredients like lime powder, cement, gypsum and aluminum powder
in quantities consistent with the recipe. It contains nearly about 15-25% cementitious material. It
provides great workability & consistency to the concrete and lowers the heat of hydration. Fly
ash increases setting of concrete. It also provides higher strength at later stages in concrete.

Table 3.01 - Physical properties of fly ash

Typical fly ash


Chemical component
Class c Class f
Silica (SiO2) 40 55
Alumina (Al2O3) 16 26
Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) 6 7
Calcium oxide (CaO) 24 9
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 2 2
Sulfate oxide (SO3) 3 1
Loss of ignition (LOI) 6 6

Sand

Sand is generally obtained from marine environment. Sand is a naturally occurring


granular material which composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles... Sand slurry is
mixed with other ingredients just like fly ash slurry. It is defined by size being finer than gravel
and coarser than the silt. Sand is also used as fine aggregate because of its size ranges between
0.0625mm to 2mm. the specific gravity of sand used in this experiments is 2.6 and having
fineness modulus 2.63.

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Lime Powder
Lime powder required for AAC production is obtained either by crushing limestone to fine
powder at AAC factory or by directly purchasing it in powder form... Lime is used in making
AAC and reduces the amount of water into the concrete block. It prevents the AAC from drying
out too quickly and also from dry shrinkage. Hydrated lime, fat lime and quick lime is the main
types of lime in which hydrated lime are widely used in making construction. Lime powder is
stored in silos fabricated from mild steel (MS) or built using brick and mortar depending of
individual preferences. Different qualities of lime are available, and depending on the raw
materials, the mix design can be chosen to get the optimal quality of production. Physical
properties of hydrated lime are as follows;

Table 3.02 -Physical properties of hydrated lime

Lime
Grade (%)
Item Super grade 1st grade 2nd grade

A(CaO+MgO) Quality Fraction % ≥ 90 75 65

MgO Quality Fraction % ≤ 2 5 8

SiO2 Quality Fraction % ≤ 2 5 8

CO2 Quality Fraction % ≤ 2 5 7

Digestion speed ,min ≤ 5-15

Digestion temperature , ℃ ≥ 60-90

Undigested residue quality fraction ,% ≤ 5 10 15

Fineness (0.080 square hole sieve left amount) % ≤ 10 15 20

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC)

This Project aims to utilize OPC cement as main binder material. 53-grade Ordinary
Portland Cement (OPC) from reputed manufacturer is required for manufacturing AAC blocks. It
will give faster strength to the bricks, besides giving improved consistent quality... Using OPC

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will be a standardized practice. The other prime advantage of using OPC (compared to other
binders) is it‟s easy availability locally through nationwide Retail Network of Cement
Companies. Cement supplied by „mini plants‟ is not recommended due to drastic variations in
quality over different batches. Some AAC factories might plan their captive cement processing
units as such an unit can produce cement as well as process lime. Such factories can opt for
„major plant‟ clinker and manufacture their own cement for AAC production. Cement is usually
stored in silos. Physical properties of the cement are;
Table 3.03 - Physical properties of the cement

CEMENT

SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO C3 S C2 S C3 A C4AF

21-23 5-7 3-5 64-48 4-5 44-59 18-30 5-12 10-18

Gypsum
Gypsum is a type of mineral and a hydrated calcium sulfate in chemical form. It plays a
vital role in compensating the rate of hardening of the cement. It is used to control the setting
time of cement but if it is in excess it may unsound the cement concrete because of sulfate.
Physical properties of gypsum are;
Table 3.04 - Physical properties of gypsum
GYPSUM

CaSO4 > 70%

MgO < 2%

Chloride < 0.05%

Preferably ground residue 90μm < 10-15%

Aluminum powder

Al powder is a finely grinded powder, such that it reacts with calcium hydroxide a
byproduct of cement-water reaction and then after reaction between Al powder and calcium
hydroxide generates uniform micro air bubbles which results in increasing concrete volume

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making it very light weight concrete. When aluminum is added (usually at about 0.2% to 0.5%
by dry weight of cement) to the mixing ingredients. The Aluminum powder can be classified into
three types: atomized, flake and granules. In case of an atomized particle, its length, width and
thickness are all of approximately the same order where the length or width of a flake particle
maybe several hundred times it thickness. Aluminum powder in the AAC industry is often made
from foil scrap and exists of microscopic flake-shaped aluminum particles. Physical properties of
Al powder,

3.5 EQUIPMENT’S
Equipment is depending of selection of process, base material; selection of atomization
etc. below is given general base equipment;

Table 3.05 - Raw material processing equipment

 Jaw crusher  Hoist conveyor  Block lime silo

 Electronic vibrating feeder  Ball mill –lime  Sand silo

 Electronic vibrating feeder  Belt conveyor  Ball mill -wet -sand

 Bucket elevator  Cement silo  Gypsum silo

Table 3.06 - Pouring processing equipment

 Main Slurry mixer –fly ash  Main Mixer desert mortar after Cutting

 Weighted / batch slurry mixer  Balance desert mortar for per mould

 Lime –OPC – gypsum mixer  Screw conveyor for lime

 Aluminum mixer  Main pouring mixer

 Lime &gypsum measure  Spiral gate valve

 Pneumatic controlling valve  Slurry measurer

 PLC electric measuring controlling system  Air compressor

 Mould  Mould bottom plate

 Steam curing car  Electronic platform balance

14
` `

Table 3.07 - Cutting processing equipment

 Hoist for semi finish product


 Hoist for mould move

 Tractor  Horizontal cutting machine with Arrangement

Table 3.08 - Hardening or curing process equipment

 Autoclave  Steam boiler

 Coal crushing and handling equipment  Chimney

 Dust collector  Steam controlling valve

 Steam controlling penal  Steam line

Fig-3.01 Photograph of plant equipment

STORAGE SILO FLY ASH MIXING TANK

MOULD MOVER FINAL MIXER

15
` `

CUTTING MACHINE STEAM CURING CAR

BOILER-DUST COLLECTOR-CHIMNEY MIXING SECTION

MOULD STEAM BOILER

16
` `

Chapter – 4
METHODOLOGY

PRODUCTION PROCESS
4.1 RAW MATERIAL PREPARATION AND STORAGE

The first step of AAC production is grinding of silica rich material (sand, fly ash, etc.) in
ball mills. For different materials, different processing is adopted, such as dry grinding (into
powder), wet grinding (into slurry) or mixed grinding with quicklime (CaO). There are two
methods for mixed milling. One is dry mixing to produce binding material, and the other method
is wet mixing. Since most quicklime is agglomerate, it should be crushed and then grinded.
Gypsum is normally not ball milled separately. It is grinded with fly ash or with quicklime, or it
could be grinded with the same miller for quicklime in turn. Other supplementary and chemicals
are also have to be prepared.
4.2 DOSING AND MIXING
A dosing and mixing unit is used to form the correct mix to produce Autoclaved Aerated
Concrete (AAC) blocks. Fly ash/sand slurry is pumped into a separate container. Once the
desired weight is poured in, pumping is stopped. Similarly lime powder, cement and gypsum are
poured into individual containers using screw conveyers. Once required amount of each
ingredient is filled into their individual containers control system releases all ingredients into
mixing drum. Mixing drum is like a giant bowl with a stirrer rotating inside to ensure proper
mixing of ingredients. Steam might also be fed to the unit to maintain temperature in range of 40-
42º C. Once the mixture has been churned for set time, it is ready to be poured into molds using
dosing unit. Dosing unit releases this mixture as per set quantities into molds for foaming.

4.3 CASTING, FOAMING AND PRE-CURING


Once the desired mix is ready, it is poured into moulds. These moulds can be of various
sizes depending on the production capacity of a manufacturing unit. Once mix is poured into
moulds, it is ready for pre-curing. After casting, the slurry in molds will be in the pre-curing
chamber to finish foaming and hardening. Foaming and hardening actually starts when the slurry
is fed into molds, which includes gas-forming expansion and perform curing to achieve certain
strength, which is enough for cutting. Pre-curing is always done under set temperature; hence it is

17
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also called as heating-room-pre-curing. Pre-curing is not a complicated process, but should avoid
vibration.

4.4 CUTTING

During this process, the pre-cured block goes through cutting and shaping, into different
size & shapes as per requirements. The high workability and large variety of sizes make AAC
production more suitable for massive production with higher mechanization. Cutting can be done
mechanically or manually.

4.5 AUTOCLAVED CURING


After cutting into the desired sizes & shapes, „green‟ AAC blocks are transferred into
autoclaves. Autoclaves are used for steam curing under pressure. AAC must be pre-cured and
steam cured to finish the physical and chemical changes, and then to achieve enough strength for
desired usage. A batch of AAC blocks is steam cured for 10-12 hours at a pressure of 12 bars and
temperature of 190°C. In hot and humid conditions, AAC blocks undergo last stages of hydro-
thermal synthesis reaction to transform into a new product with required strength and various
physical performances. Autoclaved curing imparts inherent properties and performance of AAC.

GREEN CAKES BEING LOADED IN


GREEN CAKE BEING CUT BY WIRES
AUTOCLAVE

4.6 GROUPING
Grouping could be the last step of AAC production (in some AAC plant, the AAC will be
further processed into panels after leaving autoclaves). After the cured AAC leaves the
autoclaves, inspection and packaging is done.

18
`

FIG- 4.01 - AAC BLOCKS PRODUCTION LAYOUT PLAN & PROCESS

21. Interlude Leveling Cutting


22. Interlude Vertical Cutting
23. Semi-Finished Product Transfer
machinery Hand
24. Semi Finish per Curing Area
25. Autoclave
26. Finished Product Area
27. Finished Product Transfer machinery
Hand
28. Finished Product Package machinery
Hand
1. Hopper
2. Slurry Mixing Machine
3. Ball Milling Machine (Wet)

19
4. Slurry Storage Hopper
5. Pouring Platform
6. Pouring Mixing Tank
7. Cement / Lime / Gypsum Scale
8. Sand Slurry Scale
9. Screw Conveying Machine
10. Cement Silo
11. Lime Silo
12. Gypsum Silo
13. Pouring Frequency Ferry Cart
14. Mould Box
15. Curing Room
16. Mould Box Transmission
FLOW CHART;

System
17. Cart Walking Steel Rail
18. Mould Box Turning Over
Machinery Hand
19. Cutting Frequency Leveling
Move Cart
20. Water Material Recycle Mixing
Tank
`
` `

4.7 USES OF AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

The factory-made autoclaved aerated concrete units delivered to the job site are of
different types and have many uses. The types of units most commonly produced are blocks and
precast panels for floors, walls, and roofs. The blocks and panels are used in both loadbearing
and non-loadbearing constructions for both residential and commercial/industrial buildings. As a

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consequence, autoclaved aerated units are found in single and multi-story constructions oriented
both horizontally and vertically. Larger units are reinforced with steel bars.

Blocks and panel units are manufactured to very close dimensional tolerances. Close
dimensional tolerance is important with regard to modular construction to assure that individual
units fit together properly. Consequently, the sizes of the factory-produced units are generally
based on a modular system of standard products.

4.7.1 BLOCKS
A general application of autoclaved aerated concrete has been in the form of masonry
block. Blocks are available in standard sizes and generally do not contain reinforcement. They
have been widely used for side cladding and as "in filling" for external walls, as well as for
external and internal loadbearing walls in low and multi-story construction. External surfaces of
autoclaved aerated concrete should be protected from exposure to water.

4.7.2 PANELS

As previously mentioned, autoclaved aerated concrete panels are manufactured in various


sizes and are used in vertical and horizontal applications in building construction. Vertical wall
panels are available in "story-height” increments. These panels normally do not carry any load
other than their own dead weight.

Another common use of autoclaved aerated concrete is for roof and floor slabs. These
panels have span lengths of 20 - 25 ft. During erection, the slabs are commonly placed, on
loadbearing walls or a structural frame without use of a mortar bed. Bituminous roofing
membranes have been applied directly to assembled roof panels. Regarding this practice, it has
been reported that the autoclaved aerated concrete panels fit closely together and serve as thermal
insulation.

4.8 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


4.8.1 MOISTURE CONSIDERATIONS

Autoclaved aerated concrete contains moisture from the manufacturing process. The
moisture content at the time of delivery to the building site may be 20 - 35 % by weight. The
moisture dries out gradually in normally one to two years and reaches equilibrium in external
constructions of about 4-6 % by weight. Moisture may also accumulate in the material during

21
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construction and after the building is completed. It is necessary to assure that the design provides
for drying out of the initial moisture as well as maintaining low moisture content in the building
under service conditions. One literature reference indicated that, if the inside humidity is 60
percent or less, the use of autoclaved aerated concrete is practically unlimited. Higher humidity
requires measures to limit vapor diffusion.

Concrete masonry walls above grade should normally be painted on the exterior for damp
proofing purposes. Because of the higher porosity and moisture absorption of autoclaved aerated
concrete, as compared to dense concrete, a surface treatment should be considered for exterior
surfaces of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry and wall panels. The external treatments that are
currently used are mortar for masonry walls and paints for wall panels. The paint used should be
nearly impermeable to water but should have some permeability to water vapor so that, if
moisture should become trapped or condensed within the wall, it can slowly escape to the
exterior. Protections for masonry have included one to three coats of mortar for external
application, and for internal use, a thin application of resin or gypsum plaster, lime mortar, or
paint.

4.9 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF AAC BLOCK

4.9.1 ADVANTAGES OF USING AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

1. Lightweight -AAC blocks are about 50% lighter than clay bricks of equivalent size.
2. Fireproof - Contingent on the thickness of the Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC)
Blocks, they offer imperviousness to fire from 2 hours up to 6 hours.
3. Sound Proof - The permeable structure of the AAC squares comes about into improved
sound ingestion. The Sound Transmission Class (STC) rating of the AAC obstructs 45 db.
4. Seismic Resistant -The light weight property of the AAC pieces comes about into higher
unfaltering quality of the AAC obstructs in the structure of the structures.
5. Durable - AAC is produced from non-biodegradable materials, which neither decay nor
pull in shape, keeping insides spotless and tough.
6. Flexible - AAC Blocks have an appealing appearance and is promptly versatile to any
style of design. Any plan can be accomplished with AAC.
7. Thermal Insulation - AAC square has uncommon warm protecting qualities. AAC offers
excellent thermal insulation. This reduces recurring cost of energy required for heating
and cooling.

22
` `

8. Dampness Resistance - Dampness from both outside and interior sources can make harm
structures; Outer dampness sources incorporate rain and water from the dirt. Inward
dampness, as a rule as moistness, can bring about buildup on the surface of the dividers.
9. Idealize Size and Shape - The way toward assembling AAC Blocks guarantees steady
and predictable measurements.
10. Environment Friendly - AAC is a non-poisonous item which does not dirty the air, land
or water.
11. High Compressive Strength - The piece has a normal compressive quality of (3-4.5)
N/mm³ which is better than most sorts of light weight squares.
12. High Resistance to Water Penetration - The AAC items, as a result of their cell and
intermittent miniaturized scale structure are better than the ordinary earth block in
resistance of water vulnerability.
13. High Survivability - Millions of air pockets in AAC cushion structure from major force
and prevents progressive collapse of a building.
14. Longevity- AAC does not lose strength or deteriorate over time. Buildings constructed
with AAC do not require routine repairs that are required for buildings using clay bricks.

4.9.2 DISADVANTAGES OF USING AUTOCLAVED AERATED


CONCRETE

1. Some disadvantages of AAC blocks and panels are that they do contain Portland cement,
they are made in so few place which means more transportation cost and using gas
resources.
2. Builders must learn how to use them since the mortaring is different, some of the blocks
are made to European standards and have to be cut.
3. They are porous so must have stucco or cladding on the exterior to keep out water. For
load-bearing, AAC may need rebar reinforcement.

23
` `

Chapter – 5
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
5.1 DETERMINATION OF UNIT WEIGHT OR BULK DENSITY AND
MOISTURE CONTENT
1. SCOPE

 Unit weight or bulk density of autoclave cellular concrete products.


 Moisture content of autoclaved cellular concrete products.

2. TEST SPECIMENS

2.1 Shape of specimens


The bulk density and moisture content shall be determined on regularly shaped specimens.
A specimen of size 100 x 200 x 100 mm will meet the above requirements.

3. Apparatus
1. Straight-edge
2. Calliper
3. Drying oven.
4. Balance

4. PROCEDURES

4.1 BULK DENSITY


4.1.1 Measurement of specimens

Length, width and thickness shall be measured before drying at 105°C with an accuracy of
0.1 mm using a suitable caliper. These measurements shall permit the determination of the
volume V of the specimen with an error not exceeding one percent.

4.1.2 Drying of specimens


After measuring, the specimens shall be placed in drying oven at 105 ± 5°C until all
moisture has been removed and constant weight is obtained. Immediately after removing from
the drying oven, the specimens shall be weighed. The weighing error shall not exceed 0.1 percent
of the weight of the specimen. The weight W of the specimen shall be considered constant if the
weight after four hours further drying has not changed more than 0.2 percent.

24
` `

4.2 Moisture Content


4.2.1 Weighing of specimens

The specimen as in 4.1.1 ( or immediately after loading, in case the moisture content is to
be determined for compressive strength specimens ( see 1.1 and 2.1 ), shall be weighed. The
weighing error shall not exceed 0.1percent. This weight shall be designated W1.

After weighing, the specimen shall be dried out at 105 ± 5°C as in 4.1.2 until constant
weight is obtained within duration of four hours. Immediately after removing from the drying
oven, the specimen shall be weighed, and weight W obtained as in 4.1.2.

5. CALCULATIONS

The bulk density in g/cm3 shall be calculated as follows:

= =0.86 g/cm3
Where
W = dry weight of the specimen in g, and

v = volume in cm3.

Bulk density of the individual specimens shall be calculated and reported within the three
decimal places, the mean value of the three specimens shall be within two decimal places.
Moisture content F in weight, percent of the dry material, shall be determined as follows:

F =

= 10.20 %
Where
W1 = sample weight of specimen in g, and
W = dry weight of the specimen in g.

Moisture content of individual specimen shall be stated in whole percent, and the mean
value of three specimens shall also be stated in whole percent.

25
` `

5.1.1 COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES;


1) Red bricks Standard modular sizes are
 190 x 90 x 90
 190 x 90 x 40
Standard non modular sizes are
 230 x 110 x 70
 230 x 110 x 30
2) AAC block Standard sizes are
 Length 400, 500 or 600 mm
 Height 200, 250 or 300 mm
 Width 100, 150, 200 or 250 mm
3) Fly ash bricks Standard modular sizes are
 190 x 90 x 90
 190 x 90 x 40
Standard non modular sizes are
 230 x 110 x 70
 230 x 110 x 30

5.1.2 COMPARISION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY:


SPECIFIC GRAVITY:

The Specific Gravity is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio of density of the material to the
density of water at a specified temperature. It is common to use the density of water at 4 oC
(39 oF) as reference - at this point the density of water is at the highest.

Calculation of AAC block

Mass of AAC block (m) = 1.675kg

Volume of AAC block (v) = 0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1 = 0.002 m3

Density of block = = = 837.5 kg/m3

Specific gravity = = = 0.8375

26
` `

Calculation of fly ash brick

Mass of AAC block (m) = 3.572kg

Volume of AAC block (v) = 0.23 x 0.11 x 0.08 = 0.002 m3

Density of block = = = 1764.82 kg/m3

Specific gravity = = = 1.76482

Calculation of red brick

Mass of red brick (m) = 2.832kg

Volume of brick (v) = 0.25 x 0.11 x 0.077 = 0.0021175 m3

Density of block = = = 1337.42 kg/m3

Specific gravity = = = 1.33742

Comparison of specific gravity

AAC Fly ash Red brick

0.8375 1.764 1.337

Table 5.01 - Comparison of specific gravity

5.1.3 COMPARISION OF MOISTURE CONTENT:


Moisture content

Moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such


as soil , rock, ceramics, crops, or wood. Water content is used in a wide range of scientific and
technical areas, and is expressed as a ratio, which can range from 0 to the value of the
materials' porosity at saturation. It can be given on a volumetric or mass basis.

Calculation of AAC block

Dry weight of specimen (W) = 1715 g

Sample weight of the specimen (W1) = 1890 g

27
` `

Water content =

= = 10.20 %

Calculation of fly ash brick

Dry weight of specimen (W) = 2831 g

Sample weight of the specimen (W1) = 3483 g

Water content =

= = 23.03 %

Calculation of red brick

Dry weight of specimen (W) = 3572 g

Sample weight of the specimen (W1) = 3893 g

Water content =

= = 8.98 %

Comparison of moisture content in %

AAC Fly ash Red brick

10.20 23.03 8.98

Table 5.02 - Comparison of moisture content

5.1.4 COMPARISION OF UNIT WEIGHT:


UNIT WEIGHT:

 The unit weight, otherwise known as the specific weight, is the total weight of a
substance in a single unit of volume.
 Although it is similar to specific gravity or density, it is not the same because weight
is depend of gravitational acceleration.

28
` `

FLY ASH TEST PROCEDURE:

At first we take 3 fly ash block with size of 23cm x 11cm x 8cm.then we find the out the weight
of fly ash block by the help of weight measuring instrument.

So the weight of fly ash block is (w) =3572g

Volume of this block is (v) =23cm x 11cm x 8cm = 2024cm3

Unit weight = = = 1.76 g/cm3

RED BLOCK TEST PROCEDURE:

At first we take the 3 red blocks with size of 25 cm x 11 cm x 7.7 cm. then we find out the weight
of red block by the help of weight measuring instrument.

So the weight of red block is (w) =2832 g

Volume of block is (v) =25cm x 11cm x 7.7cm=2117.5 cm3

Unit weight = = = 1.33 g/cm3

Comparison of unit weight in g/cm3

AAC Fly ash Red brick

0.86 1.76 1.33

Table 5.03 - Comparison of unit weight.

Graph representation - 1
25

23.03
20

15

10
10.2
8.98
5
0.83 0.86 1.33 1.33 1.76 1.76
0
AAC BLOCK RED BRICK FLY ASH BRICK

SPECIFIC GRAVITY MOISTURE CONTENT (%) UNIT WEIGHT (g/cm³)

29
` `

5.1.5 COMPARISON OF COST:

AAC BLOCK:

Individual block is expensive, but the overall cost of masonry is low, as it consumes less
mortar. Also for same dimension of the walls, less number of AAC block are required as
compared to red brick. It reduces build of area, it save cost of steel also.

RED BRICK:

They are cheaper as compared to other masonry units. However, overall cost is more, as it
requires more mortar both for joints and plaster. Extra bricks are to be ordered to account waste
due to breakage. Cost of environmental damage is beyond calculation.

FLY ASH:

Fly ash brick are the cheapest masonry unit overall cost is more as they requires more mortar.

COST COMPARISION PER 1 cum WALL

AAC FLY ASH RED BRICK

Rs. 3136.00/- per cum Rs. 4520.00/- per cum Rs. 6780.00/- per cum

Table 5.04 - Comparison of cost

Graph representation - 2

COST per 1 cum WALL in ₹


INR 8,000.00

INR 6,000.00

INR 4,000.00
INR 6,780.00
INR 2,000.00 INR 4,520.00
INR 3,136.00
INR -
AAC BLOCK FLY ASH BRICK RED BRICK

COST (Rs)

30
` `

5.2 DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

1. SCOPE
This standard covers the method for determining the compressive strength of autoclaved
cellular concrete products using cubes.
2. TEST SPECIMENS
2.1 Size of Specimens

Compressive strength shall be determined on cubes with an edge length of 15 cm. When the
specimens are taken from samples of smaller thickness, cubes may be built up, without gluing, of
two or three plane, ground square slices of thickness 7.5 cm and 5 cm respectively.
2.2 Number of Specimens

For every sample that is to be tested for compressive strength, 3 cubes shall be taken and
these shall form a test series.

2.3 Preparation of Specimens

The specimens shall be cut by means of rotating blades of steel or Carborundum. The pieces
all surfaces shall be clean cut and plane.

3. Apparatus

1) Compression Testing Machine


2) Straight-Edge
3) Balance
4) Drying Oven

4. PROCEDURES

4.1 Testing Under Compression Load

The cubes shall be placed in the compression machine and load applied perpendicular to the
direction of the slices from which the cube thickness has been built up. For cubes which have
been prepared in one piece, the direction of load shall be perpendicular to the direction of rise of
the mass during production. The specimens shall be loaded at the rate of 0.5 to 2 kgf/cm2 in such
a way that failure occurs within 30 seconds.

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5. CALCULATIONS

The compressive strength follows from:

= 0.55
Where
= breaking load in kgf, and
A= area in cm2 over which load L was applied.

5.2.1 COMPARISION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

Compressive strength is the maximum compressive stress that, under a gradually applied load, a
given solid material can sustain without fracture. Compressive strength is calculated by dividing
the maximum load by the original cross-sectional area of a specimen in a compression test.

Calculation of AAC block

The compressive strength =

= = 0.57

Calculation of red brick

The compressive strength =

= = 0.35

Calculation of fly ash brick

The compressive strength =

= = 0.39

32
` `

COMPARISON OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (kn/cm2)

AAC FLY ASH RED BRICK

0.57 0.39 0.35

Table 5.05 - Comparison of compressive strength

Graph representation - 3

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (kn/cm²)


0.6

0.57
0.5

0.4
0.39
0.35
0.3

0.2

0.1

0
AAC BLOCK FLY ASH BRICK RED BRICK

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (kn/cm²)

33
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Chapter – 6
CONCLUSION
This report is a review of the properties and performance of autoclaved aerated concrete.
This is a construction material that has gained widespread use in many areas of the world. Little
use has occurred in Canada and the United States. It is a lightweight porous concrete whose
cellular structure is generally obtained through an in situ gas-producing reaction. Subsequent
autoclaving in the factory provides strength, dimensional stability, and other properties of the
finished product. These materials combine a relatively low thermal conductivity with a bearing
capacity suitable for use in structural applications. This combination of properties might make
them attractive for energy-conserving applications.

The review addressed an overview of the manufacturing process, uses of autoclaved


aerated concrete in building constructions, properties, energy considerations, the availability of
code-related documents, and standards. The literature on these materials is extensive. Uses
include block and panel construction in both loadbearing and non- loadbearing applications for
walls, floors, and roofs. With regard to energy considerations, the review pointed out that, for
energy efficient applications under severe climate conditions, the autoclaved aerated concrete
unit alone may be insufficient to provide the targeted minimum value of thermal resistance. In
these cases, autoclaved aerated concrete has to be used together with additional thermal
insulation.

Aerated lightweight concrete is unlike conventional concrete in some mix materials and
properties. Aerated lightweight concrete does not contain coarse aggregate, and it is possess
many beneficial such as low density with higher strength compared with conventional concrete,
enhanced in thermal and sound insulation, reduced dead load in the could result several
advantages in decrease structural elements and reduce the transferred load to the foundations and
bearing capacity. The air-voids in autoclaved aerated concrete formed by addition aluminum
powder to the other materials and reaction between them, and this operation are chemical
processing. The air-voids are homogenous distribution within aerated lightweight concrete. The
compressive strength of foamed concrete can be developed reach to structural strength compared
with autoclaved aerated concrete. Aerated lightweight concrete is consider economy in materials
and consumption of by-product and wastes materials such as fly ash.

34
` `

AAC block provides Good Avenue for entrepreneurs in, India.


 AAC block is Lightweight.
 AAC block saves cost and energy in transportation and labor.
 Larger size of AAC Block leads to faster construction.
 AAC block has good fire resistance.
 AAC block is less permeable, well suited to withstand fires, earthquakes and Natural
disasters.
 easily workable – can be sawed, nailed and drilled easily even than wood
 Walls can be left exposed without plaster.
 It reduces additional material use and minimizes waste and pollution.

Compressive strength of AAC blocks is comparatively more than traditional clay brick.
These are suitable for walls in RCC framed building. Utilization of fly ash leads to the reduction
in the cement consumption in the product which results in reduction of greenhouse gases.
Density of AAC block is 1/3 that of traditional clay brick and there is no more change in wet
condition. It helps in reducing dead load of structure. Cost of construction reduces by maximum
up to 20 % as reduction of dead load of wall on beam makes comparatively lighter members. As
both side face of AAC block wall are plane, thickness of plaster is very less, and so there is
substantial reduction up to 50% in requirement of cement and sand for plaster work. The work
ability of AAC helps to eliminate waste on the jobsite.

35
` `

Reference

 http://brickwell.in.
 https://en.wikipedia.org.
 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271139352_aerated_autoclaved_co
ncrete_aac_blocks_novel_material_for_construction_industry AAC blocks
project reference.
 www.aac.plant.in/Force%20Engineering%2050m3%20Project%20Report.pdf
 https://www.scribd.com/
 https://www.understanding-cement.com/autoclaved-aerated-concrete.html
 http://www.ecogreenproducts.in/aac-blocks.php
 IS: 2185(Part 3):1984, Specification for concrete masonry units, Autoclaved
Cellular (Aerated) Concrete Blocks, First revision, Ch-4, page7.
 IS: 6441(Part 1):1972, Determination of unit weight or bulk density and
moisture content.
 IS: 6441(Part 5):1972, Determination of compressive strength.

36