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1: PROBLEM DEFINITION

No solution provided because student answers will vary.

No solution provided because student answers will vary.

No solution provided because student answers will vary.

Essay question. No solution provided; answers will vary.

1

1.5: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Many engineering students believe that ﬁxing a washing machine is an example of

engineering because it involves solving a problem. Write a brief essay in which you

address the following questions: Is ﬁxing a washing machine an example of engineer-

ing? Why or why not? How do your ideas align or misalign with the deﬁnition of

engineering given in §1.1?

SOLUTION

Answers will vary. A possible argument is that simply ﬁxing a washing machine is

similar to doing the work of a mechanic or an electrician. Such a work is engineering

if new innovations are applied to make the washing machine better for humankind

than as originally constructed.

2

1.6: PROBLEM DEFINITION

No solution provided; answers will vary. Possible answers could be determined by

googling “material properties”, which would yield answers such as thermal conduc-

tivity, electrical conductivity, tensile strength, etc. The next step would be to discuss

how each new material property was diﬀerent for solids, liquids, and gases.

3

1.7: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Based on molecular mechanisms, explain why aluminum melts at 660 ◦ C, whereas ice

will melt at 0 ◦ C.

SOLUTION

When a solid melts, suﬃcient energy must be added to overcome the strong inter-

molecular forces. The intermolecular forces within solid aluminum require more

energy to be overcome (to cause melting), than do the intermolecular forces in ice.

4

1.8: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

The continuum assumption (select all that apply)

a. applies in a vacuum such as in outer space

b. assumes that ﬂuids are inﬁnitely divisible into smaller and smaller parts

c. is a bad assumption when the length scale of the problem or design is similar to

the spacing of the molecules

d. means that density can idealized as a continuous function of position

e. only applies to gases

SOLUTION

The correct answers are b, c, and d.

5

1.9: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

A ﬂuid particle

a. is deﬁned as one molecule

b. is small given the scale of the problem being considered

c. is so small that the continuum assumption does not apply

SOLUTION

The correct answer is b.

6

1.10: PROBLEM DEFINITION

a. Volume ﬂow rate (Q), mass ﬂow rate (ṁ), and pressure (p).

b. Force, energy, power.

c. Viscosity.

PLAN

Use Table F.1 to ﬁnd common units

SOLUTION

a. Volume ﬂow rate, mass ﬂow rate, and pressure.

c. Viscosity.

7

1.11: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation: The hydrostatic equation has three common forms:

p1 p2

+ z1 = + z2 = constant

γ γ

Δp = −γΔz

Find: For each variable in these equations, list the name, symbol, and primary di-

mensions of each variable.

PLAN

Look up variables in Table A.6. Organize results using a table.

SOLUTION

Name Symbol Primary dimensions

pressure p M/LT 2

speciﬁc weight γ M/L2 T 2

elevation z L

piezometric pressure pz M/LT 2

change in pressure Δp M/LT 2

change in elevation Δz L

8

1.12: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

In the context of measurement, a dimension is:

a. a category for measurement

b. a standard of measurement for size or magnitude

c. an increment for measuring “how much”

SOLUTION

The correct answer is option a.

9

Problem 1.13

No solution provided, students are asked to describe the actions for each step of the

grid method in their own words.

10

1.14: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Apply the grid method.

Situation:

Density of ideal gas is given by:

p

ρ=

RT

p = 400 kPa, 287 J/kg.K.

T = 82 ◦ C = 355.14K.

Find:

Calculate density (in kg/m3 ).

PLAN

Use the deﬁnition of density.

Follow the process for the grid method given in the text.

Look up conversion formulas in Table F.1 (EFM 10e).

SOLUTION

(Note, cancellation of units not shown below, but student should show cancellations

on handworked problems.)

p

ρ =

RT

= 400 kPa/(287 J/kg.K)(355.14 K)

ρ = 3.924 kg/m3

11

1.15: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Apply the grid method.

Situation:

Wind is hitting a window of building.

2

Δp = ρV2 .

ρ = 1.2 kg/ m3 , V = 100 km/h.

Find:

Express the answer in pascals.

PLAN

Follow the process for the grid method given in the text. Look up conversion ratios

in Table F.1.

SOLUTION

ρV 2

Δp =

2

2 2

1 1.2 kg 100 km/h 1000 m/km Pa · m · s2

=

2 m3 1.0 3600 s/h kg

Δp = 463 Pa

12

1.16: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Apply the grid method.

Situation:

Force is given by F = ma.

m = 10 kg, a = 10 m/ s2 .

Find:

Calculate force.

PLAN

Follow the process for the grid method given in the text. Look up conversion ratios

in Table F.1.

SOLUTION

F = ma

m N · s2

= (10 kg) 10 2

s kg · m

F = 100 N

13

1.17: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Apply the grid method.

Situation:

A cyclist is travelling along a road.

P = F V.

V = 40 km/ h, F = 22 N.

Find:

a) Find power in watts.

b) Find the energy in food calories to ride for 1 hour.

PLAN

Follow the process for the grid method given in the text. Look up conversion ratios

in Table F.1.

SOLUTION

a)

Power

P = FV

1000 m/km

= (22 N) (40 km/h)

3600 s/h

P = 244 W

b)

Energy

ΔE = P

Δt

244 J 3600 s 1.0 calorie (nutritional)

= (1 h)

s h 4187 J

ΔE = 209.8 calories

14

1.18: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Apply the grid method.

Situation:

A pump operates for one year.

P = 3.926 kg/m3

The pump operates for 20 hours/day.

Electricity costs $0.10/kWh.

Find:

The cost (U.S. dollars) of operating the pump for one year.

PLAN

1. Find energy consumed using E = P t, where P is power and t is time.

2. Find cost using C = E × ($0.1/kWh).

SOLUTION

1. Energy Consumed

E = Pt

20 h365 d

= 15 kW

d year

kWh

= 1.095 × 10 W · h

8

per year

1000 W · h

2. Cost

C = E($0.1/kWh)

$0.10

= 1.095 × 10 kWh

5

kWh

C = $10, 950

15

1.19: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Start with the Ideal Gas Law and prove that

a. Boyle’s law is true.

b. Charles’ law is true.

PLAN

Start with Ideal Gas Law

pV = nRu T

SOLUTION

a) If the temperature is held constant, then

pV = nRu × constant

for a given number of molecules of a given gas,

pV = constant

⇒ Boyle’s Law is True

pV = nRu T

If the pressure is held constant, for a given number of molecules (n), of a given gas,

V

= constant

T

⇒ Charles’ Law is True

16

1.20: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Calculate the number of molecules in:

a) One cubic cm of water at room conditions

b) One cubic cm of air at room conditions

a)

PLAN

1. The density of water at room conditions is known (Table A.5 EFM10e), and the

volume is given, so:

m = ρV

2. From the Internet, water has a molar mass of 18 g/mol, use this to determine the

number of moles in this sample.

3. Avogadro’s number says that there are 6 × 1023 molecules/mol

SOLUTION

1.

m = ρwater V

Assume conditions are atmospheric with T = 20◦ C and ρ = 998 mkg3

998 kg 1 m3

mwater = 1 cm3

m3 1003 cm3

mwater = 0.001 kg

1 mol 1000 g

number of moles = (0.0010 kg)

18 g 1 kg

number of moles = 0.056 mol

6 × 1023 molecules

(0.056 mol)

mol

number of molecules = 3.36×1022 molecules

17

b)

PLAN

1. The density of air at room conditions is known (Table A.3 EFM10e), and the

volume is given, so:

m = ρV

2. From the Internet, dry air has a molar mass of 28.97 g/mol, use this to determine

the number of moles in this sample.

3. Avogadro’s number says that there are 6 × 1023 molecules/mol

SOLUTION

1.

m = ρair V

Assume conditions are atmospheric with T = 20◦ C and ρ = 1.20 mkg3

1.20 kg 1 m3

mair = 3 3 3

1 cm3

m 100 cm

−6

mair = 1.2 × 10 kg

−6

1 mol 1000 g

number of moles = 1.2 × 10 kg

28.97 g 1 kg

number of moles = 4.14×10−5 mol

−5

6 × 1023 molecules

4.14 × 10 mol

mol

number of molecules = 2.5 × 1019 molecules

REVIEW

There are more moles in one cm3 of water than one cm3 of dry air. This makes sense,

because the molecules in a liquid are held together by weak inter-molecular bonding,

and in gases they are not; see Table 1.1 in Section 1.2 (EFM 10e).

18

1.21: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Start with the molar form of the Ideal Gas Law, and show the steps to prove that

the mass form is correct.

SOLUTION

The molar form is:

pV = nRu T

Where n = number of moles of gas, and the Universal Gas Constant = Ru =

8.314 J/ mol · K.

Speciﬁc gas constants are given by

Ru

Rspeciﬁc = R =

molar mass of a gas

8.314 J X moles

=

mol · K g

J

= 8.314 X

g· K

Indeed, we see that the units for gas constants, R, in Table A.2 (EFM10e), are

J

kg· K

So

m

pV = (Rspeciﬁc ) (m) (T ) and ρ =

V

p = ρRT

19

1.22: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Start with the universal gas constant and show that RN2 = 297 kg·J K .

SOLUTION

Start with universal gas constant:

8.314 J

Ru =

mol · K

The molar mass of nitrogen, N2 , is 28.02 g/mol.

Ru 8.314 J 1 mol 1000 g

RN 2 = =

molar mass mol · K 28.02 g 1 kg

= 297 kg·J K

20

1.23: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Spherical tank of CO2 , does p2 = 4p1 ?

Case 1:

p = 303.9 kPa

T = 20◦ C

Volume is constant inside the tank

Case 2:

p=?

T = 80◦ C

Volume for case 2 is equivalent to that in case 1

PLAN

1. Volume inside the tank is constant, as is the mass.

Mass is related to volume by density.

2. Use the Ideal Gas Law to ﬁnd P2 .

SOLUTION

1. Mass in terms of density

m = ρV

m

For both case 1 and 2, ρ1 = = ρ2 , because mass is contained by the tank.

V

2. Ideal Gas Law for constant volume

p

ρ =

RT

p1 p2

ρ1,2 = =

RT1 RT2

p1 p2

=

T1 T2

Therefore, if T2 = 4T1 , Then p2 = 4p1 ; however, the Ideal Gas Law applies ONLY

if the temperature is absolute, which for this system means Kelvin. In the problem

statement, the temperatures were given in Centigrade. We need to convert the given

temperatures to Kelvin in order to relate them to the pressures. We see that the

ratio of temperatures in K is not 1:4. Rather,

20◦ C = 293.15 K, and

80◦ C = 353.15 K

T2 353.15 K p2

Therefore, T1

= 293.15 K

= p1

= 1.2

21

⇒ No, p2 does not equal 4p1 . Instead, p2 = 1.2 p1 .

REVIEW

Always convert T to Kelvin (SI) when working with Ideal Gas Law.

22

1.24: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

An engineer needs to know the local density for an experiment with a glider.

z = 762 m.

Local temperature = 23.5 ◦ C = 296.7 K.

Local pressure = 92.2 kPa.

Find:

Calculate density of air using local conditions.

Compare calculated density with the value from Table A.2, and make a recommen-

dation.

Properties:

J N· m

From Table A.2, Rair = 287 kg· K

= 287 kg· K

, ρ = 1.22 kg/ m3 .

PLAN

Calculate density by applying the ideal gas law for local conditions.

SOLUTION

Ideal gas law

p

ρ =

RT

92, 200 N/ m2

=

N· m

287 kg· K

(296.7 K)

= 1.083 kg/m3

Table value. From Table A.2

The density diﬀerence (local conditions versus table value) is about 14%. Most

of this diﬀerence is due to the eﬀect of elevation on atmospheric pressure.

Recommendation–use the local value of density because the eﬀects of elevation are signiﬁcant .

REVIEW

Note: Use absolute pressure when working with the ideal gas law.

23

1.25: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Carbon dioxide.

Find:

Density and speciﬁc weight of CO2 .

Properties:

From Table A.2, RCO2 = 189 J/kg·K.

p = 300 kPa, T = 60 ◦ C.

PLAN

1. First, apply the ideal gas law to ﬁnd density.

2. Then, calculate speciﬁc weight using γ = ρg.

SOLUTION

1. Ideal gas law

P

ρCO2 =

RT

300, 000 Pa

=

(189 J/ kg K) (60 + 273) K

ρCO2 = 4.77 kg/m3

2. Speciﬁc weight

γ = ρg

Thus

γ CO2 = ρCO2 × g

= 4.77 kg/ m3 × 9.81 m/ s2

γ CO2 = 46.8 N/m3

REVIEW

Always use absolute pressure when working with the ideal gas law.

24

1.26: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Methane gas.

Find:

Density (kg/m3 ).

Properties:

J

From Table A.2, RMethane = 518 kg· K

p = 300 kPa, T = 60 ◦ C.

PLAN

1. Apply the ideal gas law to ﬁnd density.

SOLUTION

1. Ideal gas law

p

ρMethane =

RT

300, 000 mN2

=

518 kg·J K (60 + 273 K)

ρMethane = 1.74 kg/m3

REVIEW

Always use absolute pressure when working with the ideal gas law.

25

1.27: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Find D for 10 moles of methane gas.

p = 2 × 105 Pa = 2 × 105 N/m2

T = 21◦ C = 294 K

Properties:

Rmethane = 518 J/kg-K

PLAN

1. Find volume to get diameter.

2. Moles of methane can be related to mass by molecular weight.

3. Mass and volume are related by density.

4. Ideal Gas Law for constant volume.

p

ρ=

RT

SOLUTION

1.

4 3 1

V sphere = πr = πD3

3 6

3 6V

=⇒ D =

π

mol

g

.

Thus, 10 moles of methane weighs 160 g.

3.

m Known

ρ= =

V Unknown

4.

P Known 2 × 105 N/m2

ρ= = =

RT Known (518 J/kg-K)(294 K)

5. Solve for density, then go back and solve for volume, yielding V = 0.122 m3 .

6. Use volume to solve for diameter

D = 0.62 m

REVIEW

Always convert Temperature to Kelvin (SI) when working with Ideal Gas Law.

26

1.28: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Natural gas is stored in a spherical tank.

Find:

Ratio of ﬁnal mass to initial mass in the tank.

Properties:

patm = 100 kPa, p1 = 100 kPa-gage.

p2 = 200 kPa-gage, T = 10 ◦ C.

PLAN

Use the ideal gas law to develop a formula for the ratio of ﬁnal mass to initial mass.

SOLUTION

1. Mass in terms of density

M = ρV (1)

2. Ideal gas law

p

ρ= (2)

RT

3. Combine Eqs. (1) and (2)

M = ρV

= (p/RT )V

M2 p2

=

M1 p1

and

M2 200 kPa

=

M1 100 kPa

M2

M1

=2

27

1.29: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Wind and water at 100 ◦ C and 500 kPa.

Find:

Ratio of density of water to density of air.

Properties:

Air, Table A.2: Rair = 287 J/kg·K.

Water (100o C), Table A.5: ρwater = 958 kg/m3 .

PLAN

Apply the ideal gas law to air.

SOLUTION

Ideal gas law

p

ρair =

RT

500, 000 Pa

=

(287 J/ kg K) (100 + 273) K

= 4.67 kg/m3

For water

ρwater = 958 kg/m3

Ratio

ρwater 958 kg/ m3

=

ρair 4.67 kg/ m3

ρwater

= 205

ρair

REVIEW

Always use absolute pressures when working with the ideal gas law.

28

1.30: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Oxygen ﬁlls a tank.

V tank = 23.5◦ C, Wtank = 400 N.

Find:

Weight (tank plus oxygen).

Properties:

From Table A.2, RO2 = 260 J/kg.K.

p = 2758 kPa, T = 21◦ C.

PLAN

1. Apply the ideal gas law to ﬁnd density of oxygen.

2. Find the weight of the oxygen using speciﬁc weight (γ) and add this to the weight

of the tank.

SOLUTION

1. Ideal gas law

T = 21 + 273.14 = 294.14 K

p

ρ =

RT

2758 kPa

=

(260 J/kg.K)(294.14 K)

ρ = 36.063 kg/m3

2. Speciﬁc weight

γ = ρg

= 36.063 kg/m3 × 9.81 m/s2

γ = 353.78 N/m3

= 60.14 N

Wtotal = Woxygen + Wtank

= 60.14 N + 400 N

Wtotal = 460.14 N

29

REVIEW

1. For compressed gas in a tank, pressures are often very high and the ideal gas

assumption is invalid. For this problem the pressure is about 3.4 kPa–it is a good

idea to check a thermodynamics reference to analyze whether or not real gas eﬀects

are signiﬁcant.

2. Always use absolute pressure when working with the ideal gas law.

30

1.31: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Oxygen is released from a tank through a valve.

V = 4 m3 .

Find:

Mass of oxygen that has been released.

Properties:

RO2 = 260 kg·J K .

p1 = 700 kPa, T1 = 20 ◦ C.

p2 = 500 kPa, T2 = 20 ◦ C.

PLAN

1. Use ideal gas law, expressed in terms of density and the gas-speciﬁc (not universal)

gas constant.

2. Find the density for the case before the gas is released; and then mass from

density, given the tank volume.

3. Find the density for the case after the gas is released, and the corresponding mass.

4. Calculate the mass diﬀerence, which is the mass released.

SOLUTION

1. Ideal gas law

p

ρ=

RT

2. Density and mass for case 1

ρ1 = N· m

(260 kg· K

)(293 K)

kg

ρ1 = 9.19

m3

M1 = ρ 1 V

kg

= 9.19 3

× 4 m3

m

M1 = 36.8 kg

ρ2 = N· m

(260 kg· K

)(293 K)

kg

ρ2 = 6.56

m3

31

M2 = ρ 1 V

kg

= 6.56 × 4 m3

m3

M2 = 26.3 kg

M1 − M2 = 36.8 − 26.3

M1 − M2 = 10.5 kg

32

1.32: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Properties of air.

Find:

Speciﬁc weight (N/m3 ).

Density (kg/m3 ).

Properties:

J

From Table A.2, R = 287 kg· K

.

p = 600 kPa, T = 50 ◦ C.

PLAN

First, apply the ideal gas law to ﬁnd density. Then, calculate speciﬁc weight using

γ = ρg.

SOLUTION

1. Ideal gas law

P

ρair =

RT

600, 000 Pa

=

(287 J/ kg K) (50 + 273) K

ρair = 6.47 kg/m3

2. Speciﬁc weight

γ air = ρair × g

= 6.47 kg/ m3 × 9.81 m/ s2

γ air = 63.5 N/ m3

REVIEW

Always use absolute pressure when working with the ideal gas law.

33

1.33: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Consider a mass of air in the atmosphere.

V = 4.17 km3 .

Find:

Mass of air using units of kg.

Properties:

From Table A.2, ρair = 1.22 kg/m3 .

Assumptions:

The density of air is the value at sea level for standard conditions.

SOLUTION

M = ρV

M = 1.22 kg/m3 × (4.17 × 109 ) m3

M = 5.09 × 109 kg

REVIEW

The mass will probably be somewhat less than this because density decreases with

altitude.

34

1.34: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

For a cyclist, temperature changes aﬀect air density, thereby aﬀecting both aerody-

namic drag and tire pressure.

Find:

a) Plot air density versus temperature for a range of -10o C to 50o C.

b) Plot tire pressure versus temperature for the same temperature range.

Properties:

From Table A.2, Rair = 287 J/kg/K.

Initial conditions for part b: p = 450 kPa, T = 20 ◦ C.

Assumptions:

For part b, assume that the bike tire volume does not change.

PLAN

Apply the ideal gas law.

SOLUTION

a.) Ideal gas law

p 101000 Pa

ρ= =

RT (287 J/ kg K) (273 + T )

1.40

1.35

1.30

Density (kg/m3)

1.25

1.20

1.15

1.10

1.05

–20 –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Temperature (°C )

b.) If the volume is constant, since mass can’t change, then density must be constant.

Thus

p po

=

T To

T

p = 450 kPa

20 ◦ C

35

520

500

480

460

440

420

400

380

–20 –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Temperature,°C

36

1.35: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Design of a CO2 cartridge to inﬂate a rubber raft.

Inﬂation pressure = 21 kPa above patm = 122 kPa abs.

Find:

Estimate the volume of the raft.

Calculate the mass of CO2 (in grams) to inﬂate the raft.

Sketch:

Assumptions:

CO2 in the raft is at 15 ◦ C = 288 K.

Volume of the raft ≈ Volume of a cylinder with D = 0.45 m & L = 16 m (8 meters

for the length of the sides and 8 meters for the lengths of the ends plus center tubes).

Properties:

CO2 , Table A.2, R = 189 J/kg·K.

PLAN

Since mass is related to volume by m = ρV, the steps are:

1. Find volume using the formula for a cylinder.

2. Find density using the ideal gas law (IGL).

3. Calculate mass.

SOLUTION

1. Volume

πD2

V = ×L

4

π × 0.452

= × 16 m3

4

V = 2.54 m3

37

2. Ideal gas law

p

ρ =

RT

122, 000 N/ m2

=

(189 J/ kg · K) (288 K)

= 2.24 kg/m3

3. Mass of CO2

m = ρV

= 2.24 kg/m3 2.54 m3

m = 5690 g

REVIEW

The ﬁnal mass (5.69 kg = 55.8 N) is large. This would require a large and potentially

expensive CO2 tank. Thus, this design idea may be impractical for a product that is

driven by cost.

38

1.36: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

A helium ﬁlled balloon is being designed.

r = 1.3 m, z = 25, 000 m.

Find:

Weight of helium inside balloon.

Properties:

From Table A.2, RHe = 2077 J/kg·K.

p = 89 kPa, T = 22 ◦ C = 295.2 K.

PLAN

Weight is given by W = mg. Mass is related to volume by M = ρ ∗ V. Density can

be found using the ideal gas law.

SOLUTION

Volume in a sphere

4 3

V = πr

3

4

= π (1.3 m)3

3

= 9.203 m3

p

ρ =

RT

89, 000 N/ m2

=

(2077 J/ kg · K) (295.2 K)

= 0.145 kg/m3

Weight of helium

W = ρ×V×g

= 0.145 kg/m3 × 9.203 m3 × 9.81 m/ s2

= 13.10 N

Weight = 13.1 N

39

1.37: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

From Example 1.2 in §1.7, state the 3 steps that an engineer takes to “State the

Goal”.

SOLUTION

1. List the variable(s) to be solved for.

2. List the units on these variables.

3. Describe each variable(s) with a short statement.

40

1.38: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

The hydrostatic equation is

p

+z =C

γ

p is pressure, γ is speciﬁc weight, z is elevation and C is a constant.

Find:

Prove that the hydrostatic equation is dimensionally homogeneous.

PLAN

Show that each term has the same primary dimensions. Thus, show that the primary

dimensions of p/γ equal the primary dimensions of z. Find primary dimensions using

Table F.1.

SOLUTION

1. Primary dimensions of p/γ:

2 2

p [p] M LT

= = 2

=L

γ [γ] LT M

2. Primary dimensions of z :

[z] = L

3. Dimensional homogeneity. Since the primary dimensions of each term is length,

the equation is dimensionally homogeneous. Note that the constant C in the equation

will also have the same primary dimension.

41

1.39: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Four terms are given in the problem statement.

Find: Primary dimensions of each term.

a) ρV 2 /σ (kinetic pressure).

b) T (torque).

c) P (power).

d) ρV 2 L/σ (Weber number).

SOLUTION

a. Kinetic pressure:

2

ρV 2 2 M L M

= [ρ] [V ] = =

2 L 3 T L · T2

b. Torque.

ML M · L2

[Torque] = [Force] [Distance] = (L) =

T2 T2

c. Power (from Table F.1).

M · L2

[P ] =

T3

d. Weber Number:

= = = []

σ [σ] (M/T 2 )

42

1.40: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

The power provided by a centrifugal pump is given by:

P = ṁgh

Find:

Prove that the above equation is dimensionally homogenous.

PLAN

1. Look up primary dimensions of P and ṁ using Table F.1.

2. Show that the primary dimensions of P are the same as the primary dimensions

of ṁgh.

SOLUTION

1. Primary dimensions:

M · L2

[P ] =

T3

M

[ṁ] =

T

L

[g] =

T2

[h] = L

M L M · L2

[ṁgh] = [ṁ] [g] [h] = (L) =

T T2 T3

43

1.41: PROBLEM DEFINITION

Situation:

Two

terms are speciﬁed.

a. ρV 2 dA.

d

b. dt ρV dV .

V

Find:

Primary dimensions for each term.

PLAN

1. To ﬁnd primary dimensions for term a, use the idea that an integral is deﬁned

using a sum.

2. To ﬁnd primary dimensions for term b, use the idea that a derivative is deﬁned

using a ratio.

SOLUTION

Term a:

2

2

2
M L 2 ML

ρV dA = [ρ] V [A] = L = T2

L3 T

Term b:

ρV dV M L

d [ρ] [V ] [V] L3 T

(L3 ) ML

ρV dV = = = = T2

dt V [t] [t] T

44

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