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# FORMULA SHEET (Thermofluids

)

mass m density of substance
Density   Relative density,S 
volume V density of water

Vol 1 Vol
Specific volume   Volumetric Flow Rate V   Area  Velocity
m  t

 (Density  Volumetric Flow rate)
  Av (Density  Area  velocity)  V
Mass flow Rate, m

Pressure
Pabs  Pg  Patmos Pg  Pabs  Patmos Pvac  Patmos  Pabs
Gas Law
PV  mRT

Pv  RT

R  Cp - C v
Cp Cp
k For an Isentropic process n  k 
Cv Cv
Work, Energy and Flow
Energy transport by mass transport,E  InternalEnergy  Flow Work  Kinetic Energy  PotentialEnergy
mv 2 mv 2 1
 (U  PV   mgz )  ( H   mgz )  m(h  v 2  gz )
2 2 2
E  1 
e   h  v 2  gz 
m  2 
Q 
Q
q 
q
W 
W w mv 2
t t t
w  KE  PE  mgz
t 2
V2

Constant volume (V1=V2): W   PdV  0
V1

V2

Constant pressure (P1=P2): W   PdV  P(V2  V1 )  mP(v2  v1 )
V1

V2
V2 V2
 PdV  const ln V
V
Constant temperature (T1=T2): W   mRT ln  PV ln 2
V1 1 V1 V1

 n 1  n 1
 V1 P2V2  P1V1
V2
V2
W   PdV  const 
Polytropic process (P1V1n=P2V2n): V1
 n 1 1 n

Welectric = VIt, Wmech= Tt, = 2N/60

Internal Energy, U or u: U  mcv T  mcv T2  T1  u  cv T  cv T2  T1 

Enthalpy, H or h: H  mc p T  mc p T2  T1  h  c p T  c p T2  T1 

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Q  RT Thermal Resistance RT For Walls For Pipes (per unit length) L  R1   R2   R0  R for conduction  ln R   ln R   ln R  kA 1 1 RT   i   1   . Cv= Cp-R ( if not given) page 2 .out  m(h  V  PE )  v 2  v in 2   m hout  hin   out  g  z out  z in   2    Closed System : Qnet .in  Wnet ..out  E sys  mu Pure Substances Specific volume of wet vapour: v = vf + x vfg Specific enthalpy of wet vapour: h = hf + xhfg Specific Internal Energy of wet u = uf + xufg vapour: Conduction & Convection Thermal Resistance R  L for Solids kA (Th  Tc ) Rate of heat transfer.287 kJ/kg K.First Law : Ein – Eout = ΔEsystem Open System (steady) : Qnet .004 kJ/kgK.... Cp=1.   n 1   1 hi 2R i  2k   2k   2k  ho 2R o R for convection hA       1 2 n For air : consider R=0.in  Wnet .