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Friedman, Susan Stanford. "Migrations, Diasporas, and Borders.

" Introduction to Scholarship in

Modern Languages and Literatures. Ed. David Nicholls. New York: MLA, 2007. 260–293 Swan Slanford Fmdman 261

discursive regimes. and systems of representa­ and inequities that accompanied the rise and fall
tion developed during the heyday of postStruc­ of numerous empires worldwide. What is differ­
lUralist theory in the 19805. But its widespread ent is the particular fonn that globalization be­
impact on mainstream Iiter::lry scholarship StartS g:tn to take by the end of the twentieth century:
with the return to history and the rise of inter­ a highly accelerated fonn of the global ecumene
r--J Migrations, Diasporas, and Borders disciplinary cultural studies beginning in the in which technologies of travel. infonnation, me­
early 1990s. dia, exchange, and violence have intensified the
Literary scholarship on migration, diaspora. patterns. mechanisms. and degrees of intercon­
SUSAN STANFORD FRIEDMAN and borders has not evolved as a Single field: nectedncss. This contemporary phase of global­
each subject has its own complex history of for­ ization is distinctive at least in part because the
mation and institutional expression in the acad­ new technologies of the so-called infonnation

Identity is chmlged by IIH: journey. emy. Moreover, each is particularized in refer­ revolution are primarily representational in na­
ence to the languages, national literatures, and ture. enabling (in a way the steam engine did
-Madan Sarup, �Home and Idcntityft
particular geographies under study. But the cul­ not) radically new forms of knowledge produc­
tural theory of these distinct fields has become tion, dissemination, sUlveillance, and commu­
Living on borders ,HId in margins, keeping in/acf onc's shifting and fIlulfiple increasingly interwoven and mutually constitu­ nication in the vinual realities of cybcrspace.1
identity and integrity. is 'illt trying CO swim in a new elemenl, an "aliel1� tive in literary studies. They cohere. without The anthropologist Arjun Appadurai, a
element having the coherence of a single school, whether founder of the innuential journal Public Culture,
in theoretical, methodological, or institutional has theorized that the intensified global flow of
-Gloria Anzaldlia, Borderlands / La FrOn/era
terms. Vast in scope and dispar.He in design, they money, goods, people, and media in this period
pose an enonnous challenge for anyone attempt­ of late modernity (or postmodernity, as some
ing an overview, a challenge compounded by the tenn it) has led to a worldwide network of cul­
Out of Africa the human species came, dispers­ in goods, ideas, peoples, and practices (Khaza­ new mandate in literary studies for planelat)' tural traffic and a global ethnoscape that has bro­
ing across the globe. over the cons. The trans­ nov: Weathcrford). Great transcontinental pat­ thinking and the decline of the nation-state ken down seemingly fixed differences among na­
national Genome Project, involving scientists terns of travel and intercultur.ll contact have model. This essay represents a preliminary map­ lional cultures. ethnicities. and races (Modernity
from all over the. world, is the mark of the times. shaped every period in history and every pan of ping, and although I strive to be inclusive, it no 48: sce esp. 48-66). Massive movementS of peo­
the science of human beings constantly on the the globe. Movement, whether forced or sought doubt reflects my rOOts in the field of twentieth­ ple as refugees and migrantS in a world filled
move, creating contact zones of genes and more Out, is the foundation of human evolution and and twenty-first-century literary studies and cul­ with ethnic and religiOUS violence, national con­
th:m gcnes-<:ulturcs; ways of being in the the history of change on a global landscape. tural theory, predominantly in English. flicts, and widening divisions among rich and
world; ways of creating; ways of hating; ways of Migrations, diaspor::ls, and borders are noth­ Why now-the naming of migrations, dias­ poor countries have swelled the cities of the
conquering and being conquered: ways of sur­ ing new; they have shaped human cultures from poras, and borders as a field? In l word. global­ world with peoples from many locales, setting in
viving. endUring, and resisting. The anthropol­ time immemorial. But as areas of inquiry in lit­ ization, a tenn with shifting meanings that spawn motion radical juxtapositions of different lan­
ogist James Clifford calls it -traveling cultures� erary studies, they arc relatively new, developing debate about its politics. its utopian possibilities. guages and cultural practices. Cosmopolitanism,
and invites us to look not only to the culrures OUt of the past two and a half decades of inno­ and its dystopic realities. I For some. like Fredric once thought to be the privilege of metropolitan
of dwellings and fixed places but also to the vation in the humanities. Rooted in the depar­ Jameson and Masao Mi)'oshi, globalization refers eliles, lTavclers, and expatriate artistS. is newly
cultures of mobility, of those who travel, mi­ tures from New Criticism :md from traditional solely to the contemporary period, often associ­ understood to include those who move in search
grate, and bring differences into contact with forms of literary hisLOry in the 1970s, the study ated with late capitalism. For others, including of a more secure or better life at the most basic
one another to make new culLUral formations of migration, diasporas, and borders gathered mc, globalization is not a new phenomenon, al­ level of survival. even those whose migration
based on exchange and intermingling-.m in­ momentum in the late 1980s and 1990s, emerg­ though the naming of it is new, indicating is only ambiguously voluntary or decidedly
tenningling that is sometimes creatively recip­ ing preeminently from postcolonial sLUdies. heightened awareness of what has been there all involuntary.}
rocal, sometimes oppreSSively brutal, and often the rising interest in travel writing. and the in­ along. The routes of ceaseless intercultural Blurring the boundaries between home and
a complex mLXlUre of the two (Rouu:s 17-46). terdiSCiplinary fields centered on questiOns of exchange among different societies-what Philip elsewhere, migration increasingly involves mul­
Nomads, once thought to identity-roee and ethniC Cunin and others have called the global ecu­ tiple moves from place to place and continual
Great transcontinental pauems of travel back and forth instead of journeys from
exist at the irrelevant fringe studies, gender studies, sex­ mene-developed as a constitutive element of
of �civiliz:l.lion,ft are being travel :md intercultural contact uality studies. This study has human civilization, involving the dispersion of one location to another. The Internet has trans­

newly underSlOod as the im­ have sh..ped every period in history been also innuenced by the peoples, the fonnation of vast trade routes and fonned the diasporic experience of many
prcssarios of cultural traffic and every part of the g lobe . analysis of textual language, interconnecting mctropoles. and the conquest through the formation of virtual communities

262 Migratiolls, Diasporas, anti Borders Susan SwnJorcl Fl'iedlllan 263

connecting the far-nung with those still back Instead of focusing exclUSively on a national north-soulh and east-west axes to incorporate now widely cited, Michel Foucauh predicted,

home. Many migrants and diasporics associate literature wilhin the boundaries of a single examination of indigenous and migratory cul­ "The present epoch will perhaps be above all the

home nOt with a particular geographic lotation nation-state. literary scholarship has shifted dra­ tures from every continem as these have shaped epoch of space. We are III the epoch of simul­

but with an �imagin;!ry homcland* (Rushdic, matically toward a transnational perspective: the literatures of the United States.1I taneity: wc are in the epoch of juxtaposition, the

Imaginary Homelands 9-21). with the experience literatures written in a common language in dif­ The new globalization has also reshaped com­ epoch of the ncar and far, of the side-by-side, of

of being perpclUally in between cultures, or with ferem parts of the globe. POStcolonial studies parative literature, undermining the discipline's the dispcrsed� (22). Migr.ltions. diasporas, and

an affili:lIion based on a communal identification dominated by the literature and culture of the early emphasis on European culture capitals, ex­ borders heighten the meanings for literature of

that crosses nmiona! boundaries (e.g., religion, British Empire and the new nations that emerged tending the bases of comparison to non-Western juxtaposition, ne:u and far, side by side, and dis­

gender, queerness. indigcneity).� The writing of from its demise has transformed British and literatures. and fostering the development of persion nOt only in themes explored but also in

home has become in a variety of ways, from the Commonwealth literary studies by providing a translation studies (Apter: Bassnen: Uonnet and the forms of literary embodiment.

literal to the metaphoric, increasingly detcrrilo­ new theoretical framework for analysis; expand­ Shih; Saussy, Compa rative Ultralllre; Spivak, Geography has been rapidly acquiring a new

rialized.' Globalization has not eliminated the ing the canon to indude literatures in English Dealh). Race and ethnicity studies have moved Significance for liter:try studies and remains an

power of nalionalism as a global force. BUllrans­ throughout the anglophone world; and high­ toward the examination of transnational and in­ essential interdiscipline for migration, diaspora,

n'Hionai mass media, economies, cultural prac­ lighting the signif1cance of the colonies for the tranational diasporas: tracking the forced or vol­ and border studies. History has long been im­

tices. and peoples have reshaped nalional inSli­ formation of literature in Britain, including Brit­ untary migration of peoples across continents portant for literary studies and will surely remain

tmions and identities and made for new fomls ish literature not written in English. 1 Latin Amer­ and wlthin national boundaries, tracing the so, at the very least for the historical contextual­

of interplay (both creative and destructive) be­ ican and United States Latino/a literary and cul­ meanings of shifting borders for indigenous peo­ ization of writers and literary texts. for histOrical

tween the global and the local. tural studies has rapidly expanded in Spanish ples, and identifying the formation of new eth­ narratives of literary movemenLS and genres, and

Onc effect of this newest phase in globaliza­ depanmems, often quite separate from the study nicities over time and space.\! for identification of change and continuity over

tion has been increased atlention to tr.msnatiOn­ of Iberian Spanish literature and renecting long­ The rapid emergence of transnationalism and lime. But geography is gaining a compensatory

alism in literature and language, a change overdue allemion to the Spanish literatures of globalization as perv3sive categories in literary presence, providing concepts for thinking about

marked by a special issue of PMLA, GlobaliZing the Americas since the early days of contact studies helps explain the new Significance of the literal)' meanings of location, movement, si­

Literary Studies, edited by Giles Gunn in 200l. through the presem (Alley; Anderson and Kuhn­ migration, diaspora, and borders as a cross­ multaneity, juxtaposition, and interactions of

The articles in that issuc contrast sharply with heim; R. Johnson; McClennen: Mignolo, Darker departmental and cross-speciality f1eld of inquiry sameness and difference.

the 1992 edition of the MlJ\'s IfllrodllClion co Side and Local Histories; Pr-m). The study of Por­ in the study of modem languages. What brings The work of such geographers as Henri Le­

Scholarship, which included an overview essay on tuguese literature, typically located in depart­ together the three areas of interest in this field is febvre, Edward Soja, Unda McDowell, and Do­

border studies, as well as essays on feminist and ments that originaHy focused on the Iberian Pen­ underlying questions about identity in motion reen Massey variously establishes ways in which

gender studies, ethnic and minority studies, and insula, has now broadened to become lusophone on a transnational landscape-not only identity space is conceived not as empty or neutral-the

cultural studies (Gibaldi).t.lmplicitly framing all studies, encompassing literatures produced in as it is changed by the journey, to echo the epi­ backdrop of history-but rather as full: genera­

these earlier essays was the overriding signifi­ Portugal's former colonies in South America. Af­ gr.lph from Mad:tn Sarup, but also identity as it tive of situ::l1ion, relation, and soci:tl being;

cance of the nation-state as the emit)' within rica, and Asia in the world's sixth most common is in a continual process of (re)fonnation in re­ marked by formations of power and resistance.

which these issues pla)'cd out in literary studies. language (sce, e.g., utSopllOne Studies). The fran­ lation to changing spaces and times. The feminist Not a static essence, space in these terms is a

Greater attention {Q nationalism, national iden­ cophone world, especially in the Caribbean and critic Carole Boyce Davies terms these phenom­ location of histOrical overdctennination, a site

tity, and geopoliticS in literary studies in the past Africa, has blended with postcolonial studies to ena �migrations of the subjecl."lo As the geog­ for the production of commun:ll and individual

decade or so has paradoxicall}' led to the oppo­ become a significant new area in French literary raphers Michael Keith and Steve Pile argue, identities. In short, geography is providing

site: gre:ller understanding of the porousness of studies. even as the statuS of French as the Midentity and location [arc] insepar.lble: knowing literary studies with a new form of contexlUaH­

the cultural borders of the nation-state; how the oneself {isl :tn exercise in mapping where one zation-a speciflcJJly spatial onc that comple­
world's lingua franca has yielded to English
history of empire and (post)colonialism binds (Forsdkk and Murphy; Jack). The breakllp of standsn (26). Or, in the Widely cited words of the ments the long-standing methodologies of his­

the literatures of different partS of the world to­ the Soviet Union into many nations has neces­ feminist poet and social critic Adrienne Rich, we toricization. For migration. diaspora, and border

gether; how national liter.nures arc fonned in sitated the development of tr:tnsnalional analysis need "10 undersland how a place on the map is studies in particular, the new geography often

conjunction with the litcratures of othcr nmions; in Slavic and central Asian studies (Moore). also a pl:tce in historyM (212). The geographies provides conceptu:tl tools for thinking about the

and how interconnected and mutually constitu­ Where American studies used to focus on the of identity articulated in the f1eld renect new at­ multiple spatialities of identities in motion.

tive the cultures of the world have always been­ formation of the United States and its cultures as tention to space (and embodiment in given lo­ Anthropology has been as important for mi­

:md will continue to be in ever-intensified ways, distinct from Europe and other lands of immi­ cations) as a constitutive component of human gration, diaspora, and border studies as geogra­

because of the new technologies of knowledge grant origins. the field is now decidedly trans­ experience and culture. In a prescient lecture phy-not the structuralist anthropology that in­

and communication. nmion:tl in emph,lsis, reconstituting itself along given in 1967. appearing in English in 1986 :lnd fluenced Northrop FIYc's archetypal criticism in
264 Migrarions, Diasporas, and Borders SUSlln Stal1Jord Ftidman 265

the I 950s-60s, and only partially thc theoret­ Migration turcs of the Indian Ocean (e.g., Ghosh). Another cades by fOCUSing on the experience and writ­
ical anthropology pervasive in the new histori­ major shift in migration studics has come from ings of single ethnic, national. or racial groups
cism in the 1980s (e,g., Cbude Levi-Strauss, The movement of peoples from onc place to an­ what many sce as a significant change in global or by initiating some comparative study across
Victor Turner, Mary Douglas, etc.). Rather. the other around the globe is a history of dislocation migration patterns in the second half of the different groups. Criticism on migration narra­
anthropologies of cultural identity thm devel­ and relocation, displacement and emplacement, twentieth century, leading to what is widely tives in the Unitcd States still predominates, with
oped in conjunction with area studies, postco­ lOSing homes and making new homes, living in termed the new migration. The rise to economic some postcolonial criticism of migration narra­
lonial studies. gender and sexuality stlldies, race a limbo between worlds and adapting over lime and military power of the United States after tives in Britain and Europe now appearing as
and ethnicity studies. and (posl)modemity stud­ to new ways, bcing changed by and also chang­ World War 1I and the 1965 Immigration Act. wclL Alpana. Shanna Knippling's New Immigrant
ies have shaped criticism on the literatures of ing the culture of the adopted land. As a tenn, which effectively opened the Litcralltres in the United States
writers and communities defined by movement migration encompasses a plethora of distinct mi­ door that had been shut in Migration has been a powerful is an invaluable sourcebook
and intercuhural encounter. Anthropologists grants, sometimes subLly and sometimes vastly 1924, have made the United stimulant to l itera ry presenting introductions to
such as Clifford, Appadurai, Lila Abu-Lughod, different from onc another in relation to Struc­ States a magnet for those from e.xpressions of identity in 11I0tion the history, culture, and liter­
Ruth Bchar (Bchar and Gordon), Kirin Narayan. tures of power and privilege and to issues of the Caribbean, Latin America, and the self-fashioning that ature of post-World War 11
Renato Ros;1
i do, Michael T:lUssig, Michel-Rolph agency: refugees, cosmopolitans, exiles, diaspor­ Africa, and Asia who seek to migrants into the United States
new homelands require.
Trouillot, Kamala Visweswanln, and Neil White­ ics. pilgrims, nomads, settlers, asylum seekers, escape repression or poverty. from twenty-two countries
head have served as a rich source of concepts evacuees, emigres, displaced persons, strangers, Economic and political asymmetries between and regions of the world-Finnish, Korean,
useful for literary studies-cuhure, hybridity, guest workers, migrant workers, travelers, tour­ European nations and their fonner colonies in Arab,Armeni:m,SephardicJewish, Greek,Czech,
ethnoscape, intercultural transaction, transcul­ ists, and so forth. Migration has been a powerful the postcolonial period (starting in the late and Mexican, to name a few. Critics like Paul
lUration. cultural mimesis. cultural traffic, fetish, stimulant to literary expressions of identity in 1940s) have led to the migration of millions from Heike in Mapping Migration, Gilbert Muller in
primitivism. and so forth. In turn, literary studies motion and the self-fashioning that new home­ Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Luin America Ne-w Slrangcrs in Paradise, Katherine Payant and
and the turn to theory (esp. postmodem or post­ lands require. To my knowledge. few scholars into Britain and Europe. Racism, religious differ­ Toby Rose in Th, tmmigranl Experience ill Nonh
structuralist theory) have influenced these have attempted to theorize the discursive field of ences, class disparities, and fears aboUl changes American Literarure, Eleanor Ty and David C.
anthropolOgies, with increased auention to the migration literature per se or to identify struc­ in national idemity produced through immigra­ Goellnicht in Asian North American Identities,
effects of the ethnographer's standpoint, sub­ tural patterns of migration literature beyond gen­ tion have produced intense conflict. even vio­ Louis Mendoza and S. Shank'l.r in Crossing illra
jectivity, and writing on transcultural aCts of eralizations about the literature of distinctive cul­ lence, and pressure to enact restrictive citizen­ America. and C.,rine Mardor05sian in �From lit­
representation. tural groups or comparisons among them. n But ship laws. Not all migration has been between erature of Exile to Migrant LiteratureH Stress a
migration has long been a staple for those who the so-called First and Third Worlds, however. major shift in North American migration narra­
study the national1iteratures of nation-states or Political instability, ethniC cleansing. and eco­ lives away from the assimilationist model, which
regions built predominantly through massive nomic disparities have led to refugee and labor centers on the plot of Americanization in earlier
waves of immigrants from different parts of the migrations from India to the Gulf States, for ex­ narratives like Mat), Antin's The Promised Lal\d or
world (e.g., the Americas, Australia, New Zea­ ample: from the Philippines to the Middle East, Anzia Yezicrska's Bread Givers. Instead, they sec
Migration. diaspora. and borders as distinct in­ land, South Africa). Narratives of assimilation; Europe, and the Americas; from one part of Af­ in the post-1965 migmtion narratives more flu­
terest areas in literary studies initially developed cultural clashes; hyphenated identities; genera­ rica to another; from one fonner Soviet state to idity of identity, more heterogeneity, more resis­
in conjunction with interdiSciplinary postco[o­ lional conflict; intennarriage: and competing na­ another: and from rural to urban areas in China tance to assimilation, more bilingualism and hy­
nial. gender. race, multiculturnl, and queer tional, ethniC, or rcligio�ls loyalties have been ex­ and India. bridity, and It::s s \villingncss on the part of
studies. Like these fields, it emerged most exten­ plored for decades, especially in American New technologies of travel and communi­ American society in general to integrate these
Sively from scholars working in the modem pe­ sludies.1l Cation also contribute to the new migration. newly racialized immigrants.
riod, roughly from the late nineteenth century, In the past decade or so, however, the na­ The speed of migration (airplane vs. ship) and As Mauhew Frye Jacobson describes in
through the twentieth century, and into the cur­ tional and ethnic paradigms for studying migra­ transcontinental contact (e-mail and telephone Whiteness DJ a Differenr C% r, man)' groups
rent century. They have gradually come la innu­ lion literature have yielded to transnational mod­ vs. sea mail) have increased for many the fre­ coming into the United States on earlier waves
ence those working in earlier historical periods, els emphasizing the global space of ongoing quency of circula.r migration, ongoing visits of immigration wcre not considered white at
a process analogous to the beginnings of new travel and mmscontinental connection. Exam­ back home, and connection with the home cul­ first-especially the Irish, Jews, italians, and
historicism in Renaissance slUdies and its even­ ples arc the literary-cultural scholarship of the ture-all of which has made the radical rup­ Slavs. However, they gradually acquired the
tual spread to other periods. A brief overvicw of PaCific Rim (e.g., Lowe; Bow; Ma), the circum­ ture of migration less fixed for many, especially priVileged statUS of whiteness in opposlLion to
each area is instructive for the way they have Atlantic (e.g., Gilroy; Appiah. In My Fmher's the more afnuent. black, Native, and Asian populalions, who re­
more recently come to interwe':lVe, collaborate, House and Cosmopoliranism), the North-South The criticism of the new-migration literature mained racial others, perpetually marginalized,
and to some e:o.:tent cohere. axis (e.g., Gikandi. Maps ; Prau; Ramos), and cul- has tended to follow the example of prior de- legally segregatcd, and not fully American.
266 Migrations, Diaspol'(ls. and Borders Susan Sranford Friedman 267

Despite tensions between new immigrants to eratures reflect itS significance, especially in fic­
biguous deSignation: alternately linguistic, eth­ theory and newer transnational paradigms. Mod­
the United States and older r3cializcd com­ tion, amobiography. and OIher forms of life
nic, or geopolitical at a time when literature in ernization theory, Bretell suggests, tends lO be
munities, the new migrants have more often writing. Some of these migrations have involved
Britain is increasingly micronational (e.g., Scot­ microlevcl, focused on individual reaSons for
joined the mnks of people of calor than those searches for a better life, especially in Canada,
tish, Welsh, English), multicuhural, multiracial. migration, agency and decision making, and the
of white America. Tensions over race, religion, Australia, France, and Sp:tin. But for others,
and even multilingual. Other European countries attraction of modernity as an advance over
and culture are rcnected in such CDnLcmporary involuntary migration, political exile, ethnic
face similar ambiguities. Arc the Muslim girls in tradition (Bretell and Hollificld 102-06). The
migration narratives and poetry as Meena Al­ cleansing, genOcide, refugeeism, and perpetual
France who insist on wearing a hijab to public historical-structuralist models arc macrolevel
exander's The Shock DJ Arrivul, Oiana Abu­ guest worker status meant suffering and home­ school denying their Frenchncss? Or can French­ analysis of world systems that emphasize sys­
Jabefs Arabian Jazz, r-,'Iohja Kahfs E-Mails from lessness. PaSt hiStory of colonial migration un­
ness be separated from itS historical lies to the temic forces and the lack of choice. Transna­
Schcherazad, JunOl Dllz's Drown, Loida Maritza derlies the new migration of the late twentieth
universalist discourse of republican France so as tional models deal with the new globalization,
Perez's Geographics DJ Home, Gish Jen's Mona in century. Settlers from the British Isles moved in
to institute a new, muhicultural understanding of theorizing the effectS of deterritorializalion, new
the Promised Land, Lcila Ahmcd's Border Pas­ large numbers not only to the United States, French? As Azade Seyhan poims out, the litera­ modes of travel and communication, and the is­
sage, and Pamela Mordccai's Certifiable. Cul­ C;mada, Australia, and New Zealand but also to
ture of Turkish guest workers in Gennany, some sues of national borders and citizenship.
lUml critics of the United Slates like Ali Behdad India and Africa, especially southern and eastern of it reflecting several generations of life in Ger­ Some social science theory on migration
in A Forgeiful Narioll and Kevin Johnson in The Africa, established as small minorities with eco­ makes a particular effort to bridge the gap be­
many, existS in a kind of legal and cultural in­
Huddled Masses Mylll add important historical nomic and political hegemonies based on racist tween social lheory and Iiterary.language studies
between, since even the children of these work­
"tS to this literature of the new migration,
conte.. ideology-a history that Doris Lessing explores ers born in Gennany do not have access to of migrntion and is therefore of particular use to
arguing that {he American national imaginary in settler novels like T'1t� Grass Is Singing. future literary migration studies. In The Turbu­
Gemlan citizenship. \ ..
has celebrated the coumry as a nation of im­ In turn, the poslcolonial era contains a vast Although few studies attempt to theorize mi­ lence of Migration, the sociologist Nikos Papas­
migrants at the same time that it has repressed reverse migration into the once imperial metro­ tergiadis links the study of the "new migration"
gration literature beyond the patterns evident in
memories of compulsory migmtions, conquest, poles of Britain and Europe. This migration of the literatures of specific groups, migration stud­ to modernity studies, arguing that "the dynamic
and nalivist movements. largely brown or black people into the heart of ies in the social sciences has developed a consid­ of displacement is intrinsic to migration and mo­
Migration within the United States and Can­ whiteness has challenged the underlying racial erable theoretical body of scholarship that would dernity� (12). He notes that uthe metaphor of the
ada has also become a focus of study. The Great basis of European national imaginaries. As Bruce greatly benefit literary studies. As Caroline Bre­ journey, the figure of the stranger and �he ex­
Migration of African Americans from the South King points out in The fnlemalionaliz(Hion of tell andJames F. Hollifield note in Migralion The­ perience of displacement have been at the centre
to the North in the twentieth century, the inter· Englisll Ulerarure, the new migration from the ory: Talhing across Ihe Disciplines, social scientists of many of the cultural representations of mo­
nal migrations of Native peoples forced from former colonies has internationalized English Iit­ have developed some key tenninology for mi­ dernity,ft as in the work ofJamesJoyce (11). The
their homelands, and the internment ofJapancse er:llure in Britain, introdUcing narratives of mi­ gration, such as sending and receiving culwres: Mrestless dynamism in modem society� and the
Americans during World War II-to cite a few gratory nostalgia and self-fashioning, back-and­ push and pull fa cto rs; oUI-migralion and i'l­ Mmovement of people and the circulation of sym­
prominent examples-have inspired both liter­ forth movement, mixed-race identities, conflict bols" characterize lme-twentieth-century mo­
migration; hosl-ncwcomcr relations; ne:tIVorlud mi­
ature and literary studies.lJ The expressive cul­ around gender and sexuality, and tension among grat ion; fIlc/m·c migration; and various tenns with dernity, so much so that cultural displacement
ture of the Great Migration-literature, music, the different cultural groups often homogenized distinctive and nu.:mced meanings for cultural is experienced even by those who arc not mi­
the artS, folk culture, and so on-has been under the derogatory label blach in their new change-assimilation , acculturation, encullllra­ grating (lS). Papastergiadis critiques the old so­
in particular the subject of several sustained home. lion, decultura:ion, lranscu/lUracion, cullUral hy­ ciological models of migmion as water-pump
studies. Farah Jasmine Griffin's "Who 5t:( You The identity of English literature and ItS writ­ models. 100 mechanistic and static, whether the
britlilY. hyplle:nizalion, and SO forth.u They have
Flowin'r L1wrence R. Rodgers's Cant!wI BOllnd, ers has itself become migratory, a notion that writ­ also developed complex typologies of migrmion, neoliberal volumarist model based on push-out
and David G. Nicholls's Co/Villing lilt: Fall, vari­ ers like Hanif Kureishi, Buchi Emecheta, Ben including such categories as seasonal, temporary or pull-up forces or Ihe Marxist world-systems
ously explore the forms of e:-.:pression that record Okrt, and Salman Rushdie (Sawnic Verses) both model. He positS a 1Il0dc.l of turbulence that
nonsensonal, recurrent, continuous, permanent,
the drive to migrate north, the shock of the ur­ embody and narra(ivize. For example, Rushdie yo-yo, commuter, shuttle, return, and bright­ takes into account subjectiVity and agency and
b:lIl landscape for predominantly rural folk, the writes as a cosmopolitan-born a Muslim in light (rural lO urban). Bretell warns against ty­ places conccpts of cultural translation-includ­
fonnation of northern black urban culture, the Bombay, separmed from his family in Pakistan by pology as a homogenizing practice that tends lO ing lingUistic and aesthetic practices-and the
experiences of racial invisibility .md alienation, the aftermath of partition, now a British citizen erase contradictions and tensions within any semiotics of hybridity :tt the center of analysis.
and the continued presence of the South in the and living in the United States. Should he be given migration, especially those produced by Migrancy has functioned at the level of lyri­
arts and culture of the transplanted African called an Indian, English, British, or American gender (Bretel\ and Hollificld 109-13).1" cal speCUlation and post modem philosophy as
Americans in the North. writer? Is his oeuvre pan of English, British, Modeling migration in the social sciences has well, :tt times removed from the literal mennings
Other nations and continents have experi­ Americ:tn, Indian, or South Asian literature? Even drawn on different kinds of social theory, from of migration in matcrial space and time but
enced massive migration, of course, :md their lit- the term "English literature" in Britain is an am- modernization theory to historical-structuralist nonetheless evocmive and influential in literary
268 Migrations, Diasporas, and Borders SUSGIl SlanJord Friedman 269

studies as a way of unmooring the subject from particular longings for l lost homeland. Dilspora fanned out to the Americas, the Caribbean, Af­ such processes as they shape and are shaped by
illusory certainties of language. representation, is migration plus loss, desire, and Widely scat­ rica, and Southeast Asia in (he nineteenth and the infranalional and transnational Others of the
and being, In Nomadic SubjeCl.S, for example. the nation state.
- (3)
tered communities held together by memory and early twentieth centuries, with many remaining
feminist philosopher Rosi Braidolti dClcrritorial· a sense of history over a long period of time. as large and sometimes prosperous communi­ The "semantic domain� of diaspora "includes
izes nomadism and adapts the term as a mcta· Frequently, but not always, thiS history has in­ ties, as in Trinidad, Fiji, and eastern and south­ words like immigrant, expatriate, refugee, guest­
phor for epistemological migrancy, which she volved oppression against a whole people and ern Africa. A second wave of South Asian migra­ worker, exile community, overseas community,
defines as a critical consciousness that is �lrans­ thus an attachment to community based on a tion began after Indian independence and ethnic community. This is the vocabulary of
mobile," "transnational," and attuned to the sense of shared suffering and the richness of the partition, particularly to the former colonill cen­ tr:msnationalism" (4-5).
community's minority traditions. Diaspora, as ter in Britain, both political and economic rea­ Olher definitional approaches have been
axes of differentiation such as class, race, ethnic­
ity, gender, age, :md OIhers las theyl intersectand the SOCiologist Robin Cohen points Out in Global sons fueting that demographic implosion. Yet less inclusive, especially the typolOgical ones.
imcmel with each other in the constitution of sub· Diasporas, is a Greek word that means the sow­ a third wave of South Asian migration in the William Safran's �Diasporas in Modem Socie­
jectivity. . . The notlmd s
i my own figuration of ing or dispersion of seed (speiro, is "to SOW,H dia, past thirty years is complexly liesH is a structuralist identifi-
a situ.lIed, poslmodc rn . culturally differentiated s
i " over"), and it was used by the ancient Greeks layered: Indians expelled from Diaspora is migration plus loss, Cation of six characteristiCS of
understanding of the subject in generni and of the to refer to migrations of colonizing Greeks who Uganda going to Britain and desire, and widely scattered diasporas based on a center/
feminist subject in panicular. (4) formed settlements throughout the Mediterra­ the United States, laborers communit'ies held together periphery model that sets in

The interdisciplinary culLUral critic lain Cham· nean world, extending the economic, political. going to the Gulf States and by memory and a sense of history opposition the lost point of
bers in Migrancy, Culture, Idenliry regards migra· and cultural power of those who remained �al Southeast Asia for jobs, intel­ origin, the margins of dis­
over a long period of time.
tion, Mlogether with the enunciation of cultural home� OX).18 But as the tenn developed in lit­ lectuals and highly trained persion, and the promise of

borders and crossings," as the primary concept erary and cultural studies of the past decade or engineers and computer expeTlS going to the return. Safran uses the Je\vish diaspora as an

underlying �the itincr:lries of much contempo· so, it was associated with collectivities of the ex­ West, and so forth. Often differing in religion, ideal type and recognizes that many historical

rary reasoning� (2). Adapting a rhetoric of mo· pelled, the exiled, or the forcibly removed rather language, caste, class, and nation(s) of origin, diasporas do not share all six defining elements.

bility, Chambers advocates the journey as uthe than with the colonizingseulers of imperial pow­ these South Asians are newly constituting them­ Arguing against the use of any one diaspora as a

fonn of a restless interrogation,� a SOrt of per· ers. Thus diaspora is bound up with notions of a selves as the South Asian Diaspora, claiming the prototype, Cohen identifies five different kinds

petua] questioning that privileges displacement once-territorial homeland to which dispersed tenn, producing literatures, and engaging in of diaspora: victim, labor and imperial, trade,

and the need communities remain emOtionally attached even other cultural practices that reflect a newly imag· nationalist, and culturalisl. He emphasizes that
as their relation to it is a fonn of perpetual de­ ined community dispersed around the globe.19 diasporas change over time, often leading to
for a mode of thinking that is neither fixed nor
terrilOrialization, a consciousness of collective Much debate in diaspora studies has been de­ communities \vith great stability and creative in­
slable. . . . For the nomadic experie nce of lan­
rather than individual exile. voted to definitional questions, represented use­ teractions with host societies.
guage, wandering without a fixed home, dwelling
at the crossroads of the world, bearing our sense Diasporas are Mimagined communities,H to fully in Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur's Clifford advocates a �relational" and �lateral"

of being and difference, is no longer the expres­ ldapt the influential term Benedict Anderson de­ Theorizing Diaspora.lO What s
i a diaspora? What approach that focuses on tensions or contradic­
sion of a unique tradition or history. . . . Thoughl veloped to describe the role of coJleClive con­ groups and kinds of experiences can justifiably tions that an array of different diasporic fonna­
w:lIlders. iI mIgrates, requires tmnsltllion. sciousness in the fonnation of the nation-state. be called diasporic? How does diaspora relate to tions share (Routes 244-78). The main tension
This inevitably implies another sense of 'home: exile? Is it negative or positive? utopian or dys­
The continuation of diasporas is related not to s
i encapsulated in the homonym roots-rotl1es,
of being in the world. It means to conceive of
the fate of the nation-state but to a diasporiccon­ topian? What arc its politicS? What is the relation which he introduced in his 1992 essay "Travel·
dwelling as a mobile h:lbu:lt. (4)
sciousness, an imagined community of the scat­ of diaspora to nation, nationalism, the nation­ ing Cultures� (Roules 1 7-46). Diasporic cultures
Treating migration as a lyrical significr emp- tered held together by their shared sense of a state, (de)territorializ3tion, transnationalism? lre produclS of the interplay between their
ued of reference to the real of mobility in geo­ distinct history and culture as a people and by How does gender complicate diasporic con· MroOtSM in consciousness ofcommon community,
historic:ll space and lime carries ilS own risk, but obstacles to full assimilation in diverse host sciousness and community? In founding the past, and original homeland and their "routes,M
such slippage between the metaphorics of mi­ countries. Some diasporas arc long-standing, like journal Diaspora: AjoumaJ o! TransnationaJ Stud­ that is, their migration(s) and relocalions into
gration and the literary representations of mi­ the two-thousand-year diaspora of the Jews or ies in 1991, Khachig T610lyan calls for an expan­ new societies. "Diaspora cultures," he writes,
gr.uing people is common in contemporary crit­ the five-hundred-year African diaspora; others sive understanding of the tenn and poinlS to �thus mediate, in a lived tension, the experiences
icism and can be richly suggestive.17 arc more recent, yet insistently claimed, sllch as how discourses of diaspora and nation are thor­ of separation and entanglement, of living here
the Annenian (after World War [) or the Pales­ oughly entangled. Diaspora's mission and remembering/desiring another place�
tinian (after 1947). (255). Diasporas involve Ma loosely coherent,
i concerned with Ihe ways in which nations, as
In recent years diasporic consciousness has adaptive constellation of responses to dwelling­
re::ll yet imagined communities . . . , arc fabul:ltcd,
developed around Other migrations th.1t arc less brought imo being, made :md unmade, in cultu re in-displacement," l liminal and hybrid space in
By definition, diaspora involves migration-bU! clearly tied to compulsory loss of homeland. [m­ ;md polities, both on land people call their O'NT1 between separatist and assimilalionist move­
specific kinds of migrmion that set in motion poverished laborers from India, for example, i exile . Abo\'c all, this journal will focus on
:lnd n menlS (254). Diasporas induce 3. form of
270 Migrations, DIClSporas. and Borders
Susan SranJord Friedman 271

cosmopolitanism and �doublc The Jewish and African di:lsporas on multiple expulsions or rc­ ical legal scholar, and Daniel Boyarin. a specialist
Illunities, political organizalions, and expressive
consciousncss� based in both lare) entangled not only as diasporiz:nions: from Israel, in Talmudic culture, further argue that the as­
forms in the arlS provided the basis for the imag­
lccommod,llion to the dami· in (he Babylonian captivity sociation of identity with the exclusive control
thcorctical l11odcls but ined communities of blackness. As a continent
n:lot culture and an ongoing starting in 587 BCE, then with of terriLOry is ultimately destructive. They sug­
:also as historic,,1 phenomena. rather than a country, Africa functioned as a
lie to a homeland elsewhere. the destruction of the second gest that Jewish identity began with Abraham
source of spiritual rootedness and affimlative
They involve Wfeding global" in a locale that is temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE; from Spain. Por­ outside Israel. not in a territorial homeland. They
identity drawn on to counter the sorrows and
both home and nOl quite home (257). tugal, and their colonies in the Amencas in 1492 insist that the creative and positive aspects of the
lamentations of a brutalizing diaspora and on­
Like Clifford, Avtar Bmh in Cartographies DJ as pan of the Inquisition; from Eastern Europe Jewish diaspora be acknowledged as well as how
going racism.
Ditlspora (enters her theory in the fundamental with the pogroms of the nineteemh and early the diaspora has empowered some at the ex­
The initial focus in biack studies on race in a
contradictions of diaspora-for example , the twentieth centuries: from Europe with the Ho­ pense of others. "Evaluating diaspora," they
single nation (e.g., the United States, Britain,
concepts of home as Wa mythic place of desire" locaust; and from Arab lands after World War 11. write, �entails acknowledging the ways that such
France) or region (e.g., the Caribbean) has since
and as Uthe lived experience of a locality" ( 1 82); Scattered to every continent of the globe, the idemily is maintained through exclUsion and op­
the 1990s increaSingly shifted toward attention
diasporas 3S reminders of trauma and as �sites of Jews retained a sense of themselves as :1 people pression of internal others (cspecia!ly women)
10 a transnational African diaspora. The Depan­
hope and new beginnings" (193). "Par3doxi­ wilh shared cultural practices (if not beliefs), a and external others,ft including other diasporas
ment of Afro-American Studies at Harvard Uni­
cally,� she writes, "diasporic journeys are essen­ shared history. global networks of affiliation, and (7-8). They favor a comparative approach ro di­ versity, for example, became in 2002-03 the
tially about settling down, about putting roolS attachment to the imagined homeland of Israel­ asporas that explores the Jewish diaspora not in
Deparlment of African and African Amencan
'elsewhere' H (182). Moreover, any given dias­ a place that for some was an actual territory and s
i olation, not as an unchanging essencejustifying
Studies. Underlying this shift is not only the
pora embodies the contradiction of establishing for others a spiritual site for the union of a people rhe claim on biblical lands, but as phenomena in
gro\ving tf:1nsnationalism of literary and cultural
a "we" out of heterogeneity. "All diasp0r3s are with its god. In this type of diaspora, communal a changing landscape of history, filled with prob­
studies but also a debate over the meanings of
differentiated," not only from other diasporas identity is bound up with consciousness of af­ lems and possibitities.l l
diaspora that parallels the opposing views in
but also by the impact of dispersion itself. As fliction and minority status, both the pain of and The discourse of the African diaspora, the sec­
Jewish studies. For some, like a leading voice in
people from a single diaspor:1 seule in different pride in difference, both the desire for and the ond main prototype, often self-consciously
Afrocentrism, Molefi Asnme, the African dias­
lands, they indigenize at the same time as they continual threat of assimilmion. With the estab­ adapts the Jewish model to the specificities of
pora coheres around an essential and inherent
hold on to :1 sense of common diasporic culture lishment of the state of Israel in 1947, the Jew­ systemic racism, colonialism. and the affiliation
blackness that goes back to the ancient dynasties
(184). Another dimension of differentiation for ish di:lspora entered a new and more contro­ of many scattered peoples of African descent
of Egypt and descends through the great king­
Br3h is the "intersectionality� of national identity versial phase as the reterritorialization of the around the concepts of blackness and the lost
doms of black Africa (e.g., Asante and Fulani em­
with gender, race, religion, sexuality, cl:tss, and dispersed through the law of return for Jews homeland of Africa, a place without the geo­
pires in West Africa, Gre:n Zimbabwe of the
so forth (10). Using diaspora as:1 conceptual tool an)"vhere involved the creation of a new dias­ graphic specificity of biblical Israel but a gener­
Shona people. and Zululand). But for others, like
for analyzing complex identities, she fore­ pora of Palestinians expelled not from their own alized location of home nonetheless. Although
Paul GUroy and Smart Hall, the African diaspora
grounds the "multi-axial" dimensions of any nation-state but from their lands, which had becoming current in scholarly circles in the past
is a relatively new ethnicity in the maldng, a for­
given dbspora, refUSing metanarratives of dias­ been ruled by the Ouomans and the Europeans fifteen years, the notion of the black diaspora has
mation that underlines how the modernities of
poric home and centers of origin (189). for generations. deep historical roots in Lhe hiStory of slavery, the
Europe, Africa, and the Americas were mutually
Despite the widening applications of diClspora, In Jewish studies, the meanings of diaspora Marcus Garvey and Rastafarian "b,ICk to Africa� constitutive, \vith the enslavement of millions as
especially in reference to contemporary globali­ and exile have been the subject of Widespread movements of the 1920s and 1930s, the negri­ the initial dislocation in (hat construction. In his
zation, two panicular affliction diasporas con­ debate, bclying the idea of a fixed prototype. tude movement and pan-African movements
influential book ne Blach Atlantic: Modernity and
tinue to play a normative role in diaspora stud­ There is disagreement about the Significance of from the 1930s through the I 960s, :md the civil
DOl/iJlc Consciou sness, Gilroy attacks Afrocentric
ies, serving as a kind of theoretical touchstone the nation-state of Israel. Howard Wettstein rights and black nationalist movements of the Methnic absolutism" (2) and argues dw the
for the field. These are the Jewish and African argues that the tenn exile is toO ·'hauntingly neg­ 1950s through the present in various countries. "black '\tlantic� connecting Europe, Africa, and
dbsporas, entangled not only as theoretical ath'e� and that the Jewish diaspora does not ex­ The Middle Passage-some three hundred �md the Americas has always been a hybrid space of
models but also as historical phenomena, since clusively represent angUish and forced home­ fifty years of the transmlanttc slave trade-is the cultural exchange and the interplay of sameness
the biblical narratives and exilic experiences of lessness: it also incorporates �a positive� notion defining moment of this diaspora, the traumatic and differentiation.21
the Jewish diaspora often functioned as symbolic of a �people of the Bookft whose fthomcland re­ theft from sub-Saharan Africa and the sale of New claims to the term diaspora have diffused
analogues for people in the African dilspora en­ sides in the text" (2). This alternative view rec­ populmions on a massive scale to and in the the exclusive rorce of the prototypicalJe\vish and
gaged in tbe fonnation of their own diaspOlic ognizes that "diasporic communities were often Americas. With languages and local cultural African diasporas and amiction diasporas in gen­
consciousness. stable" and desired for the benefits of Widespread groupings often lost in the face of deliberate dis­ er:ll. A sampling of books from the past decade
As proLOtype, the Jewish diaspora has func­ intercultural exchange :md trade; they were often perSions of the enslaved. such cultural practices or so demonstrates the global range and variety
tioned as a story of perpetual wandering based chosen destinations 0). Jonathan 130yarin, a crit- as the oral tradition, religious and spiritual com- of migralions laying claim to the word: Nicholas
272 Migrations, Diasl'0ras, and Borders Susan Sumjord Friedman 273

Van Hear's New Diapo ras , on refugeeism; lion that embodies this new intellectual thread. nologies of enforcement, the Borders are fixed and fluid, competing state powers and
Shahnaz Kahn's Aversion alld Desire: Negolialing With its chapters organized around the catego­ controls and markers of citi­ institutional regUlation. Bor­
impermeable and porous.
Muslim Female rdentily ill LIlt: Diaspora; R. Rad­ rics of the passport-from �l..anguagc," �Photo­ zcnship, and the structures of derlands have been the sites of
They separate but also connect.
hakrishnan's Diasporic Media/ions; Amy Kamin­ graph," and �Name" to "Nationality," "Sex,� and inclusion and exclusion that hatred and murderous acts,

sky's Afte r Exile: Writing Ihe Latill Americall Di­ �[dentifying M:.uks"-this hybrid text moves arc enabled by borders as lines on a map backed akin to the grating of continemal tectonic plates

aspora: Azade Seyhan's Wrili ng ollcside the Nalion; through the geohislOrical landscapes of diaspora by armies and law. But border studies has also and their occasional violem eruptions. They can

Martin Ivhmabnsan's Global Divas: Filipi,1O Gay with its commingling of shame, abjection, hope, developed in the past fifteen years across a spec­ also be locations of utopian desire, reconcilia­

Men in IIle Ditlspora; Kandice Chuh and Karen despair, and desire as linguistic, aesthetic, and trum of divergent issues and fields in literary tion, and peace. Borderlands are a "contact

Shimakuwa's Orientations: Mapping Swelles ill (he philosophical border crossings. studies, ranging well beyond the geopolitical to zone�H where fluid differences meet. where

Asian Diaspora: Anuradha Dingwaney Need­ Universities. especially in the West. have in­ exploration of the metaphOriC dimensions of power is often structured asymmetrically but

ham's Using the Master's Tools: Resistance alld che creaSingly become transnational crossroads for borders and borderlands as tropes for regulative nonetheless circulates in complex and multidi­

Utera/tlre vf che African and South Asian Diaspo­ highly educated cosmopolitans, who often travel and transgressive patterns in the cultural and so­ rectional ways, where agency exists on both sides

ras; Rebecca Walsh's specill issue of IlIurven­ back and forth across multiple borders. feeling dal order. Underlying these spatialized modes of of the shifting and pemleable divide.

lions. Global Diasporas. In queer and genderstud­ fully at home nowhere as they move through critical thought is the basic contradiction em­ While the geographic and geopolitical basis

ics, the concept of diaspora deals with sex'Uai contact zones where race, religion, gender, class. bedded in both the material and figurative mean­ of border studies has remained compelling, bor­

exile and outcast StatuS as well as the transna­ and national origin constitute their identity dif­ ings of border. ders and borderlands have also taken on broad

(ional circuits of sexuality and cullure (Cruz­ ferently. At limes attacked for their relative priv­ Bordcrs are fi.."ed and fluid. impermeable and theoretical dimensions as spatial meLaphors for

Malave and Manalansan; Joseph; Manalansan; ilege, they also experience alienating forms of porous. They separate but also connect. demar­ the liminal space in between, the interstitial site

PaHon and Sanchez-Eppler). For Olhers, the dis­ othering. particularly racism. [n Writing Dias­ cate but also blend differences. Absolute at any of interaction, imerconncction, and exchange

course and experience of exile has blended with pora, Rey Chow turns a critical eye on "third moment in time. they are always changing over across all kinds of differences: psychological,

the concept of diasporn.. as in Edward Said's 0111 world intellectuals." including herself, insisting time. They promise safety, security, a sense of spiritual, sexual, lingUistiC, generic, disciplinary.

oJ Place and "Reflections on hi!e,� Nico Israel's that they be attuned 10 the conditions of their being at home; they also enforce exclUSions, the A [romier between differences also operates fig­

Ou1landish: Wriling between Exile and Ditlspora, own articulation. She worries Ihal diasporic in­ state of being alien, foreign, and homeless. They uratively as a conceptual space for performative

Andre Adman's Letters oJ Transit: Reflections on tellectuals can too easily hide behind or inside protect but also confine. They materialize the identities beyond the fixed essentialisms of fun­

Exile, Identity, Language, and Loss, and Michael their "victim" status in the West. not taking into law, policing separations; but as such. they are damentalist or absolutist identit)' politics. It has

Hanne's Creativity in Exile. account their own positions as elites in both old always being crossed, transgressed, subvened. functioned as a tropic space of play and inter­

The conceptual border between diaspora and new "homes" (99-1 19). Her critique not­ Borders are used to exercise power over others play. of represemational transgression and post­

and other forms of migra!ion such as travel. Withstanding, many of these migrants from Asia, but also to empower survival against others. modem experimentation, of flUidity and utopian

exile, expatrialism. immigr.Hion and emigration. Latin America. Africa. and the Caribbean em­ They regulate migration, movement . travel-the pOSSibility. Such expansive and figural work in

nomadism, and refugeeism has become ever body the paradoxes of diaspora. the simultane­ flow of people, goods, ideas. and cultural for­ border theory moves far beyond the economic,

more porous. In pan, this definitional fleXibility ous rooting and routing of situated identities in mations of 311 kinds. They undermine regubtory political. materia\. and even cultural realities of

emerges OUt of a growing awareness of the com­ different cultural terrains. Their diasporic theo­ practices by fostering intercuhural encounter lhe peoples who live on both sides of a geopo­

plexity of diaspora and the differences among rizing often effectively incorporates what Brah and the concomitant production of syncretic litical border, which arc the focus of scholars

diasporas. But it also reflects that many of the tenns "the technolOgies of autobiograph( or heterogeneities and hybridities. The)' insist on working in more cmpiricaU), based fields in bor­

pioneering theOrists of di:l.spora arc intellectuals what Meena Alexander calls "alphabelS of flesh�: purity, distinction, difference but facilitate con­ der studies. The metaphorization of borders in

living and working outside their native lands. Di­ a narrativizing and metaphorizing of individual tamination, mixing, creolization . cultural and literary theory remains a point of

asporas, everyone seems to agree, involve whole diasporic experience as communal voice.21 As Geographic borderlands arc related to but considerable tension in the field.�)

communities. not just individuals. But it remains May Joscph puts it. "Cultural citizenship is a no­ distinct from borders. Borders are imaginary Gloria Anzaldua's Borderlands I la FronlCra:

true that the most eloquent articulations of con­ madic and performative realm of self-invention" lines of sep3r.ltion with real effects, as in a geo­ The New Mestiz.a has been a touchstone text for

temporary diaspora come from diasporic intel­ (358), and diasporic intellectuals arc an avant­ political boundary between nation-states. From border studies, often cited, taught, and critiqued

lectuals and writers. from individuals whose garde of perpetual dislocation and relocation. the American Southwest to other pans of the as both literalUre and theory across the disci­

migr::mcy is often chosen or ambiguously com­ world like Alsace-LolT3ine, lhe C.1ribbean, South plines. Published in 1987, this collage of prose

pelled and whose ties to communal diaspora are Asia. the B3lkans, Iraq-Iran, China-Tibet, and and poetry. English and Spanish (six kinds of

heavily mediated by class. Amitava Kumar's Pass­ Israel-Palestine, borderlands are ambiguously Spanish, according 10 Anzaldua), history and
Borders alld Borderlands
port Pharos, to cite one example, is an ambitious demarcated areas with complicated histories, theory Starts from the biller hislOry of the geo­

critical, theoretical, autobiographical, photo­ Border studies begins with :mention to the where different peoples and cultures have in� political borderlands of the American South­

graphic meditation on the modalities of migra- mmcrial borders among nation-states. tbe tcch- tenningled over time. often in the comcxt of west and moves on 10 psychological, spiritual.
274 Migrations, Diasporas, mId Borders Susall SlallJortl Frledmall 275

and sexual borders as figurnl representations how writers who dissent from the prevailing ex­ Mborderposts" that arc crossed in the �articulation Border theory across the spectrum of identity
of regulation and transgression. As a self­ c1usionary discourses of both Israel and Palestine of cuhural differences� (Location 0.111 For studies draws on the geogrnphic rooLS of the
identified Chicana feminist and lesbian, An­ create a borderland of dialogue between the vic­ Bhabha, the interstitial is a border space that ex­ metaphor but goes well beyond this spatial ter­
zaldua explores the pain and pleasures of mtsri­ tors and the vanqUished. An explosion of parti­ ists over time but gains its most resonant mean­ rnin. As lines that divide and join. borders func­
zaje in the history of pre-Contacl Mesa- and tion literature in South Asia in recent years. for ing as metaphor for postmodemity. The concept tion figuratively as the point of connection and
Southwest America, the Spanish conquest and example, has led to studies on violence, religion, is basic to his notion of�colonial mimicry� (120). disconnection between differences. They also
Mexican independence . the Mexican-American identity, gender. and memory in the context of the imitation in the contact zone between colo­ trope the borderlands in between various binary
war and its :lftermath, and twentieth-century the cataclysmic sectarian violence that erupted nizer and colonized that denaturalizes the colo­ oppositions: malcJfcmale. whitcJblack, hetero­
Chicanola expencnce.!b \vith the splitting of India into Pakiswn and India nizer's assumed superiority by highlighting lhe sexuaVhomosexual. self/Other, and SO forth.)1
The importance of Anzaldlla's Borderlands I La at the end of the British raj in 1947-48. The role constructedness of cultural practices. But the in� For Julia Krisleva. such states of IiminalilY are
fronrera for border studies highlights the cen­ of fiction, life writing. testimony. and the oral terstitial also captures for Bhabha the particular sites of abjection. thereby exerting a deconstruc­
trality of the Mexican-United Slales border cul­ tradition has been the subject of many interdis­ conditions of postmodemhy, with what he calls tive force on the symbolic order (Powers, esp.
ture (including Califomia), Centml America, and ciplinary books and conferences in South Asian the demography of the "new imernationalism�: 207-10). The rhetOric of borders often accom­
Latin America in general for the formation of the studies that examine the repressions, haumings, �the history of postcolonial migration, the nar­ panies the adaptations of deconstruction to
field. What Nt.Slor Garcfa Canclini calls the �hy­ and attempLS to remember that accompany col­ ratives of cultural and political diaspora, the ma­ social and cultural analysis of identity in fields
bod cultures" of Lalill America and its borders lective trauma and iLS aftermath in the contem­ jor social displacemems of pClSant and aborigine such as women's studies. race and ethnicity stud­
in the north have been a primary generator of porary period (e.g .. Bhalla. Pa rt i tion Dialogues communities. the poetics of exile. the grim prose ies, postcolonial studies, and queer studies. Con­
border theory. Adapting the work of GiIles De­ and Stories; Butalia; Menon and Bhasin: Kaul; of political and economic refugees.H The dis­ sequently. the language of borders pervades
leuze and Felix Guauari on "minor" literature, and Saint and Saint). The particular suffering course of "boundary� or "border� signifies the works that examine the regulative and resistant
deterrilOrialization, and Kafka (Kajha), Emily and silences of women who experienced rape. continual Mdisplacement and conjunction� that discourses that insist on identity differences as
Hicks theorizes the significance of biculturalism disgrace, and \vidowhood during the partition, characterizes the physical and psychological ex­ well as discourses that suggest imitation, same­
and bilingualism for the production of multidi­ with the massive migrations of millions (esp. istence of people caught up in the new interna­ ness, and hybridity. As Rosaldo writes:
mensional models of border writing .md border Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs) across the new bor­ tionalism (5).
ders has been a rich area for feminist research. Our everyday lives are crisscrossed by border
crossers between self and other in L1tin Ameri­ Less sanguine about the utopian possibilities
zones, pockets. and eruptions of all kinds. Social
can IiteraLUre. Criticism in lhe Borcier/'lI1ds, edited As Mary Layoun poinLS out in reference to other of border liminality than Bhabha. the Latin
borders become salient 3round such lines as sex­
by Hector Calder6n and Jose David Saldlvar, intensely divided border regions in Greece. Cy­ Americanist Waiter D. Mignolo hlS developed an ual orientation. gender. elm, mce. ethnicity, na­
calls for a new Pan-American studies that rec­ prus, and Beirut, nationalisms often resort 10
alternative theory of �border thinking,H what he tionality. :age, polillCS, dress. food or taste.
ognizes how the United St:nes conquest of Mex­ highly gendered tropes of nation to expel the calls "border gnosis.� one that takes as its frame­ Such borderlands should be regarded not as an­
ican lands in 1848 created a borderlands culture other and enforce exclusionary borders. With work [mmanue! Wallerstcin's world-systems alytically empty tr.msition:al zoncs but as sites of
mixing Hispanic. Indian. white. and other woman as metaphor for nation. actual women theory and his emphasis on post-1500 European creative cultur.ll production that require investi­
traditions. Saldlvar suggests thal this border cul­ often experience the displacemems of national­ gation. (207-OB)
imperialism as structural force of inequality that
ture breaks the patlem of linear migration. sub­ ism \viIh competing loyalities that reflect the in­ produces border gnoseology. Akin lO Pratt's con­
stitutes bi- or muhiculturalism for assimilation, tersecting identities of gender, nation. class. re­ cept of the contact zone as a product of the asym­
and highlights the intercultural and tr:msna­ ligion, and sexuality.11l metrical power relations of colonialism, Mig­ COMMONALlTIES:
tional nature of popular :lIld high cultural forms Border as geographiC metaphor has been es­ nolo's border gnosis represents a critical Stance SHARED CONCERNS
of lingUistic and aesthetic expression (Border pecially prevalent in poslcolonial studies for its toward colonialism. onc developed as a form of
Maflers). Debra Castillo and Marla Socorro Ta­ suggestive overtones of in-belweenness and lim­ subaltem resistance. It involves While migr.nion. diaspora. and border studies
buenca C6rdoba challenge the mainstream no­ inality. which arc particularly suited to charac­ have de\'cloped along separate tracks, they ha\'e
absorbing and displacing hegemonic forms of
tions of border culture produced in Chicano/a tcnze subjectivities on the move between cul­ also converged around severnl core issues that
knowledge into the perspective of the subaltern.
studies and explore women writers on both tures; p3limpseslically layered by formative This is not a new form of syncretism or hybridity. underlie the location and movement of pe.ople
sides of the Mexican-United States border in a experiences in different locations; hybridically but an intense battlcfield in the long history of in space ovcr time.
comparative methodology thm resists homo­ blended out of different culLUral strands; and of­ colonial subahemization of knowledge and legit­
genization.n ten caught up in the dynamics of past and pres­ imation of the colonial difference.

With the spread of border theory. other bor­ ent, tradition and modernity. self and other. (Lxai HiSlOries 12)
Culture lInd le/entity
der regions of the world have become subjects Homi 6habha is the preeminent theorist of Border thinking is inherently critical, a form of
of literary study. Rachcl Brenner examines the the imerstitial. of the eX3Jllination of culture in "colonial scmiosis" that expresses the resistance How do individuals and collectivitics or people
literature of Israeli and Arab Jews in Israel to sce the "moment of transit.� and orthe "borders" and of the colonized (14).)0 change through their intcrcultural contacts with
276 Migrations, Diasporas. and Borders
Susan StanJord Friedman 277

others? What arc the effects of those changes? !mages of diversity-the mosaic, stir-fry, intercultural encounters as the dynamic, rela­
How do Ihey reflect structures of power? To salad, Stew, callaloo, rainbow, quilt, and so on­ tional, and chaotic �processes of Circular nomad.
think about intercultural exchange, do we need have developed as a rhetoriC of resistance to ism,� as "the immeasurable inte rmixing of cul­ Identities within a cultuml group are not ho­
some kind of consensus on what wc mean by mainstream groups determined to exclude the tures: and as an �aesthelic of ruplUre and mogeneous, however much they are imagined to
cullure? Wh:u is the relation between culmre as foreign, racial, or otherwise othered subordinate connection" (45, 137, 138, 151). be. Generalizations about the African diaspora,
forms of creative expressivity and the culture of groups who do nOt want to lose their distinctive Transculturation assumes the existence of Mexican immigrants, overseas Chinese the Is­
everyday Jife? Zygmunt Baum3n notes, �The idea cultures. The "glorious mosaic" in particular sug­ cultural hybridity or syncrctism as a defining is­ lamic wnmah (global community), the N I (non­ �
of culture was itself a historical invention," one gests that the assimilation model is neither de­ sue for analysis. Instead of assuming complete reSident Indians), and so forth often obscure the
that has produced endless philosophical and po­ sirable nor accurate as a descriptor for national cultural erasure, transcuituralion posits comin. divisions within such groups, especially divi­
litical dcb:uc (Culture xiv). Two opposing no­ i the face of migration, diaspora, and
identity n ual circuits of cultural mixing, often in settings sions based on gender, sexuality, class, religion,
tions have been particularly signific:ml for issues border cuhures. The mosaic rhetoric of plural­ of unequal power relations. Also termcd creo/ice and caste. The imagined community of nation or
of migration. diaspora, and border in literary ism, however, tends toward an understanding of (especially in Caribbean studies), metissagc (in culture frequently assumes a normative or defin­
studies: �culturc as tbe activity of the free roam­ culture as a patchwork of fixed differences, of a French and francophone studies), lIlelizaje (in ing identity that all too easily ignores hierarchical
ing spirit, the site of creativity, invention, self­ proliferation of unchanging minorities who re­ Spanish and Latinoia studies), and lahjien (in Ar­ distributions of power within the group.
critique and self-mmscendcncc" and "culture as main forever marginalized from the center, from abic studies), cultural hybridity is much debated Working against these homogenizing tenden­
a tool of routinization and continuity-a hand­ the cultures of privilege and power. as to its me�lning and politics. At times, hybridity cies in migration, diaspora, and border studies
maiden of social order� (x"Vi.). But complicating Transculturation is a tenn used for an ap­ means the fusion of cultural differcnces imo the has been the developmcnt of intersectionalism
this binary has been the assertion that the culture proach to intercultural interaction that empha­ production of an emirely new cultural form: at as the analYSis of multiple axes of power and
of creativity can also be complicit with the social sizes the reciprocal influences across borders of times, it means the interplay of differences that difference as they intersect, mediate, and artic­
order and that the culture of everyday life can all kinds. Immigrant and diasponc cultures nOt retain their cultural distinctiveness; and at still ulate one another. Feminists have pioneered this
disrupt it-all the more so in communities of only change in relation to their new loc:llions but mher times, it means the mi-xing of the already analysis, particularly in the area of nation and
people on the move.lZ the cultures in which they settle also unnsform syncretic. For some, hybridity s
i endemic to cul­ gender studies.l6 Women on the move often ex­
The inter.lction of cultures on the move or as a result of the presence of the outsiders in their ture itself, always present in an ordinary, routine perience competing patriarchies and internal
existing in border areas ensures that no onc cul­ midst. As a concept developed in the new eth­ fashion as the process of cultural development: conflicts between loyalty to their cultural
ture will exist in pure fonn: each is influenced nography, transculturation in particubr ac­ for mhers, hybridity is inherently destabilizing, traditions and desire to change the ones that im­
by all the others to which it is exposed. But what knowledges the agency of marginalized, subju­ transgressive, parodic, and crealive, a strategy prison. Advocating change in their cultural
is the nature of thiS influence? Terms like assim­ gated, or foreign peoples. As Pratt puts it in adopted to resist tyrannies of social and discur­ group often opens them to charges of betrayal
ilation, acculturation , dccu/ruralion, and accom­ Impcrial Eyes, while such people Mcannot readily sive orders. and inauthentic Westernization. As Uma Na­
mooalion suggest what Rosaldo calls a �cultural comrol what eman:ltes from the dominant cul­ The politiCS of hybridity, fiercely debated , is rayan writes in Dislocating eU/lUres:
stripping away," a loss of culture as minority in­ ture, they do determine la varying extents what sometimes condemned as ideological. obscuring
dividuals or communities become absorbed into they absorb into their own, and what they use i t power relations and ignoring the need for com. FeministS all over the world need 10 be suspicious
the mainstream (209). The United States image for" (6). She discusses transcuhuration i n the munal solidarities; sometimes attacked as naively of locally prevalent pictures of "national id cmity �
and �nalionaI trnditions." bolh because they are
of the melting pot for national identity originated comext of imperialism, but the concept has utopian; sometimes valorized as nonsectarian or
used to privilege Ihe views :md values of certain
with IsrJcl Z.'mgwill's 1908 play TIle Melting-POt. much wider applications in both cultural and lit­ antifundamentalist; and sometimes recognized
pans of the hetcrogeneous ml1iOllal population,
The play was opposed to the insistence of Anglo­ erary theory.l� Taussig, for example, theorizes in for its potentially positivc and negative forma­ and because they :'Irc al most invariably dl.!tnmen.
Americans like the prominent SOCiologist Henry Mimesis ami A/wily that the drive 10 imitate is as tions depending on location and period of his. tal to the intcrests .lT
: ld polilical standing of lhose
Pran Fairchild that immigrants fully assimilate to basic to human (and animal) culture as the need tory.l' Moreovcr, cultural hybridity is not just a who are relativel}' powerless within the national
American cuhure by the abandonment of their to differentiate . As a word assocbted \vilh both product of intcrculturalism; it is also a process community. . . . If nations arc �lmagtned com­
home cultures.)} But over time, the trope of the reprcscntation and imitation, mimesis fore­ that takes on various forms of cultural translation, , �
munilies then bigoted and distoned nationalism
must be fought with feminist attempts to rtinvenc
melting pot morphcd into its oppOSite and has grounds the way aesthctic and cultural fomls de­ transplantation, adaptation, and indigcnizalion.
and rcimagine the natlona! community as more
become the center of critique velop as a form of border Cultural traffic on a global scale, to invoke
Instead of complete genuinely inclUSIve and democf:ltic. (35)
as an ideological rhetoric veil­ crossing in thc praxis of cul­ Appadurai's discussion of the global ethnoscape
cultuml erasure, transcullurati.on
ing an imposed assimilation, lure. The diasporic Caribbean in Modernicy at Large, involves the praxis of cui. The need for inlerscctional analysis of mi­
with Americanization me:ln-
posits continual circuits of
pact and critic Edouard tural formation, defonnation, and rcformation­ grant groups is not restricted to gender. As Avtar
ing the loss of past language, cultural mixing, often in settings Glissant theorizes the "flood transformations in which aesthetic expressions Brah points out, diasporic communities dis­
culture, and identity of origin. of unequal power relations. DJ convergences" unleashed by have a particularly imponant role 10 play. persed throughout thc globc are themselves
Migrations. DIGsporas, and Borders 5usan 51anJord Friedman 279

pression, moumings for what once was :lOd s

i Ihat unreal. entirely illusory scnse of ourselves? izing n;lrratlve of "us and all of them binalY" by
heterogeneous (esp. 10-16). South Asians in
Mler all. the India of our paSls has historically
BriLain, Fiji, Trinidad, Guyana, Soulh Africa, the now losl. Memory :lIld forgetling. as Sigmund insisting. MThere is no Other, but multitudes of
been a place of cultur.1I m1.l(!ng. This process has
Gulf States, and the United Stales-to name a Freud theorized, arc psychodynamic processes others," that is others who have hislOrically and
continued in the diaspor.l, where our rootS h::lve
few prominent migrant locations of the far-nung that play out desire and the repression of desire geographically spccific fonns of difference, nOI
given way to routes. (Bombay 31)
South Asian diaspora---diffcr greatly from one in a symbiotic dance of creative fomlS (Iuurpre­ ontological or ideological ones (39). As the �sav­
wtion and �RepressionH). For the migrant, the Desire in the borderlands and diaspora can age slot." the other can be the racial or cthnic
anOlher because of their varying degrees of in­
diasporic. and thc border crosser, memory is the also fuel hope, serve as the drive for change, op­ other, bUI also the other by gender, sexuality.
tegration into their new homelands. Moreover,
point of mmsit between old and new, past and portunity, freedom, the embracc of the new­ religion, class. and a host of other ways in which
the South Asian diaspora rcnects the diversity
prescnt. there and here. I t is the funnel, the i double­
and, of course, love of all kinds. Desire s human beings separate themselves into distinct
and hybridity of the subcontinent \0 begin with.
channel, the technology of comact. Communi­ edged, mOlivating rigidity on Ihe one hand and communities. MigranLS, however, are often cul­
including sharp religiOUS, caste, lingUistic, class,
ties in transit develop a culture of collective adaptability on the other. Like memory, dcsire turally marked as the stranger-in legal terms,
and regional or national differences. Sc..xua!ity
memory, mechanisms for passing on a heritage finds its most resonant forms in acLS of the imag­ aliens policed at geopolitical borders and paten­
c:m be a flash point for conflict in diasporic, bor­
through the generations. Oral ;md writlen ination. in the symbolic representations of cul­ tiatly harassed by thc laws of citizenship; in cul­
der, and migrant communities, often producing
traditions-cspeciallyslOrytellingandlitcrature­ ture. In �Reflections on Exile,H Said pOints espe­ tural tenns, aliens whose speech, clothes, food,
individual exile and rebel!ion against communal
play a central role in articulating that collective cially to �the lyrics of loss," poems in which "the festivals, religion, and so forth separate them
mores. Intermarriage. love m:lIchcs (as opposed
memory and reensuring the continued existence pathos of exile is in the loss of contact with the from the mainstre::lm into which they may or
10 arranged marriages), and queer sexualities of­
of the community over time.J7 solidity and rhe satisfaction of earth: homecom­ may not want to assimilate. As Trinh T. Minh­
ten result in gener.nional conflict, alienation, or
Attemion to memory in migration, diaspora, ing is out of the question� (179), Rushdie nDles: ha describes it in Womall, Native, Other, wit is as
expulsion from the community, and an uneasy
relation with the new homeland. Given the role and border studies foregrounds the function of Exiles or emigrants or expatriates. ::Irc hauntcd by if everywhere we go, we become someone's pri­

of the marriage plot, famil}' conflict, and Sildung desire and longing in the production and comin­ some sense of loss, some urge to reclaim, to look vate zoo (82).

in the history of the novel, namnives of such uation of distinctive communities of people with b::lck. , , , But if we do look back, we must also do But desire in (he borderlands can take utopic
crossroads identities and bi- or multilinguislic so in the knowledge . . . that we will not be ca­ fonns, the longing for mLxing \vith others in cre­
intersectional issues have proliferated in dias­
imaginations. Desire. especially as theorized in p::lble of reclaiming precisely the thing that was ative interplay, stimulating fusions, and the hopc
poric, migrant, and border writing.
lost: that we will, in short . create fictions .
psychoanalysis, represents a state of lack-once for understanding across difference, for recon­
imagin::lry homelands. tndias of the mind.
sated, it no longer exists. Especially for migrants ciliation. coexistence. or peace. The innovative
(Ima},lillary Homelands lO)
and diasporics, home is often the perpetual ob­ playwright and actor Anna Deveare Smith
Memory and Desire Desire in the borderlands between sclf and
ject of desire, a longing that is never fulfilled in crosses the borders of cultural difference by tra\,­
the ambigUity of existence caught between a con­ other oscillates between the d}'Stopic and ulOpic. eling to and inhabiting the Olher's body in per­
�Memory is a phenomenon of conceptual border
sciousness of roOtS elsewhere and the realities of with perhaps a benign curiosity existing some­ fonnance. inhabiting the actual speech and man­
zones,H writes Seyhan. �lt is:m intersection and
routes, of life shaped by movement through dif­ where in the middle. Such fluctuations have in­ nerisms of different sides in the racial�ethnic
an interdiction. It dwells at the crossroads of the
ferent locations that are never quite home. Desire spired writing in all modes, from the lyric, nar­ conflicts of Crown Heights, Brooklyn. in 1992
past and the presentH (31). Moreover, �it is em­
crossed by diaspol'3 oflcn produces nostalgb and rative, and dramatic to the ironic, tragic, and and Los Angeles after the Rodney King incident.
bedded in the past and wjl\ have to be retrieved
its discontents. In her study of nostalgia and im­ comic, Desire for the other can involve the fas­ "The spirit of acting," she explains, "is (he Iravel
in symbolic action. Memory marks a loss. It
migrant identity, Andrcea Deciu Ritivoi discusses cination for the stranger as alien, exotic. fearful, [rom the self to the olhcr� (x.wi). Contrasting her
is always a re-presentation, making present
noswigia as a form of homesickness (noSlos primitive, stigmatized, felishized, and an as­ theory of performnnce with the Stanislavsky
that which once was and no longer is� (16).
means "rellLrn�; algla means �pain") that can both sumed absolUlc difference, Such fascination of­ method of cxpressing the other by thinking
Memory-and its partner. forgetting-define
hinder and enable individual adapt:llion to a new ten combines disgust and allTaction. projeCling about the self, she wntes, "To me the search for
the consciousness of migration, diaspora, and
homeland (l5), She writes, "nostalgia is a gen­ repressed aspcClS of the self onto the other. As character is constantI)' in motion. h is a qUCSl
borders. The act of remembering-past lives.
uine pltarmahos, bOlh medicine and poison: It Krisleva writes in Strangers 10 Ourselves, �The for­ that moves back and fonh between the self and
past homelands, past ways o[ being-iS sym­
can express alienation, or it can replenish and eigner is the other of the fnmily, the clan. the the othcrM (xxvi-xxvii). In her attempt as writer
bolic, that is, a process of meaning making that
rebutress our sense of identity by consolidating tribeH (95). And as Sarup points OUI, this sense and performer to hCfll cultur::tI divisions, Smith's
is dependent on n�llTative and rlguration.
the ties with our hislOry" (39). Kumar, in con­ of the Dlher's strangeness is insepal'3ble from the utopian dramas embody what S. P. Mohanty ad­
Whether memories arc silelllly experienced, tOld
trast, stresses the illusionary constructions of idea of "sfrWtgcness wilhill JlIC selr (99). vocates in his discussion of the potentially utopic
in oral and communal form, or written down,
nostalgiC desire: For Trouillot, the other occupies the Msavagc epistemology of the borderlands. To cross the
they exist as a form of storytelling resonant with
slot" in a symbolic field that appropriates sub­ divide between �us� and Mthem,H he writes, wc
metaphor. What has been [orgotlen can often re­ Why do wc so easily repbcc our m;l1crial past
with a mythic:Il one, purc and glOrious-and then jectivity and heterogeneity for the self and its must begin with the assumption of the subjec­
turn in the form of hauntings, ghostly traces of
shed blood. ours and that of others. 10 p rOlccI tribe, not for the other. He counters this total- tivity of the other.
the past, longings that don't quite dare direct ex-
'80 Migrations, Dlasporas, alld Borders
Susan SUJ/ljonl Fliedman 'SI

language, Mullilingualism, (mci land, and subsequent generations retain, lose, or Genre Clnd TexlUalicy
medieval scholarship. comemporary ethnogra­
Cullural TronslaliotJ hybridically combine the old with the new. For
phy, :md life writing in his exploration of cul­
the Chicana writer Ana Castillo (Massacre oJ the Literary scholarship in migration, diaspora, and
tural, economic, ;lnd religiolls traffic across Ar­
Is there a mother tongue, a Single language Dreamers), the "poetiCS of sdf-definition� begins border studies has focused heavily on the nur­
abic Spain, North Africa, ;lncl into Persia and
learned in the intimacy of the family and held with language: rative genres of travel writing, autobiography,
India. Nabil Matar's Turhs, Moors, and Englisltmen
dear as the core signature of one's culture? Has novel, and testimony. This attention to fiction
As mestizas, we must take a critical look at lan­ in {he Age DJ Discovery allests to the largely ig­
the mother tongue been forbidden, forced into guage, all our languages and patois combin:uions. and life writing may reflect a foregrounding of
nored presence of Muslims in England and its
extinction or near loss? Or are there multiple with the understanding that language is not some· culture, identity, and politiCS and an unexam.
Significant impact on Elizabethan literature; his
mother tongues, different languages learned thing we adopt and that rem.1ins apart from us. ined need for modes of writing that are more
111 flle Lands oJ file Chrislians: Arabic Travel Wrif­
through exposures in a variety of settings, sig­ Explicitly or implicitly, bnguage s
i the vehicle by easily assimilated, espeCIally across cultural bor­
which we perceive ourselves in rdation 10 the ing in lite Sevenlt:ench Celltury shows how Arabs
naling the multilayered and interwoven com­ ders, and that are more convemionaUy tied to
world. (qtd. in Seyhan 106) in turn represented Europc,:ms. John Archer's
plexities of community and communal identities the real. Poetry translates less easily than narra­
Old Worlds: Egypt, SoutlllvCSl Asia, India, and Rus­
for people in diaspora, the borderlands, or mul­ The hybridity of Spanglish, Chinglish, and other tive and fiction-both linguistica!ly and cultur­
sia in EClrly Modern Englisll Writing brings ques­
tilingual societies? How do such language op­ creole combinations embodies the blending of ally. Drama, {oo, relies heavily on culturally spe­
tions of intercultural contact imo Renaissance
tions encode the history of migrations, of colo­ cultures that accompanies migration and Jife in cific forms and nonns for performance. Jahan
studies, as does Whitehead's edition of Waiter
nialistru past and present? As a result of the the borderlands (on Spanglish, see Stavans), Rmnazani has called for more attention to post­
Ralcigh's Discoverie of (lie LLlrgc, Rich and Bewtiful
old British Empire and the new American he­ Itineraries of multiple migrations create a lin­ colonial poetry; Tejumola Olaniyan writes exten­
Empyre oJ Guiana, which blends ethnohistOry,
gemony. English has supplanted French as the guistiC hybridity of a different kind, a son of ge· sively on drama in the African diaspora; and crit.
analysis of travel writing, and anthropolOgical
global language and s
i now the most common ographic palimpsest with lingUistiC aftereffects icism on experimental diasporic writers such as
perspectives on the ecumene. Saree Makdisi ex­
second language around the created over time. Meena Al­ Theresa Hak Kyung Cha (author of the long
Bilingualism and muhilingualism amines the complicity between the rise of Ro.
world.J8 But for many people, exander, for example, grew up poem Dicree) is now developing.)� This trend
manticism and Western imperialism. The expan­
Spanish, French, Portuguese, are key markers of transit; of the with Hindi, Malayalam, En­ needs to expand, in my view, with greater atten­
sion of this work \vill add vit;li histOrical depth
Mandarin, Hindi, and Arabic refusal to assi.milate completely; glish, French, and Arabic and tion in general to issues of (extua[iz�nion and
[0 the understanding of globalization and to the
are the lingUistic entryways and of the insistence on is now awash in the different form as well as to less-studied genres and modes
literatures of mibrration, diaspora, and borders.40
into economic and cultural retention of the past, other homes, Englishes and Spanishes of of writing.
literacy, no matter the attach­ New York City. Her family
and other cultural identities.
ment to mother longue(s) or home is in Kerala, where
the need for English in an age of intensified glob­ Malayalam is the mother tongue, but she first
COtllparatislll, World Literature,
alization. unguage issues are at the heart of the ancl InSli(ulioflal Issues
learned Hindi because she was born in AlIaha­
larger cultural translation that movement from bad. Growing up with North African French and The recent compel1smory turn lo geography and
Migrauon, diaspora, and border slUdies-with
one culture into another necess;lrily entails. For then the Arabic of Khartoum, she was later ed­ spatialized thinking has been fruitful for literary
their enhanced attention to geopolitics on a
migrant or nomadic writers and imelJectua\s, the ucated in Britain and moved to the States. She studies in gener�l and a central feature of migra.
global landscape-have led to a new compara­
question of language is central. In what language never learned to read or write in Malayalam, tion, diaspom, and border slUdies. However, the {ism: one less cemered on European !iter.nures
should they write? For which audiences? How although the �rhythms of the language first field's predominant focus on the twentieth and
and theiT diffusion or on the literatures of differ.
do the instilUlions of production, dissemination, came to mc, not just in lullabies or in the chat­ twenty-first centuries is too limiting and belies
em nation-states; onc more global in scope, more
and reception in print cuhure affect their lin­ ter of women in lhe kitchen . . but in the mea­ the way that any spatial location contains the pa­
interested in creative agencies outSide Europe
guistiC choices? Whatever choice they make, ge­ sured cadences of oratory and poetry, and limpscstic layers of history that overdetennine
.:lnd the United StrHes, more likely to consider
opolitiClI histories and realities overdetennine nightly recitations from the Bible and the epics� the present and help shape the future. Literary
transnational literatures in a Single language
their decisions, making the lingUistic act frought (�Alphabets" 145). For Alexander, language is Studies of earlier periods is now fruitfully l3king
across national boundaries, and more attuned to
with P;ISt histories ;md potentially conflicting supercharged, a multiplicity of places and up questions of migration, travel, and intercul­
traveling and transplanted cultures.
desires. identities, tural comact (e.g., the Arabic, Europe;ln, and Af­
This new comparatism ch;lllenges centerl
Bilingualism and multilingualism are key rican exchanges in the medieval world; travel
periphery and diffusionist models that privilege
markers of transit; of the refusal to assimilate writing in the age of European discoveries; co­
the !iter.nures and languages of the West and
completely; and of [he insistence on relemion of lonialism and Romanticism). Basem Ra'ad con­
FUTURE DIRECTIONS consign the Rest to marginality and pale imita­
the past, olher homes, and other cultural iden· Siders questions of the �legacies of Canuan and tion. It assumes differem nodal centers of aes.
tilies. Generational differences intenSify the sig­ Growth areas and issues for migration, diaspor.t, Etruria" for the history of writing and literature thetic production and agency ;lround the globe
nificance of language: first-generation migrants ::md border studies arc diverse. I outline here a in later periods. AmitOv Ghosh's In all AllIi({uc
and eX3mines che effects of transnational comact
both need and resist the language of the host- few of the most relevant for literary studies. Land has been Widely read for its combination of zones, traveling ideas and forms, reciprocally
282 Migrations, Diasporas. Gllli Bordas Susan SranJord Friedman 283

constitutive formations, and hybridic processes tural borders th:lt arc shaping the twenty-first theoretical eX:lmination of its pammeters, its re­ of rcpresentmion and meaning making. I have
of transplantltion and n
i digenization. Simon Gi­ century. lation to language and transl:ition, its connection asked in turn that wc literary scholars turn to the
kandi's MClps DJ Englishness, for example, exam­ Additionally, the institutional issues that this to notions of traveling cultures and Circulation, social sciences for assistance in theorizing mig­
ines how English identity and !iter-nure from An­ new comparatism raises need further discussion its newer methods of juxt:lposition that are re­ rancy. Perhaps a fitting end for this ovelView is

thony Trollope and Thomas Carlyle through and thought. As fields encouraging comparative placing older Eurocentric diffusionism. The dan­ a blending of the humanities and the social sci­
Graham Greene and 5alm3n Rushdie are fanned methodologies, migration, diasp0r:l, :lnd border gers of Western appropriation of non-Western ences evident in the geographers' characteriza­
through their interactions with colonial others. studies implicitly transgress the institutional literatures also need to be examined.�l Migm­ tion of what they have learned from the rich lit­
His Writing in Limbo looks at the uneasy engage­ structures that often separate literature and lan­ tion, diaspora, and border studies highlight these eratures of migration, diaspora, and borders:
ments of writers in the Caribbean with modern­ guage studies by nation and region. They de­ institutional changes because their literatures in­
Migrant literature is individual, SUbjective, di­
ism and modernity. Rob Nixon's Homelands, velop a comparatism that in part borrows from volve people on the move :1cross geopolitical and
verse: it reflects but also may exaggerate or even
Harlem, ami Hollywood explores the travels back the diSCipline of comparative literature and in continental borders. inven the social experience that dnves it. . . . For
and forth across the Atlantic, taking up the im­ part fosters new forms of compar.ltive work in some groups, migration is not a mere interval be­

pact of the Harlem Renaissance and Hollywood all literature and language departments. Some tween r,xed points of depanure and arrival, but a

on the Sophiatown writers in South Africa; lhe scholars welcome porous boundaries among dis­ A retrospecti\'e and prospective look at the ex­ mode of being in the world-"migrancy.� . . . The

ploding fields of migration, diaspora, and border migrant vOice tells us what it s
i like to feel a
exiles and boycotts of apartheid; and the for­ ciplines; others resist them. At stake is more than
stranger and yet at home, to live simultaneously
mation of the new South Africa in lhe wake of the enrichment of interdisciplinary work. Some studies s
i inevitably filled with omissions and
inside and outside onc's immediate sitUation, 10
the cold war, the fall of Communism, and the of the smaller departmenlS--Comparative liter­ gaps. The sheer scope and interdisciplinarity of
be pennanemly on the run, to think of retuming
wars in the Balkans."! These and other instances ature and lang�lages other than English, Spanish, the fields makes a mockery of any attempt a t
but to realize at the same time the impossibility
of the new comparatism look to the interpene­ and French, for example-fear being swallowed mastery. Rather, I have attempted t o name some of doing so, since the past is nO! only another
tration of the global and the local and work to up in the new institution:ll move toward the sup­ of the m:lny lines of inquiry; the pathways of country but also another time, out of the presem.

bridge the divide between global studies and area port of global Languages. The question of own­ exploration; the kinds of questions people have It tells us Wh:ll it is like to traverse borders like

ership of literature-in-translation courses at been pursuing; and the spectrum of concerns the Rio Grande or "Fonress Europe: and by do­
studies. The thick description oflocal knowledge
ing so suddenly become an illegal person, an
that the anthropolOgist Clifford Geertz advo­ times provokes a tug-of-war, with the issue of from material and political to mctaphoric and
"other"; it tens us what it is like to live on a fron­
cated in TIlt: Interpretation of Cultures (esp. 3-30) institutional sUlVival in the air."2 psychological, cultural, and aesthetic.
tier that cuts through your language, your
and Local Knowledge (esp. 4, 55-72) s
i combined Migration, diaspora, and border studies also The focus has been on literary studies, in­
religion, your culture. It tells of long-distance
in the new comparatism \vith attention to cul­ sit :It the crossroads of important debates about formed by other diSCiplines and interdisciplinary journeys and relocalions, of losses, changes, con­
tural theory across borders and to the impact of the newly reconfigured field of world literature, fields. But t close with an appeal made by ge­ flicts, powerlessness, and of infinite sadness that
cultural traffic on a global landscape at the local monolingualism versus multilingualism, and lit­ ographers to their fellow social scientists, to pay severely test the migrant'S emotional resolve. It

level. erature in translation. As Spivak argues in Death attention to the literature of migration and di­ tells of new visions and experiences of the familiar

aspora. In Writillg across Worlds: Literature alld and unf:l mi liar. For those who come from else­
This trend is likely to continue, and it should of a Discipline, the new comparatism needs to
where, and ClnnOt go back, perhaps writing be­
be encouraged. Surely, in the world after the cnd move beyond the privileging of European lan­ Migration, Russell King, John ConneH. and Paul
comes a place to live.
of the cold w:lr, 911 1 , and the United States in­ guages, resist the homogenizing tendencies of White complain thilt social scientists seldom
(King, Conne1\, and White xv)
vasion of Iraq, onc of the most important growth monolingualism, and foster the study of multiple capture the "ambivalence� at the core of migra­

areas for the new comparatism in literary studies languages in which literatures are written. At the tion experience; social science "fails to portray �Uving in a State of psychic unrest in a Bor­

should :md will be the Muslim literatures and same time. I believe, the field needs to acknowl­ nostalgia, anomie, exile, rootlessness, restlcss­ derland,n writes Anzaldu:l, Mis whm makes poets

cultures in conjunction \vith those of other reli­ edge the power and impact on literature of trans­ ness� (x), precisely the nuanced psychologiC:11 write and artists create. it is like a C:lctus needle

gious :md cultur.ll groups �lI1d in connection national languages such as English, Spanish, dimensions of migration so often explored in lit­ embedded in the nesh� (73). The displacements
\vith the issues of migration and diaspora. Bar­ French, Portuguese, :md Mandarin, whatever erature. They ask social scientists to draw more produced by migrmion, diaspor:l, and borders

barn Fuchs's and Matar's work on the early mod­ their past relations to imperialism and empire. directly on the rich literary :lrchive of migration, create a poetics of their own.

em period, Brenner's Ine.xllica/Jly Bondcd , Ken English literary studies is no longer the study of from "fully-ncdged creative litcratures" in all

Seigneurie's collection Crisis alld McmOfY: Tile literature in Britain :lnd the United States; it in­ genres and films to morc ephemeral migration NOTES

Rt:presentatioll of Space in l\oloclem l.£vanline Nar­ corporates literatures in English of Africa, Asia, Writing in ethnic newspapers, newsletters, mag­
For their assistance in my <lnempts 10 cross borders of
ralive, and Amin Malak's Muslim Narralives and and the Caribbean. Spanish litemry studies now azines, diaries, songs, oral narratives, and re­ hiStOry, geography, :md langu:!ge. I :!1l1 particubrly
Ihe DisCOIlr'lt of Eng lisll-to cite JUSt a few includes Latin America. French literature in portage, often in "mother tongues" (xii-xiii). grateful to Aid:! Blanco. Leslie Bow. B:!hareh ull1pert.

They ask, in short, for their colleagues to look at Nellie Y. McKay, John D. Riofno, Aliko 5ongolo, Sc:m
examples-arc paving the way Africa is now regularly pan
Some scholars welcome porous Teuton. and SUs.lnne Wofford and 10 my tireless and
for criticism on migration, of French departments. And the data that arc the main subject of our work in
skilled assistamsJohn Bradley, Megan Massino, Krtstin
travel, diaspom, and exile bOllndadcs among disciplincs; so forth. Moreover, world lit­ the modem literatures and languages-namely, Matthews. and Eliz:lbcth Schewe. Rebccc:l WalkowilZ'S
across the religiOUS and cul- others resist them. eralUre as a field needs greater the realms of :Iesthetic and creative production, suggestions ror reVISion were inv;]]uable.
284 Migraciolls, Diasporas, and 8ordt:rs SlIsan Stanfonl Fnedmlln 285

I. For a samphng of debate about globalization par­ Shades; Edwards: Gr(w;lI;Jay, "Beyond DiSCIpline?"; Connell, and WhIte; Pannar and Somaia-unen; See Fri(dman. "Bodies." For other blendings of au­
ticularly innuentia! In or relevant to literary studies, K:ldir; Kaplan and Pease: Madsen; Pease :md Wu::g­ Sherman: Ty and Goellnicht. tobiography and diOlsporic theory, see Bhabha,
sec Appadur:ai, Modemit)' and Glob.:lH<:(.tlion; B:IU­ man; Rowe, Nelll Americtlll Studies :md POSI- 15. Migratian Theory, edited by Bretell and Hollifield, "Frontlines" and Locatian; Chow; Dayies; Chen;
man, GlOOClIi:;:cuion; Breckenridgc, Pollock, Bhablu, 11lltionalisl Ameri(an Studies; Snldivlr, Dia/celia; contnillS OV(l'Vlews of migrntion theory in history, Fr:ankenbergand Mani: KUnlar. Away, Passporl Pho­
:md Chakr:abany; F. SucH; Frank; Friedman and Splllers, Comparanve Amencan ltI(nlilies: Waiters. economics, soc\Olog)', anthropology, law. and po­ lOS, and Bombay: U. Narayan; Radlukrishnan. Dtas­
R.1nderia: Gunn; Hodgson; Hulme; JOlmeson 9. �e Gilroy; Hall. "New Ethmcuies"; M. Jacobson; litical science. For other theories of migration in the porie Medialions and Theory; Sarup: SlId. "Reflec­
and Miyoslu; Mudlmbe-Bo)'i: Muller, NO\! World Sollors, lll\'entilm; OlaniYln: and note 13. social sciences, sec Bretell: Fri(dmln lnd Randeria; tions"; Seyhan; lnd Spivlk, Post-colonial Critic.
RLadtr; R.1dhakrishnnn. Th�OI)'; Sanderson; Waller­ 10. The tenns idcnlily and subjecl Olre not identical, com. King, Conncll. and White; D.Jacobson; Meilaender; Said's "Reflections on Exile" and Rushdie's -lmOlgi­
slt:m; Waters. ing as they do out of different philosophical, polit­ Papastergiadis. -Restless Hybrids" and Turbu!enu: nary Homelands" predate the use of the t<::n n dias­
2. The bte twentleth century h:lS even been dubbed ical. and national traditions. In uSing idenlily, I do Su:1re:-Orozco, Suarez-Orozco, and Qin-Hilliard. pora in culturnl theory but haye been tnfluenunl au­
"the age of nllgr.mon- (C:lstles and Miller). not align mysdf wah essenllalist identity politics; Inlerdisdprinary PerspeCfiyes lnd New Immigratian tobiographical theory in diasporn studies.
3. Contemporary debates about the nature and politiCS presume a self that exists outside l:lnguage; or as­ (Mnrcelo Sv:lrez-Orozco and Carola Su;:\rez-Orozco 24. Prntt introduced the tenn "COnt:J(t wne: which she
of cosmopoliwnisll1 ore il significilnt part of migra­ sume an unchanging collectiye identity of groups are codireetors of the Hnrllard Immigrntion Project): defines in lmperial Eyes lS "social sp�ces where dis­
tion, diaspom. and border studies. For a sampling, by r.lce. gender, nmion, and SO on. Nor do [ nccept publicalions of the International Library of Studies parnte cultures tIltet, dash. and grapple with elch
see Appiah, Cosmopolitanism; Archibugi; Bcnn:m; a view often associlted with posIstruclUrnlism that on Migration, 3 series edited by Robin Cohcn, esp. other, often in highly asymmetncal relations of
Breckenridge, Pollock, Bhabha, and Chlkrab:my; the subject is fully detennined by preexisting dis­ Vertovec ll1d Cohen, Conceiving and Migration; Wil­ domination and subordination-ltke colonialism,
Brcnnan; Cheah and Robbins; Clifford. Routes 17- cursive regimes. 1 use idcnrity In the context of a Us and Yeah. For gene:llogies of and debates about slavery, or their a£temlatns as they arc lived out
47 and Pre(/iclIIlleltf; Dhnrwadker; Klplnn, esp. cuiturnl COllStructivism that assumes a dialectical re­ the tenn assimilalion in American historiography, across the globe today" (4).
10 1-42; Nussbaum: Vertovcc lnd Cohen. ConctiY­ lation between detenninism and agency as pan of see Alba and Nee; Kazal: Suarez-Orozco. 25. xe Stallybrass and White on trnnsgression of high
mg; Wllkowit::. a histonc:al process existing in specific locltions. See 16, For feminist cnticism on gender in migration nar· and low borders; JlnMohamed on the specu!lr
.;. Imellectual diasporics and exilt$ are particubrly Friedman, Mappillgs, esp. 3-104; A1coff. Hames­ r:l\i\'es, see Ahmed, Castanedl, lnd Fonie; Alex­ "homelessness-as-home" of "border intellectuals";
likdy to artlcu13te such multibceted belongmgs Glrcla, Mohlllty, and Moya. ander. "Alphabets": Danquah; Davies; Friedman, We1chman's Rethinhing Borders, which e..'
'ttends bor­
Sce for eJUmp!;:: Alexander, "Alphabets": Appiah. In 1 1 . A few exceptions include Rosemary ""arangoly -Bodiesw: Grewal; Heike; Irving: Pannar lnd der theory in muhimedia, interdisciplinlry, and
My Fathtr's HllUSe; Bammer: Blubh:!, lDcation; Brai­ George's "Tr.we1ing Ught: which identifies immi­ Somala-Canen; and Zaborowska. theoretical ways: Tnnh's �An AcousticJourney: for
dolti; Clumbers, Border Dialoguc; lnd ,Wigrancy; grant literature as a genre durncleri;:ed by narrative 17 Migration has no doubt influenc(d the figuratiOns the move from refugees to phIlosophiCborderlands_
Chen; Friedm:m, "Bodics"; Hlnne; Israel; Kumar. repetition and echoes, met:lphors of baggage (splr· of both Brntdo\li :md Chambers. Braidotti was born For a Critique of the erasure of empiric.11 schobr­
Paupon Pholos: U. Narayan; Radlukrtshnan. Dias­ itual and material), and a link with colonialism. in haiy, immtgr:lIcd to Australia, was educated m ship in border theory and liternture, see the soci­
pone Media/ions; Rushdie. ImagiMry Homelands; Wi\liam Q. Boclhower's "The Immigrant Noyd as Fr:mcc, and currently teaches in the Netherlands; ologiSt Pablo Vill's Ethnography at Ihe Border. esp.
S:lid, "Reflections"; S3rup. Genre" is a structur:alist l/Ulysis of immigrnnt nar­ Ch:lmbers has lived in many countries and was 306-41 .
S. lntuated by Gilles Oe\eu;:e and Ftlix Gualarri in the rative patterns With examples drnwn from Untted teaching in Naples at the lime of his book's publi­ 26. $(c "Theones Jnd Methodologies . . _�nz.:lldun:
1970s-1980s (KnJha and Thousand Plateaus), the States literature_ Thomas Ferraro's Elhnic Passages Cluon. See ;llso Janet Wolffs theooling of women devoted to Anzaldua's work and legac}'; Friedm_1n.
concept of deterritorializatiOI1 nnd its related notion Similarly drnws only on the United States example. as l\ien 5trnngers. Mappings, 93-101. The poems, critical writings.
of nom:ldism hayc gained great currency in literary but F(mro presentS a useful genealogy of lilerary 18. Philip Curtin's Cross-Cullural Trade in World History :Ind c.1mivalesque perfonnlnce an of Guillemlo
studies. WIth widely diverg�nt meanings and de­ cmicism on migration narratiyC5 and argues agalllst implicitly evokes th( Greek rooLS of diaspora in his G6mez·Pet'la have also been influential in both
bates centered p;lnic\lbrly on how much to link the common m:trginali;:ation of tntgration literature globnl history of trade diasporas. Mexico lnd the United St:ltes (e.g., The NfW World
these concepts to geohistoncnl conditions. Sce for from the American Clnon. He suggests that the 19. For the South Asian Diasporn, see Appadurai, Mo­ Border). Sec Fregoso for discussions of Chican;ls and
exnmple Br:tidotti;JanMohamed and lloyd; K:lpbn, genre cont:llns across ethnic differences a core con­ del'llily; Brnh; Grewal; Kumlr, Bombay. PasspaTl Pho­ "meXicanas" III the producl1on or American and
esp. 65-100; Uonnct and Scharfm:m. ccm with Ihe wrner's person:!l negotiation between IDS. and Away; U. Narayan; Needham; Radhakrish­ Mexic:an border culLure in film, litcrature, and pop.
6. Paula Gunn Alien wrote the volume's essay on bor­ being American and being alien: "An aspiring writer nnn. Diasponc Media/ions and Theory; Shukla: ubr culture.
der studies :lIId focUSf!d pamcubrly on women of from In immigrant background feels damned on T:lmbinh. The lenn diaspora is :tOO increasingly be­ 27. See also Polkmhom, Di-Bella. and Re)'es:Jay's over­
color as writers and cmlCS m the United States. The the onc side for having become too American and ing used in relallon to Chinese outside the m:linbnd view of border studies, �Myth.- For acknowledg­
border she explored was rncial more than geopolit­ damned on the other side for not being able 10 be­ of China, people who have been known as overseas ment of the form:tlive influence of the American
ic:lI as she called for more auemlon to the int..:rscc- come American enough" (10). Chinese for centuries. Sce Anderson :md Lee; Southwest on border theory and an insistence that
110l1S of gender :md color m the wnung of women 12. xc Takaki. DiJJerenl Mirror. Bodhower. TIlrough a Chow; Chult ltld Shimakawa; Lowe; Ty and Gocll­ border theory moye beyond liS regIonal onglllS, see
(� 'Border' Studies"). xc the recent collectIOn of her Glass: Sollors, Multilingua! America; Stephan. and mcht; and Cohen's discussion of the overseas Chi· Michaelsen and Johnson: Wekhman.
own border ess.1yS in OJJ Ihe RestT\'I.Uion. Simone's annotnted blbliogrnphy in Immlgranl nese as 3 -trade dlaspora" (83-104). 28. Geographic borders under exammntion m border
7. Postcolonbl studIes on Snttsh and anglophone lit­ Expt:lience. 20. Braziel and M:umur's coi1ection includes many of studies lre not llwlys con\1guous. Th( so-called
er:aluru :md cultures are too V3St to properly ref­ 13. See, for example. on the Gn:at Migrnlion. Griffin; tlte mOSt significant contemporary theoretical essays civilizational diVIde between East :tnd West has led
erence here. but for somc innU(nllal lexLS and use· Nicholls: Rodgcrs : on the J:lp:lnese internment, Ko­ on dtaspor:a. Their imroduClion and that of the an­ to work panicularly m comparltwe literature ex­
£ul collections, se( Said, Orienwhsm and (ullu,,; gawOl; Y;lmada; Lowe, esp_ 'tB-S I; Wegl}TI; on NOl­ thropologistS l:Ivie and Swedenburg in their Dis­ amining the cultural exchlnges lnd fruitful juxl3-
Sph':Jk, In Otha Wur!ds; Ashcroh, Griffiths. and Tif­ th'( American migration. Aldnma; Ehle; Hole: placement, Diaspora, and Geographic; oJ Identity are positions of European and ElSt Asia., liternry and
�n: Chantbers and Curti; G:lIldln; Gik:Jndi, Maps Harjo; Hogln; Jahcxla; Lun:t-Firebaugh; McCall; pllticulariy useful oyervtews. aesthetic cuhures: see for example Hayot: Saussy,
:lnd Writing: McClimock: Ol:mipn; R:ldhnkrish­ Rozema. 21. For recent discussions of Jewish and Isrneli dias­ Great Walls nnd Problem; L. Zhnng; Y. l.hang.
nan, Di(lSporiC MedJuliolls and Theory: R.11n:lzani; 14. For mOll! discussions of migr:ltlon, culture, and lit­ poric liter:ature, see Brenner; Shreiber: Weber. 29. See also Chambers, Border Dialugues; Trinh. �Acous­
Willi:tms and Chrism:ln. er:ume in counlnes other than the United Stales. 22. For recent discussions of bbck diasporan literature, uc Joumey.- For discussions of border issues, cul­
8. There i s:J bst-growing literature on the new­ sce Adman; Adelson; l\ppldural. Modemil)'; Bam­ �Im, nnd culture in the Americls, see Edwards; Fos­ tural politics, lnd narratiye. S€!e Egerer; Frcgoso:
national emphnsis in Americ:ln liter:lturc nnd cul­ mcr: Corkhill; Ghosh: Gilroy; H:mne; Hargreavcs: ter: Gilroy: Spillers. "Introduction"; Waiters. Friedman. Mappillgs 132-78; Izzo and Spandri:
tUr:J1 studies. Sce l. Budl; Dimock, "Literruure" nnd Huysscn; Irebnd nnd Proulx; Kaminsky; King. 23. Brah 9: Alexander. "Alphabets· and Shoe/( 13-16. Stallybrass and White.
286 Migmlions, Diasl'oras. and Borders
$usun S(miford Frir:dnl{ln 287

30. In �Thc M:my Flces of Cosfllo-polis: Mignolo links on instituti onal SlnlClmeS in lhe �cadem)', sce jay,
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Renaissallce. Dimock, ·Uterature"; Uonnet and Shih; Moretti;
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