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# 11.

THEORY OF
FLIGHT

## November  23,  2017

LEARNING  OUTCOMES
On  comple?on  of  this  topic  you  should  be  able  to:
•  Describe  about  theory  of  ﬂight.
1.  Rela?onship  between  liO,  weight,  thrust  and
drag.
2.  Glide  ra?o.

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11.1 RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN LIFT,
WEIGHT, THRUST
AND DRAG

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FORCES  ACTING  ON  AIRCARFT

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FORCES  ACTING  ON  AIRCARFT
THRUST
•  The  aircraG’s  propelling  force   LIFT
•  Arranged  symmetrically  to  the     Acts  at  right  angle  to  the  line  of
centre  line   ﬂight  &  through  the  Centre  of
•  Act  parallel  to  the  line  of  ﬂight   Pressure  of  the  wings

DRAG
WEIGHT@  GRAVITY   •  Opposes  the  forward  moKon
Acts  verKcally  downwards   •  Regarded  as  a  rearward
through   acKng  force
the  Centre  of  Gravity
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FORCES  ACTING  ON  AIRCARFT

## •  An  aircraG  ﬂying  at  constant  height  and  speed

LIFT    =    WEIGHT
THRUST  =    DRAG
•  Under  these  condiKon
i.  Angle  of  aQack  altered  to  adjust  the  producKon  of  liO
exactly  equals  the  weight  which  it  must  support
ii.  Engine  thrust  set  to  exactly  equal  the  aircraG  drag
generated  at  that  parKcular  speed

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ARRANGEMENT  OF  FORCES
•  LiG  =  Weight  and  Thrust  =  Drag

§  AircraG  tend  to  rotate  nose  up  or  nose  down  if  the  forces  line
of  acKon  not  correctly  arranged

§  Proper  arrangement  of  the  forces  (depends  on  aircraG  design)

i.  Centre  of  pressure  aG  of  centre  of  gravity  à  nose
down

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ARRANGEMENT  OF  FORCES
The  ideal  arrangement  of  the
four  forces
1.  The  ideal  arrangement  is  where
the  centre  of  gravity  is  forward  of
the  centre  of  pressure  (centre  of
liO)  –  which  produces  a  nose
down  couple.
2.  The  thrust  line  is  lower  than  the
centre  of  drag,  which  produces  a
nose  up  couple.
3.  Each  couple  opposing  the  other
and  cancelling  each  other  out.
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ARRANGEMENT  OF  FORCES

LIFT

WEIGHT

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ARRANGEMENT  OF  FORCES
THRUST  and  DRAG  =  nose  up  couple

DRAG   THRUST

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ARRANGEMENT  OF  FORCES
THRUST  and  DRAG  =  nose  up  couple

LIFT

DRAG   THRUST

WEIGHT

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FOUR  FORCES  OF  FLIGHT
•  For  aircraO  to  be  ﬂying  in  a  Straight,  Level  and  at
Constant  Speed.
Weight  Forces    =  LiO
Drag    =  Thrust

LiO  act  through  the  centre  of  pressure  (CP)  while
weight  through  the  centre  of  gravity  (CG).
Thrust  and  drag  act  in  opposite  direc?ons  parallel
to  the  direc?on  of  ﬂight.
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11.2 GLIDE RATIO

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GLIDE  RATIO
•  CondiKon  aircraG  with  no  thrust  from  engine.
•  Glide  ra?o  distance  covered  to  high  lost.
•  Highest  LiG/Drag  raKo  give  maximun  distance  by  ﬂying  with
minimum  drag.

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Glide
Ra?os
(Example)
AIRCRAFT  GLIDE
•  It  is  rare  for  powered  aircraO  need  to  glide,  but  it
is  possible  to  happens.
•  During  a  glide,  only  3  forces  involved  instead  of  4.
•  The  forces  are:
1.  Weight
2.  LiO
3.  Drag
•  One  important  thing  for  an  aircraO  to  glide  is
aircraO  C  of  G  must  be  in  front  of  C  of  P.
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THEORY  OF  TURN
•  When  the  pilot  wants  to  turn  the  aircraO,  the
ﬁrst  thing  he  needs  to  do  is  to  roll  the  aircraO
(banking).
•  The  liOing  forces  are  now  can  be  divided  into  2
components.
1.  Ver?cal  Component
2.  Horizontal  Component
•  The  horizontal  component  will  cause  the  aircraO
to  turn.

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FORCES  DURING  NORMAL
COORDINATED  TURN

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•  When  aircraO  is  banking,  there  are  few  eﬀects
that  need  to  be  consider:
2.  The  liO  produce  by  the  wing  has  been  divided
into  2  therefore  the  liO  to  counteract  the
weight  must  be  increase  to  prevent  the  aircraO
from  falling.

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•  Adverse   yaw   is   the   natural   and   undesirable
tendency   for   an   aircraO   to   yaw   in   the   opposite
direc?on  of  a  roll.
•  It   is   caused   by   the   diﬀerence   in   proﬁle   drag
between   the   upward   and   downward   deﬂected
ailerons,   the   diﬀerence   in   liO   and   thus   induced
drag  between  leO  and  right  wings,  as  well  as  an
opposite   rota?on   of   each   wing's   liO   vector
about   the   pitch   axis   due   to   the   rolling   trajectory
of  the  aircraO.

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•  To  roll  the  aircraO  1  aileron  must  comes  down
(increased  liO)  and  the  other  must  comes  up
(decrease  liO).

## •  This  will  create  an

must  be  corrected  by
applying  rudder.

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•  THERE  ARE  A  NUMBER  OF  DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS  WHICH  CAN  BE
v AILERON  TO  RUDDER  MIXING
v LIFT  COEFFICIENT
v YAW  STABILITY
v DIFFERENTIAL  AILERON  DEFLECTION
v FRISE  AILERONS
v ROLL  SPOILERS

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•  The  amount  of  stress  (load  factor)  that  an  aircraG  can
withstand  before  structural  damage  or  failure  occurs  is
expressed  as  the  aircraO’s  limi?ng  load  factor.
•  Primarily   a   funcKon   of   aircraG   design,   an   individual
aircraG’s  limiKng  load  factor  is  published  in  the  aircraO
ﬂight  manual  (or:  pilot  opera?ng  handbook)  in  terms
of  maximum  posiKve  or  negaKve  g.
•  LimiKng   load   factors   of   +3.5g   to   +3.8g   and   -­‐1.5g   to
-­‐1.8g   are   quite   common   for   various   general   aviaKon
and  transport  category  aircraG.

1.  Load   factor   is   the   raKo   of   the   maximum   load   an   aircraG   can
sustain   to   the   gross   weight   of   the   aircraG.   With   the   a/c   ﬂying
straight   and   level   the   Load   Factor   is   one.   With   the   aircraG   in   a
banked  turn  the  load  factor  is  increased.

60o X2 X2
70o X3 X3

2.  For   an   average   200   ton   (   =   200   metric   tonnes)   airliner   these
ﬁgures  are  respecKvely  400  tons/tonnes  and  600  tons/tonnes.

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q With   the   structural   design   of   aircraG   planned   to
withstand   only   a   certain   amount   of   overload,   a
knowledge   of   load   factors   has   become   essenKal   for   all
pilots.  Load  factors  are  important  for  two  reasons:

Ø It   is   possible   for   a   pilot   to   impose   a   dangerous
Ø An  increased  load  factor  increases  the  stalling  speed
and   makes   stalls   possible   at   seemingly   safe   ﬂight
speeds.
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## q AircraG   designed   under   the   category   system   are   readily

idenKﬁed   by   a   placard   in   the   ﬂight   deck,   which   states   the
operaKonal   category   (or   categories)   in   which   the   aircraG   is
cerKﬁcated.
aircraG  in  the  various  categories  are:

1  For  aircraG  with  gross  weight  of  more  than  4,000  pounds,  the  limit
load  factor  is  reduced.  To  the  limit  loads  given  above,  a  safety  factor
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Normal1   3.8  to  –  1.52
UKlity  (mild   4.4  to  –  1.76
acrobaKcs,  including
spins)
AcrobaKc   6.0  to  –  3.00

## Note:  1For  aircraG  with  gross  weight  of  more

than  4,000  pounds,  the  limit  load  factor  is
reduced.  To  the  limit  loads  given  above,  a
safety  factor  of  50  percent  is  added.

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FACTOR
STALL  SPEED
the  liO  generated
•  Stall  is  a  condi?on  where
by  the  aircraO’s  wings  no  longer  supports  its
weight.
•  The  higher  load  factor  in  constant-­‐al?tude
turns  caused  by  the  centrifugal  force  will  also
increase  the  stall  speed.  An  increased  stall
speed  means  that  the  aircraO  stalls  earlier,
i.e.  at  a  higher  speed.
•  Stalls  that  occur  with  g-­‐forces  on  an  aircraO
are  called  ’accelerated  stalls’.
STALL  SPEED
•  In  fact,  the  stall  speed  increases  in  propor?on  to
the  square  root  of  the  load  factor.
•  To  counteract  the  increase  in  aircraO  load  you  need
to  increase  the  liO  produce  by  wing.
•  To  increase  liO  you  can  do  2  things:
1.  Increase  Angle  of  Agack
2.  Increase  AircraO  Speed
•  Example:  If  an  aircraO  has  a  stalling  speed  of  55
knots  at  1g,  then  it  will  stall  at  twice  that  speed  (i.e.
at  110  knots)  when  the  load  factor  becomes  4g,
which  corresponds  to  a  bank  angle  of  77°.
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•  There  is  a  limit  to  increase  Angle  of  Agack
normally  around  15  degrees.
•  To  increase  the  liO  further  is  by  increasing
aircraO  speed.
•  The  minimum  speed  needed  to  create  enough
liO  to  counteract  the  aircraO  load  at  maximum
angle  of  agack  is  called  STALL  SPEED.
•  Therefore  an  increase  in  aircraO  load  will
increase  its  Stall  Speed.

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FLIGHT  ENVELOPE
•  Flight  envelope  describe  aerodynamic  and
structural  limitaKon  of  aircraG.
•  Pilot  ﬂy  the  aircraG  based  on  the  envelope.

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FLIGHT  ENVOLOPE  AND  STRUCTURAL
LIMITATION
•  It  will  describe  the  boundaries  of  al?tude  and
airspeed  within  which  normal  ﬂight  manoeuvring
can  be  safely  conducted.
•  Normally  aircraO  Flight  Envelope  can  be  found  in
the  AircraO  Flight  Manual.

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PIEL  EMERAUDE  FLIGHT  ENVELOPE

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FLIGHT  ENVELOPE
•  The  aircraG’s  ﬂight  is  limited  to  a  regime  of  airspeeds  and
load  factor  which  do  not  exceed  the  limit  (redline)  speed
(225  mph),  do  not  exceed  the  limit  load  factor  (4.4  G),  and
cannot  exceed  the  maximum  liG  capability.

•  The  aircraG  must  be  operated  within  this  “envelope”  to
prevent  structural  damage  and  ensure  the  anKcipated
service  liG  of  the  aircraG  is  obtained.

•  Any  maneuver  and/or  gust  outside  the  structural  envelope
can  cause  structural  damage  and  eﬀecKvely  shorten  the
service  life  of  the  aircraG.
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STATE FLIGHTS,
PERFORMANCE

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Airplane  controls,
movement,  axes  of  rota?on,
and  type  of  stability

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737  CONTROL  SURFACES

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THE  BANKED  TURN
1.  For  the  a/c  to  carry  out  a  turn  it  must  produce  a  force  towards  the  centre  of
the  turn  (centripetal  force).
2.  When  the  a/c  banks  the  liO  force  is  placed  at  an  angle  (when  viewed  from  the
front  or  rear)  by  the  pilot  moving  the  control  column  to  one  side  moving  the
ailerons.
3.  The  force  of  a  banking  turn  manoeuvre  can  be  divided  into  its  component:
a)  LiO  Component  –  Must  be  equal  and  opposite  to  weight  if  the  aircraO  is
to  not  lose  or  gain  height.
b)  Centripetal  Component  –  to  be  equal  and  opposite  to  the  centrifugal
force  created  by  the  aircraO,  and  to  provide  the  force  required  to  “pull”
the  aircraO  around  the  corner.
4.  If  the  centripetal  force  is  larger  than  the  aircraO  will  go  into  a  ?ghter  turn,  if
is  smaller  the  radius  of  turn  will  get  greater.

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THE  BANKED  TURN

## What  are  the  control

surfaces  involved  in  a
banking  turn  maneuver?

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THE  CLIMB

When the a/c climbs all the force vectors move with the a/c.

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CHANGE  IN  LIFT  DURING  CLIMB
ENTRY
•  During   the   transiKon   from   straight-­‐and-­‐level
ﬂight  to  a  climb,  a  change  in  liG  occurs  when  back
elevator  pressure  is  ﬁrst  applied.
•  Raising  the  aircraG’s  nose  increases  the  AOA  and
momentarily   increases   the   liG.   LiG   at   this
moment   is   now   greater   than   weight   and   starts
the  aircraG  climbing.
•  AGer   the   ﬂight   path   is   stabilized   on   the   upward
incline,  the  AOA  and  liG  again  revert  to  about  the
level  ﬂight  values.

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FORCE  ACTING  DURING  THE  CLIMB
CHANGE  IN  LIFT  DURING  CLIMB
ENTRY

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CHANGE  IN  SPEED  DURING  CLIMB
ENTRY
•  If   the   climb   is   entered   with   no   change   in   power   semng,   the
airspeed   gradually   diminishes   because   the   thrust   required   to
maintain   a   given   airspeed   in   level   ﬂight   is   insuﬃcient   to   maintain
the  same  airspeed  in  a  climb.
•  When   the   ﬂight   path   is   inclined   upward,   a   component   of   the
aircraG’s  weight  acts  in  the  same  direcKon  as,  and  parallel  to,  the
total  drag  of  the  aircraG,  thereby  increasing  the  total  eﬀecKve  drag.
•  Consequently,   the   total   drag   is   greater   than   the   power,   and   the
airspeed   decreases.   The   reducKon   in   airspeed   gradually   results   in   a
corresponding   decrease   in   drag   unKl   the   total   drag   (including   the
component   of   weight   acKng   in   the   same   direcKon)   equals   the
thrust.
•  Due   to   momentum,   the   change   in   airspeed   is   gradual,   varying
considerably  with  diﬀerences  in  aircraG  size,  weight,  total  drag,  and
other   factors.   Consequently,   the   total   drag   is   greater   than   the
thrust,  and  the  airspeed  decreases.

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CHANGE  IN  SPEED  DURING  CLIMB
ENTRY

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Abdul  Razak   50
LIFT  AND  DRAG
AUGMENTATION
DEVICES

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LIFT  AUGMENTATION
Ø During  aircraO  take  oﬀ  and  landing,  the  liO
produce  by  the  wing  is  less,  due  to  the  aircraO
low  speed.
Ø Normally  liO  is  increased  for  landing  and  take-­‐
oﬀ  by  the  use  of:
•  Trailing  edge  devices.

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•  The  basis  for  leading  edge  devices  is  to  cause  an
increase  in  velocity  of  the  airﬂow  over  the  top
surface  of  the  aerofoil.
•  This  increase  in  velocity  results  in  the  transi?on
to  turbulence  being  delayed  and  the  transi?on
point  is  caused  to  move  back  towards  the
trailing  edge.
•  The  result  is  that  an  increase  in  angle  of  agack
and  hence  an  increase  of  liO  coeﬃcient.

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SLOTS
•  A  leading  edge  slot  is  a  ﬁxed  (non-­‐closing)  gap

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•  Air  from  below  the  wing  can  accelerate  through  the
slot  towards  the  low  pressure  region  above  the
wing,  and  exit  from  the  slot  moving  parallel  to  the
upper  wing  surface.

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•  This  high-­‐speed  ﬂow  then  mixes  with  the
boundary  layer  agached  to  the  upper  surface
and  delays  boundary  layer  turbulance  from  the
upper  surface.

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SLATS
•  Slats  are  aerodynamics  surfaces  on  the  leading
edge  of  the  wings  of  ﬁxed  wing  aircraO  which,
when  deployed,  allow  the  wing  to  operate  at  a
higher  angle  of  agack.
•  Two  types  of  slats
1.  Fixed  Slats
2.  Movable  Slats

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FIXED  SLATS

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MOVEABLE  SLATS
•  They  are  usually  used  while  landing  or
performing  manoeuvres  which  take  the  aircraO
close  to  the  stall,  but  are  usually  retracted  in
normal  ﬂight  to
minimize  drag.

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•  Another  methods  to  increase  the  liO  of  a  wing  at
low  speeds  is  by  using  leading  edge  ﬂaps.
•  When  the  leading  edge  ﬂaps  are  lowered,  it
increases  the  camber.

## 1.  Krueger  Flaps

2.  Variable  Camber  Leading  Edge  Flaps

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KRUEGER  FLAP
It  is  hinged  forward  to  increase  the  camber  of  the
wing,  and  also  increases  the  wing  area

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•  A  modiﬁed  Krueger  Flap  is  called  Variable
•  It  is  made  from  ﬂexible  composite  material.
•  When  extended,  the  actua?ng  linkage  causes
the  ﬂaps  to  change  its  curve  (  contour  ).
•  A  slot  is  also  formed  so  that  it  also  can  func?ons
as  a  slat.

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TRAILING  EDGE  DEVICES
•  Normally  the  trailing  edge  devices  used  are  the
ﬂaps.
•  Flaps  are  designed  to  increase    the  liO  of  the
wing  and  decrease  the  stall  speed,  therefore  the
aircraO  can  ﬂy  at  reduced  speed.
•  This  is  possible  by  changing  the  shape  of  the
wing.

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TYPE  OF  FLAPS

## Also  known  as  Camber  Flap

Simplest  ﬂap  design
Normally  used  on  small  aircraO
Can  increase  liO  up  to  50%
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Only  the  bogom  camber  is  changed,  the  upper
camber  does  not  change.
Can  increase  liO  up  to  60%
Even  more  drag  than  plain  ﬂap.
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When  the  ﬂap  is  lowered,  a  slot  is  formed.
Delayed  Stall.
Can  increase  liO  up  to  65%
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Increases  camber  and  wing  area.
Complicated  mechanism.
Can  increase  liO  up  to  90%.
One  disadvantages  is  that,  when  deployed  it  will
cause  large  rearward  movement  of  C  of  P
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Double  Sloged  Fowler  Flap

## Best  ﬂaps  for  liO.

Complicated  mechanism
Can  increase  liO  up  to  100%

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DRAG  AUGMENTATION
•  Some?mes  there  is  a  need  for  aircraO  to  slow
down  quickly  and  reduce  liO.
•  Few  methods  to  do  this  are  by  using
1.  Spoilers
2.  LiO  Dumpers
3.  Speed  Brake

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SPOILERS
•  They  are  normally  situated  on  top  of  the  wing
forward  of  the  ﬂaps.
•  It  is  a  ﬂat  panels  hinged  at  the  forward  edge.
•  When  the  spoilers  are  deployed,  they  rise  up,
reduce  liO  and  increase  drag.

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•  They  may  carry  out  more  than  one  func?on  but
are  generally  classiﬁed  as:
1.  Flight  Spoilers/Diﬀeren?al  Spoilers
2.  Speed  Brake
3.  Ground  Spoilers/LiO  Dumpers
4.  Gust  Allevia?on  Spoilers
*  For  correct  terms  please  refer  aircraO
manufacturer

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Flight  Spoilers
•  Also  known  as  Roll  Spoilers,  Diﬀeren?al
Spoilers.
•  It  used  to  help  the  up  going  aileron  by  reducing
liO  and  increase  drag.
•  When  the  up  going  aileron  raise  to  a  certain
degree,  the  roll  spoiler  will  start  to  go  up.

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Speed  Brakes
•  When  the  spoiler  is  used  as  speed-­‐brakes,  the
spoilers  on  both  wing  are  raised  together.
•  It  is  controlled  by  the  pilot  using  the  speed-­‐
brake  lever  in  the  cockpit.

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Ground  Spoilers

•  Also  known  as  liO  dumpers.
•  During  aircraO  touchdown,  both  the  ﬂight
spoilers  and  ground  spoilers  on  both  wing  will
rise  up  to  its  maximum  angle  to  reduce  the  liO
on  the  wing  and  to  ensure  the  aircraO  weight  is
on  the  landing  gear.
•  The  drag  created  by  the  spoilers  also  helps  to
slow  down  the  aircraO.

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Tail  Cone  Brake
•  Tail  cone  brake  is  also  used  to  slow  down  the
aircraO  during  landing.

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END  OF  LESSON