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Chapter 9 Questions

1. Leadership
The Leadership Scale for Sports identifies which coaching behaviors?

a. social support
b. democratic behavior
c. administrative behavior
d. a and b
e. a and c

2. Leadership 2
In most organized sport teams, leaders and coaches

a. emerge
b. are appointed
c. are elected by consensus
d. are elected by majority vote

3. Leadership 3
"Great leaders are born, not made." This statement is an example of
which approach to leadership?

a. situational
b. trait
c. behavioral
d. situational-behavioral
e. trait-behavioral

4. Leadership 4
"Great leaders are made, not born." This statement is an example of
which approach to leadership?

a. trait
b. behavioral
c. situational
d. situational-behavioral
e. trait-behavioral

5. Leadership 5
The two major categories of behavior found with the use of the Leader
Behavior Description Questionnaire are

a. consideration and authoritarianism

b. initiating structure and authoritarianism
c. consideration and initiating structure
d. consideration and relationship

6. Leadership 6
Smith and Smoll's studies on coaching behaviors and Little League
coaches found that

a. coaches can change their behaviors to become more positive

b. coaches can't control their positive behaviors
c. coaches can't control their negative behaviors
d. coaches have high self-esteem
e. coaches with higher self-confidence exhibit more negative
behaviors than those with lower self-confidence

7. Leadership 7
In their classic study of the coaching (leadership) behaviors of
legendary basketball coach John Wooden, Tharp and Gallimore found that
his most often-used coaching behavior was

a. statements of displeasure
b. praise and encouragement
c. verbal instructions on what to do and how to do it
d. combining instruction with punishment
e. modeling the correct behavior

8. Leadership 8
According to results obtained in studies using the Leader Behavior
Description Questionnaire, successful leaders tend to score

a. high on both consideration and initiating structure

b. high on initiating structure and low on consideration
c. high on consideration and low on initiating structure
d. low on both initiating structure and consideration

9. Leadership 9
Fiedler's research has identified which two types of leadership styles?

a. relationship-oriented and task-oriented

b. situation-oriented and task-oriented
c. task-oriented and initiating structure-oriented
d. relationship-oriented and situation-oriented

10. Leadership10
The study using interviews of elite gymnastics coaches (Cote, Salmela,
& Russell) showed that expert coaches did not exhibit which of the
following behaviors?

a. gave technical instruction regarding gymnastics progressions

b. provided a supportive environment through positive feedback
c. pushed gymnasts by constantly issuing threats and yelling
d. stressed conditioning to ensure physical readiness
e. provided opportunities for simulating the mental and technical
demands of the competition

11. Leadership11
Regardless of age, athletes prefer coaches who

a. give positive feedback

b. give technical instruction
c. give negative feedback
d. b and c
e. a and b

12. Leadership12
The definition of leadership usually seen in the literature is

a. the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups

toward set goals
b. being a positive role model
c. the process of creating change in groups and individuals
d. the process of keeping a group working together without

13. Leadership13
According to Fiedler's contingency model, a relationship-oriented
leader would be most effective under which type of situation?

a. favorable
b. unfavorable
c. moderately favorable
d. either favorable or unfavorable
e. either favorable or moderately favorable

14. Leadership14
When coaches obtain the necessary information from relevant players and
then come to a decision, what type of decision style are they using?

a. consultative-individual
b. autocratic-consultative
c. consultative-group
d. group
e. relationship-consultative

15. Leadership15
Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Athletes high in internal locus of control prefer training and

instruction coaching behaviors.
b. Athletes high in external locus of control prefer democratic
coaching behaviors.
c. Females high in trait anxiety preferred autocratic coaching
d. b and c
e. a and c

16. Leadership16
According to research on leadership behavior in youth sports by Smith
and colleagues, which of the following is (are) true?

a. Little League players playing for coaches who attended a

workshop designed to facilitate positive coach-athlete
interaction had a higher dropout rate than a comparable control
b. Players with high self-esteem were not as affected by coaches'
supportiveness and instructiveness as players with low self-
c. Players with low self-esteem were not as affected by coaches'
supportiveness and instructiveness as players with high self-
d. a and b
e. a and c

17. Leadership17
Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) put forth based on 25
years of Smith and Smoll's research?

a. Maintain clear expectations.

b. Reinforce effort as much as results.
c. Give encouragement and corrective instructional feedback
immediately after a mistake.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

18. Leadership18
What are the two major categories of behavior from the Coaching
Behavior Assessment System?

a. reactive and instructional

b. reactive and spontaneous
c. spontaneous and instructional
d. praise and punishment
e. reactive and praise

19. Leadership19
Which of the following results from Smith and Smoll's studies on
coaching behaviors is (are) true?

a. Two-thirds of the behaviors exhibited by coaches were

b. Players for coaches who displayed high levels of general
technical instruction evaluated their teammates and sport more
c. There was generally a high relationship between players'
perceptions of coaches' behaviors and the actual coaching
d. a and b
e. b and c

20. Leadership20
According to successful professional football coach Bill Parcells,
which of the following is NOT a quality of successful leadership?

a. flexibility
b. candor
c. trust
d. patience
e. loyalty

21. Leadership21
According to Chelladurai's multidimensional model of sport leadership,
which of the following are categories of leader behavior?

a. required leader behavior

b. preferred leader behavior
c. perceived behavior
d. a and b
e. b and c

22. Leadership22
Which of the following is (are) true regarding antecedents of coaches'
expectations and values?

a. There are cross-cultural variations in coaching behaviors.

b. Division I athletes thought their coaches were more supportive
than Division III athletes.
c. Coaches high in extrinsic motivation tend to be more
autonomous in their decision making.
d. a and c
e. a and b

23. Leadership23
According to the multidimensional model of sport leadership,
performance and satisfaction are a function of the degree of congruence

a. three types of leader behavior

b. motivation of the leader
c. leadership style
d. situational characteristics
e. member characteristics

24. Leadership24
Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning findings from studies
of the antecedent conditions that affect leader behavior?

a. Preference for an autocratic coaching style increases with

b. Females prefer an autocratic style more than males do.
c. Males prefer training and instruction behaviors more than
females do.
d. a and b
e. b and c

25. Leadership25
Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning findings from studies
of the consequences of leadership behaviors?

a. High frequencies of social support are related to poor team

b. High frequencies of social support and democratic decision
making are associated with high satisfaction among athletes.
c. High levels of cohesion are related to autocratic coaching
d. b and c

26. Leadership26
Which of the following is (are) NOT part of effective leadership?

a. leadership style
b. situational factors
c. athlete characteristics
d. leader qualities
e. position power

27. Leadership27
According to Martens, which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Team-sport athletes prefer more relationship-oriented leaders

than do individual-sport athletes.
b. As group size increases, an autocratic leadership style
becomes more effective.
c. When little time is available, a relationship-oriented leader
is more effective.
d. a and b
e. b and c

28. Leadership28
According to Fiedler's contingency model, a task-oriented leader would
be most effective in which type of situation?

a. favorable
b. unfavorable
c. moderately favorable
d. either favorable or unfavorable
e. either favorable or moderately favorable

29. Leadership29
In a more recent follow-up study on coach John Wooden (Gallimore &
Tharp, 2004), they concluded

a. specific planning was critical to administering the heavy

information load
b. Wooden considered instruction via information a positive
approach to coaching
c. starters received more praise than reserves
d. a and c
e. a and b

30. Leadership30
In a recent study comparing coaches and peer leaders, coaches tended to
exhibit more
a. autocratic behaviors
b. social support behaviors
c. training and instruction behaviors
d. a and c
e. a and b

31. Leadership31
The interactional model(s) of leadership targeted for sport is (are)
known as the

a. multidimensional model of sport leadership

b. cognitive-behavioral model of leadership
c. cognitive-mediational model of leadership
d. a and c
e. a and b

32. Leadership32
Which of the following is NOT an essential characteristic of leadership
development in sport?

a. strong relationship with parents

b. enriched tactical knowledge
c. development of high skill
d. strong work ethic
e. good rapport with people

33. Leadership33
Which type of exercise leader was associated with cohesive exercise

a. democratic
b. task-oriented
c. relationship-oriented
d. laissez-faire
e. interactional

34. Leadership34
Which of the following is NOT a principle of energy management
developed by Loehr?

a. Growth ceases when energy investment ceases.

b. Use positive rituals to manage energy.
c. Never push beyond the comfort zone.
d. Balance energy investments with energy deposits.
e. Energy is highly contagious.

35. Leadership35
The leader takes a visionary position and inspires people to follow
that position. This is characteristic of

a. transformative leadership
b. contingency management leadership
c. the Bass-Ricardo philosophy of leadership
d. situational leadership
e. democratic leadership

Chapter 10 Questions

1. Communication
Breakdowns in communication can occur because

a. the sender fails to listen

b. the receiver misinterprets the message
c. the messages are inconsistent
d. b and c
e. a and c

2. Communication 2
Which of the following is NOT an element of communication?

a. a decision to send a message

b. paraphrasing the message
c. receivers receiving and interpreting the message
d. internal response of receiver to the message
e. encoding the message

3. Communication 3
Which of the following is NOT a purpose of communication?

a. evaluation
b. retrospection
c. motivation
d. persuasion
e. problem solving
4. Communication 4
Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) for sending effective

a. Messages should be indirect.

b. Messages should separate fact from fiction.
c. Verbal and nonverbal messages should be congruent.
d. b and c
e. a and c

5. Communication 5
Which of the following is NOT a type of communication?

a. nonverbal communication
b. intrapersonal communication
c. interpersonal communication
d. introspective communication
e. b and d

6. Communication 6
Intrapersonal communication is communication with

a. yourself
b. someone else
c. signs
d. feelings
e. expressions

7. Communication 7
Nonverbal behaviors that communicate interest and attention include
which of the following?

a. maintaining eye contact

b. maintaining a closed posture
c. standing no more than 6 feet from the person
d. a and b
e. a and c

8. Communication 8
In the study about watching tennis players in between points, what
percentage of the time did subjects pick the winner of the match?

a. 10%
b. 75%
c. 35%
d. 55%
e. 25%

9. Communication 9
Nonverbal cues are transmitted via

a. the color of the eyes

b. posture
c. body position
d. b and c
e. a and c

10. Communication10
Proxemics is the study of how we communicate

a. by the way we use space

b. by the way we dress
c. by the way we use gestures
d. by the way we use speech
e. by the way we touch

11. Communication11
What percentage of communication time is spent listening?

a. 20%
b. 40%
c. 10%
d. 70%
e. 25%

12. Communication12
Supportive listening behaviors

a. are empathetic
b. remain open to new ideas
c. focus on future thoughts and feelings
d. a and b
e. a and c

13. Communication13
Supportive language has which of the following characteristics?

a. manipulative
b. evaluative
c. descriptive
d. a and c
e. b and c

14. Communication14
Sullivan devised seven communication exercises to promote more
effective communication. Athletes said they would try to practice which
communication skills?

a. not interrupt others when they are speaking

b. confront issues right away
c. give opinions less often to people with whom they feel
d. a and b

15. Communication15
Which of the following things should you do during a confrontation?

a. Stop communicating.
b. Communicate the problem.
c. Rely on nonverbal cues to communicate.
d. a and c
e. a and b

16. Communication16
Which of the following would you NOT suggest for communicating with

a. Do not attack the character of the person.

b. Be sensitive to the feelings of the other person.
c. Make sure the other person understands your point of view.
d. a and c
e. b and c
17. Communication17
Which of the following would you NOT suggest for communicating with

a. Be consistent in administering discipline.

b. Never pass an opportunity to praise.
c. Show more compassion in competition than in practices.
d. Match verbal and nonverbal communication.
e. Be consistent from athlete to athlete.

18. Communication18
Which of the following is (are) NOT a principle of communication when
setting up team meetings?

a. Everyone will have a chance to speak.

b. People should say at least one positive thing about everybody.
c. What is discussed in the meeting is open to others outside the
d. a and c
e. b and c

19. Communication19
The "sandwich approach" consists of which of the following elements?

a. a positive statement
b. future-oriented instructions
c. mistake-contingent general encouragement
d. a and b

20. Communication20
Which of the following would you suggest for expressing anger in a
positive manner?

a. Take a time-out before speaking.

b. Try to identify your exact feelings by name.
c. Try to attack the person's character to make your point.
d. a and c
e. a and b

21. Communication21
After taking Sullivan's communication training, athletes had the
following reactions to the workshop:

a. I see myself the same as others see me.

b. It helps to know the goals of my teammates.
c. It is scary to open up, but this makes things easier.
d. b and c

22. Communication22
Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective communication?

a. the belief that silence is safer

b. embarrassment
c. the tendency to tell people what they want to hear
d. inconsistency between actions and words
e. using active listening skills

23. Communication23
Which of the following actions can improve coach-athlete communication?

a. Administer discipline based on the personality of the athlete.

b. Convey rationales about why you expect certain behaviors.
c. Provide a supportive and empathic environment.
d. b and c
e. a and c

24. Communication24
When there is a communication breakdown, most people believe that the
problem resides with

a. themselves
b. the other person
c. the situation
d. a and b
e. b and c

25. Communication25
Which of the following is (are) a main reason(s) that communication is
often problematic?

a. Individuals perceive faulty communication to be someone else's

b. Individuals feel that they are the problem regarding faulty
c. Individuals prefer two-way communication.
d. a and c

26. Communication26
Which of the following is (are) a way(s) to improve active listening

a. Mentally prepare to listen.

b. Use supportive behaviors as you listen.
c. Employ both verbal and nonverbal listening behaviors.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

27. Communication27
Nonverbal communication in sport is important, as shown by the finding

a. athletes displayed more confidence when their opponents wore

general sportswear
b. athletes displayed more confidence when their opponents wore
sport-specific sportswear
c. athletes displayed less anxiety when they perceived their
opponents as short
d. athletes displayed less anxiety when they perceived their
opponents as tall

28. Communication28
Which teacher and coach category(ies) of behavior can enhance

a. clarity
b. confirmation
c. assertiveness
d. a and b
e. a and c

29. Communication29
A recent article recommends assuming the perspective of the other
person in order to enhance communication. This involves the use of
a. role-playing
b. assertiveness training
c. listening skills
d. a and c
e. d and c

30. Communication30
Which of the following is NOT an assumption when dealing with a

a. Process is as important as content.

b. Everyone is right from his or her own perspective.
c. There are enough resources to meet all needs.
d. A confrontation should be viewed as a competition.
e. All needs are perceived to be legitimate.

31. Communication31
To enhance constructive confrontations, you should

a. describe your feelings

b. describe your thoughts about the event that concerns you
c. describe what you think the other person is feeling
d. a and c
e. a and b

32. Communication32
Which of the following are TRUE?

a. Olympic swimmers look to coaches for technical skills before

social competence skills.
b. Communication patterns differ between more versus less
successful tennis doubles teams.
c. Nonverbal behavior and clothing worn by athletes influence the
ratings others give them regarding their performance.
d. a and b
e. b and c

33. Communication33
Recent research on empathy in coaches and athletes found

a. coaches were more capable than athletes in inferring feelings

of closeness
b. coaches of individual sport teams were more accurate in
predicting athlete feelings about the relationship than team
sport coaches
c. coaches' empathy was improved with more exposure to each
d. b and c
e. a and c

34. Communication34
Recent research by Gano-Overway and colleagues on caring and
underserved youth participating in a summer camp found that with
increased caring from the coaches and counselors, underserved youth

a. exhibited a decrease in anti-social behavior

b. had higher self-esteem
c. had lower state anxiety
d. a and c
e. a and b

Chapter 11 Questions

1. Psychological Skills
Ideally, a PST program should be planned, implemented, and supervised
by a

a. coach
b. general manager
c. AASP-certified sport psychology consultant
d. coach and athlete
e. NASPSPA-certified sport psychology consultant

2. Psychological Skills 2
In general, most coaches state that their sport is at least what
percentage mental?

a. 20%
b. 50%
c. 80%
d. 90%
e. 25%
3. Psychological Skills 3
The importance of the mental side of sports

a. is greatest for elite athletes

b. is greatest for varsity athletes
c. is greatest for recreational athletes
d. does not differ based on skill level
e. is greatest for young athletes

4. Psychological Skills 4
Which of the following explain(s) why players and coaches often neglect
psychological skills training?

a. lack of knowledge
b. lack of time
c. viewing psychological skills as unchangeable
d. all of the above
e. a and c

5. Psychological Skills 5
Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning psychological skills

a. PST is only for problem athletes.

b. PST is for athletes of various abilities.
c. PST will not provide quick solutions to problems.
d. PST has developed a knowledge base using elite athletes.
e. a and b

6. Psychological Skills 6
From a psychological perspective, the ultimate goal of psychological
skills training is

a. self-efficacy
b. self-regulation
c. self-esteem
d. mental preparation
e. self-concept

7. Psychological Skills 7
Results of a study focusing on successful versus unsuccessful athletes
showed that more successful athletes are characterized by

a. higher self-confidence
b. higher anxiety
c. more task-oriented thoughts
d. a and b
e. a and c

8. Psychological Skills 8
Using the psychological skill of relaxation learned in baseball to deal
with anxiety before taking exams would be the goal of which stage of
Kirschenbaum's model of self-regulation?

a. execution
b. problem identification
c. generalization
d. specialization
e. environmental management

9. Psychological Skills 9
Which of the following is not one of the stages in Kirschenbaum's model
of self-regulation?

a. commitment
b. execution
c. specialization
d. generalization
e. problem identification

10. Psychological Skills10

The PST knowledge base has come from what sources?

a. research on elite athletes

b. athlete-coach experiences
c. research on youth sport
d. a and b

11. Psychological Skills11

In conducting research on the mental preparation of Canadian Olympic
athletes, Orlick and Partington found that athletes who performed up to
their potential
a. developed competitive plans
b. received more feedback from coaches
c. had more extroverted personalities
d. a and b
e. a and c

12. Psychological Skills12

Sport psychology topics that form the basis for PST programs include
which of the following?

a. confidence building
b. imagery
c. group cohesion
d. a and b
e. a and c

13. Psychological Skills13

What was the main problem that the basketball player (Jim) faced
shooting free throws in the case study presented at the beginning of
the chapter?

a. He had not developed the psychological skill of relaxation.

b. He did not have good free-throw shooting form.
c. He received negative feedback from his coach.
d. He had not developed a routine before shooting free throws.
e. He lost his concentration because his girlfriend was in the

14. Psychological Skills14

The studies investigating the effectiveness of PST in enhancing
performance have generally found

a. that PST enhances the performance of elite but not

recreational athletes
b. that PST enhances the performance of collegiate athletes
c. that PST enhances performance in older and younger athletes
d. b and c
e. a and b

15. Psychological Skills15

Which of the following demonstrate(s) psychological skills training?
a. A fitness instructor suggests using positive self-statements
to enhance self-esteem with an overweight client.
b. A physical education teacher uses relaxation training to help
students calm down before going on to their next class.
c. A therapist uses behavior modification techniques to help a
person quit smoking.
d. a and c
e. a and b

16. Psychological Skills16

When is it generally best to implement a PST program?

a. anytime
b. during the off-season or preseason
c. after a problem is identified
d. before important competitions
e. before easy competitions

17. Psychological Skills17

When new psychological skills are being learned, how long should they
generally be practiced?

a. 5 days a week, 60 minutes a day

b. 3 to 5 days a week, 15 to 30 minutes a day
c. twice a week, 30 minutes a day
d. 5 days a week, 45 to 60 minutes a day
e. 3 days a week, 60 minutes a day

18. Psychological Skills18

After a PST program has been put in place, how long do athletes need to
continue practicing their mental skills?

a. as long as they continue to participate in their sports

b. 3 months
c. 6 months
d. 1 year
e. 1 month

19. Psychological Skills19

PST takes what type of approach to mental training?

a. clinical
b. counseling
c. educational
d. philosophical
e. pragmatic

20. Psychological Skills20

A baseball player's slump can be caused by what kind(s) of problems?

a. psychological
b. biomechanical
c. physiological
d. all of the above
e. a and c

21. Psychological Skills21

What is the best way to get information concerning an athlete's
psychological strengths and weaknesses?

a. psychological inventories
b. an oral interview
c. an oral interview and psychological inventories
d. projective and objective psychological inventories

22. Psychological Skills22

According to Vealey's analysis, which of the following reflect(s)
foundation methods in PST training?

a. physical practice
b. education
c. anxiety management
d. a and b

23. Psychological Skills23

Which of the following is NOT a common problem in implementing PST

a. lack of time
b. lack of follow-up by the consultant
c. the consultant's lack of sport-specific knowledge
d. generating support from administrators, coaches, and athletes
e. the sport psychologist's knowledge of psychological skill

24. Psychological Skills24

The Sports United to Promote Education and Recreation program (SUPER)
developed by Danish and his colleagues has as its goal

a. to teach adolescents skills in sport that they can transfer to

other aspects of their lives
b. to provide recreational activities for inner-city youth
c. to help elite athletes develop mental skills
d. to provide training for new physical education teachers
e. to combine formal physical education in the schools with
recreational activities after school

25. Psychological Skills25

Which of the following is (are) characteristic of INEFFECTIVE
consultants that athletes note in interviews with sport psychologists?

a. They lack sport-specific knowledge.

b. They are too flexible, trying to meet all athletes' individual
c. They rely on a "canned" approach when implementing mental
skills training.
d. a and b
e. a and c

26. Psychological Skills26

Which of the following is (are) characteristic of EFFECTIVE consultants
that athletes note in interviews with sport psychologists?

a. They only conduct one follow-up session with athletes.

b. They are accessible and establish rapport with the athletes.
c. They are flexible in meeting individual athletes' needs.
d. b and c
e. a and b

27. Psychological Skills27

Performance profiling as a means of assessing athletes' mental skills
works by asking athletes to

a. observe other elite athletes who have excellent psychological

b. identify, assess, and compare their own mental skills against
those of other elite athletes in their sport
c. take a series of personality tests to determine their
strengths and weaknesses regarding mental skills
d. observe themselves for several weeks and keep a log regarding
their mental skills

28. Psychological Skills28

Which of the following is NOT a phase in PST?

a. education phase
b. practice phase
c. intervention phase
d. acquisition phase

29. Psychological Skills29

According to Vealey, which of the following is (are) a foundation

a. goal setting
b. imagery
c. self-confidence
d. a and b
e. the sport psychologist's knowledge of psychological skill

30. Psychological Skills30

New research indicates that which of the following is NOT a construct
in the 4C model of mental toughness?

a. control
b. commitment
c. consistency
d. challenge
e. confidence

31. Psychological Skills31

Which of the following is (are) a consideration(s) when teaching mental
skills to athletes with disabilities?

a. developing trust and rapport

b. making sure males consult with males and females with females
c. ensuring that the venues are accessible
d. a and b
e. a and c

32. Psychological Skills32

The first systematic mental skills training program occurred in which

a. United States
b. Soviet Union
c. Canada
d. England
e. China

33. Psychological Skills33

According to recent research on mental toughness, which of the
following is (are) a way(s) to increase mental toughness?

a. Create intense competitive practices simulating game

b. Have high expectations of athletes.
c. Create a negative mental environment because athletes react
positively to threats of punishment.
d. a and c
e. a and b

34. Psychological Skills34

Which of the following is NOT a situation requiring mental toughness
according to a recent study?

a. injury and rehabilitation

b. peer and social pressure
c. autocratic coach
d. balancing different commitments (e.g., school, work, media)
e. difficult environmental and playing conditions

35. Psychological Skills35

A recent study found that coaches particularly use the mental skills of

a. self-talk and imagery

b. self-talk and anxiety management
c. imagery and anxiety management
d. routines and imagery
e. routines and self-talk

36. Psychological Skills36

According to Vealey, which of the following is NOT part of a
psychological skills training program?

a. foundation skills
b. personal development skills
c. performance skills
d. team skills
e. communication skills

37. Psychological Skills37

Which of the following is (are) a phase(s) of a periodization program?

a. categorization
b. norming
c. peaking
d. a and b
e. a and c

38. Psychological Skills38

Experts compared to non-experts

a. anticipated opponents' intentions quicker

b. had shorter "quiet eye" periods
c. are equal in terms of visual function and visual acuity
d. a and c
e. a and b

Chapter 12 Questions

1. Arousal Regulation
The suggested ratio for the time of inhalation to exhalation when using
breath control as a relaxation device is

a. 1:5
b. 1:2
c. 3:1
d. 5:1
e. 1:4
2. Arousal Regulation 2
A good starting point for increasing awareness of arousal states is to

a. visualize your best and worst performances

b. visualize only your best performance
c. develop relaxation skills
d. learn transcendental meditation
e. learn autogenic training

3. Arousal Regulation 3
Which of the following is (are) NOT a stage(s) in autogenic training?

a. regulation of breathing
b. regulation of cardiac activity
c. cooling of the extremities
d. a and c
e. b and c

4. Arousal Regulation 4
The two sensations that are emphasized in autogenic training are

a. warmth and cold

b. warmth and heaviness
c. kinesthetic and heaviness
d. warmth and kinesthetic
e. cold and kinesthetic

5. Arousal Regulation 5
Autogenic training was developed by

a. Weinberg and Gould

b. Jacobson and Benson
c. Schultz and Luthe
d. Martens and Landers
e. Schultz and Singer

6. Arousal Regulation 6
The state of mind produced by the relaxation response is similar to
that described during
a. imagery
b. peak performance
c. transcendental meditation
d. deep sleep
e. progressive relaxation

7. Arousal Regulation 7
The premise of stress inoculation training is to

a. expose the person to increasing amounts of stress, thereby

enhancing the person's immunity to stress
b. teach both somatic and cognitive anxiety skills
c. teach people that stress is predominantly in their minds
d. teach people to appraise stressful situations

8. Arousal Regulation 8
Relaxation (anxiety reduction) techniques are usually classified as

a. cognitive and somatic

b. state and trait
c. sport specific and general
d. cognitive and appraisal
e. somatic and visceral

9. Arousal Regulation 9
Using an electronic monitoring device that can detect and amplify
internal responses not ordinarily available to us is known as

a. systematic desensitization
b. classical conditioning
c. biological mapping
d. biofeedback
e. biological conditioning

10. Arousal Regulation10

Effective breathing occurs from the

a. diaphragm
b. central chest
c. upper chest
d. throat

11. Arousal Regulation11

Athletes should make sure that when they are performing a skill under
pressure, they

a. breathe out during execution of the skill

b. breathe in during execution of the skill
c. hold their breath during execution of the skill
d. breathe shallowly during execution of the skill

12. Arousal Regulation12

Ost has developed an applied relaxation technique using progressive
relaxation that can be done at competitions in

a. 10 to 12 minutes
b. 5 to 7 minutes
c. 2 to 4 minutes
d. 20 to 30 seconds
e. 1 minute

13. Arousal Regulation13

Before starting progressive relaxation, you should

a. dim the lights

b. put on soft music
c. sit down in a comfortable position
d. a and c

14. Arousal Regulation14

Progressive relaxation was developed by

a. Herbert Benson
b. Ken Ravizza
c. Edmund Jacobson
d. Rainer Martens
e. Daniel Gould

15. Arousal Regulation15

Which of the following is (are) NOT a tenet(s) of progressive

a. Tension and relaxation can occur simultaneously.

b. A decrease in muscle tension will lead to a decrease in mental
c. Progressively contract and relax the major muscle groups in
the body.
d. a and b
e. b and c

16. Arousal Regulation16

Excess anxiety can produce

a. inappropriate muscle tension

b. inappropriate thoughts
c. somatic (physiological) reactions
d. all of the above
e. a and c

17. Arousal Regulation17

A good way to increase awareness of psychological states in sport is to

a. monitor and record your psychological states immediately after

practice and competition
b. talk to teammates
c. practice relaxation techniques
d. practice cognitive restructuring

18. Arousal Regulation18

The relaxation response was developed by

a. Herbert Benson
b. Edmund Jacobson
c. Robert Weinberg
d. Charles Hardy
e. Gunther Schultz

19. Arousal Regulation19

The matching hypothesis refers to

a. matching athletes with coaches to reduce anxiety levels

b. matching athletes with other athletes of similar anxiety
c. matching the type of anxiety management technique to the
specific anxiety problem of each athlete
d. matching athletes to the sport that is least anxiety provoking
to them

20. Arousal Regulation20

Which of the following is NOT a coping strategy typically employed by
elite athletes?

a. social support (from friends, coaches, family)

b. time management
c. thought control
d. superstition
e. rational thinking via self-talk

21. Arousal Regulation21

According to research with elite athletes by Gould and colleagues,

a. prepared for unexpected events

b. usually overtrained
c. placed a great deal of importance on mental training
d. a and c

22. Arousal Regulation22

Which of the following is NOT a phase in the hypnosis process?

a. induction phase
b. hypnotic phase
c. autogenic phase
d. waking phase
e. posthypnotic phase

23. Arousal Regulation23

According to the study by Eubank and Collins, individuals perceiving
their anxiety as facilitative (as opposed to debilitative) use more

a. emotion-focused coping
b. problem-focused coping
c. imagery
d. a and b
e. a and c

24. Arousal Regulation24

Which of the following statements regarding hypnosis is (are) true?

a. The more open individuals are to receiving suggestions, the

more likely they will benefit from hypnosis.
b. Negative suggestions almost always result in a decrease in
c. The deeper the trance, the less likely the hypnosis will be
d. a and b
e. a and c

25. Arousal Regulation25

Which of the following levels of effort produced the fastest running
times of 400-meter runners?

a. 110%
b. 100%
c. 75%
d. 95%

26. Arousal Regulation26

Both Ron Smith's cognitive-affective stress management training and Don
Meichenbaum's stress inoculation training are examples of ___________
anxiety programs.

a. multimodal
b. multidisciplinary
c. multivariate
d. cognitive appraisal
e. somatic appraisal

27. Arousal Regulation27

The two most widely accepted coping categories are known as

a. problem-focused and cognitive-focused coping

b. problem-focused and emotion-focused coping
c. cognitive-focused and somatic-focused coping
d. emotion-focused and somatic-focused coping
e. emotion-focused and cognitive-focused coping

28. Arousal Regulation28

Which of the following is NOT an element necessary for achieving the
relaxation response?

a. a quiet environment
b. a passive attitude
c. a mental device
d. a comfortable position
e. a mantra

29. Arousal Regulation29

Which of the following can increase activation?

a. using positive mood words

b. slowing down the breathing rate
c. listening to energizing music
d. a and c
e. b and c

30. Arousal Regulation30

An athlete who is underactivated commonly experiences which of the

a. heavy feeling in the legs

b. mind wandering
c. feelings of anxiety
d. a and b
e. b and c

31. Arousal Regulation31

Which of the following can be useful as an on-site strategy to help
reduce tension?

a. Smile when the pressure is coming on.

b. Slow down.
c. Stay focused in the present.
d. all of the above
e. a and c
32. Arousal regulation
Which of the following is (are) true in terms of resiliency?

a. Sociocultural influences such as social support are not

related to being resilient.
b. The essence of resiliency is the use of different coping
strategies to deal with unpleasant emotions.
c. Mental toughness is seen as critical to being resilient.
d. b and c
e. a and b

33. Arousal Regulation32

Cognitive restructuring attempts to

a. identify and modify stress-inducing self-statements

b. improve problem-solving ability
c. improve attentional focus
d. identify different strategies for mental preparation

34. Arousal Regulation33

Which of the following is (are) NOT among the interventions for
cognitive-affective stress management training?

a. cognitive restructuring
b. relaxation skills
c. self-instructional training
d. systematic desensitization
e. a and c

35. Arousal Regulation34

Which of the following is NOT a phase in Smith's cognitive-affective
stress management training?

a. pretreatment assessment
b. treatment rationale
c. skill acquisition
d. skill rehearsal
e. posttreatment assessment

36. Arousal Regulation35

According to the research on biofeedback by Landers and his colleagues,
a. biofeedback provides a mechanism for coping with
precompetitive anxiety
b. biofeedback can improve the performance of rifle shooters
c. biofeedback provides shooters with a greater awareness of
their heart and respiration rates
d. all of the above
e. a and c

37. Arousal Regulation36

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding research
findings on coping in sport?

a. Athletes use both adaptive and nonadaptive coping strategies.

b. Athletes usually stick with one coping strategy.
c. Athletes who had more adaptive coping strategies had higher
d. a and b
e. a and c

38. Arousal Regulation37

A key feature in the multimodal anxiety reduction programs is that they
help participants learn

a. coping skills
b. confidence-building skills
c. imagery skills
d. goal-setting skills
e. self-esteem

39. Arousal Regulation38

Which of the following is NOT a stage in stress inoculation training?

a. preparing for the stressor

b. coping with the stressor
c. controlling the stressor
d. evaluating coping efforts
e. removing the stressor

40. Arousal Regulation39

For long-term coping, research indicates that the most effective
strategy is
a. active-problem-focused coping
b. avoidance coping
c. emotion-focused coping
d. cognitive appraisal coping
e. active-avoidance coping

41. Arousal Regulation40

Which of the following is (are) a strategy(ies) for coping with
different emotions in sport?

a. vicarious learning
b. self-analysis
c. reframing
d. all of the above
e. a and c

42. Arousal Regulation41

The "yips" refers to

a. a condition most often associated with golf that includes

involuntary tremors and jerking of the hands caused by excessive
b. a condition associated with losing confidence when sailing
c. an entire team feeling the pressure and thus "choking"
d. a condition usually seen in individual sports characterized by
a loss of attentional focus and an increase in physiological

43. Arousal Regulation42

The most frequently cited stressor in recent studies by Nicholls et al.

a. parents or significant others

b. physical or mental errors
c. ability level of opponent
d. autocratic coaching style
e. importance of the competition

44. Arousal Regulation43

Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) for giving a pep-talk?
a. Give players a plan.
b. Use humor.
c. Stress effort.
d. a and b
e. a and c