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Geomechanical Processes
During Underground

Genadiy Pivnyak
Rector of National Mining University, Ukraine

Volodymyr Bondarenko
Department of Underground Mining, National Mining University, Ukraine

Iryna Kovalevs’ka
Department of Underground Mining, National Mining University, Ukraine

Mуkhaylo Illiashov
PJSC “Donetsksteel”, Ukraine

CRC Press
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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Table of contents

Preface VIII

Development of coal industry of Ukraine in the context

of contemporary challenges 1
O. Vivcharenko

Features of carrying out experiment using finite-element method

at multivariate calculation of “mine massif – combined support” system 7
V. Bondarenko, I. Kovalevs’ka & V. Fomychov

Parameters of shear zone and methods of their conditions control at

underground mining of steep-dipping iron ore deposits in Kryvyi Rig basin 15
N. Stupnik & V. Kalinichenko

Concept and assumptions for developing underground brown coal

gasification plant for supplying synthesized gas to heat and power plant 19
J. Nowak

Study of rock displacement with the help of equivalent materials using

room-and-pillar mining method 29
V. Buzylo, T. Savelieva & V. Saveliev

Ecological problems of post-industrial mining areas 35

A. Gorova, A. Pavlychenko, S. Kulyna, & O. Shkremetko

The mechanism of over-coal thin-layered massif deformation of

weak rocks in a longwall 41
V. Bondarenko, G. Symanovych & O. Koval

Methodological principles of negative opencast mining influence

increasing due to steady development 45
I. Gumenik, A. Lozhnikov & A. Maevskiy

Hydrodynamic cavitation in energy-saving technological processes

of mining sector 51
Y. Zhulay, V. Zberovskiy, A. Angelovskiy & I. Chugunkov

Economic aspects of development strategy of mining companies 57

J. Kudelko

About management of processes of deformation and destruction of

rocks around of working of deep mines 63
О. Novikov & Y. Petrenko

The formation of the finite-element model of the system

“undermined massif-support of stope” 73
I. Kovalevs’ka, M. Illiashov, V. Fomychov & V. Chervatuk

Software development for the automatic control system of
deep-water hydrohoist 81
Y. Kyrychenko, V. Samusia & V. Kyrychenko

Degassing systems rational parameters selection at coal mines 87

N. Kremenchutskiy, O. Muha & I. Pugach

Analysis of stress-strain state of rock mass while mining chain pillars

by chambers 95
V. Buzylo, A. Yavorsk’yy & V. Yavorsk’yy

Identification the cutting machine rational feed rate according

to the working area stability factor 99
S. Vlasov  O. Sidelnikov

Estimation of reliability and capacity of auxiliary vehicles while

preparing coal reserves for stoping 105
A. Shyrin, V. Rastsvetaev & T. Morozova

Influence of coal layers gasification on bearing rocks 109

V. Timoshuk, V. Tishkov, O. Inkin & E. Sherstiuk

Ecological aspects of the quantitative assessment of productive streams

of coal mines 115
S. Salli & O. Mamajkin

Development of mathematical foundations and technological support

of the processes of complex hydro-pneumatic impact on coal seams 119
S. Grebyonkin, V. Pavlysh & O. Grebyonkina

Analysis of test methods of determining antidust respirator quality 123

S. Cheberyachko, O. Yavors’ka & T. Morozova

Investigation of the geomechanical processes while mining thick ore deposits

by room systems with backfill of worked-out area 127
E. Chistyakov, V. Ruskih, S. Zubko

Spontaneous combustion and coal dust explosibity related mapping

of South African coalfields 133
B. Genc, T. Suping & A. Cook

Monitoring of quality of mineral raw material by method of conductivity 141

O. Svetkina

Imitating modeling stability of mine workings 147

O. Vladyko, M. Kononenko & O. Khomenko

Irregularity of deposition of hard coal in thin seams in Poland according

to the criterion of the thickness variation seams 151
A. Krowiak

Experimental investigation of aeroelastic and hydroelastic instability

parameters of a marine pipeline 163
Y. Kyrychenko, V. Samusia V. Kyrychenko & O. Goman

Basic positions of the project of energy-efficient system for solar heat supply
M. Tabachenko, K. Ganushevych & V. Ryabichev 169

The estimation of effect of the dust-proof respirators’ protective efficiency

upon the mining workers’ dust load 177
Y. Cheberyachko

Derivatography as the method of water structure studying on solid mineral surface 181
V. Biletskyi, T. Shendrik & P. Sergeev

Organization of checking system over the state of cross-section of layered

working with the use of informative systems 185
V. Fomychov , V. Pochepov & L. Fomychova

Evaluating of metal-resin anchor parameter influence on the support capacity 189

G. Larionov & N. Larionov

Prospects of plant waste using for energy 195

A. Pavlychenko & O. Borysovs’ka

New method for justification the technological parameters of coal gasification

in the test setting 201
V. Falshtynskyy, R. Dychkovskyy, V. Lozynskyy & P. Saik

The mechanism of stress formation in the rock massif around the mine working
with intersection of it by stoping 209
O. Kuzmenko, O. Kozlov & O. Haylo

The need for modelling the deposit in conditions of Polish coal mines basing
on the experiences of LW Bogdanka S.A. 213
T. Janik, J. Nycz & D. Galica

Deposit model as a first step in mining production scheduling 221

A. Dyczko, D. Galica & S. Sypniowski

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4


Present collection of scientific papers is dedicated to mining engineers, engineering technicians, designers,
scientific and research personnel, students, postgraduates and all mining-related professionals working in
coal and ore industry.
The authors of this book have contributed their articles that cover economic aspects of mining companies’
development strategies, peculiarities of various mineral deposits development techniques, imitational
modeling of mine workings with rock massif, methane extraction technologies during coal mining,
geomechanical processes during plow mining, mining transport importance for mineral extraction, massif
strain-stress state management using non-explosive destructing materials, surface mining negative influence
on the environment.
The alternative ways of mining such as borehole underground coal gasification for extraction of hardly
accessible coal and development of gasification plant is paid a large amount of attention to. Also
development and use of alternative sources of energy such as gas hydrates and sun energy are given
consideration in this book.

Genadiy Pivnyak
Volodymyr Bondarenko
Iryna Kovalevs’ka
Mykhaylo Illiashov
September 2012


The year of 2012 is a momentous year for the history of the

National Mining University. Thirty years ago Gennadiy
Grygorovych Pivnyak, the youngest rector at that time, headed
one of the leading technical higher institutions of Ukraine. Today
he is a talented organizer, recognized scientist and Academician
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. His life and
scientific work are a unique phenomenon not only in Ukraine but
also abroad.
Since that time the National Mining University has developed
rapidly and there have been qualitative changes in all spheres of
its activities.
The National Mining University, founded in 1899, is one of the
oldest state higher technical educational institutions of Ukraine.
Its dynamic development has always favoured engineering
education. Internationally recognized scientific schools of
mining, geology, geomechanics, power engineering, geophysics,
and mineral dressing continued their development. Nowadays
this helps achieve the best scientific and practical results
necessary for the innovative development of Ukraine’s economy.
The history of University reflects the economic situation of the
country and region, the level of scientific and technological
progress as well as social, political and cultural life. It is the
Mining University that became the basis for establishing twenty higher educational institutions and nine
scientific and research institutes of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
The National Mining University has been continuously developing, its scientific achievements constantly
expanding. It is a modern scientific and educational centre, autonomous research national university
characterized by fundamentality and consistency of knowledge, combination of education, science and
innovations, and many-sidedness of international cooperation and collaboration. According to the UNESCO,
the National Mining University is reckoned among three principal technical universities of Ukraine. Being in
compliance with the time has always been the priority of the University activities.
The whole life of Gennadiy Grygorovych Pivnyak is inseparably connected with the National Mining
G.G. Pivnyak was born on the 23rd of October, 1940 in the town of Oleksandria in Kirovograd region in
the family of teachers. In 1958 he entered the Dnipropetrovsk Mining Institute graduated with distinction in
1963. He was qualified as a mining electrician engineer, and he cast in his lot with Alma Mater.
Educational work is dominant in the life of G.G. Pivnyak. He heads the Department of Electric Power
Supply Systems, delivers lectures, supervises projects, and encourages his students to carry out research. In
2005 the textbook “Transients in the Systems of Electric Power Supply”, published under the editorship of
Academician G.G. Pivnyak in Ukrainian, Russian, and English, was awarded second State Prize of Ukraine
in the field of science and engineering. That was the recognition of high level of his pedagogical art. He is
the author of a number of textbooks and monographs in mining and metallurgical power engineering,
systems of electric power supply of enterprises, electric drive, electrical safety, and automated control
systems. Some of his books were published abroad, and they are popular with specialists and students of
different countries.
Academician G.G. Pivnyak is the founder of scientific school of mining and metallurgical power
engineering. He enriched modern science with the research having the paramount importance for the
development of electric power engineering and creation of new electrotechnical complexes and equipment.
His scientific activity is devoted to solving physicotechnical problems of transforming and regulating
parameters of electromagnetic energy, development of scientific bases for innovative technologies,
equipment and control facilities providing efficiency and safety of mining and metallurgical production.
G.G. Pivnyak and his disciples elaborated the newest systems for automation of modern power
engineering complexes and efficient power supply of complex structure electromechanical systems, and
automatic electric drive of processing stations.
G.G. Pivnyak is well-known for 3 scientific discoveries, over 500 scientific publications including 37
monographs, 13 textbooks, 22 tutorials, and 107 inventions and patents. During the last 35 years he
continued and cherished the traditions of Dnipropetrovsk school of electrical power engineers. 18 PhD theses
and 29 MPhil theses were defended under his supervision. Academician G.G. Pivnyak, a famous scientist,
generator of ingenious ideas, organizer of large-scale and urgent research, gifted lecturer, always shares his
knowledge and experience with his colleagues. Students, postgraduates, and doctoral students are always
working with him. They are his disciples and followers. The main credo of their teacher and adviser is:
education and science must serve the national interests of Ukraine.
Research activity of G.G. Pivnyak is aimed to support the innovative model for the development of key
sectors of Ukrainian economy. In 1996 G.G. Pivnyak got the Academician Lebedev Award of the National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for the development in the field of science-intensive production control at
the enterprises of mining and metallurgical complex. In 1998 he was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine in
the field of science and engineering for the development and implementation of methods and technologies of
geological environment conservation for providing energy-efficient coal mining. That Prize helped Gennadiy
Grygorovych establish a charitable foundation to support young scientists, which is still functioning at the
G.G. Pivnyak was awarded the order of Badge of Honour (1981), the Red Banner of Labour order (1986),
Prince Yaroslav the Wise order of the 5th (1999) and 4th (2004) degrees. He has the Certificate of Merit of the
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (1999) and Certificate of Merit of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (2003).
Besides, he was awarded Merits of Education of Youth medal (1998, Poland), Merits of Scientific
Achievements by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine Badge (2007) and Merits of Scientific
Achievements by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (2009).
Long-term foreign relations of G.G. Pivnyak (Germany, Austria, Poland, Great Britain, the USA, Canada,
Russia, Moldova, Switzerland, France, Spain, China, and Japan) helped him to gain great experience in
implementing international scientific and research projects, in developing integration relations in science,
education, and innovations. This creates necessary conditions for his successful mission as an expert of the
Committee on sustainable energy of ECE UN testifying that Academician G.G. Pivnyak is recognized as a
scientist world-wide.
Academician G.G. Pivnyak is Honourable Professor of such technical universities as Krakov Mining and
Metallurgical Academy, Freiberg Mining Academy, and Moscow State Mining University; honoured worker
of science and technology of Ukraine (1990), honoured worker of oil and gas industry of Poland (1994),
honoured Professor of the National Mining University, the NMU award winner in the field of education and
science (2002) – these are the main titles which testify his high authority in Ukraine and in the world.
These very thirty years were marked by the events which livened up the NMU activities in the all spheres;
they approved its international recognition, they influenced further progress of the institution of higher
education, and determined its position in education, science, and economy of Ukraine.
Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Development of coal industry of Ukraine

in the context of contemporary challenges

O. Vivcharenko
Department of Coal Industry Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Having analyzed accepted in the Euro Union ways of energy safety problems solving, com-
parative analysis of approaches to optimization of solution in Ukraine and other countries has been con-
ducted. Measures that are powerful counterforce to modern external and internal challenges and threats of
the country’s energy safety are marked out. Measures necessary for coal extraction volumes increase and the
industry functioning efficiency increase are substantiated.

Coal industry – one of the most important and inte- tractive Industries FEC to increase the volume of
gral components of the fuel and energy complex fuel production, modernization of energy-intensive
(FEC) and economy of Ukraine, which plays a sig- industries with the introduction of energy-saving
nificant role in ensuring of energy security of the technologies and optimization of fuel supply, the
country. At the same time, the energy security has implementation of structural changes in the econ-
been one of the weakest links in the economy and omy as well.
national security of Ukraine for last twenty years. Internal challenge for Ukraine was the need for a
Modern external challenges that were faced be- system, consistent, transparent and accountable to
fore Ukraine in the energy sector and that are com- government policy aimed at ensuring energy secu-
mon to most countries is the need to overcome the rity, which for 20 years of independence has not
risks associated with the instability and unpredict- been formed. The main cause of threats of energy
ability of the situation on world energy markets, ris- security for recent years, arising from conflicts and
ing prices for all kinds of energy at the same time. harsh conditions of supply of Russian natural gas, is
Under such circumstances, guaranteeing of needs of precisely the absence of such policies, despite the
Ukrainian economy in fuel and energy resources fact that Ukraine has all the objective conditions
(FER) at reasonable prices for consumers extremely (sufficient own resources base of fuel) for its im-
difficult. plementation.
Modern external challenges that were faced be- In Ukraine, the structure of consumption of pri-
fore Ukraine in energy sector dependence of on en- mary energy resources was formed during the time
ergy imports (about 55% of the total consumption of of the former Soviet Union and is focused mainly on
energy resources FER, taking into account condi- Russian energy resource. In the total volume of con-
tional – primary nuclear energy). Close to such a sumption of energy resources remains too large
level of energy dependence on most European coun- share of natural gas, which is mostly imported (41%
tries: Germany – 61.4%, France – 50%, Austria – against average – 24%), and insufficient weight of
64.7%. However, unlike the EU, where imports of their own energy resources, especially coal (26% vs.
energy diversified, energy dependence of Ukraine 29%). This structure does not correspond to the
has monopolistic character: by the import of petro- modern international trends and the interests of our
leum and petroleum products economy of Ukraine country, because it does not take into account the
depends on Russia for 65% of natural gas – by 72%, peculiarities of its own raw material fuel base and a
nuclear fuel – 100%, which is critical. huge potential of fuel and energy industries.
For Ukraine, effective response to external chal- If the global structure of the geological reserves
lenges in the coming years could be measures to ac- of fuel, there are significant advantages in favor of
tivation of energy-safety, maximum use of all pos- coal (65.2%) compared with other fuels – oil
sible and available at the moment of its own energy (16.8%), gas (13.5% methane with coal deposits),
resources and the substitution of natural gas (where uranium (4.5%), Ukraine has the advantages of an
it is technologically possible and economically rea- even more significant in favor of coal (85.2%) and
sonable), accelerating the modernization of the Ex- uranium (9.8%) with limited oil reserves (0.9%) and

natural gas (4.1%). redistribution of public funds.
Countries and regions of the world's energy secu- One of the main documents the legal framework
rity problem solve in different ways depending on of FEC development is the Energy Strategy of
the availability of raw materials and resource base Ukraine in period till 2030, which was adopted in
for fuel and energy, geographic location, the cur- 2006. Positive is that it is relies on the experience of
rency of economic efficiency. different countries in ensuring energy security and
For countries and regions with low (less than has specific quantitative standards and measures for
30%) level of self-sufficiency by the fuel and en- its support. In particular, reductions the energy de-
ergy resources is an important safe and guaranty of pendence of the country to be achieved mainly by
energy import. Successfully solve the problem of bringing the maximum potential energy savings in-
the country with a developed export-oriented econ- crease in output (production) and consumption of
omy through the diversification of energy supply – energy and diversification of its own internal and
Japan (the level of self-sufficiency is about 7%), It- external sources of supply. Moreover, diversifica-
aly (18%), most of the European Union (EU). tion of external and internal supplies of energy (gas,
For middle level of self-sufficiency (30-70%), the oil, nuclear fuel) has been carried out with the en-
main objective of energy policy is to ensure energy suring of the European norm - at least three sources
security in terms of opportunities to manage their for each type of energy with the provision of 25-
own resources at a loss or reduction of the external 30% of the total.
supply (Ukraine, Germany, Sweden). However, the vast majority of the events that had
For the countries of their own well-to-energy to be implemented in the first five years of the
(self-sufficiency level of 70%), the main objective is Strategy are not met due to objective reasons (the
the development of fuel-energy complex (FEC), onset of the financial and economic crisis, to pro-
which can not only meet the domestic demand for vide at the time of its development was not possible)
high quality and affordable energy, but also eco- and subjective (no link action with some basic
nomically justified to export (U.S., Russia, Norway, goals, priorities, objectives and responsibilities and
Australia). government control of them).
In the world are turned out the following ways to There is currently updating the Strategy, in which,
strengthen energy security: according to the experts of the Institute of Econom-
– reduction of energy demand by increasing effi- ics and Forecasting of NAS of Ukraine, laid down
ciency and energy consumption; certain threats to energy security of Ukraine.
– improvement of energy self-sufficiency; 1. Till 2030, the basic scenario of the gross do-
– diversification of energy with an increase in the mestic product (GDP) of Ukraine is expected to
use of competitive local and renewable fuels and grow to 913 billion UAH., in 2009 to 2563 milliard,
energy; in 2030 (in 2009 prices), in 2.7 times the level in
– diversification of sources and supply routes of 2010. According to GDP per capita in purchasing
imported energy resources etc. power parity (PPP) will increase in 2.88 times (fore-
Unfortunately, Ukraine had not achieved tangible cast estimates the population of Ukraine in 2030
positive results in none of these directions. Lack of may reach 42.8 million). That is, in Ukraine in 2030
incentives and motivation in introducing new re- GDP per capita should be the same as today in Es-
source-saving technologies and innovation led to the tonia, Latvia, Poland, Hungary, and thus consolidate
dynamic development of very low energy, economic the low standard of living in Ukraine that is totally
and environmental performance of all sectors of the unacceptable.
economy, including fuel and energy industries. For the record. At present, the GDP per capita in
At present days, Ukraine's gross domestic product Slovakia higher than in Ukraine in 3.4 times, and in
(GDP) of energy intensity in 2.6 times exceeds the Slovenia – in 4.3; in Greece – in 4.6, in Germany –
average energy intensity of GDP in developed coun- in 5.6; in Austria – in 6.0, in Switzerland – in 6.4; in
tries. The reason for this is lack of incentive for effi- Norway – in 8.3; in Luxembourg – in 12 times.
ciency, a sufficient number of market instruments These are the main macroeconomic indicators of
and other incentives, including taxation. However, inputs data, which are based on forecasts of energy
this efficiency is the most effective way to enhance supply and development of fuel and energy indus-
energy security and competitiveness, minimizing tries. Accordingly, if the basis is unacceptable, we
negative impacts on the environment and reduce could not analyze the proposed offers, because they
greenhouse gas emissions. In forming the policy in are unacceptable too. However, consider some of
energy-saving sector must be taken into account that them, which ultimately will increase the threat to
energy efficiency criteria should apply to all spheres Ukraine's energy security, increasing dependence on
of economic and social development, including the energy imports.

2. Installed electricity demand substantially un- 1.25, in Vietnam – 7.0, in Taiwan – 0.8, in Indone-
derestimated: in 2030 – 272 billion kWh (versus sia – 2.63, in Australia – 0.75 GW. The largest
395 billion kWh in the basic scenario of Strategy – number of projects in the U.S. – 77 power plants.
2006), including losses in the electrical, own con- According to estimates during the period till 2025
sumption, exports (in fact this is volume of produc- production of electricity from coal will increase in
tion). It is understated, not only because of the in- the U.S. – an average in 1.5% per year, China – in
herent low GDP growth, but also because of the ne- 4.5%, South Korea – in 2.5%, India – in 2.3%.
glect of the required replacement of fuel (primarily After the accident at a Japanese nuclear power plant
natural gas), electricity and other forms of energy “Fukushima-1”, arguments in favor of more secure
(in the industry, domestic sector, etc.). electricity production from coal are increased, for
Consumption of electricity industry in 2030 will the European coal-producing countries too.
amount to 133 billion kWh, we note that in the pre- 4. Gas – it is the only energy source, which has
crisis in 2007 it amounted to 106 billion kWh, it is demand the same as in strategy – 2006 (49.5 billion
means increase by only 25%. m3 in 2030), although, now quite clear that it is nec-
The population, which now consume 35 billion essary to reduce or replace by other forms of en-
kWh at a very low level of equipment appliances ergy. The volume of its own gas production is ex-
will consume only 54 billion kWh (a 59% increase), pected to increase in 2030 is 1.5-2 times from the
which also indicates laid low standard of living in current level – up to 40 billion cubic meters of gas
Ukraine 20 years later. per year, which will consist of about 24-26 billion
Almost does not provide for the development and cubic meters of gas to existing and new conven-
use of export potential of electricity that would be tional deposits, including deposits in the shallow
beneficial for Ukraine, because the electricity tariff, shelf of the Black Sea, and 6-14 billion cubic me-
for example, in European countries is 3-5 times ters, to be extracted from the deep shelf of the Black
higher than in Ukraine. In 2030, electricity exports Sea and the non-traditional fields (methane from
will total 6 billion kWh (compared to 25 billion coal deposits, shale gas, tight gas central pool type).
kWh in line with the Strategy-2006), whereas in the It should be noted that the volumes of 6-14 billion
pre-crisis in 2007 it amounted to 13 billion kWh. cubic meters - risky, it is very likely do not receive
3. Except low power demand additional risks in a them, because currently there are not even needed
stable and sufficient to ensure the needs of the more or less reliable geological data on non-
economy is suggested by the structure of power traditional fields and deep shelf, is not carried out
production- only 33% of electricity will be produced stock assessments, research the feasibility of its
from coal-fired thermal power plants, which can be production.
safely secured their own fuel, 49% – on nuclear Regarding to shale gas, should be noted that the
power with all the risks relative to potential natural technology of its production of environmentally
and anthropogenic disasters, many unresolved is- harmful, especially to water resources. Therefore
sues for the production of fuel for nuclear power necessary to conduct a preliminary deep compre-
plants and waste treatment, 7% – on the gas thermal hensive mining impact research to on water and
power plants and cogeneration plants, 5% – on non- land resources and economic feasibility of shale gas
conventional and renewable sources of energy. This in comparison with other alternatives as power sup-
electricity is now very expensive and not competi- ply and economic specialization of regions.
tive, increase its share will lead to a significant in- 5. Coal – unfortunately, is not recognized energy
crease in electricity tariffs, which could lead to its resource that can not only guaranteed to maintain a
economic inaccessibility for many categories of certain level of energy security, but in the modern
consumers, a loss of competitiveness. face of rising world prices for all types of energy to
For the record. In the main direction of the world contain some price pressure on the Ukrainian
consumption of coal is the production of electricity consumers due to moderate level of prices for
and thermal energy, and about 65% of which is used domestic coal and electricity, which produced with
of its production. Over the past 18 years have seen a its use. Demand for commodities steam coal is
steady increase the share of electricity production reduced to 54 million tons (you can get them with
with using coal from 37% to 40%, and the leading 75 million tons of production) against 89 million
coal-producing countries, it has reached: in Poland – tonnes under the 2006 Strategy. This reduction in
97%, South Africa – 93%, Australia – 82%, China – demand due to reduced demand for electricity and
80% India – 75%, USA – 57%. In Ukraine it is 27%. the proposed structure of the electricity production,
Now, many new coal power plants in Germany shifted in favor of nuclear energy and alternative
(which has its own coal reserves) – with the total and renewable energy sources, as well as the neglect
capacity about 12 GW, in Belgium – 0.8, in India – of substitution of natural gas steam coal in

metallurgy and other sectors of the economy. world coal reserves with a population of 46 million
Thus, it can be argued that the proposals to update people and GDP 196 billion dollars. U.S. PPP, the
the Energy Strategy of Ukraine till 2030 in the EU-27, respectively, 3.6%; 492 million people; 13.3
electricity sector will not lead to increased energy billion dollars USA; components of nuclear fuel –
security, but rather will reduce the reliability of uranium and zirconium). For Ukraine, does not use
energy supplies, divert huge resources to investment such advantages, as other countries do, means do
in Ukraine secondary energy sources, increase the not solve problems of reliable energy supply and
risks increasing dependence on energy imports and reduce dependence on imported energy.
thus create the prerequisites for the formation of Thus, considering written above, features of the
new, very tough call for the economy of Ukraine in fuel resource base, and monopolistic dependence on
matters of energy supply. energy imports, lower currency efficiency of the
To search for effective responses to modern economy (which excludes energy imports in
challenges and threats to energy security, it is sufficient quantities), the limited opportunities for
advisable to take into account the world experience diversification of energy imports due to lack of
in solving this problem and to determine the infrastructure and lack of investment resources for
characteristics of energy supply of Ukraine in view the creation of , you can argue that in the coming
of global trends. years, the most effective opposition to the modern
Energy Policies of the European Union is formed internal and external challenges and threats to
in the absence of a powerful source of raw materials energy security are the following:
and fuels is aimed at solving complex problems – – activation energy-saving and effective energy-
providing competitive environmentally clean energy saving government policies in all areas;
on a background of climate change, growing global – increasing production and consumption of
demand and energy prices, and uncertainty about domestic energy resources and the substitution of
their future supplies. To solve this problem with the natural gas;
European Union in 2006 began implementing a new – acceleration of the modernization of coal mines
energy policy, which aims to create an effective and increase production of coal;
regulatory framework in the areas of supply and – modernization of energy-intensive industries
energy consumption, enhance competitiveness and with the introduction of energy saving technologies.
consolidation of the EU energy sector on the At present time the greatest potential for increas-
principles of market liberalization and minimize the ing the volume of domestic production of energy
impact on climate change. has the coal industry. The result of this potential at
In 2008, the European Commission proposed a existing mines can expect almost complete elimina-
“Plan for the EU's energy security and solidarity tion of unprofitability of mines and achieve finan-
action”, which includes five areas of energy cial imbalances in the industry – the main argument
security: for non-recognition of coal as an energy carrier pri-
– increasing efficiency of energy; ority in ensuring energy security and management
– diversification of energy supplies; decisions on early closure of the so-called “unvia-
– maximum use of its own resources; ble” mines.
– stockpiling of crude oil (petroleum) and natural In 2011, almost all the privatized mines (24
gas; mines) was working cost-effective, and only one in
– improving the external energy relations; ten state-owned mines. The average price of coal
– the creation of mechanisms for the resolution of was 551 uah / t, the total cost – 843 uah / t. If in
crises. 2000 the cost price has been covered by income
A strategic approach to solving problems of from the sale of coal production by 91.3% in 2005 –
energy security includes in ambitious new strategy by 80.8%, in 2010 – by 65.3%. Losses of state-
for the EU by 2020 (Strategy “20-20-20”), which owned mines in 2011 amounted to 7.2 billion uah,
provides up to 2020, in particular, the reduction in Partially (80.7%) were compensated by means of
energy consumption by 20%, reduce greenhouse gas government support.
emissions by 20%, bringing the share of renewable However, analysis of unprofitable mines, it is
energy sources in EU energy mix to 20%. formed under the simultaneous influence of many
In general, for Ukraine are acceptable these, factors like the objective (the complexity of geo-
adopted in the European Union, solutions of solving logical conditions, poor quality coal reserves, etc.),
problems of energy security. However, comparative subjective (physical deterioration and moral obso-
analysis of fuel resource base made for Ukraine and lescence of fixed assets, low levels of production
EU shows that, in contrast to EU, Ukraine has capacities, a low level of coal preparation, creating
strong raw material base of its own fuel (4.1% of low relative to world prices for domestic steam coal

for thermal power plants, price distortions, poor free market prices in the openness of the domestic
management). The degree of influence from the lat- coal market (that is required by WTO rules), most
ter factors, which can be removed, is decisive. of the mines would have no losses.
Currently, 90 mines (77%) are working without Regarding to the possible volume of coal produc-
the reconstruction more than 30 years, 49 mines tion, that potential of existing mines, which are se-
(47%) of manufacturing facilities are using less than cured by reserves for 20 years or more, which can
50% of possible use , 15 mines sell coal in the form be activated after the upgrade is 120 million tonnes
of a member without preparation at low prices (the (in 2011 production is 82.2 million tons). Currently
proportion of raw coal in marketable production is in progress is the construction of five mines with to-
more than 70%). tal capacity of 6.9 million tonnes, three of them has
However, the vast majority of operating mines high (more than 70%) degree of readiness. In addi-
has a powerful resource, production and economic tion, as raw materials are no restrictions for the con-
potential, which can be activated by increasing the struction of new mines.
level of facilities, modernization (reconstruction, To increase the volume of coal production and in-
technical re-equipment) to improve the quality of crease efficiency of the industry's priority should be
coal production, optimization of production costs, the following:
and gradual transition to world prices. The practical – activation of activities to attract investment
use of this potential could provide 85% of the work from various sources (public, private investors, in-
on the mines profitable at or close to it. Proof of this cluding through the privatization of the mines) for
is the current cost-effective operation of the technical upgrading and rehabilitation of mines;
privatized mines that have the same complexity of – increased coefficient of use the modern mining
geological conditions, but once was upgraded and technology of the new technical standards, which
implemented measures to improve the effective operates by existing mines;
work. – the modernization of mines and thermal power-
The potential for increasing the efficiency of the station and solving the problems of minimization of
mines is estimated as follows: negative impact of coal production and consumption
– increasing the coal production due to more in- on the environment in the same time: energy gener-
tensive use of production capacities and moderniza- ating facilities equipped with dust filters to bring
tion of production, as a result – productivity growth, emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants
a significant (25-30%) decrease the prime cost of to the European standards, the introduction of
coal production (this result is explained by a high cleaner coal technologies, improve the quality of
degree of quasi-fixed costs in the prime cost struc- coal products;
ture – to 70-75%); – became to the comprehensive development of
– optimization of staff number after moderniza- coal mines (coal mine methane utilization, use of
tion and installation of modern high-performance heat mine water, rock dumps and mine processing
hardware and decrease the proportion of manual la- plants), which will transfer a portion of the cost of
bor (cost can be reduced in 10-15%); mining coal by-products, earn additional income
– improving the quality of coal production as a from its selling and positive environmental out-
result – increasing the coal prices and income from come;
its selling. – improving the control of effective use of public
One reason of formation the unprofitable mines is funds in the coal industry, the development of new
associated with reduced prices on the domestic order of distribution of state support between the
steam coal for thermal power plants (in 2007-2010 mines in various areas of its use, taking into account
they were 55.0-85.0%, compared with world prices the requirements of WTO (World Trade Organiza-
and the prices of coal imported to Ukraine the same tion )and EU, which would have increased the in-
quality). The result is less revenue from the sale of centive to reduce production costs;
coal products in amounts similar to the amount of – improving the pricing of coal according to re-
government support for partial reimbursement of quirements of WTO and the EU.
costs. This indicates that under conditions of the

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Features of carrying out experiment using

finite-element method at multivariate calculation
of “mine massif – combined support” system

V. Bondarenko, I. Kovalevs’ka & V. Fomychov

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: General requirements for induction heating of machine parts connections with a purpose of
their dismantling are substantiated. The methodology for the specific surface power and other mode parame-
ters determining that meet formulated requirements is developed. The influence of electromagnetic field pa-
rameters on the character of thermal process development is shown.

The growth of problem difficulty solving by applied tions being undergone by exterior factors is finite
mechanics has led to required mutual analyses of element method. Its relatively simple and quiet uni-
various factors affecting on the research object as its versal mathematical base with wide range of de-
combination of time and space. Creating objects and scribing physical environments allows modeling
analyses of carrying out experiment by analytical complicated systems from geometry, material prop-
researches have been become unexplainably unprof- erties, features applying initial condition and exte-
itable as at time and as to implement its calculation. rior loadings. And algorithmic approach at realizing
Laboratorial modeling does not allow conducting any experiments remains the single-type and re-
large series of experiments and in some cases re- quires extremely reconstructing methodology of
quires super sophisticated expansive equipment, calculating experiment.
which can allow to carry out qualitative tests in spe- However, the connection between laboratorial
cific scientific laboratories only. Appearing net nu- and computing experiments remains absolutely
merical methods has allowed to put computing ex- high. To carry out calculations it is necessary to get
periment into the new level. The possibility of di- series of physical quantities which have to be set
viding the research object into separated sites (ele- during calculation process as coefficients of usual
ments) allows to form its difficult geometry and and differential equations. In addition, the adequacy
physical structure combined with various system of of given results can be evaluated by comparing re-
outer factors influencing on calculating area with sults of computing experiments and observations,
and without an account of time factor. The realiza- which can be a physical experiment also. Due to
tion example of such technique is the calculation of computing experiment many series of construction
the bearing girder stability of oil mining platform. analyses can be carried out varying and geometry of
The girder is undergone by the platform weight, side calculating area and interaction conditions of this
wind pressure in an upper part, water fluctuation in area with external environment. Therefore, the
a down part, ice corks and aggressive sea salt. The computing experiment allows choosing the range of
calculation in time with an account of all mentioned varying technological factors, which within experi-
factors had led to the result when bearing girder ca- ments can give the possibility to get optimum result
pacity decreased in one third during five year ex- with low costs.
ploitation. In this case, defined outer influence had Defining SSS of any not primitive system under
been the sea salt, which destroyed cross elements of action of difficult loading, with meaning that the
a girder; therefore, it had led to constructive distur- quantity of that loading and its distribution can be
bances. As you noticed, during solving certain prob- changed in space and time, is trivial task requiring
lem different factors from various fields of knowl- clear description about conditions to model the in-
edge were considered. The experiment had been teraction of separated elements of calculating area.
carried out not only step by step, but also with Implementing operations of forming such model is
crossing the construction mechanics and the chemis- divided into three stages: the first is creating and
try of aggressive environments. Thereby, frequently developing of models of separated elements, which
used approach in calculating composite construc- are “simple” in terms of geometry and loading ap-

plication; the second is combining simple models hole diameter up to initial dimensions and its filling
and conditions of its connection within general cal- by the model of a hardened resin.
culating area; the third is tying between external At quite geometric modeling it is difficult to fore-
loadings, boundary conditions of calculating area cast the reaction of resin bolt at time and at selecting
and its separated elements. elastic-plastic scheme of material behavior. If at
Taking into account the duration and the develop- elastic calculation the interaction scheme of apply-
ment of such models radical solution generally takes ing loading of initial conditions can not be changed,
places. In this case, in geomechanics the approach al- then in case of sufficient relative displacements and
lowing carrying out SSS calculation of drift support the vector of applying loadings and the quantity of
and rock massif is realized separately. The efficiency the zone of contact interaction with rocks can be
of this approach sharply reduces at the growth of dif- changed rarely at the linear law. It stimulates to ap-
ficulty of support elements interaction with the mas- ply non-static conditions of the contact between
sif, surrounding a mine working. Similar difficulty is elements of rock bolt model and mine massif model
also the nonlinearity of support construction behavior, at carrying out a calculating experiment.
removable contact efforts and taking into account ex- Let us consider the physics of the process of rock
orbitant state of mine massif rocks. In such conditions bolt interaction with the surface of a hole. At the
physically reasonable solution of given problem may moment of resin bolt installation between steel,
only be at entering fully description of polyvalent sys- resin and rocks of the hole surface the contacts
tem of stress distribution between support elements based on chemical-molecular influence are set. As a
and rock layers. rule, the contact between steel and resin has even
Let consider the difficulties and the methodology and predictable character that defined by high rate
of similar solution for volume calculating area, in- homogeneity of given materials. The contact be-
cluding a part of lateral working outside and inside tween resin and rock massif is chaotic, in terms of
the zone of its connection with a longwall face, it is geometry, chips and microcracks on the surface of a
maintained by the combination of bearing-bolt and hole, and material mechanics, rocks are made from
frame-and-bolt supports (Kovalevs’ka 2011). The a complex of materials having strength properties
simplest elements of such calculating system, in and chemical characteristics. In results, for realizing
terms of physical and geometrical meanings, are adequate modeling of rock bolt exploitation condi-
rock bolts, frames, connection points of bolts and tions it is necessary, within single calculating
frames, wire mesh, backing-up and a model of rock scheme, to use wide complex of initial conditions
layer in a view of parallelepiped. and types of contacts (Fomychov 2012).
Since on a stage of a mine exploitation of Ukraine In the simplest geometric scheme of modeling
the resin rock bolt is the widest-spread, modeling of resin bolt a single contact surface only exists, for
which causes interest. Given bolt type possesses the which the contact is set with compliance of model
simplest geometry and mechanism of interaction continuity of “bolt – rock” system in conditions of
with rocks around a hole. That’s why, in computing high diametric loading or extremely rigidness of
experiments, especially carrying out in elastic state, surrounded rocks. In case, when contact loss ex-
it is necessary to simplify this object as much as pects, or happens, between rocks and bolt body,
possible, until to remove it from calculating area combined scheme is applied, in which the part of
due to external loading replacement. This approach hole model surface has rigid connection with a rock
can not provide required accuracy of defining SSS bolt, and the part of its surface forms the contact
system in conditions of creating little nonlinearity with a bolt in conditions of mutual slip. Geometric
during carrying out computing experiments. dimensions of such areas, its interrelation, are ad-
The investigation of resin bolt behavior has justed by the ratio of relative bolt extension and
shown that the active phase of bolt resistance to contained rocks, with an account of plastic charac-
ground pressure begins after partial softening of sur- teristics of polymeric resin. If preliminary bolts ten-
rounded rocks. In result, redistribution of efforts as sion is considered, then in the calculating scheme
in bolt construction and as at all drift contour oc- this condition, as a rule, will be realized by applying
curs. Modeling at different mine-geologic condi- required effort along the normal on the end of a rock
tions has revealed the biggest adequacy of the fol- bolt. However, such approach is not fully adequate
lowing calculating schemes: the first is the bolt hav- relatively to efforts and displacements distribution
ing a steel rod and closely installed in a hole with on a surface of mine working contour. And, in case
the same diameter; the second is a bearing plate of sufficient efforts of the preliminary bolt tension,
with big diameter, rigidly contacting with the bolt, it is necessary to move to the second geometric
added to the previous scheme; the third is the same scheme of modeling a steel-polymeric rock bolt.
as the second scheme, but includes the increase of In the second calculating scheme of steel-

polymeric bolt the modeling of preliminary tension these elements have the same geometry. The cross-
occurs due to overlaying contact conditions for a section of a rock bolt is divided by such finite ele-
rock bolt bearing plate. Two main approaches are ments into four similar sectors, and the axe of bolt
applied: the first is a rock bolt installing in a bore- symmetry coincides with common edge of all four
hole that internal surface of a bearing plate gets finite elements. Therefore, the whole bolt becomes
deep into the rock contour of a mine working (so the complex of cylinders having certain heights and
called “hot” set), where the quantity of deepening composing of four similar finite elements. Due to
defines the quantity of preliminary tension; the sec- height variation of these cylinders the density of fi-
ond is the bearing plate and the bolt rod contacting nite element net can be changed, selecting optimal
due to “bolt connection”, efforts of which define ef- correlation of finite elements and accuracy of de-
forts of bolt tension and the contact between a bear- scribing bolt geometry at setting initial and bound-
ing plate and rock massif can not be rigid. ary conditions.
In variants of the calculation of bolts and rock mas- As known, in most coal mines of Ukraine for
sif interaction problems exist when cutting efforts in- supporting mine workings rock bolts, as single sup-
fluencing on the model of a bolt prevailing relative to port, are used rarely. In general bolts are exploited
longitudinal loading. In such cases strength and de- in combination with a classical flexible frame sup-
formational characteristics of polymeric resin, using port. Modeling a frame support is separately quite
at bolt installation, significantly influence on bearing difficult task, which can be divided into few stages.
bolt capacity. In results, for providing the adequacy of Let us start from the consideration of the main
the calculation the third scheme of modeling bolt is question: how accurately is it necessary to describe
needed. Due to using such schemes it is possible to the geometry of cross frame support profile? Gener-
model displacements of bolt contour with quite big ally the geometry of (flexible) frame support is
deformations in any chosen directions. As a rule, the omitted or simplified. For doing it, as a rule, two
contact between the bolt rod and polymeric resin is approaches are used: when all constructive support
rigid, and the contact between resin and rocks is ei- elements are replaced by simple geometrical figure
ther rigid or “hot” set. In total with experimental se- with fixed width in cross-section and average me-
lection of mechanical characteristics of polymeric chanical characteristics (the combination of these
resin model, such system of contacts allow features is formed on the basis of predictable rebuff
“smoothly” taking into account of real rock massif of the real support), and when the support is re-
state features (cracking, transversality, scale effect placed by uniform pressure along the mine working
and watering) at modeling. contour. In both cases receiving pictures of SSS cal-
From above mentioned it becomes understood culating area can be fully corresponded to elastic
that the formation of finite element net, for common state of real rock massif only. As at developing non-
case of modeling steel-polymeric bolt, is unconven- linear processes in the behavior of any material the
tional. The first problem, common for any support accurate localization of its centers within selecting
elements of a mine working, is small size of the fi- geometrical objects is required.
nite element in the mine working support relative to Replacing real frame cross-section by simple
sizes of finite elements are used at describing a rock model in a view of rectangle, from one side, and re-
massif. The combination of the finite element size, ducing calculating area dimension, from another
the total number of finite elements, conditions of fi- side, increase the stability of carrying out calcula-
nite element connection on separated object bounda- tions. However, at calculating with an account of
ries of calculating area determines not only the ra- limiting and beyond-limiting material states, as a
pidity of carrying out calculation, but and the qual- test showed, such simplification perceptibly influ-
ity of receiving displacement field. In general it is ences on the raising stress along a drift in certain
considered that the reduction of finite element linear frame cross-section. Therefore, using real geometry
sizes always leads to the quality increase of receiv- of frame cross-section, though it increases the diffi-
ing result. It is fully conformed to reality of rela- culty of calculus, and in the same time fully allows
tively simple calculations. to describe factors influencing on SSS of “massif –
At smaller sizes of finite elements describing the support” system elements.
bolt geometry get the form of tetrahedron. And the Now let us pass to the consideration of influence
whole picture of finite element net has clearly de- of qualitative modeling flexible tie of a frame sup-
fined irregular character. During calculating such port on the stress and deformation distribution in a
net can lead to the zone formation of fluctuating frame itself and nearest rock massif. Applying
stresses, that distorts its common picture. As ex- flexible tie in the frame construction allowed suffi-
periment showed, for most solving problems it is ciently increase its work characteristics. However,
optimal to select twenty-ties finite elements. All this tie, as a factor influencing on SSS system, com-

plicated the process going in real conditions. Con- movements relatively to each other in all range of
structive feature of given support element at high examining geomechanical problems. When consid-
rate modeling (Figure 1a) extremely increases com- erable movements of mine working contour are
puting costs and decreases the stability of results. At foreseen, then the another flexible tie model is ap-
certain conditions the upper frame part can be ro- plied (Figure 1c). In this case, the geometric authen-
tated relatively to bars, that negatively effects on ticity of external frame contour is disturbed insig-
static balance of all calculating area. Thereby, a nificantly. For different support models linear devia-
simple model of flexible tie is applied (Figure 1b), tions do not exceed 50 mm, but now the model ac-
which provides for the continuity of support model cepts significant linear (up to 400 mm) and radial
with saving last geometric model characteristics of a (up to 20˚) movements (Fomychov 2012 & Bon-
frame. But considered technology of modeling can darenko 2010).
not guarantee the possibility of big frame element

(а) (b) (c)

Figure 1. Modeling the flexible tie of a frame support: (a) geometric accurate model; (b) the tie model providing for its
movement without taking into account of dynamics with saving origin frame contour; (c) the tie model providing for big
movements without saving dynamics taken into account.

Therefore, modeling the frame support flexibility geometry of which conforms to geometric charac-
can take into account of big movements. It is teristics of real objects. In most cases such approach
achieved due to flexible tie modeling, which is fixed guarantees reasonable adequacy of given primitive
in and made from material possessing low resistance and real object characteristics. For version, when
indicators to compressive efforts. On Figure 1, b the separating a lagging and a filling in calculation is
movements of upper frame part, which lowered required, it is necessary to describe the geometry of
down and simultaneously pressed the flexible tie concrete blocks with external frame curvature ap-
model into a side bar, are well shown. In result of propriately. It allows not to solve the task of the
the arch movement, presented on Figure 1, c, reach- contact between bodies, touching along the surface
ing up to 300 mm (Bondarenko 2010), that causes to of different curvature. For emulating the behavior of
increase zones of limiting rock state forming the loose environment the lagging is described by me-
mine working arch. chanical parameters, corresponding with the behav-
Frame elements providing the contact of the ior of solid environment having high deformational
frame and drift contour should be modeled with low measures and using the law of linear-piecewise con-
detailing level. As such objects are entered in the nection of deformation and stress. Also Young
construction for providing effort transmission and modulus is chosen to tend to 0.5.
perceive external loading at a simple scheme Describing the models of rock layers as the com-
(Kovalevs’ka 2011). Omitting these objects can suf- plex of separated geometric elements is not needed;
ficiently change SSS of a frame and around mine geometrically, it is the complex of parallelepipeds,
working rocks. These elements are steel concrete and mechanically, it is averaged characteristics,
lagging, rock filling, wire mesh with wide cells, etc. gained experimentally or substantiated by labora-
A steel concrete and a filling can be as a single torial and full-scale investigations. From another
averaged by mechanical characteristics object, the side, if to consider rock massif as a complex of rock

layers, the description of its interaction within cer- measures. Such measures for real in-seam working
tain problem becomes applied problem. Depending can be achieved when dip angle of seam in calculat-
on conditions of problem statement the same prop- ing model is taken into account only, and the quan-
erties of rock massif heterogeneity can influence on tity of this angle is over 3º (Bondarenko 2010).
an accuracy of results (Bondarenko 2010). In spite of rock layers can have different geome-
Foliation of rock massif extremely changes stress try and physical characteristics during modeling to
distribution, as around mine working contour, and in increase the adequacy of received results, it has to
zones next to boundaries of rock layers. In this case, change contact conditions on boundaries of these
influence degree on stress field for different system layers. In total three types of such contacts can be
components can fluctuate from 10 to 270% (Bon- highlighted. There are rigid contact, contact with
darenko 2010). sliding and contact with frictional force. Using any
type of contact can cause qualitative and quantita-
tive changes of stress distribution, which presented
on a Figure 3.
In case of rigid contact (Figure 3a), at horizontal
occurrence and not wide range of physical rock
layer characteristics, the stress distribution is almost
similar to the stress distribution in the model with-
out foliation. And in the case of Figure 3b the stress
distribution is significantly different from the previ-
ous one. Such changes in qualitative and quantita-
tive measures of stress distribution happened by en-
tering mutual sliding of rock layers in the calculat-
ing model. Now, the stress level is higher in coal
seam, than in surrounded rocks and its role of in-
creasing drift stability extremely rises.

Figure 2. Stress distribution in thin-layered massif near in- (a) (b)

seam workings.

Let us consider stress diagram presented on a

Figure 2. The main reason, because of which the fo-
liation influence is quite high in given calculating
model, is the difference between rock layer strength.
Rock layers forming foot and sides of a drift have
the increased rigidness relative to rock layers, which
forms upper and down areas of calculating model. It
causes the stress concentration within geometric
area of certain layer.
Taking into account of foliation the problem of
reasonability of coal seam deep angle for adequacy
of received results happens. In most analytical and
numerical math solutions this factor is omitted, as it
allows sufficiently decreasing the difficulty of finite
math equation and/or simplify calculating model
due to applying for symmetry equation.
To confirm all above mentioned the picture of
stress distribution on a Figure 2 is analyzed. The Figure 3. Distributing stress intensity in a massif (a) with-
major feature of this stress diagram is the absence of out taking into account of sliding on rock layer boundaries,
(b) with taking into account of sliding on rock layer
symmetry relative vertical axis of in-seam working,
that is, the stress distribution in sides of a drift has
different qualitative and quantitative character. At
Difficulties of modeling the element interaction
that, the quantity of similar disbalance depends on
of “massif-bearing-rock bolt support” system are
angle of dip and rock layer physical characteristics.
concentrated in zones of interaction of bolts and
For various calculating models such disbalance can
maintaining drift contour support elements. These
consist 40% of quantitative and 180% of qualitative

elements are wire mesh with big cells, bearing metal frame – a cable – solution of contact problem; cable
bars having few bolt-holes. Metal bars allow com- deformation in conditions of zones of plastic flow
bining few bolts, being installed in the drift roof be- occurrence in elements of calculating model.
tween frames, into single rigid load-bearing struc-
ture. The simplest method of combining a bolt and (а)
bearing metal bar is rigid contact. At that, the height
in cross-section of bar model has to be increased
relative to real meaning. It is necessary to ignore
bearing plates of each contacting bolts in the whole
support model.
The contact between surfaces of bearing bar and
rock massif has to be defined as free, without using
friction force. It is linked with two moments. Firstly,
during the calculation of individual bolt movements,
relatively to each other, absolute quantities can have (b)
different directions, that will cause to appear addi-
tional stresses in the bar. At that, if the bar rigidly
connects with a massif, it will cause to wrong cor-
rection of SSS on mine working contour. Secondly,
when wire mesh takes place between the bar and
rock massif surface, it will not limit movements of
the bearing bar along the surface of rock massif.
In the considered support construction the wire
mesh plays the key role of integration factor provid-
ing for effort distribution between installed bolts
and frames in mine working roof. However, this (c)
mesh limits free near-the-contour rock movement
into a mine working. And the quantity of resistance
on similar movement in cross section of the con-
struction is slightly small. It allows to consider
given element of the construction as rigid mem-
brane, set in place of its contact with bolts and
frame supports. In results, the wire mesh is modeled
as an object repeating the drift contour with width
not exceeding the diameter of bar mesh, and me-
chanical characteristics corresponding to flexible
Figure 4. Modeling the connection of a drift and a long-
material. wall: (a) elastoplastic calculation; (b) calculation with ac-
Modeling the frame-bolt support the case is differ- count of rheology (10 hours); (c) calculation with account
ent (Kovalevs’ka 2011). In this case, the additional of rheology (90 hours).
problem is the provision of correctly modeling the
systems of effort transmission between a frame bar Modeling the cable can be considered as the most
and side bolts, which are combined by a flexible tie adequate, implemented by the following: first – the
(cable). In real condition such cable freely rounds a cable combined with a bolt, tying the body of cable
frame and takes place between bearing and additional with bolt end; second – the form of longitudinal ca-
bolt plate. Thereby, the cable can slide easy along its ble axis was chosen as sinusoid with straight sec-
length relatively to side bolts and frame bars. Then, tions on function maximum; third – the preliminary
the loading of the cable in some area can go through cable tension was modeled due to penetrating the
it on distance. This frame-bolt support feature, being cable into the frame.
unquestionable benefit from a point of engineer view, However, in this variant of modeling insignificant
looks as a complex of problems from a point of com- problem is hidden. As the limitation of longitudinal
puting modeling view. movements and small elasticity of cable model do
Name these problems: absence of rigid cable con- not allow to keep the continuity of calculating
nection – static uncertainty of the system; difficulty model at various measures of bolts and frame
of adequately describing cable geometry – form se- movements, the adequacy of the model is disturbed
lection of longitudinal axis of cable model; effort at initial stage of the calculation. At relatively small
transmission in zones of bolt contact – a cable and a deformations the bolt end moves into the drift more

intensive, than the frame. In results, the contact be- and the stress distribution suffered as qualitative and
tween the cable and the frame is broken. With going as quantitative changes (Figure 4b). Finally, since
further elastoplastic calculation and the growth of 90 hours the growth of movements in roof and foot
plastic deformation the cable presses into the frame of longwall (Figure 4c) is markedly seen, with load
again. However, due to earlier lost contact in the redistribution of rock layers of the model. It can be
“cable-frame” system, it becomes impossible to cal- said, that the next step of caving rocks is formed.
culate effort transmission through formed-again Manifestation of mine workings crossing influ-
contact section. Consequently, this problem has to ence also has localized character on time. Depen-
be solved due to two calculating steps: the first is dently on mutual mine working size and existence
the SSS calculation until the moment of cable ten- duration, such influence on SSS system can have as
sion; the second is correcting parameters of contacts insignificantly (e.g. drift and passage crossing), and
between the cable and the frame and the calculation. as notable influence (an example on Figure 4c).
All above mentioned relates to constructive sup- From all above mentioned the SSS calculation in
port elements. However, functioning of the support the zone of longwall influence for mine workings
extremely depends on SSS rock massif changes. with bolt-frame support in the conditions of Don-
And these changes can occur in result of driving bass region’s mines can be implemented only by
mine workings, manifestation of rheological rock taking into account next factors: constructive flexi-
properties, etc. Fundamental factor taking into ac- bility of the frame support; high movements of mas-
count of such changes influence in the model be- sif contour; stress relaxation, in result of rheological
comes the time factor. rock properties, and, finally, mutual mine working
The results of taken time factor during the calcu- influence. In this case compensation of efforts and
lation of stress and deformation in the rock massive geometric parameters of calculating area will allow
become effort redistribution being perceived by to get averaged, and consequently, probable picture
support elements. Also, changing drift geometry on of SSS in the zone of real object location.
time helps to correct orientation of main stress areas
in near-contour rock massif. In total, taking into ac-
count these factors can cause to fully redistribute ef- REFERENCES
forts on the surface of support and rock massif con-
tact, and change the conditions of these areas forma- Kovalevs’ka, I., Vivcharenko, O. & Fomychov, V. 2011.
tion and as a result, convert the deformational pic- Optimization of frame-bolt support in the development
workings, using computer modeling method. Istanbul:
ture of a mine working.
ХХII World mining congress & Expo (11-16 Septem-
The brightest example of rheological rock proper- ber). Volume I: 267-278.
ties influence on the changes of SSS rock massif is Fomychov, V. 2012. Backgrounds of modeling frame-bolt
the series of calculations carried out for “Stepnaya” support with an account of nonlinear characteristics of
mine, PLC “DTEK Pavlogradugol”. Results of cal- physical environment behavior. Dnipropetrovs’k:
culations show how the stress distribution and Naukovyi visnyk, 3: 13-18.
movements are changed in the zone of drift and Bondarenko, V., Kovalevs’ka, I., Martovitskiy, A. & Fo-
longwall crossing (Figure 4) on time. On a Figure 4, mychov, V. 2010. Developing scientific basics of in-
creasing mine working stability of Western Donbass
a the stress intensiveness is shown, which gained for
mines. Monograph. Dnipropetrovs’k: LizunovPress:
the task, solved due to elastoplastic set. For this 340.
variant of solution characterizes the biggest stresses Bondarenko, V., Kovalevs’ka, I., Symanovych, G., Mar-
and the minimum absolute movements. The calcula- tovitskiy, A. & Kopylov, A. 2010. Methods of calculat-
tion implemented with account of rheology had ing displacements and surrounded rocks reinforcement
been showing within real 10 hours that absolute of Western Donbass mine workings. Monograph: Dni-
movements in the model were raised insignificantly, propetrovs’k: Pidpriemstvo “Driant” Ltd.: 328.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Parameters of shear zone and methods of their conditions

control at underground mining of steep-dipping iron ore
deposits in Kryvyi Rig basin

N. Stupnik & V. Kalinichenko

Kryvyi Rig National University, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Representative analysis of collected data according to surveying measurements of the earth
surface deformations within the mine baffles of Kryvyi Rig iron ore basin is carried out. The relationships
between the lowering of the stoping level and change of dimension of basin subsidence and surface collapse
across the strike are found. Practical aspects of implementing the methods of diagnosis and monitoring of
geoengineering state of rock mass in the lines of shear and collapse zones are considered.

1 INTRODUCTION diction dead blind deposits located in the overlying

horizons is. These deposits, as a rule, are small in
In Kryvyi Rig iron-ore basin throughout decades a size in relation to the main ore bodies, were mined
unique situation with preservation of daylight area by special projects. Taking into account their small
within the boundaries of operating and closed size and isolation from the main deposit we can’t
mines. state with confidence that, with respect to them all
Due to long and intensive exploitation of necessary arrangements for full depreciation (or
Krivbass deposits by underground operations con- stowing) of dead rooms were made. Therefore, such
siderable areas damaged by mining operations were potential cavities may also be a potential hazard to
founded. Surface damages with craters, caves and the day surface.
caving zones were caused by application of different In addition, magnetite quartzite underground min-
methods of development systems with ore caving ing on overlying horizons of mines by “room-pillar”
and adjacent rocks at underground mining as well as technology has led to the formation in the depths of
the single-stall system development, when mining a huge number of voids calculated in millions of
the overlying horizons. cubic meters. These voids are potentially dangerous
In the first case, with the unstable soft ores rather in the event of their caving. Calculating characteris-
smooth day surface subsidence with the formation tics theoretically guarantee their stability, however,
of the projected caving zones were observed. as it was shown by an example of the day surface
When using the single-stall system development caving on the mine n. a. “Ordzhonikidze”, a practice
the formation of caving zones occurred unevenly, sometimes refutes the theory.
depending on the volume of room and pillar mining, Currently, underground mining has gone to deeper
ore ceiling and host rocks hardness. In this case, the horizons, at mining of which the effect of stoping on
prediction of caving zones was and still is more the day surface is considerably reduced. In this case,
difficult task, because of taking into account physi- it sudden and uneven caves on the surface are practi-
cal and mechanical properties of rocks with higher cally impossible. At the same time, there is a gradual
strength characteristics. In this regard, incomplete subsidence of a considerably large area due to the
ceiling settling is possible at the room roof caving, increasing size of trough movement of overlying
which in turn can lead to mini-rooms formation, rocks with a decrease in underground mining.
which accounting and control is practically impos- The purpose of this work is to identify the rela-
sible. Settling of such mini-rooms located near the tionship between the lowering of stoping level and
day surface (for example, the conditions of deposit change the size of trough movement and the day
development of the former MA n. a. Ilyicha) can surface caving, as well as the definition of guide-
lead to unplanned day surface caves many years lines and methods for diagnosis and monitoring of
later after deposit declining and complete mine geoengeneering state of rock massif in the lines of
closure. displacement and caving in the areas of active and
In addition, a rather complex situation in the pre- dead mines.

2 THE WAYS OF PROBLEM SOLVING with the help of InSAR and LIDAR technologies.
InSAR is a radar-location method using interfe-
The area of undermined territory estimated by the rometric radar. This geodetic method uses two or
State Design Institute “Krivbassproject” is 3600 ha, more radar images to generate maps of surface
including the area of pitcraters within the rock deformation or digital terrain models, using the
trough movement in the areas of active and dead differences in the phase of the waves, which return
mines is about 1030 hectares (Modern technolo- to the satellite or aircraft. The method allows to
gies...2012). These areas have a tendency to expand measure potentially the terrain change in the centi-
due to continuous iron ore underground mining. meter deformation scale over a long period of time.
So, the monitoring of the existing voids state and LIDAR is a laser radar infrared – range with re-
undermined territories is a priority for future devel- mote sensing optical technology, which allows you
opment of the Kryvyi Rig iron ore basin. to create detailed maps of the terrain day surface.
The control of geomechanical rock massif state in On the basis of remote sensing the day surface a
the lines of displacement and caving zones in the spatial analysis of the obtained results and data in
areas of active and dead mines is possible by creat- real time processing is performed, which allows to
ing a geoinformation system for prevention and obtain a detailed picture of the deformation and to
monitoring the day surface settling. At geoinforma- predict the possible risk zones.
tion system development for prevention and moni- In our view, the development of geoinformation
toring of over large areas subsidence, which is the system for prevention and monitoring of Kryvyi Rig
Kryvyi Rig iron ore basin, it is necessary to solve iron ore basin areas subsidence must solve two
the following tasks: major problems: the prevention of possible defor-
1. To create an electronic database of existing un- mations and the determination of the causes and
derground voids on the basis of the preserved min- patterns of these deformations.
ing and engineering documentation. In our opinion, the first step is to perform a pre-
2. To implement a system for monitoring defor- liminary simulation and launch a pilot project in a
mations of the day surface with the construction of small area, such as the eastern edge of Gleevatskiy
dynamic digital models of terrain changes in real quarry of PJSC CGOK in the zone of underground
time. mining influence, or the property of the closed and
3. To identify the main patterns and the magni- liquidated MA n.a. Lenin.
tude of the day surface deformation depending on This pilot project would allow interested parties
physical and mechanical properties of rocks and the to determine the capabilities and desires of partners,
size of the existing underground voids. and would be a part of the Memorandum of Under-
4. Using various methods (for example, the standing between the City, Kryvyi Rig National
method of analogies) to identify possible locations University and GeoMos AG. The latter serves as a
of the unknown voids and their projected volumes. consultant and represents the interests of the Hexa-
5. To create an electronic database of existent and gon Group, and partners.
projected underground voids on the basis of the
preserved mining and engineering documentation
and completed investigations. 3 CONCLUSIONS
6. Based on the results of monitoring of the day
surface deformations and the electronic database of The practice and experience of mining enterprises
existent and projected underground voids to create a show that the current costs of implementing meas-
geoinformation system for early warning of possible ures to prevent possible emergencies is much lower
surface subsidence in a particular area of the Kryvyi than the cost of their liquidation in the future.
Rig basin. Р.S. It is our deep conviction that the only way to
7. To clarify the boundaries of the potentially guarantee the impossibility of the day surface cav-
dangerous zones of the day surface displacement on ing and subsidence within the boundaries of the
the basis of geoinformation system for prevention Krivbass mine areas is the introduction on the mines
and monitoring of over large areas subsidence. of the basin the development systems with harden-
Currently the basic task is to determine the opti- ing stowage. When the momentary apparent in-
mal system for monitoring deformations of the day crease in production costs, these systems develop-
surface with the construction of dynamic digital ment will provide savings in the future, ensuring the
models of terrain changes. preservation of the day surface and the safety of the
Such well-known corporations of company Hexa- residents of Kryvyi Rig basin.
gon, as Leica Geosystems, Intergraph and GeoMos
suggest using GPS for accurate geo-referencing

REFERENCES tional Scientific-Technical Conference: Kryvy Rig:
Publishing: 140.
Modern technologies of ore deposits development. 2012.
Scientific Papers on the work of the Second Interna-

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Concept and assumptions for developing

underground brown coal gasification plant for
supplying synthesized gas to heat and power plant

J. Nowak
KGHM CUPRUM Ltd. – Research & Development Centre, Wroclaw, Poland

ABSTRACT: Concept of developing underground brown coal gasification plant for supplying synthesized
gas to heat and power plant operating as a cogeneration unit is described in this paper. Calculations of energy
balance connected with the demand for gas fuel are shown. Dimensions and number of underground reactors
are given as well. Basic assumptions for energy plant are discussed. Some elements of project economic as-
sessment are also presented.

1 INTRODUCTION troducing the synthesized gas from the planned in-

stallation for underground gasification of lignite
Using the synthesized gas from underground hard from the deposit located in the vicinity of Glogów.
coal or lignite gasification system has not been em- That type of gas is a better power carrier than blast
ployed in Poland yet. In case of lignite it is espe- furnace gas and its production is relatively cheap.
cially important due the large reserves of this fuel The preliminary concept of using the synthesized
(Kozlowski et al., 2008; Kudelko, Nowak, 2010). gas instead of previously used blast furnace gas and
Using lignite for synthesized gas production would the requirements concerning the reserves of solid
result in applying it in power and chemical industry. fuel necessary for gasification as well as all related
In many cases it would be possible to get the power with economic and technical consequences are pre-
from solid fuel without its extraction on the surface. sented in this paper. The proposed solution is
It is extremely important in regions, where local highly advantageous for the investor. It allows for
community protests against open pit mines. On the using the existing power plant to verify the installa-
areas where surface infrastructure is developed, tion for underground lignite gasification (ULG) as a
there would be an opportunity to obtain the chemi- source of fuel for energy production. It is also a safe
cal energy contained in brown coal with minimal in- way of carrying out the technological tests due to
terference in local plans of land development. the opportunity of using the network gas in case of
Therefore there is a great interest in this mining irregular deliveries from ULG installation or too
method as a clean coal technology (Kudelko & low of synthesized gas. Such technological pattern
Nowak 2010; Kudelko & Nowak 2007; Nowak will operate on the full technical scale. The success
2007). of operation of both plants will confirm the possibil-
Heat and power plant in Głogów Smelter and Re- ity of using the synthesized gas for energy produc-
finery uses the blast furnace gas as a fuel. It is a by- tion purpose as well as the possibility of using the
product of smelting process (Nowak et al 2011). underground gasification systems in the industrial
Since the technology change is planned i.e. replac- practice.
ing the shaft furnaces by the flush furnaces, it will
not be possible to apply the former system of sup-
plying the heat and power plant. The further opera- 2 CHARACTERISTS OF ENERGY
tion of the power plant will be continued basing on PRODUCTION PLANT AND
GZ-41.5 network gas, which is currently delivered QUANTIFYING ITS FUEL DEMAND
to the supply system in order to enrich the blast fur-
nace gas which is still used. Initially the heat and power plant used only the hard
After abandoning supplying the plant with blast coal as a fuel (Nowak et al 2011). During the next
furnace gas it is planned to use only the network years, the blast furnace gas from the smelter was
gas. The alternative is, however, the concept of in- used to heat the boilers together with coal. The net-
work gas is also delivered to the installation and it is

used as a kindling gas. Future changes assume the sets with the following parameters of electric power:
successive abandonment of the hard coal.  TG-1 10.0 MWe;
Currently Głogów Heat and Power Plant is owned  TG-2 13.0 MWe;
by Energetyka Lubin, which is a part of KGHM  TG-3 25.0 MWe.
Polska Miedź SA Capital Group. It is supplied by Total power is 48.0 MWe, and annual production
three types of fuel: amounts about 220 000 MWh. Average load is
 hard coal; equal 25 MWe.
 blast furnace gas; Heat produced in Głogów Heat and Power Plant
 Lw (GZ-41.5) natural gas. amounts 176.6 MWt. It is equipped with 7 steam
Main receiver of energy from the plant is Głogów boilers:
Smelter&Refinery and town of Głogów. The plant  5 boilers of ORg-32 type, combusting blast
is successively modernized. The intent of those furnace gas with hard coal;
changes is to increase the power energy production  2 modernized boilers of K-7 type (2009) and
with providing simultaneously the heat safety for K-6 type (2011) combusting blast furnace gas with
Głogów Smelter and Refinery and town of Głogów. natural gas.
It is assumed that in future the hard coal fuel will be They supply three turbine sets, one produces the
totally replaced by the natural, network gas. It is heat and is adjusted to condensation work, while
also planned to install new boilers adjusted for co- two are of bleeding – condensation type.
combustion of blast furnace gas from Głogów
smelter and (in later future) new steam turbine. Characteristic of previous fuel
In future it is planned also to construct the gas- Power and heat plant in Głogów smelter after mod-
steam power unit with 40 MWe of power. The aim ernization for co-combustion uses the natural nitro-
of this project will be: gen-saturated gas of Lw (previously GZ-41.5).
1. Production of power and heat energy in high Blast furnace gas is produced in shaft furnaces
efficient gas cogeneration. and is delivered to the power and heat plant to be
2. Providing the energy in emergency situations – utilized through the dust-cleaning and transferring
power safety of smelter and mines. installation. Flow rate is about 180 000 m3 / h, and
3. Economic effectiveness. the pipeline diameter is. The gas components are:
Power and Heat plant of Głogów Smelter and Re-
finery produces the power energy in three turbine

 CO2 – carbon dioxide  N 2 – nitrogen

 CS 2 – carbon bisulfide  H 2 S – hydrogen sulfide
 CO – carbon monoxide  CH 4 – methane
 H 2 – hydrogen  O2 – oxygen

The percentage of each component depends of the *heat value – at least 27.0 MJ /m3,
blast furnace charge. Although this gas is a byprod- *example composition:
uct, it is a base of heating system of many smelters, – methane ( CH 4 ) – about 79%;
like in Głogów Smelter and Refinery. Standard blast – ethane, propane, butane – about 1%;
furnace gas has a density about 1.169 kg / m3, and – nitrogen ( N 2 ) – about 19.5%;
one ton of iron may give even 4000 m3 of it. Its heat
value ranges from 3.4 to 3.7 MJ / m3. – carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) and other components –
It should be noticed that blast furnace gas pro- 0.5%.
duced in Głogów Smelter and Refinery has inferior The hard coal is hauled in small railway cars to
quality that the one produced for example in iron- the stock-yard, from where it is delivered to the heat
works. Its heat value is 2.1-2.9 MJ / m3. Addition- and power plant and combusted together with blast
ally it needed to be cleaned before delivery to the furnace gas. Exhaust fumes, due the high level of
power and heat plant. contamination are desulfurized and dedusted.
Since the blast furnace gas parameters are not It is proposed to use in the heat and power plant
good enough for its effective combustion, it is con- the synthesized gas having low to medium parame-
ditioned by natural, network gas, mainly to adjust ters. The selection will be possible after detailed
and stabilize it. The regulatory and standard re- analyze of capabilities and requirements of boilers,
quirements for Lw type gas are as follows: in which the gas will be used. Probably it will be the

gas having the heat value from 3.4 MJ / m3 to tails in future, because now there are not any find-
maximum 7.4 MJ / m3 with majority of lower val- ings concerning the lignite, allowing for predicting
ues. It results from applying the supply flow on the the gas quality after its conversion. Those tests are
near level and the higher profitability of using the under preparation now.
less purified gases. The issue will be analyzed in de-

Figure 1. Planned locations of underground gasification sites and gas pipeline routes delivering gas to heat and power
plant: 1 – first version of location, 2 – alternative version; A, B, C, D – alternative routes of gas pipelines.

Current balance of gas energy Defining the demand for synthesized gas
In order to ensure the proper operation of steam At the air injection, the syngas heat value amounting
boilers in heat and power plant in Głogów smelter, 3.4 ÷ 4.0 MJ / m3 can be expected. Due to the CO2
the parameters of syngas, including composition,
aid, low humidity of gas (almost zero) the higher
heat value and flow rate, should be the same as en-
value may be expected. Then, the demand for gas
ergy parameters of currently used process gas. Pa-
will be 997.6÷1174 million Nm3 / year.
rameters of the gas supplying the steam, pulverized
fuel boilers, where the coal-dust is combusted, are Defining the volume of solid fuel
adjusted and stabilized due to mixing the blast fur-
nace gas with natural network gas. Total demand for Assuming that 1 kg of lignite gives 2.06 m3 of gas
gas is 1 612 million Nm3 / year i.e. 201 500 Nm3 / h, (1 ton of lignite ≈ 2 000 m3 syngas) the value of
including: 499 ÷ 587 thousand tons of lignite per year is obtained.
– blast furnace gas – 1 600 million Nm3 / year i.e. Correction of fuel volume due to its quality
200 000 Nm3 / h;
– natural gas – 12 million Nm3 / year i.e. Because the part of deposit may be the layer of car-
1 500 Nm3 / h. bonaceous rocks but with relatively high energy
Current balance based on blast furnace gas and value and that the part of fuel will be used by the fa-
natural gas consumption is: cility for its own needs, the correction parameters,
– blast furnace gas, 1600 million Nm3 / year × concerning the solid fuel are introduced.
2.29 MJ / m3 = 3664 million MJ; The following assumptions were made:
– natural gas, 12 million Nm3 / year × – 30% part of carbonaceous deposit having the
27.183 MJ / m3 = 326.20 million MJ; heat value lower than pure brown coal, at least
– annual demand for energy from gas is 4 MJ / kg;
3990.2 million MJ. – syngas consumption for own needs of gasifica-

tion facility, about 10%. Planning the annual production value:
Additionally the gas loses caused by its migration
into the rock mass must be taken into consideration. – power energy:
15 MWe × 8 000 h / year = 120 000 MWh / year;
They are difficult to be defined with regard to the
Polish geological conditions. Several factors, both – heat energy: 200 000 GJ / year.
geological and operational may have the impact on Possible stops in syngas delivery, will not cause
this phenomenon. Using the data from already oper- any negative effects during the initial period of
ating gasification systems, the correction factor of Głogów Heat and Power Plant operation.
15% was used there. Then the demand for solid fuel Since the ULG installation will be commissioned
is 738.3÷868.3 thousand tons / year. successively, the deliveries of gas will rise. It is as-
It is assumed that during the further studies, espe- sumed that at first, geo-reactors producing about
20 000 Nm3 / h of syngas will be started. It is sug-
cially after the detailed geological survey and labo-
ratory tests, these estimates may need the revision. gested to increase the volume of gas by
Total demand for solid fuel, assuming the life 10 000 Nm3 / h in the next stages until the required,
target level is reached.
time of power production facility T  30 years, is
Now it is difficult to specify the stages in synthe-
on the level of 26.05 million tons of lignite. Assum- sized gas delivery, since the data necessary to calcu-
ing that the lignite density is 1.1 t / m3, 23.7 million late the operating parameters of reactor are not
m3 of solid fuel “in situ” is necessary. available. First, the results of lignite tests as well as
Supposing the beds discontinuity, different types defining the quality and composition of blow gases
of tectonic disturbances, possible change of lignite
are necessary.
density value after the detailed analyzes, 30 million
m³ (“in situ”) or 35 million tons of solid fuel must
For the needs of combusting the syngas it will be OCCURRENCE IN HEAT AND POWER
possible to use two modernized boilers (K-6 and PLANT REGION
K-7), having the following parameters:
– volume of combusted blast furnace gas, On the area of planned surveys any special explora-
130 000 Nm3 / h; tion works concerning the lignite were carried out be-
– annual volume of combusted blast furnace gas, fore and the knowledge about lignite occurrence is
1040 000 000 Nm3; based on the results of copper exploration drillings. In
– annual value of chemical energy of blast fur- copper exploration boreholes in Głogów and Ścinawa
nace gas, 2080000 GJ; vicinity, drilled in the middle of twentieth century, the
– annual value of chemical energy of natural gas, brown coal bearing formation with lignite layers were
208000 GJ; drilled through in the cover. Test of lignite were made
– total value of chemical energy, 2288000 GJ. only occasionally and in the placed located far away
Calculation of syngas possible to be combusted: from the fixed site (Figure 1).
– heat value of syngas 4.0 MJ / Nm3 (assumption In order to draw up the Plan of geological explo-
for low-purified gas), ration and prospecting surveys, the profiles of cop-
– volume of syngas per boreholes from the areas located south, south-
2 288 000 GJ : 4.0 GJ / 1000 Nm3 = 572 million west and west from Głogów, were collected and
Nm3 / year; analyzed. Location and boundaries of the area de-
572 million Nm3 : 8 000 h = 71 500 Nm3 / h. signed to be studied are shown on Figure 2. The sur-
For the needs of UCG project, the minimum load face of the whole survey area, covered by explora-
of 1 boiler of 50% (17 800 Nm3 / h) should be addi- tion boreholes is about 26 km2.
tionally assumed. The area of planned geological surveys is now
Minimum efficiency of lignite gasification system under populated. The space development is formed
should amount approximately 20 000 Nm3 / h. The by several villages with compact settlement. The
construction of gasification installation may proceed significant part of buildings is in bad technical con-
in stages, each stage ca. 20 000 Nm3 / h. dition, especially historical houses. New buildings,
The syngas delivered to the heat and power plant mainly single family houses supplement the existing
will be used to produce: space development or are constructed on new ap-
– in summer: power energy in condensation, pointed investment areas adjacent to the already
– during heating season: power energy together built-up area.
with heat energy using existing technological sys- The beds of lignite can be correlated on big area
tems (boilers, turbines, exchangers). in Głogów region, but is also happens that in places

they are replaced by highly carbonaceous rocks or – Ścinawa from 0.0 m to 14.7 m;
they do not occur at all. The biggest continuity has – Głogów from 0.0 m to 11.0 m.
the “Łużyce” bed, found in all boreholes drilled in Such differences in lignite occurrence will cause
this region. In some cases the carbonaceous rocks many problems in its utilization. The possibility of
replaced “Ścinawa” and “Głogów” bed. While employing the open pit mining seems to be espe-
“Henryk” bed in many old boreholes was not found cially unfavorable. From the other side it is conven-
at all or was substituted by carbonaceous rocks. ient due to the possibility testing the different tech-
Beds (strata) of brown coal are separated by sand, nical solutions within several methods of under-
clay or silt layers. Basing on geological report for ground lignite gasification. It offers also the wide
Głogów I copper deposit, the following can be range of research opportunities for studies on using
stated (Preidl & Mikula 1997): the bio-gasification of brown coal (Szubert, Nowak
 depth of individual beds occurrence is: & Grotowski 2011).
– Henryk from about 75.0 m to 148.4 m;
– Łużyce from 130.0 m to 270.8 m;
– Ścinawa from 153.6 m to 308.6 m; 4 SELECTION OF DEPOSIT AREA FOR
– Głogów from 231.6 m to 412.0 m. THE NEEDS OF UNDERGROUND
 each lignite bed has from one to four layers, GASIFICATION INSTALLATION
and their total thickness ranges from 0.4 to 14.0 m.
The distance between the individual lignite layers in The area of lignite, designed for future gasification,
the bed reaches 30 meters in places. will be defined precisely after completing the explo-
 total thickness of lignite layers in beds is: ration works. It will be placed within the region pre-
– Henryk from 0.0 m to 8.5 m; sented on Figure 2.
– Łużyce from 1.0 m to 12.3 m;

Figure 2. Boundary of estimated lignite reserves within the selected survey area.

The area was selected after the analyze of popula- rate, pressure and gas composition, the gasification
tion and land development within the possible future process should be carried out simultaneously in
location close to Głogów Smelter and Refinery. Ad- many reactors with the time displacement of opera-
ditionally the data about lignite occurrence in cop- tion cycle phase together with applying the storage
per exploration boreholes on this area and outside it, tanks with capacity equal the minimum daily gas
were also taken into consideration (Derkacz & production.
Sztromwasser 1984; Kozula & Golczak 1988; Pi-
wocki 1996).
UNDERGROUND GASIFICATION Economic analyze of the underground lignite gasifi-
INSTALLATION cation project is very difficult, especially when the
information about the deposit and the location and
Dimensioning the installation for underground lig- reserves in individual beds is incomplete. Hence it
nite gasification depends on the heat and power was necessary, in some cases, to use the data from
plant demand with regard of fuel. Installation must publications, most often included in KGHM
provide the volume of synthesized gas necessary to CUPRUM – RDC studies (Nowak et al 2010;
produce, by the power plant, 120 GWh / year of the Nowak et al 2011 & Baranska-Buslik et al 2011).
electric power and about 200 000 GJ / year of heat Additionally the similar pattern and principles of
power. As it was calculated in chapter 2, about 35 defining the data as in the study (Nowak et al,
million tons of lignite, having the volume of about 2010), what gives the opportunity to compare both
30 million m3, are necessary for that purpose. co conceptual solutions. Since there are not any
Basing on preliminary defined geological condi- practical experiences in applying this method, dif-
tions and a concept of gasification lines develop- ferent interpretations of financial regulation are pos-
ment, it was assumed that underground reactors will sible, however it is not very important from the
be constructed successively. They will be used dur- point of financial evaluation at that stage of work.
ing many stages of the engineering process. That Economic evaluation was made basing on:
planning of their usage should limit the number of  technical and cost data contained in the study
boreholes and thus reduce the costs. (Nowak et al 2010);
Part of construction works of underground struc-  cost data obtained from KGHM CUPRUM and
tures of installation will be carried out simultane- foreign specialists dealing with this problem;
ously with construction of surface facilities. Drilling  information about material’s prices – Sekocen-
works and construction of extraction columns are bud;
very expensive and time consuming.  cost estimates normal and integrated for earth,
During the first year it is planned to make: construction, installation and assembly works;
– 14 extraction boreholes;  sets of unit price rates of industrial construction
– 4 dewatering boreholes; for investment operations – Bistyp Consulting.
– 4 backfill injection boreholes; In the analyze the following factors were esti-
– additionally – low diameters monitoring bore- mated:
holes. – expected incomes from selling the gas produced
During next years the following holes will be by the lignite gasification facility;
drilled: – investment outlays on planned project;
– 54 extraction boreholes per year; – depreciation of fixed assets;
– 8 dewatering boreholes; – operation cost related with proposed project;
– 10 backfill boreholes. – residual value in last year of account.
Those numbers are only estimates. The precise The analyze was made according to the same
determining of their number will be possible after rules as in the second (II) part of gasification, i.e. in
completing the geological surveys and defining the the study “Pre-feasibility study of pilot installation
gasification technology. using the underground gasification of lignite deposit
Reaching the assumed, minimum gas parameters, and project commercialization” (Nowak et al 2010).
equal the energy parameters of gas currently used to Construction of gasification facility is and in-
supply the steam boilers in Głogów heat and power vestment project, which will operate basing on cer-
plant, will not be a vital problem after condensing tain equipment and technical installations. The life
the water vapor, even in case of applying the air in- time of basic equipment and capital assets ranges
jection. In order to maintain, constant in time, flow

from 10 to 20 years. At this stage of work it is diffi- are not equal the real depreciation of goods or ser-
cult to state if with regard of the period, for which vices;
the estimate is made, other factors, for example  reserves for potential occurrences.
business or economic, may have the substantial im- The following cost items were considered:
pact. This type of project are evaluated within the – taxes;
perspective of about 15÷20 years. It reflects the ap- – environmental fees;
proximate estimate of their economic life time. At- – royalties;
tempts of forecast for longer periods of time will be – consumables;
useless. – technical utilities;
With regard of the given project the time horizon – labor costs;
of 20 years (1 year for construction and 19 years for – repairs and maintenance;
operation) was taken. – liquidation fund;
The level investment expenditure, operating costs – depreciation.
related with gas production and incomes from sell- The following was taken into consideration and
ing the gas were defined basing on technical con- evaluated:
cept of the facility operation and, assumed there, – costs of house-tax and land tax;
engineering parameters of lignite gasification sys- – fee for excluding the land from farming i.e.
tem. 10% / year of the dues – the so called single pay-
The investment expenditures are planned for: ment due to permanent excluding the land from
– completing the geological report and design; production (Dz.U.04.121.1266 from 3 February
– investment supervision; 1995 r. about cropland and forests protection with
– purchasing the parcel of land for industrial ac- changers for 2010 Dz.U.2009.115.967);
tivity (construction of lignite gasification facility – environmental duties related with exhaust gases
and its development); emission to the atmosphere (Dz.U.08.25.150 from
– preparation and organizing the site; 27 April 2001 r. Environmental Law, with rates ac-
– construction of storage tanks; cording to the appendix no. 1 to the Environment
– construction of engineering facilities within the Ministry Announcement dated 18 August 2009
station; about the amount of fees for using the environment
– installation of power, water, sewage and other in 2010 – M.P.09.57.780);
networks; – royalty depending on the volume of produced
– station for preparing backfilling material. gas (4.58 PLN / thousand m3);
The investment outlays were estimated on about – payment for current reclamation depending on
136.06 million PLN (45.35 million USD) during the the volume of void formed after the lignite gasifica-
first year. This cost with further development are tion (0.14 PLN / m3).
181.5 million PLN (60.5 million USD). The con- The fee for excluding the land from production
struction costs are gathered in the following groups: was taken on the level of 29 145 PLN / ha.
– expenditures for construction of facilities within The house tax is assumed according to the regula-
the station; tions i.e. 2% of their initial value. Rates of house tax
– expenditures for installation of equipment and of 20.51 PLN / m2, and land tax of 0.77 PLN / m2 are
lignite gasification as well as water purification taken according to the Ministry of Finance (2010).
system; The total operation costs were estimated as
– expenditures for constructing the gas reservoir, 34 764 thousand PLN / year i.e. 11 588 thousand
reducing station and gas pipeline; USD / year.
– expenditures for backfill preparation facility The incomes were established considering the vol-
with pump-pipeline system for transporting the tail- ume of gas delivered to the heat and power plant. At
ings and storage tank for the backfill. the same time the changed energy value of gas in
During the next years of station development the comparison with the network gas was taken into con-
expenses for preparing the land, drilling the bore- sideration. The price of gas calculated this way was
holes and up building the installations are planned. 0.115374 PLN / m3, i.e. 38.458 USD / 1000 Nm3.
However the main outlays will be costs of drilling Using the above data the quantity of income was
the boreholes (see chapter 4). estimated on about 44.6 million USD. Other re-
While calculating the operation costs in order to ceipts, such as sale or reuse of reclaimed land, sale
define the financial internal rate of return, the item of the own heat and electric power, were not taken
which are not related with real cash expense, except into account.
depreciation, were ignored. These are: The analyze effectiveness was made using the
 reserves for future restoration of assets because UNIDO method at the following assumptions:

– constant prices from Ist quarter of 2010 (i.e. not placing the shaft furnace by the flash furnace in the
taking into account the inflation factor); Głogów smelter and change of smelting technology.
– commodity and service prices are net prices, i.e. Since the plant does to want to base only an the hard
without VAT; coal, it must find the alternative fuel, which may be
– calculation period is 20 years, including one the gas, especially the syngas.
year for constructing the station; The components and caloricity analyze showed
– investment will be financed by the ownership that it is a gas which can fully replace, currently
capital; used blast furnace gas, and may even be much more
– exchange rate of EURO for delivery of imported efficient and cleaner. Assuming the lowest predicted
machines – 3.8 PLN; parameters of syngas, it has about 50% higher heat
– income tax – 19%; value than the gas currently supplying the boilers.
– discount rate of 11.24% is equal the capital New gas fuel may have the impact on the set up
costs taken in KGHM Polska Miedź SA. parameters in combustion chambers. It is a typical
Results of financial analyze: procedure in case of changing the feeding gas. The
 IRR is about 20.17%; adjustment will result from the multiple options of
 NPV for 20 years calculation period is about utilizing the syngas.
181 515 000 PLN.; NPV > 0; Financial analyze of the project under examina-
 simple period of return is 8.2 years. tion, showed that the investment is profitable, and
Among the income items demonstrated in the fi- the return of investment outlays should appear after
nal year of the project is the residual value of in- about 8.2 years. Net present value (NPV) is about
vestment i.e. not depreciated part of fixed assets 151.5 million PLN, and internal rate of return (IRR)
such as buildings, outside installation etc. Residual about 20.17%.
value was taken into account in financial analyze, The presented economic evaluation of the project
since it reflects the real receipt of resources. It was is of estimative nature. It results from the absence of
also comprised while calculating IRR and NPV in- geological data, detailed extraction parameters,
dexes. Estimated residual value is about 62.5 mil- problems with defining the process effectiveness at
lion PLN what accounts for about 12.5% of total in- this stage of the project. Unquestionably the results
vestment outlays. The way of determining the resid- of economic evaluation indicate that the further de-
ual value assumed in the analyze is well-founded velopment works are reasonable taking into consid-
because the lignite gasification station will operate eration the venture profitability aspect.
during the next years – the period of at least 30 That result is not a surprise. Almost all known
years is envisaged. This economic analyze of the ULG projects, where economic data are presented,
project indicated the high profitability of proposed has very good estimates and high profitability of the
mining venture. investment.
Additionally it will be to use the part of CO2
emitted by Głogów smelter and force it to the gas
7 CONCLUSIONS generator, increasing consequently the quality of
syngas. It requires, however the considerable finan-
Głogów Smelter and Refinery is located close to the cial expenditures, necessary for construction the in-
site of ULG installation. It was stated that the most stallation for CO2 capturing and delivery to the site
economy founded is delivering the gas to Głogów
Heat and Power Plant through the pipeline in the of underground lignite gasification.
volatile state. Connecting the installation with the The presented proposal of applying the under-
heat and power plant should not be a problem. Four ground lignite gasification to produce the synthe-
routes for the pipeline were proposed. The ground tized gas and its delivery to the heat and power plant
through which the pipeline is planned to pass in- in the smelter is a cost-effective project and the
cludes the farmland and waste land without any im- works on the project are continued. They will be
portant surface elevations. probably finished in 2015 where the first delivery of
Now the operation of Heat and Power Plant in gas to heat and power plant is planned.
Głogów Smelter and Refinery is based mainly on
hard coal and blast furnace gas. It still strains to im-
prove the operation and rise the effectiveness. Nu-
merous modernizations and gradual reduction of Derkacz, J. & Sztromwasser, E. 1984. Plan of geological
hard coal share in the power production process, and exploration works for lignite in Ścinawa – Bytom
confirm that trend. In future the plant will be forced Odrzański region. CAG PIG-PIB Warszawa, Poland.
to abandon one of the main fuels. The reason is re- Kozula R. & Golczak I. 1988. Geological report of “By-

tom Odrzański” copper deposit in C-1 + C-2. Category, Czech Republic: 235-242.
CAG PIG-PIB OD Wrocław, Poland. Kozłowski, Z., Nowak, J., Kudelko, J., Uberman, R.,
Kudelko, J. & Nowak, J. 2010. Conditions for safe under- Kasiński, J. & Sobociński, J. 2008. Technical-economical
ground gasification of lignite in Poland. School of Un- ranking of lignite deposits management from the perspec-
derground Mining. Dnipropetrovskk/Yalta, Ukraine tive of Polish power energy policy. Book. Technical Uni-
2010, New Techniques and Technologies in Mining, versity of Wrocław Publ., Poland.
Taylor & Francis Group: 97-101. Team work under leadership Nowak, J. 2010. Preliminary
Kudełko, J. & Nowak, J. 2009. Multiple evaluation of lig- concept of lignite deposits management considering the
nite deposits management in Lower Silesia through construction of pilot underground gasification installation –
their underground gasification. XIX Conf. Actualities Stage II. Pre-feasibility study of pilot installation using the
and perspectives of mineral resources economy, Rytro, underground gasification of lignite deposit and project
4-6 November 2009, PAN IGSMiE, Kraków, Poland. commercialization, KGHM CUPRUM Ltd. – RDC, Wro-
Kudelko, J. & Nowak, J. 2007. Geo-sozological conditions cław, Poland, not published.
for strategy and selection of Legnica region lignite de- Nowak, J., Szafran, R., Kobak, P., Strzelecki, M.,
posits management. CUPRUM no. 1/2007, Ore Mining Barańska-Buslik, A. & Zaremba L. 2011. Analyze of
Scientific and Technical Magazine, Wrocław, Poland. possibilities of using syngas from ULG installation in
Nowak, J. 2007. Legnica lignite deposit management strat- KGHM PM SA production cycle within the future en-
egy including underground coal gasification. Publ. Of ergy policy of KGHM CUPRUM Ltd – RDC, Wrocław,
National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine: Poland, not published.
225-231. Barańska-Buslik, A., Nowak, J., Nowik, T., Strzelecki, M.
Piwocki, M. 1996. Evaluation of Legnica-Ścinawa lignite & Kobak, P. 2011. Detailed location analyze and pre-
deposit management possibilities. Task 5: Reserves cal- liminary calculation of reserves data concerning the
culation according to the current operative economic solid fuels for ULG installation and proving the delivery
criteria, PIG, Poland. of synthesized gas to the production line. KGHM
Szubert, A., Nowak, J. & Grotowski, A. 2011. Possibilities CUPRUM Ltd – RDC, Wrocław, Poland, not published.
of methane recovery from non-industrial lignite seams Preidl, M. & Mikuła, S. 1976. Geological report for
using bio-gasification method. 15th Conference on Envi- “Głogów I” copper deposit C-2 cathegory. CAG PIG-
ronment and Mineral Processing 8-10.06.2011, Ostrava, PIB OD Wrocław, Poland, not published.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Study of rock displacement with the help of equivalent

materials using room-and-pillar mining method

V. Buzylo, T. Savelieva & V. Saveliev

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Field study made with the help of equivalent materials to determine minimum dimension of
interchamber and barrier pillars and limiting chamber span was carried out. Modeling was made for gypsum

1 INTRODUCTION  м  Се  С   H ,

The aim of modeling rock displacement made with where Се – geometrical model scale; С – density
the help of equivalent materials is to determine gen-
eral regularities of interchamber and barrier pillars scale;  м ,  H – mechanical characteristic of
operation as elements of underground construction. model material and nature.
Modeling results were used to design calculation Breaking compressive stress was taken as a me-
diagrams to determine loads acting on barrier pillar. chanical material characteristic.
Furthermore, modeling enabled to determine limit- Modeling was made in conditions of Olekminsk
ing chamber span and minimum width of barrier quarry. Density of gypsum 2.3·10-3 kg / m3, dolo-
pillars. mite 2.5·10-3 kg / m3, silt stone 2.55·10-3 kg / m3,
Geometrical and force similarity were taking into mudstone 2.5·10-3 kg / m3 was taken into account.
account in modeling (Kuznetsov 1959 & Nasonov Quartz sand with small amount of alabaster was
1978). used as an equivalent material. While studying set
Force similarity were determined by the follow- of tests materials which characteristic is given in
ing equation Tables 1, 2 were selected.

Table 1. Breaking compressive stress for rock and model material at geometrical scale 1:100.

Working model Component Componen t Model, 105 MPa

Nature, 105 MPa
within rocks name weight , g calculation factual
Sand 1000
Alabaster 4 0.66 0.54 110
Sand 1000
Alabaster 2.5 0.22 0.22 37
Sand 1000
Silt stone
Alabaster 6 0.78 0.75 130
Sand 1000
Alabaster 10 1.3 1.31 219

Density of model material was slightly changed at glass.

various component correlation and was 1.4-1.5·10-3 Models had 8 layers imitating corresponding rock
kg / m3. Strength of equivalent material at geometri- stratification within the nature. Layer characteristic
cal scale 1:200 was twice as little as that one given at scale 1:100 is given in the Table 3.
in the Table 1. The process of patternmaking is the following:
The following stand dimensions to patternmaking material was arranged by layers with 2-3-cm width
were accepted: length is 2 m, height is 1 m, width is and compressed by roller (10 cycles).
0.25 m. The front wall of the pattern was made of

Table 2. Breaking compressive stress for rocks and model material at geometrical scale 1:200.

Working model Component Component Model, 105 MPa

Nature, 105 MPa
within rocks name weight, g calculation factual
Gypsum Sand 1000
Alabaster 2 0.33 0.30 110
Mudstone Sand 1000
Alabaster 1.3 0.11 0.10 37
Silt Sand 1000
Alabaster 3 0.39 0.38 130
Dolomite Sand 1000
Alabaster 5 0.65 0.60 219

Table 3. Layers characteristics. Experiment showed that 8-m chamber span was
Rock name Layer height within working, cm accepted with rather high level of safety margin.
Dolomite 10 Such workout of interchamber pillar was carried
out to the left of barrier pillar. Destruction of inter-
Gypsum 8
chamber pillars has started. Pillar 4-5 was destruc-
Mudstone 3
ted first, then the rest interchamber pillars and at last
Silt 2 the barrier pillar (Figure 1c).
Dolomite 2 There was not arch formation within chamber
Gypsum 4 roof. Entire rock mass above gypsum layer has
Dolomite 4 completely collapsed.
Pumps 56 Model 1 showed that 4-m width pillars and 8-m
chamber span have rather high level of safety mar-
There are 2 panels with barrier pillars between gin but barrier pillar hasn’t performed its function.
them within the working. Chamber span in all mod- This pillar has destructed and couldn’t prevent roof
els in nature is 8 m, pillar width is 4 m. Ceiling rock displacement.
within chamber of the roof is made of gypsum with Furthermore, this modeling showed that arch
1-m thickness. The width of barrier pillars was 20 formation is not an obligatory element of roof col-
and 30 m (all dimensions here and then are given in lapse. Rock mass displacement up to the surface
terms of nature). took place due to pillar destruction without arch
formation in roof chamber and in the panel in a
whole. On the basis of study described above width
2 MODELING ROOM AND PILLAR MINING of barrier pillar in subsequent models was increased

Model imitated the area of deposit. Barrier pillar is 3 MODELING ROOM-AND-PILLAR

in the center of it. Chambers are worked-out to the MINING METHOD WITH 30-METER
left and to the right within 2 panels. This is initial WIDTH OF BARRIER PILLAR
position. Model scale is 1:100.
The width of barrier pillar is 20 m (in nature). Six General construction of the model is the same as the
pillars were initially worked-out on the both sides of previous one. Barrier pillar is in the center of the
barrier pillar. Construction was in the stable state, model, but its width was increased up to 30 m (all
there was no caving. Gradual interchamber pillar dimensions are given in terms of nature). Chambers
caving was imitated then. As a result, load acting on are worked-out both to the right and to the left of it.
barrier pillar was increased. First, the width of 2 in- 10 chambers are worked-out within the right panel
terchamber pillars was reduced up to 2 m (pillars 7-8 and 7 chambers are worked-out within the left one.
and 8-9) (Figure 1a). There were no disturbances. It is Chamber scale is 1:200.
natural, because pillar size was accepted with safety The interchamber pillars were removed in the left
margin 2-3. Then these pillars were completely re- panel and chamber span was increased up to 44 m
moved and chamber span was reduced up to 32 m. (Figure 2a). After that pillar destruction between
Such span was stable (Figure 1b). chambers 6, 5 and 4 took place. Rocks within the

panel collapsed up to the model surface (Figure 2b). There was not arch formation in this model as well
Barrier pillar remained the same and caving didn’t as in the previous one. Caving spread to the model
spread to the neighboring model. So, width of bar- surface at once.
rier pillar was adequate to the level of strength.




Figure 1 . M o d e l 1. Modeling concerning adequacy of pillars and chamber span to the level of strength: (a) interchamber
pillar was worked-out to the right of barrier one; (b) interchamber pillar was worked-out to the left of barrier one; (c)
model after roof rock collapse.

After that pillar 15-16 was removed within the first 4 MODELING LIMITING CHAMBER SPAN
panel. It was not enough to collapse the rest pillars
and shifting rock mass to the surface (Figure 2c). In the first two cases stable chamber span was 32
There was not arch formation. Barrier pillar left the and 44 m. To check this result one more time model
same. It confirmed an adequacy of its dimensions to No 3 was worked-out (Figure 3a). Span of a single
the level of strength in case of emergency. chamber was being gradually increased within this
model. Roof collapse took place at 44-m span that
confirmed results obtained in the models 1 and 2. It
should be noted that under roof collapse within such
single chamber, arch was formed but its contour is
indistinct (Figure 3b).




Figure 2. Model 2. Modeling the process of roof collapse in case of interchamber pillar destruction: (a) model before roof
collapse within the left panel; (b) roof collapse within the left panel; (c) roof collapse within the right panel after working-
out pillars 15-16.

5 DETERMINING LOADS ACTING 20-m width barrier pillar collapsed within the first
ON BARRIER PILLAR model. 30-m width pillar appeared to be stable
within the second one.
It was supposed to determine the character of en- How to make barrier pillar stable after intercham-
closing rock displacement within the panel confined ber pillar destruction? Obviously, it should take load
by barrier pillars with the help of modeling in case from entire rock mass within panel, i.e. the load
of destruction of interchamber pillars. It is required which interchambers pillars took earlier. According
to design the diagram determining loads acting on to the study described above calculation diagram to
barrier pillar. determine load R on running meter of barrier pillar
It was determined that after destruction load of is offered (Figure 4a). This diagram shows that load
three or four interchamber pillars acting on calculation acting barrier pillar is
neighboring pillars increases and they are destructed
as well. Entire rock mass displacement to the sur- P  L  B H ,
face takes place then. Moreover, rocks are cut along
the boundary of barrier pillar. Arch is not formed. where L – panel width, m; B – width of barrier
Entire rock mass is shifted to the surface at once. If pillar, m; H – depth from the surface to the roof
the width of barrier pillar is insufficient, it can be and the layer, m;  – density of roof rocks, kg / m3.

(а) (b)

Figure 3. Model 3. Modeling limiting span of a single chamber: (а) span chamber extension; (b) chambers after collapse.

Compressed stresses within barrier pillar will be 4b) in his paper (Kulikov 1978).
It is supposed that V.V. Kulikov’s hypothesis
L  B H . should not be considered as universal one and ac-
B ceptable to all mining conditions. Probably, it can
be true in definite conditions. Modeling carried out
These stresses should be less than assumed ones.
for gypsum quarries proved that the work at these
It enables to recommend small level of safety mar-
quarries differs from the diagram offered by
gin equal to 1.5-2.
V.V. Kulikov.
It is pointed out that this conclusion doesn't corre-
spond to that one offered by V.V. Kulikov (Figure





Figure 4. Calculation diagrams to determine load acting on barrier pillar: (а) according to modeling results; (b) according
to V.V. Kulikov’s data.

6 CONCLUSIONS mined by the weight of entire rock mass from layer
to surface.
Calculation diagram to determine load on running Roof of the chambers seemed to be stable while
meter of barrier pillar was obtained by modeling increasing span up to 44 m. It is unexpected conclu-
made with the help of equivalent material. This cal- sion. In future it will be required to carry out the
culation diagram of barrier pillar is true to condi- study of tension stresses within the roof of chambers
tions where modeling was carried out, that is, rock with the same span using the method of elasticity
mass above roof rock is 60-70 m, panel width is theory to explain validity of such large spans.
100-200 m with particular rock stratification.
It was determined that arch formation under inter-
chamber pillar caving at gypsum quarries doesn’t REFERENCES
take place.
Some studies showed that load acting on pillars Kuznetsov, M.N., Budko, M.N., Philipova A.A. & Shklyar-
fewer than rock mass from layer to surface. It is de- skiy, M Ph. 1959. Study of rock manifestation on the
termined by rock weight from the roof layer to pres- models. Moscow: Ugletechizdat: 223.
Nasonov, I.D. 1978. Modeling mining processes. Moscow:
sure curve. However, diagram of determining load Nedra: 256.
acting on pillar is confirmed by this study. Accord- Kulikov, V.V. 1978. Textbook on production processes
ing to this diagram load acting on pillar is deter- and production technology. Мoscow: Nedra: 25.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Ecological problems of post-industrial mining areas

A. Gorova, A. Pavlychenko & S. Kulyna

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine
O. Shkremetko
St. Petersburg Energy Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia

ABSTRACT: The ecological consequences of liquidation of unprofitable mining enterprises have been con-
sidered. The peculiarities of the management of environmental risks to humans and the environment in post-
industrial areas have been analyzed. The necessity of using methods of bioindication to control the state of
environmental objects and health of the population on post-industrial mining areas has been substantiated.

Restructuring of the coal industry of Ukraine in of resources at which the operation of mining enter-
1995-2000 is the most ambitious attempt to recover prises makes no economic sense;
and reconstruct a huge economic sector of the state – the issue of liability of economic entities for the
in a relatively short time. This was a positive aspect consequences of mine closure has not been cleared up.
of the mass liquidation of unpromising and unprof- Currently there are no clear mechanisms for
itable mines. As a result of reconstruction, the coal mines closure, which would take into account all
industry was supposed to become a more compact environmental impacts from the moment of shut-
and market-oriented branch. However, in practice down of production equipment to the development
the positive results of restructuring of the coal in- of strategies for sustainable operation of post-
dustry faded into insignificance. The drastic nega- industrial areas. Besides, in most cases the ecologi-
tive socio-economic and environmental impacts that cal problems arising at different stages of liquida-
led to the emergence of regions with persistent tion of unprofitable mines have considerable impact
symptoms of depression have come to the fore. on the future development and functions of adjacent
One of the important arguments that seemed to be territories.
the key argument for liquidation of the mines was The process of liquidation of mining enterprises is
reduction of maintenance costs and recovery of min- ecologically dangerous, that is why a continuous
ing enterprises and national economy as a whole. monitoring of the environmental state should be
But, as practice shows, such liquidation of mines provided. With the advent of new directions of in-
has neither improved the ecological situation, nor fluence on the environment, there is a need to or-
solved any other problems that emerged during their ganize:
exploitation and liquidation. All of this is related to 1) management of the hydrogeological regime of
the fact that the mine closures were not preceded by the high density mining areas;
the comprehensive scientific assessments and fore- 2) continuous treatment of highly mineralized
casts for the state of environment in these regions as mining water discharged into the hydrographic net-
well as no consequences of further influence of the work;
liquidated mines on the components of the environ- 3) neutralization of hazardous and radioactive
ment were studied. In particular, such unreasoned waste and land rehabilitation;
and unreasonable closure of mines may lead to 4) accounting of mining holes and works for their
catastrophic consequences both ecological and so- stabilization;
cial as the coal industry is a very complicated multi- 5) bringing of waste heaps to an environmentally
industrial production and economic complex, which safe condition.
is a heavy industry not only in content but also in The problem is also in the adaptation of existing
terms of a high level of environmental risk. environmental standards to the realities of coal min-
It should be noted that there are some issues re- ing areas where the situation close to ecological dis-
lated to the liquidation process that are still not re- aster has occurred. It is necessary to develop the
solved, particularly: methods of environmental risk assessment at mine
– there is no clear notion of the volume of mining closure and the system of standards that would take

into account the process of gradual improvement of are associated with the operating ones and the
ecological situation due to measures that are taken changes occurring in them affect the existing mines
(Sliadnev 2001). (Hoshovski 2000).
Till now the liquidation of the coal mines has Coal mining is accompanied by significant in-
been funded residually and with the violations of flows of water into mine workings, since the pro-
environmental laws. Neglecting of environmental duction of 1 tonn of Ukrainian coal involves about 3
safety regulations during the closure of mines leads m3 of groundwater. It should be noted that for dec-
to significant changes and violation of hydrological ades no proper attention was paid to the issues of
regime of areas, pollution of surface and groundwa- treatment of mine waters on the mining enterprises.
ter, land subsidence, etc. Also there remain unresolved issues of treatment of
The purpose of this study was to analyze the state mine waters collected in gathering ponds of closed
of the environment in the post-industrial mining re- mines as well as no standards for their carrying back
gions of Ukraine, where the mines are closed. to the hydrographic network have been developed.
The coal industry is the foundation for sustainable In 2010 about 36.5 million m3 of highly mineralized
operation of the national economy and its energy mine waters discharged to the surface from the
safety. Major coal reserves are concentrated in Do- closed mines of Donbas. As for other regions, on the
netsk Coal Basin, Lviv-Volyn Coal Basin and earth's surface of Chervonohrad mining region,
Dnieper Brown Coal Basin. which is one of the largest region in the Lviv-Volyn
Coal mining has been carried out on the territory coal basin, there are 200 million m3 of mine water
of the state for more than 200 years. Thus, in par- with a total mineralization of 6-8 g / l. Besides,
ticular, at the times of the Soviet Union Ukraine has mine waters are contaminated with mineral salts,
formed almost 22-24% of GDP of the USSR. As a suspended solids, sulphates that leads to pollution of
result, the significant area of mining operations has water tables and violation of their hydrological re-
been formed – 20 thousand km² or 3.3% of the total gime (Phillip Pack 2009).
area of the state. Currently, the mining and process- In case of “dry” conservation of mines the ad-
ing of mineral resources in Ukraine covers almost verse effect on the environment lies in a discharge
1/3 part of production assets, 20% of employment of mine waters into the surface water bodies. This
and 25% of GDP of the state. Mining industry also method of mine closure leads to exhaustion and pol-
dominates in the GDP structure of independent lution of water resources, both surface and under-
Ukraine, although for comparison in the U.S. it is ground.
2.6% of GDP, in Germany – 1.1%, in France – In general, every year about 400 million m3 of
0.8%, and in Japan – 0.6%. rock are extracted in the process of underground
Since 70 years of the twentieth century there has coal mining in Ukraine. According to the data of
been a decline in the coal industry of Ukraine. This Scientific Production Association “Mechanic”, for
has been primarily due to the overall difficult eco- over 200 years of the development of coal deposits
nomic situation in the country, instability of the in- in Ukraine 1100 heaps covering 6.300 hectares of
dustry, exhaustion of balance reserves, unprofitabil- fertile land were formed. According to the experts
ity of most mines, difficult mining and geological each million tons of Ukrainian coal requires about
conditions and the lack of a new mine construction. four hectares of land for storage of rock. Lack of
This has led to mass closure of mines. The long- vegetation on the waste heaps causes their erosion
term use of mineral resources in the mining regions both by water and air, which further leads to a nega-
resulted in significant changes in the environment tive impact on the environment.
and occurrence of emergency situations. The issue of further handling of waste heaps after
Closure of coal mines leads to negative environ- closure of mines remains unresolved. 121 coal
mental consequences, such as hydrogeological, hy- mines are now in the process of closure, and there
drochemical, gas chemical, engineering and geo- are 341 dumps on their territories, and about 105 of
logical. them are the burning heaps (see Table 1).
Considerable part of the liquidated mines has During open burning of waste heaps the carbon
been closed by “wet” conservation method, which oxides and dioxides, nitrogen and sulfur oxides and
has resulted in significant environmental and geo- polyaromatic hydrocarbons are released to the at-
logical problems, since the flooding of mines in- mosphere. One actively burning heap is a source for
creases a man-caused impact on the lithosphere and release of about 25 to 250 t / year of pollutants to
hydrosphere. Large areas of coal-measure rocks in- the atmospheric air, the concentration of which 10
tercepted by mine workings led to deformation of times exceeds the maximum permissible limits
the earth's surface and destruction of residential and (MPL). During 24 hours 10 t of carbon monoxide,
industrial objects. Besides, most of liquidated mines 1.5 t of sulphuric anhydride and considerable quan-

tity of other gases and heave metals are released to The deformation processes occurring on the waste
the atmospheric air from one heap. heaps of mines are characterized by formation of
gullies, the width and depth of which are ranging
Table 1. Distribution of burning heaps, by coal mining re- from 2-4 m and from 1-3.5 m, respectively, and in
gions (Phillip Pack 2009). which the rock is moving for a distance reaching
Waste heaps sometimes 6 m. In particular, on the territory of the
Coal mining Burning Chervonohrad mining region there is one of the
of closed Total
region heaps of total largest heaps in Europe, where the rock refuse of the
mines number
number Chervonohrad Central Concentrating Mill (hereinaf-
Donec’k 52 177 69 ter – ChCCM) are stored. The area of this heap is 89
Luhans’k 36 244 34 hectares, and its height is 68 m.
Lviv-Volyn’ 8 7 2 The researches carried out by the Institute of Ge-
ology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals
Among other ecological problems caused by the of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in
waste heaps, the following should be mentioned: Lviv shows that the rock of the waste heaps contains
– runoffs from the waste heaps containing salts of a high content of chromium, manganese, molybde-
acids and heavy metals; num, scandium, exceeding background values for
– withdrawal of large areas of fertile land; soils by 2-7 times. Taking in consideration the
– pollution of atmospheric air, surface and under- above, a special attention should be paid to the
ground waters. chemical composition of the waste heap of the
Every year more than 400 t of solid parts are ChCCM, as it occupies the largest area among all
washed and eroded and about 6 t of salts are leached the heaps – 89 ha, and its height is 68 m. Table 2
from every waste heap. This is due to the oxidation and 3 show the content of micro- and ultramicro-
of pyrites contained in the heaps, which further elements in the rock of the the ChCCM waste heap
leads to transformation of some metals, particularly (Informational... 2011).
Fe , Al , Mn , Zn , into mobile forms.

Table 2. Content of microelements in the rock of the ChCCM waste heap, g / t (Informational...2011).
Content of elements Cu Zn Mn Pb Mo Ni Ba Cr Ti
Minimum 12.59 0 86.78 7.638 0 16.53 106.8 31.188 2717
Average 89.04 35.7 2353.6 35.66 1.64 37.56 369.3 235.36 1234.2
Maximum 244.16 62.1 4484.4 273.24 3.97 79.48 583.5 2159.0 4595.2

Table 3. Content of rare earth elements in the rock of the ChCCM waste heap, g / t (Informational...2011).
Content of elements Be Bi Yb Y Sc Ga V Sn
Minimum 0.543 0 2.278 2.278 3,728 7.797 76.38 0
Average 2.645 9.435 4.65 44.11 15.02 25.43 151,88 4.48
Maximum 4.566 24.3 10.87 108.7 53.98 48.88 387.95 36.93

As Tables 2 and 3 show, the content of heavy met- corded in the area of over 2.4 km2. The depth of
als far exceeds MPL, for example, by 45,5 times for subsidence averages 0.2-1.2 m and in some places
plumbum (MPL – 6 mg / kg), by 81.3 times for cop- reaches 5.0 m. All of this results in instability of a
per (MPL – 3 mg / kg), by 19.8 times for nickel soil body followed by the fracturing, waterlogging
(MPL – 4 mg / kg), and by 31 times for zinc (MPL – and flooding processes. As a result of land subsi-
2 mg / kg). dence a destruction of buildings and structures, fail-
The problems of biological recultivation of the ure of utilities, waterlogging of agricultural land,
waste heaps are not solved at closing of mines. Most underflooding of settlements, etc. take place.
of them are slowly overgrowing, though 30 to 50 The largest negative impact of the land subsidence
years are required for re-vegetation. is observed within the industrial-urban agglomera-
The land subsidence is another problem not taken tions, because the mine workings often pass under the
into consideration at closing of mines. The area of built-up areas. The undermining areas cover such cit-
subsidence in coal mining regions is 8,000 km2, ies as Donets’k, Makiivka, Horlivka, Yenakieve,
where the subsidence and destruction of surface Bilozers’k, etc. In Donets’k, Makiivka, Horlivka, Ye-
above the underground workings have been re- nakieve, Torez, Marianivka as a result of mines re-

structuring by partial or complete inundation, the methane emissions in mining regions make up about
flooding process is developed in conjunction with the 5.6 billion m3. Thus, 172.5 million m3 of methane in
land subsidence under the mining workings. The rea- Dnipropetrovs’k basin, 3.7 billion m3 in Donetsk ba-
son for the large scale of the development of negative sin, 1.8 billion m3 in Luhans’k basin and about
ecological and geological processes, including flood- 60 million m3 in Lviv-Volyn basin get into the at-
ing, is that the mines of Donbas have common aero- mosphere, and only 8% of its total volume is used as
dynamic and hydraulic networks, and, in fact, it is fuel, the rest is discharged to the atmosphere. Be-
one mining-geological system. For example, in the sides, the danger of methane discharge at the closing
Dnipropetrovs’k region 0.74 km² of mining works of mines is that even after the liquidation of coal
area are flooded; in the Donetsk region flooding is mines, it continues to escape from coal veins to the
fixed at the area of 1.66 thousand km². 30 cities with surface. It is migrated though the pores, cracks and
total area of 230.0 km² are underflooded. Among the faults in rocks. Duration and intensity of gas emis-
most flooded cities are Slaviansk (72% of the total sion from abandoned places of liquidated mines de-
area), Bilozers’k (72.2%), Telmanove (100%), Ve- pends on many geological factors. For example, af-
lyka Novoselivka (35%), Sivers’k (29.4%). The total ter the closure of the “Central-Pervomais’k” mine in
area of 347 flooded villages is 68.46 km² (Koskov Pervomais’k (Luhans’k region) methane has been
1999). The permanent increase of flooded areas is getting to the surface for more than 20 years. During
mainly caused by man-made factors. In Cher- this period, the explosions and ignition of methane
vonohrad mining region the total area that in some or in residential and industrial premises have been ob-
other way has experienced the negative consequences served within this mining region. The emission of
of subsidence and local landscape changes is almost gas from the holes drilled for the protection of sur-
62 km² and covers Chervonohrad and Sokal Cities face structures was about 60 million m3, and its
and Bendiuha, Volsvyn, Hirnyk, Hlukhiv, Dobri- concentration was 24-25%. Besides, the emission of
achyn, Mezhyrichia, Silets, and Sosnivka villages. radon and taron is observed at some mines (Kasy-
The depth of subsidence and local landscape changes mov 2001). Therefore, an important component of
is 3.5-4.0 m. The largest changes are observed on the mine closure should be control over mine gases get-
areas of closed mines – “Bendiuzka”, No. 5 “Ve- ting to the earth surface in hazardous concentrations
lykomostivs’ka”, No. 1 “Chervonohrads’ka” and of CH 4  1 % and low oxygen content in the base-
“Visean”. The land subsidence also leads to the for- ments of houses, water wells and other underground
mation of man-made lakes, such as the lake of over structures.
2.5 m depth located in the region of Silets and Sos- All the processes specified above have negative
nivka Villages. In general the flooding has mostly oc- impact on the state of the environmental objects and
curred in the central part of Chervonohrad mining re- human health. The termination of economic activity
gion where more industrial objects and linear utilities of mining enterprises does not guarantee the elimi-
are located. nation of their impact to the environmental compo-
Besides, as a result of destruction of sewage and nents. That is why the closure of mines should be
mine water drainage systems and washing by the carried out in a way allowing for elimination of
groundwater of toxic components from the rocks of negative impact on the environmental objects and
waste heaps, which are widely used in the region for health of population living in these areas.
filling up of impounded territories, the groundwater For over ten years in Ukraine the identification of
became contaminated and unsuitable for household high-risk facilities, including coal mining enter-
water use. prises, has been provided. However, till now there
Also in 2010 the karst activation in the mining re- are no methodological principles for analysis and
gions of Ukraine is in progress, which is due to the evaluation of ecological risks to the environment
effect of mine drainage on the coal mining areas and public health during the liquidation of mines
(Informational ... 2011). (Gorova 2011).
Another important factor requiring attention at Ecological risk is defined as the probability of de-
closing of mines is methane emission to the atmos- liberate or accidental, gradual or catastrophic an-
pheric air as the methane is a powerful greenhouse thropogenic changes of the existing environmental
gas which causes climate changes. Methane emis- objects, factors and ecological resources. Thus, en-
sion in Ukraine makes 16% of all anthropogenic vironmental risk can be represented by two compo-
greenhouse gases emissions. The main amount of nents: risk to the environmental objects and the risk
methane is released to the atmosphere during the to humans. Each of the components is quite impor-
coal mining process. Currently Ukraine takes fourth tant for assessing the state of the environment, be-
place in the world by volume of methane emitted to cause the scale of risk occurrence and the level of its
the atmosphere from the coal deposits. In general

danger depend largely on the perception of the risk their modifications and interaction.
by the subject of assessment (micro-organisms, flora The risk management should be based on eco-
and fauna, population). nomic and technical feasibility analysis as well as on
For assessment of ecological state of post- legal and normative acts. It should also be noted that
industrial areas it is reasonable to use the bioindica- the important factor of risk management is provision
tion methods that allow conducting of complex as- of information on ecological situation of post-
sessment for all factors by taking into consideration industrial areas to the public through mass media.



 pollution of surface water basins; Risk assessment

Ecological risks of deterioration of the state of environmental objects and health of population on post-industrial areas
 pollution of underground water basins;
 soil contamintaion; For the population living in this areas
 pollution of rock masses with mine waters

For the environmental objects

Bioindication assessment of toxic level and
mutagenicity of the environmental objects on the
«Wet conservation»: post-industrial areas
 flooding and waterlogging of earth surface;
 destruction of hydrological regime of surface Risks measurement
and underground water tables;
 increase of inflow s in operating mines
Development of common methodological
approach to ecological risks measurement

«Dry conservation»:
Determination of maximum permissible levels of
 suppression of the development of water ecosystems;
ecological risk for the environmental objects
 exhaustion of underground horizons;
 violation of hydrological regime of surface and
underground water bodies; Determination of maximum permissible levels of
ecological risk for population
Risk management

 methane emission to the surface;

Choice of the w ays of risks minimization
 emission of toxic gases (radon, taron);
 pollution of atmosphere with the products of coal
combustion of the heaps; Characteristics of a risk and choice of risk
 accumulation of gases in the underground parts of reduction strategies
buildings and structures

Engineering-geological Developm ent of management decisions and strategy

for bringing of post-industrial areas to an
environmentally safe condition
 land subsidence;
 deformation of utility lines;
 deformation and destruction of buildings and
structures; Assessment of the efficiency of implementation of the
 reduction of mechanical strength of rocks in the environment-oriented me asures for rehabilitation of
flooding areas; post-industrial areas

Figure 1. Management of the ecological risks of post-industrial mining areas.

Figure 1 shows the structural flowchart of man- levels in several coal-mining regions of Ukraine.
agement of ecological risks emerging on the post- The bioindication researches are conducted at the
industrial areas at liquidation of mining enterprises. cellular, organ, organism and population level of or-
According to the proposed methodology we carry ganization of living matter (Guidelines ... 2007).
out long-term investigations of environmental risk The conducted studies have revealed significant dif-

ferences between the levels of damage of bioindica- In summary, the solving of ecological problems
tors located in the area of influence of the objects of of post-industrial territories will facilitate stable op-
liquidated mines and control territories. Bioindica- eration and development of mining regions of
tors that have been grown in post-industrial areas Ukraine.
have shown the high levels of damage that were 2-
15 higher than in clean areas. The use of biotesting
methods allows for the defining of directions of fur- REFERENCES
ther use of post-industrial areas and quick and accu-
rate assessment of efficiency of implementation of Sliadnev, V.А. 2001. Factors of Impact of Mass Closure of
environmental protection measures. the Mines on Ecological and Geological State of Don-
bas. The Coal of Ukraine, 7: 18-20.
The conducted analysis of the impact of closure
Hoshovski, S.V. 2000. Hydrogeological and Geochemical
of mining enterprises on the environmental objects Problems at Liquidation of the Coal Mines. The Coal of
allows for the following conclusions: Ukraine, 7: 37-38.
– mass closing of mines during the previous Phillip, Pack. 2009. Risk Assessment in Donieck Basin:
15 years was conducted without consideration of Closure of Mines and Waste Heaps. Prepared for
further consequences for the environmental objects UNEP, GRID Arendal: 21-22.
and population health; Informational Yearbook regarding Activization of Hazard-
– the closing of mines involves different ecologi- ous Exogenous Geological Processes in Ukraine, ac-
cording to the monitoring of EGP. 2011. Kyiv: Public
cal risks for the environmental objects and popula-
Service of Geology and Mineral Resources of Ukraine,
tion living in post-industrial areas; State Research and Production Enterprise “State Infor-
– the closure of mines should be planned and mation Geological Fund of Ukraine” (ill.): 88.
economically and ecologically justified; Koskov, I.G., Dokukin, O.S. & Kononenko, N.A. 1999.
– the development of feasibility projects for mines Conceptual Foundations of Ecological Security in the Re-
closure should be accompanied with the development gions of Mines Closure. The Coal of Ukraine, 2: 15-18.
of projects for liquidation of environmentally hazard- Kasymov, O.N., Kasianov, V.V. & Radchenko, V.V. 2001.
ous facilities – dumps, septic tanks etc. The Experience and Perspectives of Use of Methane Re-
leased from Abandoned Mines. The Coal of Ukraine, 4:
The permanent ecological monitoring centres
with obligatory application of bioindication research Gorova, А.І., Kulyna, S.L. & Shkremetko, O.L. 2011. The
methods should be created in post-industrial areas. Analysis of Ecological Situation in the Mining Regions
For timely detection and prevention of negative ef- of Ukraine. Ecological Bulletin, 3: 10-12.
fects on the environmental objects and human health Gorova, А.І., Ryzhenko, S.A. & Skvortsova, T.V. 2007.
the comprehensive studies of ecological risk levels Guidelines 2.2.12-141-2007. Survey and Zoning by the
should be conducted on the territories of liquidated Degree of Influence of Anthropogenic Factors on the
mining enterprises. Continuous environmental State of Environmental Objects with the Application of
Integrated Cytogenetic Assessment Methods. Kyiv:
monitoring of post-industrial areas will allow citi-
Polimed: 35.
zens to effectively exercise their rights to environ- Guidelines for the Assessment of the Environment Quality
mental security, require improvement of environ- by the State of Living Beings (Estimation of Stability of
mental quality, and force the management of mining Living Organisms in terms of the Asymmetry of Mor-
enterprises to take active actions for prevention of phological Structures). 2003. Moscow: Approved by the
environmental threats and neutralisation of various Resolution of RosEcology, 460: 25.
ecological risks.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

The mechanism of over-coal thin-layered massif

deformation of weak rocks in a longwall

V. Bondarenko & G. Symanovych

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine
O. Koval
LLC «DTEK Sverdlovanthracite», Sverdlovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The formation process of zone of articulated-block movement of weak rock layered massif of
over-coal strata during the inclined coal longwall mining is considered.

The features of formation mechanism of zone I

made of over-coal strata, broken by vertical frac-
tures in the area of tensile stresses, which forms so
called the area of articulated-block rock displace-
ments, are analyzed. (Zborshik & Nazimko 1991;
Savost’yanov & Klochkov 1992; Akimov 1907;
Zborshik & Nazimko 1986). On a Figure 1, the
qualitative picture of rock block force interaction of
the first layer of the zone I, the thickness of which is
m1I with rocks of zone II of disorderly caving, from
one side, and rock block of the second layer with
thickness m2I , from another, is shown. On the basis Figure 1. The mechanism of deformation of articulated-
of classical concepts, deformation behavior of rock block expansion system of zone I rocks.
layer does not allow it to keep integrity while the
continuous movement goes down till the beginning The mechanism of quasi-plastic joint formation
of contact with soft and expanded caved rocks of and operation, on our opinion, is presented by fol-
zone II. Therefore, in a rock layer, on sections of lowing (Figure 2). During the bending of rock layer
maximum bending moments ( C1  C1' ) and of the zone I with thickness m1I its neutral axe X N
moves towards to the activity of compression
( D1  D1' ) normal-to-bedding fractures of disruption
stresses  xI by the reason of objectively excess of
made by the activity of stretch horizontal stresses as
a result of low rock mass resistance to such type of rock deformation modulus on compression and
loading occur. In the rest (according to thickness of modulus of deformation on tension. On a site 0  Y2
rock layer m1I ) of section part compression stresses stresses  xI are absent as a result of fracture forma-
 xI continue to be, because of which the rock block tion; on a site 0  Y1 compression stresses  xI , dis-
keeps some resistance to over-coal strata movement. tributed according to the law, closing to linear (Py-
During the disturbance of rock volume near consid- sarenko 1979) along coordinate Y , with maximum
ered section due to tight condition of deformation
 xI1 on the surface of rock stratum Y1 (curve 1),
the section keeps residual resistance to ground pres-
sure, and formed quasi-plastic joint allows rock operate. On the contact of rock layer in vertical di-
block to displace along axe Y on required quantity. rection stresses  yI1 operate from the side of caved
Thus, expansion-articulated system possessing cer-
rocks of the zone II. Using well-known for rocks,
tain bearing capacity, the quantity of which ex- the Coulomb-Moor theory of strength (Ruppeneit
tremely depends on a local field of stresses around
quasi-plastic joint, is formed from rock blocks. 1954), maximum quantity of stresses  xI1 will be

1  sin  I YP , characterizing the moment of joint resistance, is
 xI   com

 yI , (1) determined by the rotation of rock block relatively to
1 1  sin  1
point 0 till the moment of its contact with rocks of the
I zone II, disorderly caving.
where  com – limitation of rock compressive The second parameter characterizing the moment
strength of the first rock layer of the zone I;  I – M of quasi-plastic joint resistance is the maximum
internal friction angle of rocks. of horizontal stresses (  xI1 ), the quantity of which
in the first approaching can be determined by the
method (Ruppeneit 1954), subject to the compatibil-
ity principle of prism’s chip movements Pi and
contacting with it rocks of the zone II.
The second feature of the zone I of articulated-
block rock movement is a local contact of rock lay-
ers with each other and the formation of cavities be-
tween adjacent layers in the central part of space be-
tween blocks occurs (Figure 1). Taking into account
not only vertical, but also horizontal rock shifts of
over-coal mass analyzing feature sufficiently influ-
ences on the parameters of force interaction of rock
blocks composing the zone I.
In term of the local contact we mean the first rock
block interaction with caved rocks of the zone II and
the interaction of the rest (at thickness of the zone I)
of rock blocks between each other in the place of
quasi-plastic joints basically, which are the bounda-
Figure 2. Mechanism of quasi-plastic joint formation on ries of these blocks.
boundaries of the rock block of the zone I. Generally acknowledged fact is the formation and
the opening of normal to stratification fractures, in
During further deformation of rock layer under the the area of tensile stresses activity, occur angularly
influence of ground pressure its disturbance occurs in of complete displacements  , the quantity of which
the area of coordinate Y1 . In the first approaching the in Donbass region for flat-lying seams is estimated
process of destruction can be presented as the forma- 70-75º ( C1  C2  C3 and D1  D2  D3 are shown
tion of prism’s chip P1 (Ruppeneit 1954), which un- by dotted line on Figure 1). Deviation of the normal
to stratification  is obviously linked with the pa-
der the influence of stresses  xI1 is going to move to
rameters of jamming rock layers on the boundaries
the side of caved rocks. This displacement is opposed of the worked-out area.
by rocks of the zone II and stresses on the contact Rock layers in the zone I form articulated-block
with prism’s chip  yI1 are increased (curve 2) that expansion system consequently from a rock layer
near the zone II to long-distance on the boundary of a
causes the increase of rock resistance to stresses  xI1 , zone of slow rock lowering. Also in each following
according to condition (1). At the same time rock rock layer the cross-section with a fracture, which is
block is turned relatively to point 0 on the angle, ex- appropriate to the maximum of bending moment,
ceeding its possibilities at elastic-plastic deforma- moves to the worked-out area. It depends, on our
tions. In this case the process of chipping rock prisms opinion, on soft jamming rock layer, caused by inten-
will develop until the moment, when another end in sive displacement and partial softening of rocks in the
the worked-out area (Figure 1) of rock block will set- zone of ground pressure activity on the boundary of
tle on caved rocks of the zone II. Due to displacement the worked-out area.
To examine the process in detail, the formation of
of rock prisms stresses  yI1 are raised and stresses
non-rigid jamming for the first articulated-block
 xI1 are increased accordingly, and the form of curve rock layer with thickness m1I has been analyzed
 xI approximates to rectangular (curve 3), that is (Figure 1). Rock layer, which is deformed by
given in the name of “quasi-plastic joint”. Coordinate ground pressure interaction starting from point B1 ,

undergoes the reaction  y1 from a caved rock side of quasi-plastic joints, situated along the height of the
zone I with an angle of complete displacements  .
of the zone II. This part of the curve of the reaction
 y1 deviates to worked-out area due to increased In the first approaching the boundaries of cavities be-
tween layers (Figure 1, lines A1  A2  A3 and
deformability of caved rocks of the zone II. Sum-
mary activity of stresses  y1 creates the bending B1  B2  B3 ) which are also situated angularly  ,
as the mechanism of its formation is similar to the
moment pointed at the increase of rock layer stabil-
mechanism of the local contact formation in the place
ity and moves the maximum of the bending moment
of quasi-plastic joints.
to the side of worked-out area.
The third feature of articulated-block rock move-
The second rock layer with thickness m2I , which ments of the zone I is the development of horizontal
is deformed together with the first layer, undergoes rock layer movements relative to each other. In
similar (to a certain extent) geomechanical proc- works (Zborshik & Nazimko 1991; Zborshik &
esses. To the right of point D2 (Figure 1) due to Nazimko 1986) during modeling of equivalent ele-
ments and finite element method the laws of hori-
combined vertical movement of the first and the
zontal rock layer displacements of over-coal massif
second layers along the contact between them nor-
have been determined: rocks of the immediate and
mal stresses  y 2 operate. To the left of point D2
the main roof displace towards to coal seam. There-
due to the console turn of the first layer the contact fore, the quantity of displacements is decreased dur-
of two layers has to disappear and the quasi-plastic ing the movement in direction to day surface and at
joint will be formed in the second layer along a line height (6 – 15) m у of coal seam thickness the direc-
D2I  D2 . However, mine investigations (Akimov tion of horizontal rock layer displacements is
1970; Zarya & Muzapharov 1966) and simulation of changed opposite, i.e. it goes towards to the worked-
equivalent materials (Zborshik & Nazimko 1991; out area. The mechanism of influence of horizontal
Savost’yanov & Klochkov 1992) show that the rock layer movements on its stability has been con-
sidered by using the scheme of Figure 1. It is set
quasi-plastic joint occurs along a line D3I  D3
that the horizontal movements of the first layer
shifted to the side of worked-out area relatively to
(thickness m1I ) of the zone I, moving towards to
the line D2I  D2 in the second rock layer. We be-
coal seam, are bigger than the second one and have
lieve it is conditional by the following reasons. (0.05 – 0.30) m у (Zborshik & Nazimko 1991;
From one side, the rotation of rock block of the first
layer is realized not around the point D2 , but Savost’yanov & Klochkov 1992; Zborshik &
Nazimko 1986). While such quantity of neighboring
around the point 0 on the neutral axe of the layer rock layer displacements relative to each other occur
(Figure 1 and 2). From another side, during the for- its connection is broken and layers interact between
mation of articulated-block joint expansion system each other at stratification plane only by means of
in the first rock layer its partial unloading happens
friction forces  yi x  originating due to the activity
due to ground pressure. It also provides moving
rock block surface of the first layer towards to the of normal stresses  yi x  at plane i . As the first
second deforming rock layer.
rock layer of the zone I displaces to coal seam side,
Mentioned factors provide for the contact of lay-
it exposes by reactive tangential stresses  yi x 
ers on the line B2  D2 and the normal stress activ-
ity  y2 which converts the diagram of bending from the side of caved rocks of the zone II, towards
to the worked-out area. Summary action of tangen-
moments in the second layer as the maximum of
bending moment moves to the worked-out area, tial stresses  yi x  on a site B1  D'2 creates the
where the formation of the quasi-plastic joint of the moment relative to the point 0 of the rock block
second rock layer of the zone II occurs. turn, directed at holding of further displacements to
Physically analogous geomechanical processes oc- caved rocks of the zone II. Thereby, due to tangen-
cur on other ends of rock blocks of the zone I layers tial stresses  y1 so called “recovery” moment is
located in the worked-out area (Figure 1, lines
formed raising the stability of articulated-block ex-
C1  C2  C3 , C1  C1' and C2  C'2 ). In results, in pansion system of the first rock layer and increasing
the zone I the articulated-block expansion system is the resistance to the process of over-coal mass
formed. It has certain bearing capacity and is charac- movement.
terized by local contact of adjacent layers in the place On a contact of the first and the second rock lay-

ers of the zone I tangential stresses of friction  y2 First – due to the quasi-plastic joint formation
rock layers in a view of articulated-block expansion
also operate. Its direction of influence on the first
system keep the part of bearing capacity and resist
rock layer is determined by primary quantity of
to ground pressure.
horizontal displacement of the first layer with
Second – processes of forming quasi-plastic
respect to the movement of the second one and it is
joints, local contacts and cavities between rock lay-
shown on a Figure 1. Tangential stresses  y2 oper-
ers have to be considered interconnectedly, with the
ate towards to the worked-out area and its sum influence of abundant pressure and unloading zones
along the contact B1  D2 creates the moment rela- that requires entering additional conditions and cri-
tive to the point 0 (decreasing the stability of the teria during the research of strain-stress state of con-
first layer rock block), which can be conditionally sidered system at all.
called “tipping”. Relation of “tipping” and “recov- Third – the limitation of height of the zone I is
ery” moments depends on coordinates of the point 0 conditioned by forming an arch having different
and total quantities of tangential stresses operating forms, geometrical parameters of which are gotten
from results of system’s strain-stress state research.
along lines B1  D'2 and B1  D2 (Figure 1). All features of deforming the zone I influence on the
For the second rock layer (thickness m2I ), and as process of forming the arch: the moment of quasi-
plastic joint, the force of support due to rotation and
for following layers of the zone I, the moment of
unloading lower rock block, the moment of tangen-
acting tangential stresses  y2 and  y3 is only “tip- tial stress friction activity in zones of local contacts
ping” in place of quasi-plastic joint from coal seam at stratification of rock layers.
side (Figure 1). It is conditional by decreasing and
changing the direction of horizontal movements of
rock layers at height of the zone I. REFERENCES
On the boundaries of rock blocks of the zone I, lo-
cated on a worked-out area side, tangential stresses Zborshik, M.P. & Nazimko, V.V. 1991. Mine working
along stratification also create “tipping” and “recov- protection of deep mine in zones of unloading. Kyiv:
Tekhnika: 248.
ery” moments relative to the point 01 in the first rock
Savost’yanov, A.V. & Klochkov, V.G. 1992. Rock mass
layer. In the second and following rock layers the control. Kyiv: UMK VO: 276.
moment is only “recovery” (Figure 1). Akimov, A.G., Zemisov, V.N., Kantsel’son, N.N. & oth-
On our mind, above mentioned feature of tangen- ers. 1970. Rock movement during underground coal and
tial stress activity is the factor increasing the length of shale mining deposits. Moscow: 224.
Zborshik, M.P. & Nazimko, V.V. 1986. Mechanism of
contacts (e.g. C2  A2 and B2  D2 ) of rock blocks rock movement and stress redistribution around mine
of neighboring layers: the length of C2  A2 is in- workings maintained in caved and compacted mass.
Scientific-technical collection “Mining mineral depos-
creased due to rock block deformation of the second
its”: Vol.73: 48-52.
layer by “tipping” moment; the length of B2  D2 is Pysarenko, G.S. 1979. Material resistance. Kyiv: Vysha
increased due to bending rock block by “recovery” shkola: 696.
moment. In result, quasi-plastic joints (at height of the Ruppeneit, K.V. 1954. Some questions about rock me-
zone I) take place angularly  to stratification and an chanics. Moscow: Ugletechizdat: 364.
Zarya, N.M. & Muzapharov, F.I. 1966. Scheme of mecha-
arch of the zone I at some distance from a coal seam nism of rock mass movement during flat coal layer ex-
closes forming an unloading zone. traction by one longwall. Coal of Ukraine: Vol.12: 9-12.
Summing up the features of mechanism of rocks Zborshik, M.P. & Nazimko, V.V. 1986. Laws of horizontal
deformation of the zone I three main conclusions displacements of rock mass during flat layer extraction:
can be made, which were taken into account during Vol.5: 18-22.
the research of over-coal mass strain-stress state.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Methodological principles of negative opencast

mining influence increasing due to steady development

I. Gumenik, A. Lozhnikov & A. Maevskiy

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The article deals with the liquidation of negative opencast mining works influence taking into
account steady development of mining region. The data is given about annual areas that involved in open-
casts operation and spoil dumping. It is shown that basis of strategy is the establishment of top and durative
aims. The principles of information support creation are shown. Attention is given about evaluation of the
changes in status of ecosystem is recommended to provide in definite sequence.

The process of getting by the way of opencast casts’ water is exhausted on day surface. Nearly half
mining is one of the main courses for violation and of this water is brackish water, moreover, 10% of
pollution of the earth surface, open and ground wa- sewage are considered to be of acid type (hydrogen
ter and atmosphere. As a result, there in spoil dumps ion concentration pH is below 6.5). Depending on
of mining factories in Ukraine it is accumulated mining and geological conditions, such water in-
more then 8 milliard ton of waste. About 360 thou- cludes chlorides, sulfates, calcium and magnesium
sand hectares of land are disturber by mining opera- salines, ferrum and microelements. In common,
tions. Yearly from 8 to 10 thousand hectares of land every year about 80 thousand ton of suspended ma-
are taken for opencasts and spoil dumps. The di- terials and salines are discharged by opencasts in
mensions of territories, which suffer the negative in- natural reservoirs, what yields to breakdown of res-
fluence of opencast mining, exceed the very open- ervoirs’ sanitary-hygiene state. Besides, during the
casts and spoil dumps’ dimensions in 10-15 times. It opencasts’ mining promotion, are significantly
yields to inefficient ecologic system’s formation in damaged separate components of hydrosphere.
these mining regions. It is enough to note that when the is height 150-
Specially ought to be noted the negative influence 200 meters, opencast’s cones of influence spread
of mining operations on the environment during the over a distance more than 15 kilometers, thus at
sheet ground development in Ukraine. It was al- achieving of planned depth 450-500 meters of open-
ready mentioned that during the getting of 1 ton of casts in Krivbass, the radius of cones of influence
mineral deposits, it is necessary to produce from 3 will work out 40-50 kilometers (or even more) when
to 18 cubic meters of overburdens in these occur- its square will work out 2000 square kilometers,
rences. It yields not just to large amount of waste what will yield to regional violation of open and
formation but also to intensive violation of lands. ground water’s regulations. Consequently, the regu-
For example, during the getting of 1 million ton of lations of minor rivers, lakes and other small reser-
manganese ore it is disturbed from 16 to 30 hectares voirs are disturbed; water-reducing and water-
of land, for brown coal – from 6 to 12 hectares, for removing works cause the land’s deformation; for-
sulphur ore – from 24 to 35 hectares. mation of cauldrons and flashes on the land surface;
In respect that most of occurrences are placed in dissolution of solid of good solubility. Because of
high-leveled agriculture zones, it is important to underside or outside saline-water encroachment,
note that the spread of damage for agricultural com- changes in ground waters’ nutritional conditions can
plex achieves the significant ranges, which exceed yield to durable changes of their quality.
the costs for lands’ amortization and recultivation The third component of natural environment,
processes in several times. Over a relatively short which suffers the significant influence of opencast
period (last 25 years), the agricultural holdings’ per mining, is atmosphere. It is known that atmospheric
person square in Ukraine decreased from 1.08 to air is one of the essential elements for natural envi-
0.78 hectares. ronment. For that reason, such quick paces of indus-
Yearly during the opencasts’ exploitation in trial production development and increasing scales
Ukraine about 17 milliard cubic meters of open- of human’s influence on the natural environment

demand the close attention to the protection of at- the definition of its usage order.
mospheric air. Yearly the atmospheric air gets doz- All that demands the changes in mining complex
ens and hundreds million ton of hydrocarbons, ni- of Ukraine.
trogen oxides, sulphur dioxides, industrial dust etc. First of all:
The analyses of toxic material’s content in the at- 1) creation of high-efficiency competitive enter-
mosphere near by mining plants’ location area prises, which will provide the supply of demand for
showed that the most polluted air is near by coke- first-grade products;
chemical and primary metals establishments, which 2) production infrastructure’s renewal;
throw airwards not just industrial dust, but also 3) determination of investment priorities to in-
SO2 and CO , such toxins as phenol, ammonia, volve native and foreign investors;
hydrogen sulphide, phenyl hydride etc. Atmosphere 4) development and introduction of ecologically-
pollution form the negative influence not just on oriented resource-recovery technologies in opencast
flora and fauna, but also promotes the premature mining;
breakdown of mining transferring equipments. The 5) solution of problems concerning closure of un-
rate of pensioned off underreinforced equipment in economical and conservancy of unpromising mining
these regions makes 40%, which includes 7% be- institutions.
cause of corrosion. The cut of periods between re- The integrated use of occurrences and mineral
pairs and costs’ increase fix the influence of atmos- raw materials, and cut of opencasts’ mining influ-
phere pollution on the equipments’ wearing. ence on the natural environment by the way of de-
That is why, the constant development of mining velopment and elaboration of ecologically-oriented
complex’s territory is possible just on the grounds resource-recovery technologies of occurrences’ ex-
of well-balanced development of human and envi- ploitation is the core direction of mining complex’s
ronment. At that, all the principles and methods of development in Ukraine. To solve such problems it
management strategy’s development in economical is necessary to identify the degree of negative influ-
and social spheres, also in region’s environment ence on the environmental components of separate
system, were subjected by new requests. The basis parts of technical and industrial opencast’s objects.
of strategy is the establishment of top and durative The role of information support increases in such
aims, the accounting of the environment’s state and conditions.

Geotechnical system “OPENCAST”

receptor area consequences of influence


amortization of land for

industrial solids
violation and pollution of
neighboring territories

surface and pollution of open and

ground water ground water

atmospheric air atmospheric air pollution

mineral raw
waste of mineral deposits
waste of initial landscapes’

Figure 1. Objects of natural environment, which suffer the influence of geotechnical system “Opencast”.

It is necessary to follow such main principles dur- the more complex and high-leveled system;
ing the elaboration of information support for stout d) compatibility with other traditional methods of
ecosystem’s creation: information systems’ designing.
a) information support should be created as a hu- Such objects of environment, which suffer the influ-
man-computer system, wherein a personal computer ence of geotechnical system “Opencast”, are pre-
functions as counter, and human – as a person to sented at Figure 1.
make an expert decision; In the bottom of ecological situations’ evaluation
b) providing of system and information’s accord, on regional and micro-regional level is placed the
in other words, the usage of organizational and notion of territorial geoecologic norm and the opti-
methodological statutes’ complex, which provide mal union of natural geosystems and imitative geo-
the entirety of a system and subsystem during all the technical systems, which all provide the regulation
periods of creation, function and development; of ecology, along with economical and social
c) openness and development of information sup- achieving of values. Ecologic situation includes the
port. Every step, which provides creation and func- consideration of relations between three blocks of
tion of the system, must provide the possibilities for system, they are natural ecosystems, human (hu-
addition, improving and renewal of subsystem; for manity) and technosystems. Coincidently, every of
replacement of every calculation module by the new them is as an object and as a subject of evaluation
one; for inclusion of additional accounts into the meantime. Thus, to find out the ecologic situation it
subsystem providing that entrance and exit informa- is necessary to analyze the territorial totality of
tion will remain the same. The principle of informa- natural, imitative and industrial geosystems’
tion support’s development may be considered as a statuses from all the sides. Figure 2 represents the
possibility to involve the subsystem or system into principles of creation of information support.

Creation of informational sustem

1. Analysis of object region 2. Methodological support of the main modeling stages

1.1 The analyses of 1.2 The analyses

informational system of exploration
design process target

1.3 The formation of functional requirements 2.1 The description of simulated

concerning informational system objects (functional part)

3.1 Development 3.2 Development 3.3 Development 3.4 Development

of mathematical of information of software of technological
support support support

4.1 The 4.2 The 4.3 The 4.2 The recomme-

recommended recommended recommended nded structure of
structure of math structure of math software technological
support support structure support

5. The development of general pattern of informational system functioning

Figure 2. The framework of creation of information support.

Subject-object ecological terms reflect the envi- the ecological situations are identified, can be of con-
ronmental status concerning subjects, in other stant, periodic, no repeat and episodic type. At that,
words, features of objects are evaluated from the systems’ corresponding reactions are not as a mirror
point of view of their real or possible influence on imaging of the influence, so as systems show spring
the subjects. These terms characterize the subjects’ power, speed of response and possibility to provide
statement. As a rule, during the evaluation of situa- chain reactions etc. It should not be overlooked that
tion are used present restricted data concerning the reaction of system on the influence is used to be
these environment and subjects’ status but without late due to sluggishness. As a result, there in ecosys-
efforts to evaluate the sufficiency of these data. tems are identified different tendencies of ecological
Dynamic aspects of informative support also ought status, for example balanced, progressive, chronic,
to be noted. It is important to know not just the state pulsed, damping etc.
of situation in definite time, but also anterior and ex- Evaluation of the changes in status of ecosystem
pected situation and all possible tendencies of their (EC) is recommended to provide in definite se-
development. Processes and phenomena, by which quence (Figure 3).

The establishment of ecological state

Ecosystem structures tendencies in mining regions Technosystem

The determination of square which is occupied by

systems and of their expansion degree

The determination of industrial violation degree of

ecological state tendency

Landscape The determination Atmosphere Hydrosphere

of ecosystem
industrial violation

EC 1 EC 2 EC 3 EC 4

The establishment of industrial territories status

integral variables that placed in mining regions

Estimation of ES Estimation of ES Estimation of population living

fundamental strength reducing ability support quality in mining region

Figure 3. The recommended sequence of ecological-landscape estimation of the ecosystems’ status in mining regions.

Ecosystems, which are common for our country new ecosystems (EC1 and EC3); 2) building of tech-
and represent the main objects in ecologically- nical constructions (car parks, garages, storages
landscape estimation of the territories in mining re- etc.); 3) creation of industrial occurrences; 4) build-
gions, are introduced by agricultural croplands (EC1); ing of reservoirs for industrial growth of fish;
forest lands (EC2); agricultural lands – meadows and 5) construction of break areas; 6) creation of natural
green lands (EC3); water resources (EC4). reserves etc.
Possible ecological-landscape directions of reha- Proceeding from fixed dynamics of agricultural
bilitation (renewal) of damaged by opencast mining holdings’ squares and of ecosystems’ characteris-
ecosystems in mining regions are: 1) creation of tics, which are typical for Ukraine, it is possible to

identify that the main prime direction of territories’ dustrial processes.
renewal, which were damaged by development op- Usage of suggested methodological statutes, prin-
erations, is reconstruction of agricultural holdings, ciples and recommendations concerning the devel-
in other words, of ecosystems EC1 and EC3. Noted opment of informative support of stout ecosystems’
ecosystems can be placed either within the bounds creation, ecological-landscape estimation of the
of mining and land allotment or out of their bounds. ecosystems’ status in mining regions will allow to
In the first case, they represent new ecosystems, achieve continuous and systematical forecasting of
which are characterized by significantly less part of ecologic situation in the definite mining region. In
secondary industrial productiveness in comparison the basis of current and long-term forecast of stabil-
with preindustrial one. In the second case, EC1 and ity of ecosystems of mining regions are put the prin-
EC3 did not suffer the industrial physical influence. ciples of determinations of rates’ quality and quan-
Their mutations are just of geochemical character, tity, which take into account the industrial changes
which demands the special preventive actions to of environment at all the stages of life cycle of oc-
avoid the negative development of influence of in- currences’ exploitation.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Hydrodynamic cavitation in energy-saving

technological processes of mining sector

Y. Zhulay
Institute of transport systems and technologies of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine
V. Zberovskiy
Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Dnipropetrovs'k, Ukraine
A. Angelovskiy & I. Chugunkov
POJSC “Krasnodonugol”, Krasnodon, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The estimation of efficiency of application of the ways and methods that realize the periodi-
cally stalling cavitation while drilling a well, expansion of casing pipes diameter increase, declogging of the
water wells and hydroimpulsive loosening of coal seams has been carried out. It is noticed that intensifica-
tion of technological processes and decrease of energy consumption are achieved by the transformation of a
stationary fluid flow in a discrete-impulsive flow and by transfer of the high-frequency hydroimpulsive vi-
brations directly to the tool or rock massif at the surface of a well.

Implementation of energy-saving technologies espe- One of these trends is implementation of the peri-
cially in mining sector at present and in the nearest odically stalling cavitation in the technological fluid
future has a definitive meaning in agricultural activity flow with conversion of pressure pulses into the
of the enterprises. Perspective technological process working tool vibration load.
in this direction is the gain and realization of discrete- The second trend is the hydroimpulsive influence
impulsive energy of high power in the fluid flow. The directly on the rock in the filtration part of the blast-
device converting stationary fluid flow into the peri- hole or a well.
odically stalling cavitation mode is cavitational gen- Technical means realizing these approaches have
erator. This device allows to change character of the gone through a full complex of investigations from
fluid flow only at the expense of geometrical and laboratory to experimental-industrial tests.
mode parameters without using any moving parts and
additional sources of energy. Venturi tube-like gen-
erators create impulses of fluid pressure that excess 1 DRILLING OF WELLS
output pressure of the pump unit in several times.
Examples of practical implementation of cavita- The most effective drilling method in the hard rocks
tional generators for intensification and energy- is percussion-rotary method. The biggest disadvan-
saving of various technological processes are shown tage of this method is the presence of moving parts,
in the work (Pilipenko, Man’ko & Zadontsev 1998). springs and rubber couplings that get worn fast dur-
In metallurgy – for removal of scale during hot roll- ing exploitation. At this, the drilling effectiveness
ing of metal. In machinery building – for cleaning depends on the adjustment precision of the moving
the surface from sharp edges, rust and other. In parts, and the period of equipment control and revi-
these cases energy-saving decreases down to 30%. sion does not excess 25 hours.
In the chemical industry – during emulsification of Perspective trend that excludes all these disadvan-
fluids and production of fine-grained systems, en- tages is the creation of hydrodynamic drilling tool
ergy-saving decreases by more than 50%. strings (TS), pictures of which are shown on Fig-
The aim of the given work is to describe concep- ure 1: a) without core drilling; b) core drilling.
tual approaches for usage of hydrodynamic cavitation In the technological process the generator 2 con-
modes and evaluation of effectiveness of hydroimpul- verts stationary flow into discrete-impulsive, and the
sive influence technical means in mining sector. pulses energy of drilling fluid – into high-frequency

longitudinal vibration acceleration of the breaking bench unit. The parameters are: P1 – input pressure
tool 3. Mentioned DS’s have been studied under ex- in the cavitational generator; P2 – pressure in a
perimental conditions (Dzoz, Zhulay & Zapolskiy
2005) and under construction of hydrogeological pipeline behind cavitational generator; a1 , a 2 – vi-
and prospecting boreholes (Dzoz 2008). bration acceleration in the sections before and after
Figure 2 presents copy of the oscillogram area cavitational generator; a3 – vibration acceleration
with record of hydrodynamic parameters of DS ex- on the breaking tool simulator body.
perimental sample during its tests at the hydraulic

Figure 1. Principal scheme of hydrodynamic drill Figure 2. Copy of oscillogram of parameters used during
string (a) drilling with core extraction; (b) without experiments of a test sample of hydraulic drill string on a hydraulic
core drilling: 1 – drill string; 2 – cavitational bench unit: P1  10 MPа, P2 / P1  0.123 .
generator; 3 – breaking instrument; 4 – well.

The results of these tests have shown that in the DS DS’s were created for drilling surveying wells with
pipeline behind the generator the mode of periodi- diameter of 76 mm. Correlation of these tests has
cally stalling cavitation realizes with frequencies shown that compared to hydraulic hammer –
within the range from 70 to 3000 Hz and with swing Г76ВО, hydrodynamic DS with drill bit -02ИЗ has
of fluid pressure fluctuations P2 to 2.7 P1 . The provided 15.8% – increase of drilling speed and
swing of fluid pressure fluctuations is the difference 13.2% – increase of the bit life. When used diamond
of maximal and minimal value of pressure in impulse bits of А4ДП type, the drilling speed increase made
P  Pmax  Pmin . Maximal values of vibrational ac- up 26.7% and drill bit life – 11.8%. The analysis of
power loss for breaking tool rotation has shown
celerations on the breaking tool simulator body made their decrease during operation of hydrodynamic DS
up 1600 g (at P1  5 MPa) and 2700 g (at down to 20% at all drilling modes. Comparative
P1  10 MPa). It is established that drilling fluid de- analysis of working reliability of the hydrodynamic
livery pressure increase leads to rise of vibrational ac- DS and hydraulic hammer Г76ВО has shown the
celerations and their frequency on the breaking tool. following: during tests period 4 failures of hydraulic
Drilling efficiency with vibrational load on the hammer was registered and 10 assembling-
breaking tool was confirmed during construction of disassembling actions were done to adjust and re-
hydrogeological boreholes of big diameter. The move tools. At the same time, there were no failures
analysis of 190mm-diameter boreholes drilling has during tests of hydrodynamic DS. And by checking
shown that while DS is working, drilling speed in- basic tools there was no sign of their wearing. Op-
creases by 71.5% compared to rotary method. At erational life of hydrodynamic DS has significantly
this, the breaking tool wearing and energy consump- excessed life of hydraulic hammer. Besides, DS has
tion decrease down to 30%. provided stabilization and stability of the drill pipes
Based on the received results, the hydrodynamic during drilling down to 522.5 m.

2 CASING DIAMETER WIDENING cost. One of the ways to decrease friction resistance
is an application of hydrodynamic vibrator (HDV)
“Weatherfopd” firm traditionally uses hydraulic to impose vibration load on the widening cone.
method of casing diameter widening by injection of The studies (Zhulay & Voroshylov 2010) have
high-pressure fluid flow under the widening cone shown that percussion fluctuations of fluid pressure
(cone is a tool used for pipes widening). It is known P2 (Figure 3) occur at the exit of the generator.
from the experience that around 50% of fluid energy Such type of fluctuations is substantiated by the oc-
is used on the pipes widening process itself. Rest of currence of periodically stalling cavitation at the
the energy is used to fight friction resistance. In or- flowing part of the generator. Vibrational accelera-
der to reduce friction forces during cone movement, tions realize at the widening cone (Figure 4).
expensive MSDS lubrication is used with molybde-
num additives that leads to significant economic

Figure 3. Copy of oscillogram of the HDV working Figure 4. Dependence of vibrational load on the cone body
parameters record P1  40 MPa, P2  8.2 MPa. on the HDV working mode.

Vibrational loads both in an axial and in radial di- 93% compared to widening by static influence.
rections realize with the range of the cavitation pa- Pressure value, at which the cone starts moving with
rameter change –   0.15...0.6 . Dependence of the following pipe widening, decreases from 26.9 MPa
cone vibrational load during pipeline widening under to 14.4 MPa. Unlike static influence, hydroimpul-
pressure P1  21 MPa is shown at the same Figure. sive method prevents cone jamming, occurrence of
sharp edges and cold hardening, and decreases en-
Evaluation of HDV application efficiency in the
ergy consumption down to 40%.
technological process was carried out at the samples
of certified steel pipes with external diameter of
133 mm and wall thickness of 6 mm under the fol-
lowing conditions:
– test 1 – static influence without lubrication;
– experiment 2 – static influence with MSDS lu-
– test 3 – hydroimpulsive method during which
fluid pressure pulses realize at the generator exit;
– test 4 – hydroimpulsive method during which
vibrational loads realize at the cone (Dzenzerskiy).
Figure 5 shows aligned copies of oscillogram ar-
eas of pressure mean values before the cone at vari- Figure 5. Aligned copies of oscillogram areas.
ous conditions of the conducted experiment. Exter-
nal diameter of the pipelines after the widening
made up 150.18-150.62 mm with wall thickness 3 RECOVERY OF THE WATER
5.7 mm with ellipsoid shape of pipes within the WELLS PRODUCTIVITY
range of 0.09-0.44.
The results of studies have shown that hydroim- During the well functioning the clogging of its pro-
pulsive widening of pipes realizing vibrational load ductive part occurs. To increase its debit or recover
on the cone decreases friction resistance by up to

its functioning, it is necessary to conduct complex open faucets 3 and 4, the pump was working for the
of measures directed to unclogging of near-the-well generator and water outtake during 68 hours. Total
zone. There are various methods and means of in- debit increase has made up 200%
fluence on the well or host rocks are used for this:
cleaning of well walls by roller bit, air-lift pump,
mechanical influence by vibrators on the column
with filter, creation of hydraulic thrusts during use
of pneumatic (low-frequency) devices, acid influ-
ence on the filter, blast in the filter area or area of
water-bearing horizon. In recent years, hydraulic
whistles and magnet-strictional generators of ultra-
sound fluctuations have come into use.
It is worth mentioning that disadvantages of
means and methods of wells unclogging define ad-
vantages of generator of fluid pressure fluctuations.
There are no movable parts in the generator, it does
not require additional energy source and it has
longer operational life.
Figure 6 and 7 show schemes of surface equip-
ment and cavitational generator unit (CU) location
in the wells (Dzoz & Zhulay 2008). To control
seams permeability of water-bearing horizon, such Figure 7. Scheme of a well unclogging with drive of cavita-
technical parameter as well debit is used. tional generator powered free-running pump.

The boreholes with diameter of 160 mm and

depth of 100 m (Figure 7) the water-bearing horizon
was blocked by filter columns made in a form of
perforated pipe. Unclogging was provided by inter-
val-like movement of cavitational generator for full
height of water-bearing horizon. It is connected with
the fact that amplitude of pressure fluctuations de-
creases as it moves away from the generator exit.
After influencing the boreholes by hydrodynamic
method, their debit has increased up to 110%.


Up to now the basic trend directed to lowering dust

formation and prevention of sudden outbursts of
coal and gas is an injection of fluid into coal seams.
Figure 6. Scheme of a well unclogging with drive of cavita- The experience in the mining operations conduction
tional generator powered from submersible pump. allows to point out that application of methods
based on static injection of fluid under conditions of
Two wells operability with diameter of 406 mm big depths is low efficient. Widely used method of
and depth of 25 m was restored according to the tech- coal seams hydro-loosening is becoming not pro-
nological scheme powering from submersible pump ducible and does not provide coal humidification
(Figure 6). Wells unclogging efficiency was being along full seam thickness.
compared during the operation. Debit change was Basic disadvantage of the given method is an un-
fixed at each measure before and after processing. At controllable process of fracture formation and fluid
the beginning the wells were worked-out in the mode filtration along full thickness of layers and interlay-
of water inflow through generator with closed faucet ers forming the seam. When filtration chamber is
3 and open faucet 4. Debit was raised by 40%. Then located within the unloaded zone the fluid freely fil-
cleaning of the well from mud was provided by sub- trates along the cracks into the worked-out area.
mersible water pump. Furthermore, at simultaneously When the chamber is in the zone or behind the zone

of an abutment pressure the hydro-fracture and wa- These seams have complex multi-pack structure
ter breakout occur along one of the layers of coal (Figure 8) and are considered to be prone to
pack or also hydro sloughing of the seam side part. outbursts of coal and gas.
In addition, coal interlayers have various charac-
teristics, construction and structure (Table 1). Hy-
dro-loosening of these seams did not provide any
expected results, thus during drivage of galleries by
continuous miners, blasting works are used in mode
of percussion explosion in dangerous zones.
Analysis of complex structure and properties of
coal seams, for example k 2  k 2B , confirms that ef-
fective processing of a seam along its full thickness
is practically impossible using normative scheme of
hydro-loosening. In order to increase efficiency of
hydro-loosening the unit of hydro-impulsive influ-
ence (further named as the device) has been devel-
oped (Patent 87038).
Figure 8. Structure of k 2н seam at 617 m horizon of SE Hydrodynamic parameters of the unit have been
investigated on a borehole model with fluid pressure
“Shakhtoupravleniye “Molodgvardeyskoye” POJSC “Krasno-
donugol”: 1 – seam roof; 2 – upper pack of seam; 3 – at the exit of cavitational generator from 5.0 MPa to
interlayer of coal slate; 4 – lower pack of seam; 5 – interlayer 30.0 MPa with fluid consumption being 40-60 l / min
of coal slate; 6 – interlayer of coal seam; 7 – interlayer of coal (Zhulay & Zberovskiy 2010). It is established that the
slate; 8 – interlayer of coal seam; 9 – seam bottom. periodically stalling cavitation provides working
range of device according to cavitation parameter 
One of the perspective trends allowing to exclude from 0.02 to 0.8. Right behind the generator, range of
these disadvantages is an impulsive injection of auto fluctuations makes up 1.8-2.4 of fluid pressure at
fluid in mode of periodically stalling cavitation. At the unit exit, and frequency – up to 12.0 kHz. Range
present, Institute of geotechnical mechanics of NAS of auto fluctuations in filtration part of the well de-
of Ukraine together with POJSC “Krasnodonugol” creases as it goes away from the generator diffusion
leads mining-experimental works directed to cell and makes up 1.1-1.6 of fluid pressure at a dis-
research of hydroimpulsive loosening parameters of tance of 1.5-2.0 m.
coal seams prone to outbursts – k 2н , k 2  k 2B , i13 .

Table 1. Brief characteristics of coal in layers and interlayers forming the seam k 2  k 2B .
Scheme of the seam Layer thickness, m Description of coal quality
of test
1 0.30 Uniform, shiny, strong
2 0.1-0.15 Shiny, layered with interlayers of coal slate
3 0.20-0.22 Shiny, layered, soft
4 0.70 Uniform, shiny, strong
5 0.12 Uniform, shiny, mat in the layer roof, soft
6 0.18 Uniform, shiny with interlayers of mat, soft
7 0.05 Coal with inclusions of slate
8 0.15 Uniform, shiny
9 0.20 Uniform, shiny, strong

Mining-experimental works have allowed to evalu- of 43 mm and length from 6.0 to 7.0 m with sealing
ate efficiency of device application during hydro- depth from 4.0 to 5.0 m. Unloading zone of the seam
loosening of complex structure coal seams prone to boundary part reaches 10 meters.
outburst. It is established that at rate of fluid injection Efficiency comparison of static and impulsive
equal to 40-60 l / min, the rational pressure of hydro- modes of a fluid injection has shown that duration of
impulsive influence makes up 10-20 MPa. Signs of a seam hydro-processing reduces to 50% during hy-
hydro-fracture and gas-dynamic phenomena do not dro-impulsive influence; fluid consumption reduces
occur when using technological scheme of hydro- to 60%, safe zone of coal extraction increases from 6
impulsive loosening through boreholes with diameter to 10 m, energy-consumption decreases to 70%.

5 CONCLUSIONS processes. 1998. Proceedings of a Fluid Dynamics Panel
Workshop. Kiev. Report 827: 32-34.
Cavitation phenomenon, studied in hydraulic sys- Dzoz, N.A., Zhulay, Y.A. & Zapolskiy, L.G. 2005. Ex-
tems as a negative and uncontrolled process, is effi- perimental evaluation of drilling string construction pa-
rameters influence with cavitation generator of a fluid
ciently used during intensification of technological fluctuations on level of vibro-load at a rock-breaking
processes in other branches of science and tech- tool. Materials of an international conference “Forum of
nique. Parameters of discrete-impulsive energy re- miners-2005”. Dnipropetrovs’k: NMU Vol. 2: 93-102.
alization of big power within the fluid flow, consid- Dzoz, N.A. & Zhulay, Y.A. 2008. Intensification of drill-
ered in this work, allows to point out the following: ing processes using hydro-dynamic cavitation. Mining
Efficiency of technological processes is reached information-analytical bulletin. Moscow: MGGU, 4:
by means of cavitation generators application that 290-296.
allow to transfer impulse energy from the source to Zhulay, Y.A. & Voroshylov, A.S. 2010. Experimental
definition of vibro-load on the instrument for pipes
the object of destruction with minimal cost. At this, widening. Geotechnical mechanics: collection of scientific
there is no need for any additional costs. Stationary works. Dnipropetrovs’k: IGTM of Ukraine’s NAS, 89:
flow of the fluid converts into discrete-impulsive 34-40.
flow right in the unit and gets transferred to the tool Dzenzerskiy, V.A., Zhulay, Y.A., Khachapuridze, N.M.,
or rock massif in form of high-frequency hydro- Redchits, D.A. & Voroshylov, A.S. Efficiency
impulsive vibration. determination of vibro-load appliance on the tool for pipes
Cavitational generator of the fluid pressure fluc- widening. Impulse processes in mechanics of continuous
tuations has a line of advantages before other tech- medium. Materials of IX international scientific conference.
Nikolayev: 329-332.
nical means of wave influence: Dzoz, N.A. & Zhulay, Y.A. 2008. Initiation of water wells
– simplicity of manufacture, absence of moving by way of cavitation hydro-dynamic influence. Mining
parts, additional sources of energy, duration of the information-analytical bulletin. Moscow: MGGU, 3:
resource, exclusion of the fluid fluctuations to the 345-350.
pump; Patent 87038 of Ukraine, МКИ Е21F 5/02. Unit for hydro-
– construction of cavitation generator organically fits impulsive influence on coal seam / L.M. Vasilyev,
into various technologies and allows to intensify them Zhulay Y.A., V.V. Zberovskiy, P.Y. Moiseenko, N.Y.
at lower specific energy consumption and does not re- Trokhimets; claimer and patent owner is IGTM of NAS
of Ukraine. # а 2007 10209/9822; appl.13.09.07; publ.
quire labor-consuming redesign of the equipment. 10.06.09, bul. #11.
Zhulay, Y.A. & Zberovskiy, V.V. 2010. Solution of con-
ceptual tasks of hydro-impulsive loosening of coal
REFERENCES seams prone to outbursts in mode of periodically stall-
ing cavitation. Collection of scientific works of NMU of
Pilipenko, V.V., Man’ko, I.K. & Zadontsev, V.A. 1998. Ukraine. Dnipropetrovs’k: NGA, 35. Vol. 2: 246-253.
Cavitation self-oscillations intensify technological

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Economic aspects of development

strategy of mining companies

J. Kudelko
KGHM CUPRUM Ltd – Research and Development Centre, Wroclaw, Poland

ABSTRACT: The demand and supply of raw materials have an influence on mining companies activity. The
investment needs a new look on the mining projects market and requires an adequate strategy. The paper is
focused on development strategies and their evaluation. A special attention was paid to the economic aspects
and its measures. Cost effectiveness and risk of consolidation projects can be described as a comparison of a
real net value of integrated and basic companies.

1 INTRODUCTION are becoming independent from the fluctuation

caused by production seasonality.
During last several years the intensive activity of The company take-over (acquisition) is not very
big mining companies aimed on integration through precise definition and consists in the trial of achiev-
mergers or acquisitions, as a direction of develop- ing, by the taking-over company, the control over
ment strategy, has been noticeable. Trend for com- the company being taken-over. Taking-over process
panies consolidation and for creating the global gi- may be under the approval of the former company
ants caused breaking the successive records of the bodies (board and stakeholders) – amicable takeover
most valuable transactions. or under the objection – hostile takeover. The trans-
Mergers called the consolidation processes in- fer may happen through:
clude three types of activity:  redemption the shares of the taken-over com-
 horizontal integration, what means joining two pany on the stock exchange,
companies operating in the same business, at the  redemption the shares outside the stock ex-
same stage of production. Generally the third com- change or redemption of interests,
pany is the result of the connection.  collection of the adequate number of authori-
 vertical integration, in which participate at least ties from shareholders or partners,
two companies with the similar production profile  taking-over of the company’s assets.
but dealing with the different stages of the produc- Take-over can make for liquidation of the taken-
tion cycle, over company, its including into the capital group
 conglomerate consolidation, which joins the on which the taking-over company has the control,
companies having totally different sphere of activ- or incorporation i.e. including the taken-over com-
ity. pany into the structures of taking-over entity.
Subsidiaries may still have a form of separate Finishing the stage of negotiations and preparing
corporate entity forming the holding or may join to- for take-over means the necessity of providing the
gether into one corporation, which will have divi- adequate funds for the transaction completing.
sions in different branches. Those resources do not have to come from the com-
New companies, including the former competitors pany (take-over may be financed by, for example
or partners (in case of vertical integration) are credit or emission of bonds) and do not have to be
mostly the result of merger. The major purpose of of monetary nature (payment may be done, for ex-
merger is the so called synergy effect i.e. obtaining ample, by the shares of taking-over company).
the higher value of the company after the connec- Although the presented procedure concern only
tion, than the sum of the parts forming the new en- the taking-over process, the quite similar pattern
tity. The shareholders of companies being jointed, will be in case of joining the companies. It must be,
instead of previous interests take the shares of new however, paid attention on the differences between
created company. In case of conglomerate consoli- those two kinds of companies integration.
dation, the additional result is the effect of branch
risk diversification or the fact that company profits

2 MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS taking place since a long time, the large scale divid-
ing processes occurred only in eighties.
External method of development strategy imple- Company mergers may be divided into several
mentation, consists, first of all, in connecting the types using the different criteria. Basic classification
companies, mergers and acquisitions and in oppo- is obtained using the criterion of type of synergy, on
site actions i.e. dividing the companies or/and sell- which the merger is based, what in turn is related
ing the part of company (divestements). Those two with the integration degree and legal status of
opponent action are mostly undertaken at the same jointed company.
time or in specific sequence, for example after di- Strategic criteria are best reflected by dividing on
viding the company, the acquisition or merger with mergers and acquisitions. The first create the inte-
another company takes place. Merger, dividing and grated company, implementing the effects of tech-
selling processes, being a method of company de- nological, production and market synergy, while the
velopment are interrelated and should be analyzed second are related with finance strategies and are
jointly. As far as the large scale mergers have been based on finance synergy (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Methods of implementing development strategies and types of connections.

Acquisition (take-over) may concern the company 3 EFFECTS OF CONSOLIDATION

in good or bad financial condition. In the second
case the company is taken-over to be restructured Positive and negative effects of consolidation of big
and for its possible further sale after rehabilitation. companies come out on macro and micro scale
Classical role of mergers and acquisitions is: (Figure 2). The first, macroeconomic ones, concern
 taking over the competitive assets, the consumers, sector and the economy as a whole.
 taking over the customers, Positive effects for clients are price reductions, dy-
 reduction of competition, namic in innovations, new products, better service.
 adapting the production capacity of sectors to Holding the prosperity in the sector entering the
the demand. saturation may be the result of consolidation. Thus
It may be said that M&A are the tool for quick the consolidation is the best method for the sector
and aggressive growth of the company (to enter the development correction, especially with regard of
circle of big players), implementation of business the phase where the production capacity surplus is
strategy consisting in buying a company to sell it af- encountered.
ter or without restructuring. Those actions play a Microeconomic effects result from the com-
critical role in the development of internationaliza- pany size growth and from the increase of market
tion and globalization of companies and in creating share as well as reduction of competition and im-
the so called “new economy”. provement of resources competitiveness of jointed

Figure 3. Number and value of acquisitions concerning
non-ferrous metals in 2011.

Value of the transaction reached the sum of

53 079.3 billion USD. As it is visible, almost 75%
Figure 2. Positive effects of consolidation. of costs in the analyzed period, concerns the copper
Effect of mergers and acquisitions for the compa-
nies being connected are therefore the same as ef-
fects of internal growth. Their specificity is the con- 4 VERTICAL INTEGRATION
siderable rate of growth and synergy of resources
from different entities being connected. It is aimed Cost-effectiveness of mining company integration
to improve the market position of the company, and, with supplying or buying firm may be analyzed us-
in special case, reaching the leadership or even the ing the method which combines the strategic and
position of dominant. economic evaluation of the venture in the following
In 2009 the transactions of mergers and acquisi- four steps:
tions were focused on consolidation of smaller 1. Strategic analyze of integration advisability.
companies, selling illiquid assets and foreign expan- 2. Comparing the economic effectiveness of base
sion of Chinese investments. In 2010 activity of big company and integrated company.
mining companies and units under the governmental 3. Comparing the integration risk.
control was concentrated on using the financial re- 4. Calculating the economic effects of integration.
serves for taking-over and completing the projects First step refers to the strategic, long-term plan of
with perspective resources, being at the final stage company’s development within the domain, mar-
of development or the minesite projects. Number of kets, targets and competitive edge and verifies the
declared acquisitions increased significantly in the integration advisability. Detailed analyze of integra-
second half of 2010, mainly with regard of gold and tion advisability must be adjusted to the company’s
base metals projects. Results of Price Waterhouse specificity. The example factors are:
Coopers study for 2010, quoted by Wilburn D.R. at  in backward integration, towards suppliers:
al., say about 2 693 mergers and acquisitions having tender force of suppliers and distributors, quality,
the value of 113.0 billion. Next PWC report con- reliability and punctuality of deliveries, compe-
cerns 2011, and gives the number of over 2 600 tences of integrated company, financial condition of
transactions amounting 149.0 billion. integrated company;
In 2011 (data cover the period from the beginning  in forward integration, towards buyers: tender
of January until the end of December) 92 transac- force of buyers, share in market of the integrated
tions concerning the non-ferrous metals were con- company, market of integrated company, compe-
cluded (Figure 3). Almost half of them referred to tences of integrated company, financial condition of
the copper. integrated company.

During evaluation of integration strategic analyze biggest scope of integration the longest chain of
methods, such as sector analyze, developed by M.E. values.
Porter and/or SWOT/TOWS analyzes, are em-
Since the strategic analyze is a multi-criterion 5 ECONOMIC EVALUATION
evaluation, the aggregate feasibility (advisability) OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION
rate is calculated using range-point method or quo-
tient normalization (Stabryla 2000; Penc-Pietrzak Integration projects are usually investment ones –
2003 & Butra et al. 2009). material or financial. Standard methods for such
The second stage of this method is economic project evaluation are known. They are dynamic and
evaluation of the integration. For the needs of this static methods describing the transaction cost of ver-
evaluation the concept of economic rate of return, tical integration in mining (Joskow 1985, 2003;
which has not been used until now, both in literature Stuckey 1983 & Kudelko 2009). Dynamic methods
and in practice (Kudelko 2008), was introduced. take into consideration the time factor or cash value
Economic rate of return is defined as relation of in time, while static methods base on average annual
economic added value and invested capital. Eco- economic results. Among popular dynamic methods
nomic added value is the operation profit after tax, are: net current value and internal rate of return, and
minus total capital cost, and for the first time was lately also the option value of the project. These
formulated by Stern and Steward. Invested capital is methods use category of cash flows i.e. revenues
the corrected value of company’s assets. Both cate- and expenditures, which sometimes are incorrectly
gories concern the basic company before integration identified as incomes and costs.
and integrated company. The integration is chosen Amongst widespread simple methods are: opera-
when the integrated company has the highest eco- tion profit and net profit, periods and rates of return
nomic rate of return. of investment expenditures and breakeven points.
In economic evaluation of investment projects Capital rate of return or capital yield is generally de-
static and dynamic methods are used as a standard scribed as annual „profits” or net annual cash flows
(Butra et al. 2004; Rogowski 2004; Sierpinska & versus invested capital. In practice different meth-
Jachna 2005; Wirth et al. 2000). Static methods are ods for rate of return calculation are used, express-
based on annual incomes and costs while the dy- ing “profit” through net profit, if necessary enlarged
namic methods base on receipts and expenditures, by interest or depreciation and interest, while capital
whereat the time factor in the cash value is taken is included in total expenditures or financed by own
into consideration through the discount rate (Koź- funds.
miński A.K. & Piotrowski 2005; Struzycki 2002; At present return on investment, return on equity
Butra et al. 2004; Kudelko 2007; Kudelko & Nowak as well as economic rate of return are recognized
2006; Ehrbar 2000). among standard rates of return.
About 25% of companies takes the rate of return Return on investment is calculated from the
basing on profit as a single evaluation criterion. Pro- formula:
posed rate of return based on economic added value
includes own cost and cost of debt of the project. ROI  ,
During the third stage of evaluation the project IC
risk is estimated under the assumption that different
where ROI – return on investment; EBIT – profit
scenarios may happen in future i.e. differential val-
ues of variables defining the economic rate of re- from operational activity, USD / year; IC – total
turn. As a measure of risk the semi standard devia- investment expenditures or company assets, USD.
tion from expected rate of return and variation coef- Return on equity measures the effectiveness of eq-
ficient were taken. Semi standard deviation is a uity capital of the company. This rate is calculated
measure of negative deviations from expected value, from the formula:
while the variation coefficient is defined by semi NI
standard deviation vs. the expected value. ROE  ,
In the fourth stage the economic effects of inte-
gration, which are the difference between the eco- where ROE – return on equity; NI – net profit,
nomic added value before and after integration,
USD / year; E – company equity capital invested,
were calculated. USD.
The company making the decision about vertical Economic rate of return (ESZ) is the relation be-
integration changes its chain of the added value. The tween economic added value and the company as-

sets (Kudelko 2009). For such approach speak all pany.
those arguments, which are quoted for using the Semi standard deviation and variation coefficient
economic added value as a measure of financial re- is calculated for different strategic options:
sults of a company. The paper presents the method
of evaluation the vertical integration of the mining n
ss   pi  d i .
companies and risk of using it. Economic added i 1
value is calculated from the formula:
EWDt  EBITt 1  CTt   WACC t  ICt 1 ,  ESZ i  E ESZ  when ESZi  E ESZ   0;
di  
0 when ESZ i  E ESZ   0.
where EAVt – economic added value in t year,
USD /year; EBITt – profit from operational activity ss
CV  .
in t year, USD / year; CTt – tax rate in t year; E ESZ 

WACC t – average weighted capital cost in t year; where ss – semi standard deviation; CV – varia-
ICt 1 – total investment expenditures at the end of tion coefficient; pi – probability of i scenario of
t  1 year, USD. events occurrence.
If we divide EAV equation by ICt 1 we obtain: Expected value of rates of return is calculated
EWDt EBITt 1  CTt  n
  WACCt .
ICt 1 ICt 1 E ESZ    ESZi  pi ,
i 1
Left side of equation may be interpreted as an
where E ERR int – expected value of economic rate
economic rate of return:
of return for integrated company; ERRint – eco-
ESZ  . nomic rate of return for integrated company in i
ICt 1 scenario of events; pi – probability of i scenario
After substituting EWDt into ESZ we obtain: of events occurrence; E ERR  – expected value of
economic rate of return for basic company; ERRi –
EBITt 1  CTt  economic rate of return in i scenario of events.
ESZ   WACCt .
ICt 1

Integration is considered as successful, when the 6 CONCLUSIONS

following condition is met:
Mergers and acquisitions it is a multistage and mul-
ESZ int  ESZ ,
tidimensional process, which in many cases may
end with defeat expressed for example by the fall in
where ESZ int – economic rate of return of inte-
shares value. In order to avoid that problem, the
grated company, USD / year; ESZ – economic rate strategic reasonability of consolidation should be
of return of basic company, USD / year. considered and then the whole consolidation process
Economic effects of integration (EE) are calcu- must be managed properly, starting from choosing
lated from the formula: the adequate consolidation candidate, through com-
petent consolidation procedure, ending on effective
EE  ESZ int  ESZ .
joint of previously independent organizations.
Supportive criterion, while making a decision After choosing the candidate, evaluating its value,
with regard of integration, is variation coefficient, estimating the value of synergy effects, establishing
being the semi standard deviation versus rate of re- the bonus which is possible to accept and the choice
turn ratio. Integration due to the incorporated risk is of methods and sources of financing, the subject ini-
expedient, when: tiating the merger or acquisition transaction face
with the process of effective connecting integration.
CVint  CV . Negligence at any stage of the consolidation process
may result in the transaction failure.
where CVint – variation coefficient of integrated Making a decision about the most adequate, for
company; CV – variation coefficient of basic com- the company, scope of vertical integration is a com-

plex process requiring the right investments, some- REFERENCES
times bonding the substantial financial resources
and giving the specific economic effects. Therefore Butra, J., Kicki, J., Kudelko, J., Wanielista, W. & Wirth, H.
implementation of such strategy must have the 2009. Basics of economic calculation in mining compa-
strong economic grounds. nies. Monography. IGSMiE PAN Publishing, Krakow.
Butra, J., Kicki, J., Kudelko, J., Wanielista, K. & Wirth, H.
Selection of strategic option is made as follows: 2004. Economy of geological and mining projects.
– if ERRint  ERR and CVint  CV , integration Monography. CBPM CUPRUM Publishing, Wroclaw.
option is chosen; Ehrbar, A. 2000. EVA – strategy of creating the company’s
– if ERRint  ERR and CVint  CV , integration value. Company’s Finance Publishing, Warszawa.
Kozminski, A. K. & Piotrowski, W. 2005. Management.
option is chosen; Theory and practice. PWN, Warsaw.
– if ERRint  ERR and CVint  CV , option Kudelko, J. 2008. Economic rate of return as a measure of
capital yield. KGHM CUPRUM Publishing, 3.
without integration is chosen;
Kudelko, J. 2007. Strategies of mining companies devel-
– if ERRint  ERR and CVint  CV , option opment. Ores and metals, 12.
without integration is chosen. Kudelko, J. & Nowak, J. 2006. Characteristic of selected
In order to calculate the risk, the describing vari- elements of geological and mining projects evaluation.
ables are presented in several scenarios of variables, Minerals, 4.
Penc-Pietrzak, I. 2003. Strategic analyze in company’s man-
usually optimistic, pessimistic and basic. Scenarios
agement. Concept and employment. CH BECK, Warsaw.
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The presents method of evaluating the vertical in- Sierpinska, M. & Jachna, T. 2005. Evaluation of company
tegration, based on economic rate of return, is a very under world standards. PWN, Warszawa.
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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

About management of processes of deformation

and destruction of rocks around of working of deep mines

О. Novikov & Y. Petrenko

State Higher Educational Institution “Donetsk National Technical University”, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: On the basis of the analysis of results of analytical researches the basic rock-geological pa-
rameters which are influencing for the size of a zone of destruction of rocks (ZDR) and giving in manage-
ment are allocated. Are carried out laboratory researches of influence of scheme of spatial location of bolting
on size of these parameters. The new construction procedure of parameters roof bolting on the basis of the
developed concept of management by process of formation around of working of deep mines ZDR is of-

One of the major problems of rock geomechanics is scribing terms of formation ZDR in time, behavior
providing of stability of working. In states of deep of rocks inside of destroyed area and displacement
mines dynamics and character of the geomechanical of a contour of working lead to significant idealiza-
processes occurring in a rock massif, containing tion of the mechanism of display of rock stress in
working changes. which the physical essence of geomechanical proc-
The analysis of existing concepts about the esses is not reflected.
mechanism of display of rock stress in an area of The developed analytical method of the prognosis
supported working’s shows, that formation and pro- of size of ZDR, based on use of positions of me-
gress ZDR in many respects defines their state. Dur- chanics of fragile destruction and the step-by-step
ing too time of law of the processes occurring inside solution to the problem in view of variation strength
ZDR while are studied insufficiently. and reological parameters of a rock massif, concern-
Results of known analytical calculations have ing their characteristics received by results of rocks
significant divergences with data of mine supervi- in the sample, has allowed to receive dependence of
sion. Sizes of ZDR turn out significantly the smaller relative size of ZDR on lifetime of working (Main-
size and displacement on perimeter of working have tenance and carrying ... 2005).
uniform character that mismatches the validity. The For a background of ways of efficient control a
reason for divergences calculation and the fact data state of a rock formation around of mines it is nec-
describing size of ZDR, in our opinion, is discrep- essary to set the degree of influence of major coeffi-
ancy of dynamic character of a solved problem to its cients on size of ZDR. To these coefficients con-
static statement. In opinion of G. Litvinskiy, this cern: depth location up workings ( H ), strength of
discrepancy is reflected that the problem by defini- containing rocks ( R ), residual strength of rocks
tion of size of ZDR, the majority of researchers is within the limits of ZDR ( R0 ), rebuff support in
solved at disposable “salvo” acceptance of boundary
working ( P ), angle of internal friction of rocks
terms (Litvinsky 1974). Such statement of a prob-
lem does not consider the redistribution of stress (  ), coefficient of cohesion of rocks ( C ).
connected with moving of front of destructions in With these objective analytical calculations of size
depth of a massif. The account of this circumstance of ZDR in which value of one of the above-stated pa-
is possible at the step-by-step solution to the prob- rameters changed at the fixed average values of the
lem when boundary terms for each subsequent step others have been executed. The quantitative assess-
strike root in view of the variations connected with ment of a degree of influence of each parameter was
realization of the previous step. made through parameter K r , which was defined:
Displacement of a contour of working results
from the complex geomechanical processes occur- K r  rpm / r p ,
ring in the surrounding rock massif. Therefore at-
tempts of researchers unequivocally (functionally) where rpm , r p – accordingly, ZDR, appropriating
to establish dependence between the parameters de- current (changeable) and average values of parame-

ter interesting us, m. possible by means of roof bolting.
On Figure 1 charts of dependence of parameter In our opinion, the mechanism of work of roof
K r from values of influencing coefficients are bolting consists not only in concept about anchors,
shown. The analysis of charts shows, that on a de- as about a bearing construction of type of a frame,
gree of influence on size ZDR coefficients settle and as about the elements, changing structure of a
down in following sequence: C ,  , H , R , R0 , massif and preventing its destruction, i.e. to forma-
tion around of working of a zone of not elastic de-
P. formations.
Proceeding from the given concept, the radial
scheme of location of anchors applied now is not the
most rational, since area of influence of anchors on
a massif in this case minimal. In this context, devel-
oped and tested in DonNTU spatial location of bolt-
ing of a massif allow to make the most at a mini-
mum quantity of anchors of bearing ability of a rock
massif (Kasyan, Petrenko & Novikovn 2010.).
Such spatial location of roof bolting allows the use
of it not only as the strength element, preventing
stratification of rocks and their displacement in a cav-
ity of working, but also the element providing com-
munication between separate fragments of destroyed
rocks in all directions (radial, tangential and along
axis workings). It provides substantial increase bear-
P, MPa ing ability anchored shell of the destroyed rocks due
R0, MPa to increase of their residual strength.
H, m For an assessment of influence of roof bolting on
R, MPa
processes of deformation and destruction of rocks
φ, deg.
around of working have been carried out laboratory
C, MPa
researches the limit and out of limit intense-
deformed state of the rock massif reinforced spatial
Figure 1. Variation of coefficient of a degree of influence anchor by systems (Novikov 2011).
on size of ZDR K r depending on major coefficients: P –
rebuff support in working, MPa; R0 – residual strength of
rocks within the limits of ZDR, MPa; H – depth location
up working, m; R – strength of containing rocks, MPа;
 – angle of internal friction of rocks; C – coefficient of
cohesion of rocks, МPа.

The greatest influence on size of forming ZDR

renders angle of internal friction of the destroyed
rocks (  ) and coefficient of cohesion of rocks ( C ).
So, the increase with 30 up to 45 degree leads to re-
duction ZDR by 72%, and an increase of coefficient
of cohesion of rocks with 9 up to 13 MPa – on 39%.
Residual strength of the destroyed rocks charac-
terizes their possibility to save bearing ability in
some volume as constructions. By researches IPRF
NAS of Ukraine it is proved, that variation of a type
of the intense state of the destroyed rocks (from
monoaxial to plan and three-dimensional) it is pos-
sible to raise essentially their residual strength Figure 2. Schemes of spatial location of anchors.
(Vynogradov 1989).
The analysis of existing means and methods of The investigations were carried out at the setting
supporting of mines has shown that effectively and for triaxial compression tests of the rock in IPRF
technologically to operate these coefficients it is NAS of Ukraine. Cubic samples were made of ce-

ment-sandy mixtures with the size of an edge 55 mm residual strength, limiting and residual relative de-
which modeled a area of rock massif in volume in 1 formations in a direction of unloading, relative
m3 with strength 30-50 MPa. Samples were rein- variation of volume, energy of variation of the form
forced under various spatial locations (Figure 2). The and volume, modules of deformation, elasticity,
strengthening effect from anchors was provided with shift and recession paid off. For an assessment of
forces of cohesion of a cement-sandy mixture with a character of destruction of the rocks reinforced by
bar of an anchor. Tests on plucking of anchors from various spatial locations of bolting, criterion Nodai-
the hardened mixture have shown, that process of ex- Lode was used.
traction of a bar (extension from the sample) begins at The limiting state of samples was defined on one
effort from 93 up to 121 H , that provides compliance of four below listed criteria:
with a state of power similarity. – achievement of the maximal value by tangents
Originally in samples were created the hydrostatic by stress;
field of stress simulating depth of location up 800, – excess of limiting relative deformations at
1200 and 1600 m. Then was created, in a direction unloading the sample;
of action of stress  3 (in a direction of bolting) full – sharp decrease in size of the module of shift;
– excess of the chart describing variation of rela-
unloading with maintenance of size of stress  1 and
tive volume of the sample ( V / V ).
 2 at an initial level was made. Further, under spe- Results of researches are presented on Figure 3-12.
cially developed programme the average size of op-
erating stress, average relative deformations, size of

not reinfofced rock
scheme 1
scheme 2
scheme 3
scheme 4
scheme 5
scheme 6




0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2 0,25 0,3
Е1, unit

Figure 3. Diagrams “stress-deformation” for rock-anchor constructions reinforced under various schemes, at modeling
strength of containing rocks 30 МPа and depth location up working 1200 m.

As you can see from (Figure 3), all charts parameters describing limiting and especially out of
 1  f  1  , received from tests of rock-anchor con- limit state (residual strength) are broken a set up to
structions for the generalized tension, have three 4.5 times. It is necessary to note, that the limiting
characteristic plots: a plot of uniform comprehen- state is rock-anchor constructions (a point of an ex-
sive compression up to the stress simulating set cess of charts V V   f  3  on Figure 4) comes
depth, a plot of unloading in a direction of bolting at unloading on axis 3 (in a direction of bolting) on
up to some value at which there is a destruction and size of from 59 up to 89% from initial, that is essen-
a plot before full unloading from stress  3 (out of tial more, than to not reinforced rock (37%). Thus,
limit deformation). If the parameters describing in- for rock-anchor constructions, value of normal
tense-deformed state it is rock-anchor constructions stress in 3.5 times, and the maximal tangents of
and rocks without insert at loading on the first plot stress – in 3.6 times above, than for not reinforced
essentially do not differ, at unloading, values of the rock. Limiting relative deformations for the con-
structions reinforced under locations 3-6, up to 2.1

times above, than for not reinforced rock (for the rocks. The attitude of size of energy deformation to
constructions reinforced under locations 1 and 2, energy of variation of volume for rock-anchor con-
they on 26% below). Values of modules of volumet- structions in a limiting state increases in 18.7 times,
ric deformation, shift and elasticity for rock-anchor in comparison with not reinforced rock that speaks
constructions in a limiting state decrease up to 1.7 about greater power capacity of their destruction
times. In a limiting state dilatancy it is rock-anchor and explain effective composite action of rock and
constructions on 40% less, than for not reinforced anchors on reaction to destruction.



dV/V, unit


0 30 60 90 120
not reinforced rock
scheme 1
scheme 2
scheme 3
scheme 4
scheme 5
scheme 6
S3, МPа

S3, MPa
Figure 4. Charts of variation of relative volumetric deformations (ΔV/V) from stress σ3 at unloading is rock-anchor con-
structions reinforced under various schemes, in the field of out of limit deformation at modeling strength of containing
rocks 30 МPа and depth location up working 1200 m.

About character of destruction and the subsequent speak also charts of dependence of the attitude of
out of limit deformation it is rock-anchor construc- energy of forming to full energy of deformation
tions and not reinforced rock speak values of coeffi- ( A f AF ) from stress  3 at the unloading, pre-
cient Poisson (coefficient of cross deformations).
sented on Figure 6.
You can see from the charts presented on Figure 5,
For not reinforced rock the domination of the
values of coefficients of cross deformation for the
fragile deformation connected with gradual accumu-
constructions reinforced under various locations, in
lation crack of tearing away. As far as approaching
a limiting state change from 0.45 up to 0.48 (0.46
to the area of the complete unloading from stress
for not reinforced rock), that testifies about fragile
 3 , there is an speed-up replacement of fragile de-
character of destruction. Unlike not reinforced rock
for which the coefficient of cross deformation re- formation on plastic. Thus, in not reinforced rock
mains practically to constants up to an instant of full cracks of complex shift are formed, that signifi-
unloading from stress  3 , rock-anchor construc- cantly increases its degree of dilatancy. For rock-
anchor constructions reinforced under various loca-
tions after achievement of a limiting state quickly
tions, already at an initial stage of unloading from
pass in area of plastic deformation.
stress  3 a speed-up growth parts of plastic defor-
So, at unloading from initial value of a stress on
62-84%, all rock-anchor constructions, irrespective mations in cumulative dynamics of their progress is
of the location of reinforcing, are plastically de- characteristic. This process proceeds with practi-
formed down to full unloading from stress  3 that cally constant intensity down to full unloading con-
structions from stress  3 . Thus, relative residual de-
proves to be true in size of coefficient of cross de-
formation from 0.99 up to 1.61 (less than 0.5 is formations in a direction of unloading up to 1.7
characteristic for fragile the destruction not rein- times is more, than for not reinforced rock. Besides
forced rock). About plastic character of deformation reinforcing has allowed to decrease on 70% relative
at rock-anchor constructions in out of limit area variation of volume on an out of limit plot of de-
formation, an event from a proceeding destruction

(scarification) in comparison with not reinforced Despite of about identical gradient of decrease in
rock. It speaks about efficiency of reaction of the stress  1 at reduction of stress  3 for not rein-
rocks connected by anchors in an out of limit state forced rock and rock-anchor constructions rein-
to their further destruction. forced under various schemes, due to fundamental
It is established, that out of limit deformation importance of limiting stress residual strengths of
rock-anchor constructions reinforced under schemes constructions from 3.1 up to 4.5 times more, than
1, 2, 5 and 6 and not reinforced rock, occurs in the for rock. So, residual strength for the best construc-
field of extension with a shear, and the constructions tion reinforced under the scheme 5 makes 0.81 from
reinforced under scheme 3 and 4-in area of a initial. Residual unit values normal and tangents of
stretching. In process of unloading from stress  3 stress for rock-anchor constructions accordingly in
in out of limit area of deformation there is a stress 4.5 and 4.6 times above, than for rock.
reduction of rocks and rock-anchor constructions.
ε3 / ε1

σ3, MPa
Figure 5. Charts of dependence of coefficient of cross deformations (  3  1 ) from stress  3 at unloading rock-anchor
constructions reinforced under various schemes, in the field of out of limit deformation at modeling strength of containing
rocks 30 MPa and depth location up working 1200 m.


not reinforced rock

scheme 1
scheme 2
scheme 3
0,4 scheme 4
scheme 5
Af /АF, unit

scheme 6


0 30 60 90 120
S3, МPа

Figure 6. Charts of dependence of the attitude of energy deformation to full energy of deformation ( A f AF ) from stress
 3 at unloading rock-anchor constructions reinforced under various schemes, at modeling strength of containing rocks 30
MPa and depth location up working 1200 m.



1,МPа not reinforced rock

scheme 1
scheme 2
scheme 4
scheme 5
scheme 6
scheme 3

0 20 40 60 80 100
3, МПа

Figure 7. Charts of dependence of the main stress  1 from stress  3 at unloading rock-anchor the constructions rein-
forced under various schemes, in the field of outrageous deformation at modeling strength of containing rocks 30 MPa and
depth location up working 1200 m.

Figure 8. Charts of variation of the module of volumetric deformation ( K ) from stress  3 at unloading rock-anchor con-
structions reinforced under various schemes, in the field of out of limit deformation at modeling strength of containing
rocks 30 MPa and depth location up working 1200 m.

Apparently from the charts presented on Figure 8, of volumetric deformation for rock-anchor from 5.7
at unloading not reinforced rock and rock-anchor up to 8.4 times it is more than constructions, than
constructions in the field of out of limit deformation for not reinforced rock. Similarly there is a decrease
(from a point of an excess of charts and down to full in values of the module of shift for not reinforced
unloading from stress tension  3 ) there is an accel- rock and are rock-anchor constructions in the field
erated decrease in the module of volumetric defor- of out of limit deformation – Figure 9. It character-
mation that characterizes an increase of their rigidity izes process of slackening and rolling of internal
and decrease in residual strength. More intensively structure of a material of the construction, accom-
this process goes for the constructions reinforced panied by decrease in its strength to action of tan-
under schemes 1-3, more slowly – for reinforced gents of stress and increase of a tribute of plastic de-
under schemes 4-6. Residual values of the module formations.

Figure 9. Charts of variation of the module of shift ( G ) from stress  3 at unloading rock-anchor constructions reinforced
under various schemes, in the field of out of limit deformation at modeling strength of containing rocks 30 MPa and depth
location up working 1200 m.

For rock-anchor the constructions, reinforced under to inclined to a plane of unloading of anchors. Thus,
the schemes 5, on a plot of out of limit deformation, in a material of constructions cracks separation ex-
there is an increase of the module of shift in 1.4 times tend, that is accompanied minimal it scarification,
in comparison to limiting value. For all it is rock- thus residual strength decreases slowly, and the mod-
anchor constructions residual values of the module of ule of recession accepts the minimal values. These
shift from 6.2 up to 13.9 times more, than for not re- data well will be coordinated with results of the re-
inforced rock, that speaks about high efficiency of searches (Alekseev, Revva & Rjazantsev 1989) exe-
strength of constructions to action of shift loads due cuted in IPRF NAS of Ukraine.


not reinforced rock

scheme 1
3000 scheme 2
scheme 3
scheme 4
scheme 5
scheme 6



0 20 40 60 80

Figure 10. Charts of variation of the module of abatement ( M ) from stress σ3 at unloading rock-anchor constructions reinforced
under various schemes, at modeling strength of containing rocks 30 MPa and depth location up working 1200 m.

It is established, that at unloading it is rock- able transition from fragile to more viscous (quasi-
anchor constructions from stress  3 , in out of limit plastic) to character of the deformation, character-
area, at a constant lateral load  1   2 , be observ- ized by accelerated decrease of the module of reces-

sion in comparison with not reinforced rock (see 4.0 times is less, and relative deformations in a di-
Figure 9), by increasing out of limit deformations rection of unloading  3 (see Figure 11) from 11 up
(Figure 11) and conservation of high residual to 65% is more, than for not reinforced rock, that
strength (see Figure 3) is observed, that is character- determine on quasi- plastic character of their defor-
istic for plastic rocks. Apparently from the charts mation in out of limit area.
presented on im.10, value of the module of reces-
sion for rock-anchor constructions from 1.9 up to


60 not reinforced rock

scheme 1
scheme 2
scheme 3
S3, МPа

scheme 4
40 scheme 5
scheme 6


0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2

Figure 11. Charts of variation of stress  3 at unloading, on an outrageous site of deformation, from relative deformations
 3 for rock-anchor constructions reinforced under various schemes, at modeling strength of containing rocks 30 MPa and
depth location up working 1200 m.

At the unloading not reinforced rock from stress in them of cracks of complex shift, and reinforcing
 3 on an out of limit plot of deformation, there is a of 1 anchor radially scheme, minimally resist to this
formation of cracks of complex shift, that signifi- process. For others rock-anchor constructions rein-
cantly increases a degree dilatancy a material at forced under schemes 2-6, wider range of variation
practically constant value of coefficient of cross de- of a deformation state (from compression with shift
formations. Planes of destruction, thus, as a rule, are up to a stretching with shift) is characteristic, that is
parallel to a plane of unloading. For rock-anchor the caused by effective involving in composite action
constructions reinforced under various schemes, at on reaction of deformation angled the located an-
unloading in out of limit area, propagation of cracks chors and rock.
tensile is typical, thus occurs minimal disintegration Besides reinforcing under schemes 4 and 5 allows
(dilatancy) a material, value of coefficient of cross to use to the greatest degree supporting ability of
deformations and relative deformations in a direc- rock-anchor construction due to more recent varia-
tion of unloading increase, thus residual strength tion of a favorable mode of its work (from a defor-
decreases slowly, and the module of recession ac- mation state “compression with shift” up to “stretch-
cepts the minimal values. ing with shift”) at unloading.
Variation of a type of a deformation state is rock- It is established, that the effect quasi-plastic (fast
anchor constructions at unloading in the field of out decrease in size of the module of recession at
of limit deformation and value of the module of re- unloading construction in comparison with not rein-
cession is shown on Figure 12. forced rock) in a greater degree is shown in less sta-
The deformation state of not reinforced rocks and ble rocks (30 MPa) and decreases in process of an
rock-anchor constructions, reinforced under the increase of strength.
scheme 1, at unloading from stress  3 in out of At an increase of depth location the level of the
initial volumetric intense state of rock-anchor con-
limit area, changes in not significant limits (a structions that affects character of their out of limit
stretching with shift). It is connected with progress deformation at unloading raises.


not reinforced rock

scheme 1
scheme 2
scheme 3
scheme 4
scheme 5
scheme 6


-0,6 -0,4 -0,2 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1
Ме, unite

Figure 12. Charts of dependence of the module of recession ( M ) from a type of a deformation state (  ) rock-anchor
constructions reinforced under various schemes, in the field of out of limit deformation at modeling strength of containing
rocks 30 MPa and depth location up working 1200 m.

The out of limit plot of deformation begins with strength has with other things being equal decreased
growth of depth at fundamental importance of a with 0.85 up to 0.77 from initial. It is connected by
stress  3 (so at smaller removal of a face of work- that the anchors having on two orders higher elastic
ing from an installation plot anchor systems), that in properties, than rock, at a stage before limiting de-
turn causes slower decrease in the module of reces- formation of a construction represent concentrators
sion at unloading from stress  3 and more recent of stress which influences within the limits of the
areas on a massif, strengthen destruction (a degree
transition of a construction in area quasi-plastic de- scarification) rocks. At an increase of modeled
formations (intensive decrease in the module of re- depth location up constructions, influence of this
cession and increase of out of limit deformations are coefficient amplifies that in turn and leads to de-
observed at small values  3 , characteristic for prac- crease in residual strength of a construction.
tically full unloading). In turn, fundamental impor- Similar results have been received at tests of
tance of the module in the beginning of a plot of out rock-anchor construction reinforced under other
of limit deformation, right after achievements by a schemes, at modeling strengths of rock 40 both
construction of a limiting state, cause a greater de- 50 MPa and depths of disposition arrangement up
gree of infringement of its initial internal structure 800, 1200 and 1600 m. They allow to draw follow-
that increases a degree dilatancy constructions in the ing conclusions.
field of out of limit deformation and reduces resid- It is established, that constructions reach a limit-
ual strength. So, with an increase of strength of ing state at unloading from radial stress on size of
rocks with 30 MPa up to 50 MPa, a residual strength from 59 up to 91% from initial (for not reinforced
rock-anchor construction decreases on 8%. It is rock at unloading on 25-47%). Thus, values of
connected with an increase of a degree dilatancy in modules of volumetric deformation, shift and elas-
constructions from more durable rocks on a plot of ticity decreased in 2.8 times in comparison with
out of limit deformation. Thus, relative residual de- values to unloading (for not reinforced rocks de-
formations of a construction in a direction of crease made in 1.8 times), remaining on size of up
unloading have increased for 17% and value of co- to 2.3 times it is less, than for not reinforced rock.
efficient of cross deformations – in 1.5 times. Limiting values of normal and maximal tangents of
The increase of modeled depth location up rock- stress were in 4.8 times above, and limiting relative
anchor constructions leads to reduction of their re- deformations of constructions in 1,3 times it is less,
sidual strength. So, at an increase of depth location than for not reinforced rock. Relative variation of
up rock-anchor construction reinforced under the volume for constructions from rocks with strength
location 5, about 800 m up to 1600 m, its residual up to 30 MPa in a limiting state up to 1.7 times is

less, and from rocks strength 40 MPa and more – up ume from a proceeding destruction (scarification)
to 2.4 times above, than for not reinforced rock. The rocks decrease up to 97% in comparison with not re-
attitude of size of energy deformation and energy of inforced rock. It speaks about efficiency of reaction
variation of volume for constructions in a limiting of the rocks connected by anchors in an out of limit
state in 30 times more, than for not reinforced rock state to their further destruction.
that testifies to greater power strength of their de- Similar results have been received at the tests of
struction and speaks effective composite action of real samples of clay slate selected from a adjacent
rock and anchors on reaction to it. roof of a seam m15h of mine “Dobropolskaya”,
It is established, that bolting changes the mecha-
nism of destruction of rocks. At unloading, under which have shown their good convergence with re-
angles up to 30 degree (theoretical value of angle sults of the researches lead on models (a divergence
does not exceed 20%).
45 ±  / 2 ) to a plane of unloading, planes of de-
Thus, as a result of tests it has been established,
struction on which it results from tensile with shift that accommodation in rocks of spatial set of rein-
or tensile are formed. forcing elements allows changing size of the pa-
At the further unloading constructions (an out of rameters, describing structurally-mechanical and de-
limit plot), there is their fast transition in area of formation properties of a rock massif, creating hold
quasi-plastic deformation to coefficient of cross de- up to destruction, afford an opportunity to operate
formation from 0.7 up to 2.2, decrease in values of processes of deformation and destruction of rocks.
the module of deformation and the module of shift
to 2.2 times in comparison with limiting values (ex-
cept for the constructions reinforced under schemes REFERENCES
5, 6 and 7), and their residual (at full unloading)
values up to 22.2 times above, than for not rein- Litvinsky, G.G. 1974. Kinetics of a fragile destruction of a
forced rock. For rock-anchor constructions rein- rock massif in a mine working area. FTPRPI, 5: 15-22.
forced under schemes 5, 6, 7 and 8, on a plot of out Maintenance and carrying out of working of deep mines of
of limit deformation, there is an increase of the Donbass: monograph. 2005. Under the general ed. S.S.
module of shift up to 6.8 times in comparison to Grebenkin. Donetsk: Kashtan: 256.
Vynogradov, V.V. 1989. Geomechanic of management of
limiting value that speaks about increase of strength
state of rock massif in the area of rock working. Kyiv:
of a construction to action of shift loads due to in- Scientific thought: 192.
clined to a plane of unloading of anchors. Residual Kasyan, M.M., Petrenko, Y.A. & Novikov, O.O. 2010.
values normal and tangents of stress for construc- Technique of definition of parametres of anchor rock-
tions up to 4.7 times above, and residual strength up reinforcing systems for maintenance of stability of rock
to 5 times above, than at not reinforced rock also working: STP (02070826) (26319481). Donetsk-
makes from 0.31 up to 0.85 from initial. Relative re- Dobropillja, 27.
sidual deformations it is rock-anchor constructions Novikov, O.O. 2011. Deformation and destruction of
rocks, reinforced by spatial schemes. News of Donetsk
in a direction of unloading reach 0.23 (up to 2.5
Mine Institute. – Donetsk: DonNTU, 1: 45-51.
times more, than for not reinforced rock). Out of Alekseev, A.D., Revva, V.N. & Rjazantsev, N.A. 1989.
limit deformation of all is rock-anchor constructions Destruction of rocks in a volumetric floor compressing
and not reinforced rocks occurs in the field of a voltage”. Kyiv: Scientific thought, 168.
stretching to shift, thus, relative variations of vol-

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

The formation of the finite-element model

of the system “undermined massif-support of stope”

I. Kovalevs’ka, M. Illiashov & V. Fomychov

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine
V. Chervatuk
"DTEK Pavlogradugol" Pavlograd, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The features of the numerical modeling was research by finite element method taking into ac-
count the impact on the development of stress-strain state of the “undermined massif-support of stope”, of
the time and the destruction of its individual elements.

1 INTRODUCTION in the description of materials and the interaction of

individual objects within a single computational
Calculation of the finite element method for model- model.
ing of nonlinear media, under the influence of com- At this stage of development of the finite element
plex stress, is a nontrivial task. Most of tasks of method there are a whole number of software prod-
geomechanics refer precisely to this type. In the ucts, which include computational systems that im-
course of their solution to perform each time to the plement by variety of mathematical methods the
correcting-calculation model on several parameters, wide range of physical problems. These complexes
roughly speaking runs multivariate optimization in have different degrees of flexibility and focus on
previously unknown space of available solutions. different groups of applied tasks. For solve the tasks
The simplest way to correcting the calculation of geomechanics, in various productions, usually
model is its maximum simplification. This ap- used SolidWorks Simulation (COSMOS/M), FLAC
proach, in some cases, ensures quick results of 2D/3D, ABAQUS and ANSYS.
computational experiment. However, one can’t as- Currently, the most ample opportunities for the
sert, that the results are fully adequate for the quali- modeling of materials, conditions of interaction of
tative and quantitative indicators of the real object. objects, the solution of nonlinear problems and tasks
First of all, the simplification of the computa- of mechanics destruction has ANSYS (Chigarev
tional model in tasks of geomechanics associated 2004). Also this software product has a high level
with the exception of factors and nonlinearity of the implementation of numerical algorithms for differ-
medium with a change in SSS (stress-straight state) ent conditions of media behavior and other charac-
system in time. Such calculations using FEM (finite teristics of the modeling. Therefore, implementation
element method) requires a deep understanding of features described below correspond to the tasks of
the laws of behavior of materials under external geomechanics approaches implemented within a
load and significant computational resources. As a computer system ANSYS.
result, the behavior of the “undermined massif-
support of stope” is regarded as a one-stage model
of a physical object. However, under real operating 2 SHOTCRETE AND BLASTING
conditions of extraction workings stresses and
strains in the system are not immediately fixed. On The basis of adequate and mathematically correct
the contrary, during the whole process of exploita- solution of any problem with the help of the nu-
tion of the mining work geometric and mechanical merical grid method is to construct a high-quality
properties are changing, so the distribution of computational grid. In FEM – it is creation of the fi-
stresses and strains should be considered as a proc- nite element model. During this stage it is necessary
ess. Correcting of such calculating models requires to provide two main criteria: the geometric accuracy
considerable resources of time and computing of the description of objects and choice of physi-
power. Become necessary to use different methods cally reasonable parameters of finite elements.
of describing the complicated physical phenomena Geometric accuracy is achieved by selecting the

right combination of geometric shapes and locations are highly resistant to the computation process and,
of points of finite elements. In today's software due to the coverage of relatively large size of the
products, the process of building a finite element computational area, are ensured savings of computa-
grid to varying degrees is automated. However, al- tional resources. At the same time, the tetrahedra are
most all of them used a minimal set of initial condi- good as final elements in areas with possible high
tions, consisting of: linear dimension of a finite stress gradient zones of fracturing and the solution
element and accuracy description of the geometry. of problems of mechanics of destruction.
In fact, these parameters represent the average linear Another feature of a finite element model – is a
dimension of the finite element in the chosen coor- task of singular points in the computational area
dinate system and the maximum permissible devia- (Basov 2002). These points indicate where you want
tion calculated from the surface of the point or edge to set the point of finite element. This approach is
of the model. For complex geometries encountered used to a high degree of accuracy to determine the
in problems of geomechanics, the manipulation of SSS in particular, critically important point of the
these parameters may not always lead to the con- modeling object or to change the terms for grid con-
struction of the grid (Basov 2002). In the construc- struction of defined element of computational area.
tion of the grid in the area of contact frame lining In both cases, well-chosen singular point can sub-
and contour of mining work with a large amount of stantially improve the adequacy of the results ob-
linear elements and a large tolerance can’t get an tained at different steps of the solution.
accurate description of the geometry of the frame, The physical parameters of a finite element
but with a small amount of linear elements and the should be assigned by the order and type of mate-
small dimension of the admission of the whole task rial, described in it (Chigarev 2004). The choice of
may exceed the available computing resources. the order of the finite element allows not only with a
Therefore, the number of computing systems high degree of accuracy to describe the geometric
that implement the finite element method, using an surface of the higher orders, but also to make ap-
approach that is associated with a change in the size propriate calculations of zones of high gradients in
of finite elements in various zones of modeling ob- the stresses and strains arising in the lining cell ex-
ject. Thus, objects that have small linear dimensions pression and processing in the rocks adjacent to its
(Figure 1) (anchors, elements of frame lining, cross- contour.
bar, pit props, powered roof supports, etc.) are de- As you know, all descriptions of physical medium
scribed by finite elements of small size and periph- in finite element method are concentrated in the fi-
eral elements of the computational area is described nite element. In the course of computational ex-
by the large size. This allows us to obtain a satisfac- periments to select the most appropriate for the spe-
tory description of the geometry and reduce the cific calculation of the physical medium. On the ba-
overall dimension of the problem. sis of made choice to describe the desired properties
of the material or materials which, in consequence,
to bind to specific finite element generated for the
computational model. The greatest breadth of capa-
bility in this direction is the editor of materials of
ANSYS (Chigarev 2004).
Versatile software system of finite-element analy-
sis ANSYS, being one of the world leaders in the
field of computer engineering (CAE, Computer-
Aided Engineering), ensure the possibility of solv-
ing linear and nonlinear, stationary and non-
stationary spatial tasks of mechanics of solid defor-
mation and mechanics of construction. At the same
time ANSYS has broad capabilities in dealing with
non-stationary geometrically and physically nonlin-
ear problems of contact interaction of the elements
Figure 1. Modeling of the grid for mining working, includ- of computing area.
ing a frame support. The implementation of ANSYS to describe the
response or reaction to the impact of a complex sys-
Use of tetrahedra and parallelepipeds as the finite tem of different physical nature allows you to use
element within a finite element model can most ade- the same model for solving such problems of bound,
quately realize the stress field under complicated like strength of thermal stress or the influence of
loading. The elements in the form of parallelepipeds magnetic fields on the construction strength.

The rapid growth of computer technology in the with the curvature of a surface of the model and the
early 70s of the twentieth century has allowed a best approximation – displaying its real geometry.
considerable degree of empower ANSYS. The sys- For a simple model commonly used areas of hexa-
tems made a large number of changes were added to hedral elements, and for the rest – tetrahedron.
the nonlinearity of different nature, have introduced
the possibility of using the method of sub-
Solid Solid Additional
construction, greatly expanded the library of finite Model Mesh PREP

elements. In solving problems of geomechanics, the

program offers a wide range of computational tools
that allow you to:
– to consider a variety of structural non-linearity; Graphics
– to solve the most general case of contact inter- Displays ANSYS Database Solution

action for three-dimensional bodies of complex con-

– allow the presence of large (finite) deforma-
tions, displacements and rotation angles; General Time-
– to perform multi-parameter optimization in in- POST POST

teractive mode; Postprocessing

– and much more, along with parametric model-
ing, adaptive grid re-formation, using the elements
and extensive opportunities to create macros using Figure 2. Connection diagram of a central database ANSYS.
parametric design language of ANSYS – APDL.
All functions performed by the program ANSYS, The transition from the hexagonal grid to a tetra-
combined into groups called processors. The software hedral with pyramidal elements is a valuable tool
package has one preprocessor, one processor of solu- for modeling the geometry at the junction of areas
tions, two post-processors and several supports’ proc- with different grid. The researcher has the ability to
essors, with the optimizer. ANSYS preprocessor is automatically stitch the areas without need to enter
used for creating finite element models and options the conditions-limitations or skip the median node
for implementation of the solutions process. The points of elements and avoid the mathematical gaps
processor executes the application solution loads and in sought-for functions.
boundary conditions, and then determines the re- Adaptive grid construction is that after creating
sponse of the computational model. Using a post- the solid model and the boundary conditions,
processor have access to the results of the solution ANSYS generates a finite element grid and per-
and evaluate the behavior of computational model, as forms calculations based on it. Then, estimates the
well as carry out additional calculations. error introduced into the finite element model and
In ANSYS for the entire set of information relat- change the grid size from one solution to the other
ing to the model and the results of the solution, used solution as long as the estimated error is less than a
one, central database (Figure 2). Model information predetermined value or will reach the limited of it-
is stored in the database at the stage of preparation erations.
preprocessor. Load and results of solutions are re- With the help of parametric projecting language
cording by solutions processor. Data obtained on the (APDL) in the solid state module simulation of
basis of the decision at their Postprocessing, written ANSYS runs parameterization of the model. Pa-
in the form describes the level of post-processor. rameters are used as objects from which the per-
The information entered by one of the processors formance of certain procedures is depend on, they
are available, if necessary, for other processors. can control the geometrical dimensions of the
When constructing a grid of high-quality CAD- model, providing an opportunity, in the course of
models ANSYS uses many means of quality control computing experiment, change the size in the fol-
of the grid. In the software package provides four lowing analysis. Attributes of parameterization are
ways to generate the grid: to use the method of ex- entered into the log-file in ASCII format, which
trusion, creation of an orderly grid, creation of arbi- contains all information entered during the work.
trary grid and adaptive construction. The parameters in this file can be changed, then en-
The generators of the arbitrary network have a ter new data into the ANSYS program to rebuild the
wide range of internal and external operating op- model with the correct size. Parametric log-file that
tions of the grid quality. For example, the algorithm uses solid modeling tools of ANSYS software for
is implemented reasonable choice of the finite ele- calculating models creation is especially useful dur-
ment size, allowing building the grid of elements, ing optimizing. By setting the size of the computa-

tional area with parameters in the optimization for large deformations. Fluidity condition of Mises is
process can change the solid-state and finite- used; the Bauschinger effect is not modeled.
element model. In this case, the boundary condi- The model of anisotropic behavior describes of
tions, are applying for a new computational model materials that behave differently in the stretch and
automatically. compression or differently deform in different direc-
Any material creates by selecting from a struc- tions. The use of isotropic hardening allows using
tured list of the required total characteristics and as- this model to determine the work of hardening in
signing them specific values. All possible models of anisotropic material. Use a modified fluidity condi-
physical medium behavior or characteristics of ma- tion of Mises associated law of flow.
terials are divided into logical groups, which are se- Drucker-Prager model is applicable to such
lected by, or on the basis of the exclusion, or on the grainy, granular materials such as rocks, concrete or
basis of superposition, it all depends on the com- soil. Use Mises fluidity condition, depending on the
patibility of selected physical parameters. In the re- medium pressure to modeling the increase in the
sult is a series of spreadsheets to the principle of an limit of fluidity of stress of the material with the full
inverted tree. The main table is a summary list of se- pressure. Law of flow can be associated or no asso-
lected characteristic of a specific material. ciated. Hardening is missing.
The combination of specific relations for the flu- Anand model describes the behavior of metals at
idity condition, flaw of flow and law of hardening elevated temperatures, but can be used at lower too.
defines a particular model of the plastic material be- It is a model of an isotropic material hardening with
havior. In ANSYS modeled the following types of increasing loading rate; a model that is usually sets
plastic behavior: a classical linear kinematic harden- by parameters of state, and not by using the curve
ing, polygonal kinematic hardening, linear isotropic “stress-strain”. Anand model uses Mises fluidity
hardening, polygonal isotropic hardening, the ani- condition with associated law of flow.
sotropic behavior, materials models of Drucker- User’s model can be used to specify any actual
Prager and Ananda. Besides that, the user can define non-linearity behavior of the material. Subprogram
own version of the plastic model. written by user in the language FORTRAN, is intro-
The model of classical linear kinematic hardening duced to the program ANSYS, and user’s model can
describes the behavior of conventional metallic ma- be used with the other.
terials, schematic diagram of an elastic deformation Select the type of calculation determines which of
which has a plot and a plot of linear hardening. This the characteristics of the material to be used in con-
model is applicable to most common, initially iso- struction of particular finite element matrix.
tropic structural metals at the area of low strains.
Used by the induced-modified by Mises’ fluidity
condition and associated law of flow. Manifestation 3 NUMERICAL MODELS
of kinematic hardening is the Bauschinger effect.
Polygonal model of kinematic hardening also ap- In some cases, the solution of nonlinear task of me-
plies to metals, but are more applicable to those of chanics of solid media cannot be performed using one
them, that has figure more than one linear section of type of computational model that is we are talking
hardening. This model employs overlay, or Bessel- about performing the task in several interrelated
inga scheme to describe the complex behavior of stages (Morozov 2010). There are two stages in task
polygonal material by combining the individual re- of geomechanics, if not taken into account the factors
sponses received on the basis of a simple depend- of the original tectonic stress, water production, etc.
ency “stress-strain”. Used a modified by Mises yield The first step is the determination of stresses and
condition and associated flow law. Manifestation of strains of the static load, showing its condition at the
kinematic hardening is the Bauschinger effect. time of ideal contact of set support and contour of
The model of a linear isotropic hardening refers mining opening, formed by rocks of the massif. The
to the common, widely used metallic materials with second stage is to analyze the processes occurring in
linear hardening. It is applicable to isotropic materi- the rock massif during the time. These processes in-
als and in-state deformation significantly preferable clude the rheology of rocks.
to a model with kinematic hardening. Mises fluidity The behavior of the elements of the frame support
criterion is used in conjunction with the equations of (Figure 3) depends on the conditions of the problem.
the theory of Prandtl-Reuss. Bauschinger effect is When modeling has elastic formulation, response of
not taking into account. the lock setting is only possible in recording to dy-
Polygonal model of isotropic hardening describes namic components, which lead immediately to a
the behavior of conventional materials, hardening significant complication of the task, because it re-
with increasing strain, and describes more accurately quires changes in accounting of contact area, and,

consequently, frictional force acting in the lock. In The essence of such a solution is to replace the roof
the elastic-plastic formulation of the task is possible support element, in this case -the lock, with geomet-
to model the behavior of the lock, even without ric objects with physical parameters that allow the
large displacement, to model the behavior of the most complete display required for the modeling of
lock by using the so-called “synthetic” approach. the real characteristics of the object.

(а) (b)

Figure 3. Modeling of the node unit of suppleness of the frame support: (a) geometrically accurate model, and (b) model
of the node unit, providing its mobility without taking an account the dynamics.

In the calculations in the elastic formulation of Changing the calculation model, conclude in choos-
the distribution of stresses and deformations in a ing other rheological characteristics for materials
layered rock massif is usually significantly different used in the computational experiment, can greatly
from the elastic-plastic recording to rheology. As a affect the development process of changing SSS
rule, it is connected with the effect of slip at the system in time (Figure 5). As shown in the figure
boundaries of lithological differences (Figure 4). As presented by the final movement of distribution dia-
on the contacting surfaces of the rock layers are gram of replacement of the circular section contour
modeled two symmetrical non-connected node of the mining opening, passed on the coal seam, and
units, then they move relative to each other a lot surrounded by sandstone, has a different geometry
more in the modeling of the nonlinear environment depending on the application of the same rheologi-
than for the deformable environment with small cal characteristics, only applied to different objects
movements. Thus, it becomes possible mediately of the same computational areas. With an increasing
modeling the local dumped rock into the vesicle of number of rock layers and complication of the ge-
mining opening, without any “synthetic” ap- ometry of the calculating area, influence of the
proaches. rheological properties of materials is only increase,
which together with time factor brings to significant
changes in the distribution pattern of stresses and
strains. So, the localization of zones of possible oc-
currence of cracks can be changed.
The actual physical processes occurring in the
immediately adjacent to the mining opening contour
processing rock massif, include softening and fol-
lowing complete destruction of the rocks. As noted
above, these processes occur over time and require
consideration of nonlinearity of the medium used in
the modeling. That is, the analysis of main cracks
becomes the third final step of solutions to describe
the behavior of the rock massif in the vicinity of
mining opening (Morozov 2002).
Figure 4. Relative slippage of rock layers in the task solu- The implementation of this step is fundamentally
tion of nonlinear definition.

different for the development workings and working in turn means an additional phase of the study with
faces. The basis for these differences is the follow- a modified geometry of the computational area.
ing factors: time of operation, methods of maintain- Cracks, prior to the collapse of the roof in the ex-
ing the original contour of mining opening, the de- cavation face, initially developed by the second type,
gree of mutual influence and the geometry of the starting to grow on the surface of the roof working
section. face, but with the growth of deformations on a verti-
cally oriented cleaved rocks formed in the top of the
development of the crack, confirm to the first type.
Joint development of these cracks leads to the forma-
tion of packs of loose rocks, within which, in conse-
quence, when crossing the front of the crack unit
formed rocks, collapsing in the goaf. Thus, in calcu-
lating the behavior of roof of excavation face involv-
ing mechanics of fracture, task is solved by using two
types of analysis of cracks in the rock massif.
As a result of the calculations performed can be
considered as a separate phase of the quasi-dynamic
modeling with a parametric variation of the lengths
of face drift and the magnitude of bottom-hole drifts
out space in the plane of the working face.

Figure 5. Displacement of mining opening contour with 4 CONCLUSIONS

different ratios of rheological factors of coal and rocks.
The main feature of numerical modeling application
The formation of cracks in the roof, for example, by method of finite element of geomechanics tasks
the drift with circular cross-section is usually a rela- includes in ability to display with high degree of
tively long physical processes taking place in sev- confidence, during the experiment a large number of
eral stages, from which you want to distinguish two features of the behavior of real objects of study. De-
main ones: the development of cracks to the zone of scribed above approaches in dealing with individual
influence of sewage treatment works and the devel- applied task of mechanics of solid environment and
opment of cracks in this zone. In the result of re- fracture mechanics have a wide range of applied
search by SSS of rock massif around the mining possibilities and allow to modeling the development
opening should develop in stages to consider the of SSS system “massif-support” according to the in-
development of cracks in its roof. In the first stage fluence to the time and the destruction of its indi-
main cracks formed along the axis of the mining vidual elements.
opening of the first and second type. Some of these At the same geometrical features and terms of
cracks cease to grow. And some that are in the areas physical processes can be described within a multi-
of maximum gradient of the strain continued to step solution to the task. Each of the steps carried
grow until the meeting in the rock massif, above the out related to the previous and following by instan-
roof of mining opening. In such circumstances, the taneous state of stress and strain of fields, which al-
load to frame support of mining opening begins to lows you to perform an analysis of the results ob-
increase rapidly, which leads to trigger off support’s tained with the smallest possible set of assumptions
locks. and constraints that invariably arise in a phased so-
After entering these cracks in the zone of influ- lution of boundary value problems in mechanics.
ence of sewage treatment works in the crack begins The use of different finite elements allows opti-
to dominate the third type. Moreover, cracks are mizing the dimension of solving tasks and describ-
formed along the cross section of the mining open- ing various local features of the objects. The solu-
ing, or at small angles to this section. The result is tion of spatial task of geomechanics is the surest ap-
cracking system, it is extremely difficult give in to proach to obtain adequate results when analyzing
detailed modeling. Modeling such a system of the state of mining openings and their mutual influ-
cracks requires a certain ranging with increasing ence in the area of sewage treatment works. In this
sampling within a single computational area. This case, the use of second-order tetrahedra as final
leads to the use in the calculation of “synthetic” ap- elements in the areas of greatest stress gradients in
proach to the description of geometric cracking, in- combination with parallelepipeds on the periphery
vestigated in the course of solving the problem. That of the computational area and macro elements in the

areas of destruction of the material makes it possible stress-strain state, taking into account the time fac-
to obtain results with high initial accuracy of com- tor and the possible processes of destruction of rock
putation. massif.
Taking into account of fracturing, and develop-
ment of cracks during the growth of external loads
in the solution of applied tasks, associated with find- REFERENCES
ing the best approaches to solving each particular
case. Themselves within a single crack in the com- Chigarev, A.V., Kravchuk, A.S. & Smalyuk, A.F. 2004.
putational area can be formed and grow in different NSYS for engineers: inquiry book. Moscow: Mashinos-
troenie-1: 512.
patterns. The most common of these are imple-
Basov, K.A. 2002. ANSYS examples and tasks. Moscow:
mented in a numerical form for the finite element ComputerPress: 224.
method. Thus, when analyzing the stability of the Morozov, E.M., Muzeymnek, A.J. & Shadsky, A.S. 2010.
connection of mining opening and working face by NSYS in the hands of the engineer: fracture mechanics.
the method of finite element can be obtained Moscow: LENAND: 456.
mathematically accurate and physically adequate

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Software development for the automatic

control system of deep-water hydrohoist

Y. Kyrychenko, V. Samusia & V. Kyrychenko

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to software creation for the transients modes automatic control systems
of the deep-water hydrohoists. The purpose is reached by means of mathematical simulation on meta-,
macro- and micro- levels of the most typical transient processes in the basic technological units of underwa-
ter equipment. The primary result of the research is the mathematical formulation of hydraulic hoisting basic
elements: metering device, supply and elevating pipes, mixer, pneumatic pipeline, compressor and receiver.
The developed mathematical support describes distribution of shock and kinematic waves in hydraulic
hoist’s pneumatic-hydraulic paths as well as transient processes in the power equipment. It formed the basis
for software development allowing the basic transient processes’ parameters defining for installations with
different productivity and mining depths.


Over the past few decades, the international com- AIRLIFT HYDROHOIST
munity is showing more interest in the development
of mineral deposits of the oceans, where there are 1. “Metering device’s drive” unit is described as fol-
rich deposits of polymetallic ores, the number of lows. The dependence between the output parameter –
which greatly exceed reserves on land. To date, the the frequency of shaft rotation nm  t  and the input
most promising in terms of industrial development,
are deposits of polymetallic nodules, polymetallic setpoint uis  t  is determined by the following differ-
sulphide ores, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts, ential equation solvation (Kyrychenko, Shvorak,
hydrates and phosphorites. The largest companies in Kyrychenko & Yevteev 2010):
the U.S., UK, Canada, Germany are actively work-
ing to develop technical ways and means of extrac- dnm (t )
Ttm  nm (t )  K tm uis (t ),
tion of polymetallic ores from the sea bottom. dt
nm (t )  K tm (1  e )uis (t ) ,
This article focuses on the actual problem – the de-
where Ttm – determined by the curves of transient
velopment of efficient ways and means of mining
ore deposits of the oceans. process of the metering device’s drive by the changing
According to the experts today the most promis- uis (t ) from the rated value uisnom to 1.1uisnom ;
ing way of transportation of mined minerals on the
basic floating craft is a deep-water airlift hydrolift nmnom
Ktm  ,
due to its high rates of reliability in difficult condi- uisnom
tions at great depths.
Below is a fragmental mathematical description where nmnom – nominal metering device’s shaft
of the most typical process in basic technological rotation frequency.
units of underwater equipment. 2. “Metering device” unit has the following de-
scription. Output consumption Qmd  t  is deter-
mined by the formula (Kyrychenko, Shvorak,
Kyrychenko & Yevteev 2010):

Qmd  t   K d 1  nd (t   is ) , Indications of the flow parameters, used in equa-
tions (1)-(4) are deciphered below in order to avoid
where K d 1 – coefficient depending on characteris- repetitions.
tics of solid minerals;  is – delay time when moving The system of equations (1)-(4) is closed with re-
spect to unknown p, V0, V1, C1. The coefficient of hy-
the solids from the bunker into the transport pipe-
draulic resistance during the motion of the pulp п is
line, value of which is determined by the design pa-
rameters of the metering unit and its shaft rotation determined from empirical formulas (Kyrychenko,
Shvorak, Kyrychenko & Yevteev 2010). Distribution
frequency. The input size of the solids ded is deter-
of solid phase concentration kinematic waves in the
mined by the formula first part of the supply pipe is described by a quasi-
ded  K red
 de , stationary model (Kyrychenko 2009):

where d e – average dimension of the solids in the C1 

 1   0   C1V1 1  1  C1 V0  0   0,
d t x 
bunker; K – coefficient of the particle size reduc-

tion by the metering unit. p

 g C1 1  1  C1  0  sin  
3. “Supplying pipe” unit. The input parameters x
for this unit are the output parameters of the “meter-  V
ing device” unit. Taking into account the techno-  п C1 1V12  1  C1   0V02   C1 1V1 1 
2 Dt x
logical scheme of the hydrohoist, supply pipe
should be divided into two sections. The first sec-
tion of pipe transports pulp from the level of the me-  1  C1   0V0 0,
tering device to mixer. Fast wave processes associ- x
ated with the possible water hammer on this site, are C1 C
n 1
described with the transient model (Goman, V0  V1  V 1  C1  ,  VW 1  f ,
Kyrychenko & Kyrychenko 2008): t x

1  C1  p  V0 p    0a02  C1  V0 C1   VW  C1V1  1  C1 V0  V0 1  C1  C1  ,
C1 
 t x   t x 
V0 1
 0 a02 1  C1   0. (1) п  ,
x 1.8 lg Reп   

 p p   C C 
C1   V1   1a12  1  V1 1   4  Q1  Q0   C1 1  C1 
 t x   t x  Reп    ,
 Dt 
 1 0 
 V
 1a12C1 1  0. (2)
x  – absolute roughness of pipe; Qi – volumetric
 C1k1  V0 V0  C1k1 flow rate of components;  i – kinematic coefficient
1  
 2  t  V0 x   2  of viscosity of the components.
 
The movement of sea water in the second section
 V1 V  1  C1  p
  V1 1    1  C1 g sin   of the inlet section of the supply pipe to the level of
 t x   0 x the metering auger is described by the following
n  n 3  C1C x1  equations:
 Vn Vn    V0  V1 V0  V1  . (3)
2 Dt  0 8  R1   p p  2 V0
  V0   0 a0 0,
 t x  x
 1 k1  V1 V1   k1 
 
   2  t  V1 x   1  2    V0 V0  1 p 0
 0      t  V0 x    x   g sin   2 D V0 V0 .
  0 t
 V V  1 p 
  0  V0 0     1 g sin   4. “Mixer” unit. The input parameters are the output
 t x   0 x 0
parameters of the unit “supply pipe”, namely, the flow
rate and pulp density as well as air flow at the output of
3 C x1
 V0  V1 V0  V1 . (4) air line. At the mixer’s output pressure p  t  , flow rate
8 R1

of the pulp Qp  t  and density of the pulp  p  t  are  C1k1 C2 k2   V0 V0 
1  2  2  t  V0 x  
formed. In the general case (Kyrychenko, Shvorak,   
Kyrychenko & Yevteev 2010) C1k1  V1 V1  C2 k 2  V2 V 
  V1   V2 2   (8)
2  t x  2  t x 
p t   p st t   p t  ,
1  C1  C2  p
where p st  t  – static component, calculated by the   0 ,
0 x
method, described in (Kyrychenko, Shvorak,
 1 k1   V1 V 
Kyrychenko & Yevteev 2010). p  t  – oscillatory     V1 1  

 0 2   t x 
component. By qt   1.1qopt and (9)
 k   V V  1 p
p  t   p max  t  sin  kt  , where qopt – calculated  1  1  0  V0 0    1 ,
 2   t x   0 x
optimal specific air consumption; k – oscillation fre-
quency corresponding to the shell flow structure   2 k2   V2 V 
    V2 2  
(Kyrychenko, Yevteev & Romanyukov 2007; Yevteev 
 0 2   t x 
& Kyrychenko 2009). By qt   1.1qopt oscillatory (10)
 k   V V  1 p
component in the mixer has a decaying nature:  1  2  0  V0 0    2 ,
 2  t x   0 x
p( t )  p max ( t )  e  nt  sin  
k 2  n2  t , where

where n – decrement. It should be noted that the  p

0   1  C1  C2  g sin   Vp Vp 
definition of the oscillatory component of pressure 2 Dt 0
in the mixer, for the case when different flow modes
are consecutively changed in the elevating pipe, is 3 C C CC 
  1 x1 V0  V1 V0  V1   2 x 2 V0  V2 V0  V2   ,
an independent research (Kyrychenko 2009). 8  R1 R2 
5. “Elevating pipe” unit. The input parameters are
the same as the output ones of the mixer. Fast wave 1 3 Cx1
processes during the movement of the pulp in the 1   g sin   V0  V1 V0  V1  ,
0 8 R1
elevating pipe are described by the non-stationary
model (Goman, Kyrychenko & Kyrychenko 2008): 2 3 Cx 2
2   g sin   V0  V2 V0  V2  ,
0 8 R2
1  C1  C2  p  V0 p    0 a02  C1  V0 C1  
 t x   t x 
1 1 1  F  1  2  2  F 
   ,    ,
 C C 2  a12 K1 F  p  a22 K 2 F  p 
  0 a 02  2  V0 
 t x 
1 1  0  F  2 Kl
V0     , al  ,
  0 a02 1  C1  C2   0. (5) a02 al2 F  p  0
E1 1 1   2 
 p p   C C  K1  ,  ,
C1   V1   1a12  1  V1 1   
3 1  21  K 2  2  p 
 t x   t x 

V1  p   0  1   2  1  C1  C2   0  C1 1  C2  2 ,
 1a12 C1  0. (6)
 p p   C C2 
Vp 
 0V0  1V1  2V2 .
C2   V2    2 a22  2  V2 
 t x   t x 
K1 , E1 , 1 – the bulk modulus, Young's modulus and
  2 a 22C2  0. (7) Poisson's ratio of solids; K 2 – the bulk modulus of gas
bubbles; Kl – the bulk modulus of elasticity of the
fluid; al – the speed of sound in the pure unbounded

liquid; R1 , R2 – the equivalent radius of solids and gas water-air mixture.
bubbles; k1 , k 2 – coefficients taking into account the 6. “Air line” unit. The input parameters are the
pressure and air flow at the outlet of the receiver
effect of non-sphericity and the concentration of solids compressor station, and output – the pressure and
and air bubbles at the connected mass; g – accelera- the air flow at the mixer inlet.
tion of gravity; a – the pipe angle; Dt – the diameter The water displacement process from the vertical
of the pipeline;  – the coefficient of Darcy; t – time; air-line by compressed air (first stage of the launch)
is described by the following equation (Kyrychenko
C хs , C хa – the resistance coefficients of solids and air
bubbles; Ci – phase volume concentration; p – the
1   d    d2x 2
pressure; i – the true density of the phase; i* – the  1  dx 
1      hi  x1   21  ( K1  K 2 )  1  
g   Dt    dt 2g  dt 
reduced density of phase; Vi – the phase velocity; x – 
longitudinal coordinate. The subscripts denote: “0” – p  pa
 x1  1  0,
water, “1” – solids; “2” – gas bubbles, “ p ” – three- g
phase water-air mixture of groundwater. F – area of
open pipeline section. where
The six equations system (5)-(10) is closed related to 4
 pn
h  h  d 
the unknown functions p , V0 , V1 , V2 , C1 and C2 K1   1  1   pn i  1  i 0    , K 2  x1 ,
d  d   Dt  Dt
and allows to study the non-stationary processes while
motion of a three-phase mixture in the lift pipe. where d – diameter of air line; hi – mixer immer-
Distribution of the kinematic wave of air phase
concentration (see the second stage of the launch) is sion; x1 – the vertical coordinate whose origin co-
described by the quasi-steady model (Kyrychenko incides with the input section of air line, and posi-
2009): tive direction coincides with the direction of air
movement in the air line; Pа – atmospheric pres-
C2 
 0  2   C2V2  2  1  C2 V0  0   0, sure;  1 – the coefficient of local mixer resis-
t x 
tance;  pn , 0 – Darcy's coefficients for the air line
 g C2  2  1  C2  0  sin   and lift pipe filled with sea water.
x The entire air line will be filled with compressed
p air at the end of the first stage of launching. Non-
 C2  2V22  1  C2  0V02  
2D t
stationary isothermal movement can be described by
the following system of equations (Kyrychenko,
V2 V Shvorak, Kyrychenko & Yevteev 2010):
C2  2V2  1  C2   0V0 0  0 ,
x x  p p  2 V2
  V2    2a2 0,
n 1 C2 C2  t x  x
V2  V0  V 1  C2  ,  VW  f ,
t x
 V2 V2  1 p 2
  t  V2 x    x   g sin   2D V2 V2 .
 
VW  C2V2  1  C2 V0  V2 1  C2  C2  , 2 t

C2 
The conventional assumption of process isother-
C d ( pV2 ) mality is hardly acceptable due to the specifics of
f  2  , supplying air system. Therefore, the steady flow in
( pV2 ) dt
the air line can be described by the following equa-
tions considering the temperature variation of com-
  6.81     pressed air (Kyrychenko 1988):
c  2 lg  _ 
 ,
  Rec 3.7 Dt    dp  16M 2 kh RT  8M 22 k h RT gp 16M 2 R dT ,
 2 42
1  2 4 2   пн 2 5

dx1   d p   d p k h RT  d p dx1
4  Q2  Q0   C2 1  C2 
Rec    , 2
 Dt 2 0  16 M 23  k h RT  dp
k т T  T0  dx1  C p M 2 dT  gM 2 dx1  ,
 2d 4 p3
where the m subscript denotes the parameters of

where kт – the linear (per unit length of the tube) where Tc – time constant of the compressor (as de-
coefficient of air to water heat transfer; M 2 – mass termined by the transient characteristics); K tc –
flow of gas; T0 – absolute temperature of the wash- transfer coefficient, calculated by the nominal data
ing line water; k h – coefficient that takes into ac- of compressor station:
count the properties differences between the high Qvknom
pressure compressed air and the properties of an K kc  ,
ideal gas; R – gas constant; C p – mass isobar heat
capacity of air. The mechanism which considers the where Qvknom – air flow at the output of the compres-
change of compressed air temperature which influ- sor station at the nominal discharge pressure and the
ences the dynamics of the air line is described in nominal temperature; ucsnom – nominal setpoint-term
(Kyrychenko 2009).
Metamathematical description of transient proc- of compressor station.
esses in all levels of underwater equipment does not
fit into the limited scope of this article. Therefore,
the authors have to only provide the references to
their works, which are describing the following
The software for the proposed method of automatic
transitional regimes in detail (for example, for
control of deep hydraulic hoisting is developed. It
launching stage):
was used for calculation of basic transient processes
– acceleration of water in the inlet pipe
duration in the core elements of hydraulics system.
(Kyrychenko, Shvorak, Kyrychenko & Yevteev
The calculations were performed in a wide range of
plant productivity and the depths of field develop-
– the lifting of the first portion of the solid mate-
ment areas.
rial to the output section of the lift tube
The developed software “HydroWorks 3p” is de-
(Kyrychenko, 1998);
signed to calculate the dynamics of three-phase
– the “pump – flexible pipes” unit (Kyrychenko,
flows. The software is compatible with SolidWorks
Shvorak, Kyrychenko & Yevteev 2010).
2010/2011 and supports MS Windows Vista (x32,
7. A standard accumulation unit as the modula-
x64) and Windows 7 (x32, x64) operating systems.
tion for a compressible gas form is used for the re-
There are two installation modes: add-in and stand-
ceiver. The receiver is described by the first order
alone. The software includes the following units:
linearized equation (Kyrychenko, Shvorak,
– calculation unit – dynamic link library (dll),
Kyrychenko & Yevteev 2010):
conducting the calculation method;
d Qr – add-in unit – Solid Works integrated dll;
Tr  Qr  Qr , – stand-alone executable unit;
– isualization unit.
where Tr – time constant, which depends on the ini- The next researching step should be the develop-
tial regime. The transfer function of the receiver is: ment of software for calculation of the transition
processes in the elements of underwater mining
1 Q ( p) equipment (collection module with energy unit, a
W ( p)   r , pump unit with a flexible pipe, tank spout with a
Tr p  1 Qc ( p )
screw feeder). The goal of the product is the har-
where Qr  p  – output flow of the receiver; monization and synchronization of parameters of
transient modes with time-varying characteristics of
Qc  p  – productivity of compressor. the bottom block machines.
8. “Station of Compressor” unit description. The
input parameter – the controlling action ucs  t  .
Output parameter – the air flow at the inlet of air-
conduction Qvk  t  . Communication is described by Kyrychenko, Y., Shvorak, V., Kyrychenko, V. & Yevteev,
V. 2010. Dynamics of the deep-water hydrohoists in the
the differential equation (Kyrychenko, Shvorak, ocean mining. Dnipropetrovs’k: State Higher Educa-
Kyrychenko, Yevteev 2010): tional Institution National Mining University.
Goman, O., Kyrychenko, Y. & Kyrychenko, V. 2008. De-
dQvk  t  termining the propagation velocity of pressure waves in
Tc  Qvk  t   K tc  ucs  t  , the elements of deep-water airlift hydrohoist. State

Higher Educational Institution National Mining Univer- Yevteev, V. & Kyrychenko, Y. 2009. Experimental re-
sity. Dnipropetrovs’k: Research bulletin of SHEI NMU, searches of parameters of vertical flow of three-
9. component mixture in airlift hydrohoist. State Higher
Kyrychenko, Y. 2009. Mechanics of the deep-water hydro- Educational Institution National Mining University.
transport systems in the ocean mining. Dnipropetrovs’k: Dnipropetrovs’k: Research bulletin of SHEI NMU, 1.
State Higher Educational Institution National Mining Kyrychenko, Y. 1988. Analysis of compressed air flow in
University. the pneumatic system of the airlift. Dnipropetrovs’k:
Kyrychenko, Y., Yevteev, V. & Romanyukov, A. 2007. State University. Mathematical modeling of heat and
The research of shell flow mode parameters in the ele- mass transfer.
vating pipe of the deep-water airlift. State Higher Edu- Kyrychenko, Y. 1998. Numerical simulation of transient
cational Institution National Mining University. Dni- processes in deep-water airlift. Dnipropetrovs’k: Min-
propetrovs’k: Research bulletin of SHEI NMU, 9. ing mechanics and automatics,1.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Degassing systems rational parameters selection at coal mines

N. Kremenchutskiy, O. Muha & I. Pugach

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: the substantiation is given to coal deposits degassing efficiency increase by means of calcula-
tion method development and optimization of degassing systems basic parameters at methane-abundant coal
mines. Selection of boreholes rational number is carried out based on maximum methane debit provision,
observing limit-permissible concentration of natural gas in degassing system. Total cost of degassing pipe-
line and consumed electro energy by vacuum-pump with specified debit of methane-air mix (MAM) is ac-
cepted as optimization criterion of degassing system parameters.


In coal industry there is an acute problem of occupa- The “Almaznaya” mine of a production complex
tional safety provision. Special attention is paid to “Dopropol’eugol’” has become the object of ex-
mines with high gas inflow where high methane perimental researches of coal seams degassing pa-
concentration repeatedly leads to blow-ups that be- rameters.
come the reason of large-scale accidents. The basic The field of mentioned mine is located in north-
requirement for their prevention is safety rules ob- western part of Krasnoarmeysk coal region of Don-
servation during mining operations. But with in- bass at the territory of Donetsk oblast in Ukraine.
crease of working depth and methane-inflow of coal Based on gas-inflow volume, the mine is considered
seams it is impossible to ensure permissible gas to be extra-dangerous having relative methane-
concentration in the air. Under such conditions de- bearing capacity equal to 32 m3 / t of a daily output,
gassing of gas-bearing coal seams, bearing rocks by coal dust explosiveness - dangerous. At present,
and worked-out areas is an important technological the mine has been developing l3 and m5 seams
process contributing to mining operations safety in-
crease and face output increase. with thickness 1.45-2.5 and 1.0-1.1 respectively.
The aim of the work is to consider and substanti- The seams are not inclined to self-ignition, and they
ate questions connected with coal deposits de- are not dangerous by bursts of coal and gas. Bed-
gassing efficiency increase, development of new ding of the seams is flat having dip angle of 8-12°.
and improving of already existing calculation meth- Biggest part of the host rocks is clay and sand shales
ods and optimization of basic parameters of de- with middle strength and stability values. Continu-
gassing systems: ous prediction of outburst hazard is carried out dur-
– to perform natural researches of degassing sys- ing development of l3 seam at depth of 600 m.
tems defining dynamics of methane capture value Development method of the mine field is panel-
and methane-air mix consumption that come into wise, mining method – by long pillars along the
degassing network; strike. Ventilation scheme of the mine is central-
– to establish correlation dependences of de- flank, ventilation method – exhaustive. Degassing
gassing parameters and equation of regression based of underworked coal seams and worked-out area is
on natural observations and statistic materials de- implemented during development of l3 seam at
pending on mining-technical conditions;
– to improve calculation methodology and bore- “Almaznaya” mine.
holes number optimization, and distance between Natural observations are carried out at the extrac-
them providing maximal total methane debit cap- tion area of the 5th north longwall face of southern
tured at production, unit taking into account permis- stone incline (SSI) of l3 seam at horizon of 550 m.
sible methane concentration in gas pipeline; In order to decrease methane release at this area the
– to develop methodology focused on pipeline di- degassing of underworked coal seams is provided
ameter optimization based on economic indices for
by means of boreholes drilling into the l4 н seam.
all parts of the pipeline that are included in the de-
gassing network. The boreholes are drilled from the filled ventilation

drift after the longwall advance and with turning outgrowth (“candle”) with diameter of 250 mm and
toward longwall face. Length of the degassing bore- height – 2 m installed at the end of the pipeline for
holes makes up 34 m. Turning angle between per- gas suction from the worked-out area. “Candles” are
pendicular that is drawn to the drift axis and bore- installed every 16-24 m.
hole projection on the horizontal plane is   65 ; Together with underworked coal seam degassing,
borehole inclination angle to the horizon is  15 . isolated capture of methane from the ventilation
drift dead-end is implemented. Capture of methane-
Distance between the boreholes is 8 m.
air mixture is carried out along metallic pipeline
Methane-air mixture coming into the degassing
with 800 mm diameter. From the worked-out area
boreholes is pumped out with help of surface vac-
isolated from the working by chump plug, methane
uum-pump station equipped with four pumps of
is sucked out by gas-suction unit equipped with
VVN-150/2 type. As the boreholes collars are un-
VMCG-7 fan. The fan is located in special chamber
derworked by the longwall face they get discon-
located at the 4th northern conveyor drift SSI (south-
nected from gas pipeline and shut by chump plugs.
ern rock incline) of 550 m horizon of l3 seam be-
Area gas pipeline consists of pipes with diameter
of 325 mm except for the adjoining to the longwall tween an incline and northern foot-way.
area having length of 100 m, where gas pipeline di- Methane-air mixture is supplied from the fan into
ameter is equal to 100 mm. Parallel to this area a the mixing chamber located at northern foot-way of
pipeline with diameter of 100 mm is laid and it is southern rock incline above the 4th conveyor drift.
designed for gas suction from the worked out area Degassing scheme of an extraction area is shown
thanks to degassing column left in the caved ventila- on Figure 1.
tion working. There is a perforated vertical pipe

Figure 1. Degassing scheme of the 5th northern longwall of SSI of l3 seam at “Almaznaya” mine. *UVPU – underground
vacuum-pump unit.

3 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES I i  a1e a2 Li  a3e a4 Pi ,

In given mining-geological and mining-technical where a1 , a2 , a3 , a 4 – regression coefficients.
conditions the faces of degassing boreholes do not
After experimental observations processing, the fol-
reach full unloading zone of an adjoining seam from lowing values of correlation coefficient and value of re-
rock pressure, where the spot with maximum meth-
liability are gained for the following dependences:
ane release is located. In this case, methane debit
captured by i-th degassing borehole is most reliably – P  f L   rPL  0.85 at   20.8 ;
described by the following exponential dependence – c  f L   rcL  0.97 at   92.8 ;

– Q  f L   rQL  0.73 at   11.1 ; I i  0.1947e 0.0743 Li .
– I  f L   rIL  0.95 at   52.7 ;
Graphical illustration of the given dependence is
– Q  f I   rQI  0.23 at   1.8 ; shown on Figure 3. An average approximation error
– I  f P   rIP  0.71 at   9.4 ; is 14.9%.
– Q  f P   rQP  0.98 at   191.7 ;
– I  f L , P   R  0.968 ;
– Q  f L, P   R  0.999 .
Thus, the above-mentioned dependences have
close correlation connection. The exception is
Q  f I  dependence at which value of  is less
than the required one (   2.6 ). This is substanti-
ated by a wide scatter of points toward different di-
rections along axis of ordinates at small values of
Under conditions of an extraction area of the 5th Figure 3. Dependence diagram of methane consumption on
the distance between the borehole collar and longwall.
northern longwall of SSI of l3 seam the regression
equation looks like When defining dependence of the debit of meth-
0.0956 Pi ane captured by the borehole on the distance from
I i  0.4665e .
borehole collar to longwall in the shape of polyno-
mials of the 2nd and 3rd degrees for the conditions of
the 5th northern longwall, the following regression
equations are received:
I i  0.0002 L2i  0.0121Li  0.1911 ;
I i  7 10 6 L3i  0.0005L2i  0.0154 Li  0.2001 .
The average error of approximation for these
equations is 23.7 and 16.4% correspondingly. Re-
ceived results testify about the possibility to use re-
quired type of description of an equation depending
on its practical usage.
Figure 2. Dependence diagram of methane consumption on After initial data processing, the following equa-
depressurizing in the collar of degassing borehole. tions are established:
1. Depression in the borehole collar, methane
In order to solve the set tasks, the evaluation cri- concentration and methane-air mixture consumption
terion of an approximation permissible error is ac- dependence on the distance between degassing
cepted as   15-20%. Average approximation error borehole collar and longwall (Figure 4).
for this equation makes up 32.3%. Relatively high
calculations error is substantiated by a considerable
influence of the factors not taken into consideration
by the given dependence. One of these factors is the
factor of an inter-location of the borehole collar and
longwall face line.
Dependence of methane debit captured by i-th
borehole, from the borehole collar to the longwall is
presented by the following exponential equation

I i  b0 e b1Li .
For the conditions of an extraction area of the 5th
northern longwall of SSI of the l3 seam the last Figure 4. Dependence diagram of methane-air mixture
consumption on distance between borehole collar and the
equation will have a look longwall.

2. Methane-air mixture dependence on methane traction area and distance between them foresees
debit in a borehole collar. gaining of maximal total debit of the methane cap-
3. Methane-air mixture consumption dependence tured at the area. There are limiting conditions that
on depression value in the borehole collar (Figure 5). affect this task:
а) methane concentration in degassing pipeline is
below the permissible one;
б) methane concentration in the borehole collar is
lower than the set value.
Scanning method is used during this task solving.
The result of calculations – values of lopt and nopt
at which the condition  I j  max is provided.
j 1
Based on the above-mentioned methodology, cal-
culations have been made for conditions of the 5th
northern longwall of southern rock incline of l3
seam at “Almaznaya” mine.
Figure 5. Dependence diagram of methane-air mixture Value of degassing efficiency coefficient of adja-
consumption on depression in degassing borehole collar. cent seams during borehole drilling from the mine
working that is backfilled after the stope advance,
Regression equation of the above-mentioned can reach 0.4 (Degassing... 2004).
dependences are presented below: Based on the mining-geological and mining-
– P  12.258e 0.0307 L ; technical conditions at an extraction area, area
length L is accepted as such that characterizes
– c  33.827e 0.087 L ; maximal distance of collar from the area along
– Q  0.5583e 0.0123 L ; movement of borehole methane-air mixture from
the stope line (for conditions of the 5th northern
– Q   0.3534 I  0.6633 ;
longwall with L  25m ). After that, possible num-
– Q  0.0165P  0.3433 . ber of simultaneously working boreholes nb is ac-
Average error of approximation for given equa-
cepted and distance between the boreholes is calcu-
tions makes up 12.9; 14.9; 7.2; 14.0 and 3.2% corre-
lated based upon the following formula
Debit of methane captured by degassing borehole L
ld  , m.
considering distance change from the borehole col- nb
lar to longwall and depression in it under conditions
of the 5th northern longwall of SSI of l3 seam is de- For above-mentioned area the boreholes number
changes from 2 to 5 at distance between them equal
scribed by the following regression equation
to 12.5; 8.3; 6.3 and 5.0 m correspondingly.
After individual methane debit determination for
I  0.1799e 0.07102 L  0.00178 P .
each borehole, total methane consumption captured
An average error of approximation for this equa- by simultaneously working boreholes is calculated.
tion is equal to 21%. In connection with the fact that when the boreholes
Dependence of methane-air mixture consumption n
on borehole collar distance to longwall and depres- collars approach stope line, the value of  Ii in-
i 1
sion in degassing borehole:
creases and during calculation total methane debit
Q  0.226834I  0.016657 P  0.316527. for two positions is defined:
а) collar of the first borehole based on the meth-
Average error of approximation – 2.2%. ane-air mixture movement direction is located at a
distance ld from longwall  Ii ;
NUMBER AND DISTANCE BETWEEN THEM б) collar of the first borehole is located at the be-
ginning of coordinates, i.e. at the level of stope line –
Solution of the task focused on rational boreholes n
number selection that work simultaneously at an ex-  Ii* .
i 1

Final result of total methane debit for the given The calculations results for conditions of the 5th
borehole number is an average value of total methane northern longwall of SSI of l3 seam at “Almaznaya”
debit calculated according to the next formula mine are shown in Table 1.
n n
 Ii   Ii
i 1 i 1
 Ii  , m3 / min.
i 1 av 2

Table 1. Results of degassing parameters calculations at an extraction area.

Number of boreholes
Parameters of 2 3 4 5
degassing network Distance between the boreholes, m
12.5 8.3 6.3 5.0
I 0 , m3 / min 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
I1 , m3 / min 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.4
I 2 , m3 / min 0.3 0.6 0.8 1.0
I 3 , m / min – 0.3 0.5 0.7
I 4 , m3 / min – – 0.3 0.5
I 5 , m3 / min – – – 0.3
Q0 , m / min 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
Q1 , m3 / min 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.7
Q2 , m3 / min 4.7 4.2 4.0 3.9
Q3 , m / min – 4.7 4.3 4.2
Q4 , m3 / min – – 4.7 4.4
Q5 , m3 / min – – – 4.7
c0 , % 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.2
c1 , % 20.4 28.9 34.5 38.3
c2 , % 7.2 14.4 20.4 25.2
c3 , % – 7.2 12.1 16.6
c4 , % – – 7.2 10.9
c5 , % – – – 7.2
c pl.1 , % 20.4 28.9 34.5 38.3
c pl.2 , % 13.3 21.3 27.2 31.5
c pl.3 , % – 16.1 21.8 26.2
c pl.4 , % – – 17.7 22.1
c pl.5 , % – – – 18.7
 Ii , m3 / min 1.2 2.1 3.0 3.9
i 1
 I i* , m3 / min 2.9 3.8 4.7 5.6
i 1
Average total debit 2.0 2.9 3.8 4.8

Following the gained results: as the boreholes Pi 2   i Li Qb2.i , GPa;
number increases, total methane debit grows by
linear dependence and methane concentration in
degassing pipeline – by logarithmic dependence.
 i  0.52ci0.17 d i5.35 , GPas2 / m7;

Qb.i  Qi Qi 1 , m3 / s,
DIAMETER OPTIMIZATION where  i – specific aerodynamic resistance of an
i-th area of pipeline, GPas2 / m7; Qi , Qi 1 – meth-
In order to increase income of an enterprise at pro-
duction prime cost reduction, expenses for purchase ane-air mixture consumption at initial and end
and maintenance of exploited equipment must be points of an i-th area correspondingly, m3 / s.
minimized. During coal seam degassing the selec- Methane-air mixture consumption at the end point
tion of optimal degassing pipeline diameter is the of an i-th area of pipeline is defined by the follow-
necessary condition for creation of efficient de- ing formula:
gassing process and provision of minimal expendi- Qi 1  Qi  aLi , m3 / s,
tures for purchase of pipeline and electrical energy
needed for vacuum-pump in order to move meth- where a – specific value of air inflow into
ane-air mixture along the pipeline. degassing pipeline, m3 / s, that, according to the
As an optimization criterion, total cost of de- manual (Degassing... 2004) is accepted to be equal
gassing pipeline and consumed by the vacuum- to 1.6710–5 m3 / s. With known factual consump-
pump electro-energy is accepted with specified tions of methane-air mixture, specific value of
debit of methane-air mixture. inflow at an i-th area is defined by the following
Electro-energy consumption needed to move gas- formula
air mixture along degassing pipeline is defined by
formula (1) and its cost by formula (2). Qi 1  Qi
ai  , m3 / s.
Qb.i Pi 2
Ei   24  365  ti , Kw·h, (1)
10 The authors of this paper have gained linear de-
pendence of gas pipes cost on their diameter in a
ci0.17 d i5.35 Li ti Qb3.i shape of the following equation: k т  f  bd i . This
K e.i  454  K k , UAH, (2)
 equation is fair at diameter d i change in range of
where Ei – electro-energy consumption required to [0; 0.5]. At big diameter values, the total pipes cost
of an i-th area of degassing pipeline should be cal-
move methane-air mixture along an i-th area for all
culated based on the following equation
service life of the pipeline, Kw·h; Qb.i – average-
geometrical air consumption at an i-th area of the  
K pl.i  Li bd i2  f d i  k  , UAH,
pipeline taking into account air inflows, m3 / s;
Pi 2 – square-law losses of pressure at an i-th area where b , f  , k  – empirical coefficients.
When defining optimal pipe diameter of gas pipe-
of the pipeline, GPa; ti – pipes service life at an i-th
line, taking into account cost of the pipeline and
area of the pipeline, years; 24 – number of continuous electro-energy consumed by vacuum-pump, the aim
working hours of vacuum-pumps a day; 365 – num- function will have the following look:
ber of days in a year; 10 – correction coefficient con-
sidering measuring units of used values;  – effi- n

ciency of vacuum-pump; ci – methane content in a

 
 K e.i  K pl .i  min ,
i 1
drawn off mixture at an i-th area of the pipeline, %;
where n – number of pipeline areas in degassing
d i – diameter of an i-th area of the pipeline, m; Li –
network of a mine.
length of an i-th area of the pipeline, m; K k – cost of In order to introduce some restrictions the task is
1 Kw·h of electro-energy, UAH. considered with respect to specific degassing system
Determination of square losses of pressure in (Figure 6).
pipeline and average-geometrical air consumption at
an i-th area of degassing network is calculated by
the following equations:

As the restrictions during solving of an optimiza-
tion task, the following system of equations are

 Pw  Pc
 1 1
 2  1L1Qb21   3 L3Qb23   4 L4Qb24  Pper ;

 Pw1  Pc1  2  1L1Qb21  Pw2  Pc2 2   2 L2Qb22 .
The set task of the gas pipes diameter optimiza-
tion is solved by method of Lagrange. Lagrangian
function in expanded form:
Figure 6. Scheme of the mine degassing network.

4 c0.17di5.35Li tiQb3.i 
 
Ld1 ,d 2 ,d3 ,d 4 ,1 ,2    Li bdi2  fdi  k  454 i
i1 
Kk   1 Pw1  Pc1
2  0.52c10.17d15.35L1Qb21 
 0.52c3 0.17 d 3 5.35 L3Qb2  0.52c4 0.17 d 4 5.35 L4 Qb2  Pper
3 4
   P
2 w1  Pc1 2  0.52c1 0.17 d15.35 

 L1Qb2  Pw2  Pc2
2  0.52c20.17 d 25.35 L2Qb22  . (3)

During solving the task focused on pipeline di- 6 CONCLUSIONS

ameter optimization, the equation (3) will be pre-
sented by the following system of equations: Natural researches of degassing systems are per-
formed with determination of methane and meth-
 L ane-air capturing value. Based on natural observa-
  d  0; i  1  4;
 i tions in conditions of coal mines extraction areas,
 (4) dependences of degassing parameters on mining-
  L  0; j  1; 2. technical conditions are defined, their reliability and
   j
adequacy evaluation is done, and also close correla-
The roots of received system of equations define tion connection is established.
The authors have developed original methodology
stationary point ( d1opt , d 2 opt , d3opt , d 4 opt ).
of rational boreholes number determination that pro-
After differentiation and conversions, the system vides maximal total methane debit when discon-
of equations (4) is solved by one of the calculation nected from boreholes degassing network in which
methods, as a result of which it is possible to deter- (boreholes) methane concentration in the mixture is
mine optimal pipes diameters at the gas pipeline ar- less than the permissible value.
eas ( d1opt , d 2 opt , d3opt , d 4 opt ). Also the result of researches is the developed
Versatility of the developed methodology lies in methodology of degassing system parameters optimi-
the following: as the number of extraction areas, at zation taking into account costs of the pipes and elec-
which degassing is carried out, grows, the algorithm tro-energy consumed by vacuum-pumps in order to
of the task solving remains the same. In this case, move methane-air mixture along the pipeline.
only number of equations that describe degassing
system changes and are subject to joint solution dur-
ing optimal diameters determination at degassing REFERENCES
pipeline areas.
Degassing of coal mines. Requirements for methods and
schemes of degassing. SOU 10.1.00174088.001-2004.
2004. Kyiv: Mintopenergo of Ukraine: 162.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Analysis of stress-strain state of rock mass

while mining chain pillars by chambers

V. Buzylo & A. Yavorsk’yy

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine
V. Yavorsk’yy
Union of coal industry Dnipropetrovs’k territorial organization, Pavlograd, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: In order to analyze stress – strain state of the “roof-pillars-ground” system calculation algo-
rithm was developed, which is based on boundary element method and analytical solution of Kelvin task.
This geomechanical problem is solved in additional stresses. Non-linear multiple correlation analysis of re-
sults allowed to find out the regression equation for the maximum values of roof and ground convergence in
percentage of seam thickness.

1 TOPICALITY OF THE WORK individual bonding.

In all the cases of stipulating parameters of the
Ukraine’s power strategy up to 2030 foresees con- accepted development systems thorough research of
siderable increase of coal percentage in Ukraine’s geological and mechanical processes, occurring in
fuel and energy complex. In this connection extrac- the rocks massif around the block of chambers and
tion of thin seams and chain pillars with the thick- coal pillars, are necessary.
ness of 0.6…1.2 m where the exploited coalfields
contain up to 70% of conditioned coal deposits has
become one of the most urgent problems. The com- 2 LEVEL OF THE ISSUE DEVELOPMENT
plexity of solving it at the mines of West Donbass
Region is explained by specific mining and geologi- Various aspects of coal seam destruction and weak
cal conditions. The coal in this region is solid enclosing rocks on the periphery of breakage
enough (strength coefficient according to M.M. Pro- heading are considered in the works of O.V. Ko-
todyakonov is f  2.0...3.5 ) and bearing strata – lokolov, A.F. Kurnosov, N.A. Lubenets, A.N. Zorin,
argillites, siltstones and sandstones are weakly sta- V.G. Kolesnikov and others.
ble ( f  0.8...2.5 ). Therefore, previously used au- And with it in most of the modern methods the
pillars are calculated without taking into account the
gers in these conditions turned out to be of little ef- time factor and separately from the roof and ground.
fect: cutting units often did not cope with solid coals It is considered that they are loaded evenly with the
and due to weak stability of rocks it was necessary weight of strata up to the surface, which is incorrect
to insert wide pillars between the stalls. The situa-
in case there are pillars of various width. The hy-
tion somewhat improved after transferring to setting pothesis of bridging of M.M. Protodyakonov
BZM-1M use with the improved cutting units but (A.A. Borysov, G.Ye. Gulevych, S.V. Vetrov,
coal loss remained to be considerable. P.P. Korzh and others) is also applied but for deter-
Coal extraction of row or block of chambers with mining the size of roof failure the data obtained by
retaining relatively narrow inter- chambers pillars the means of natural observations are required.
and retaining quite wide support pillars between the Roofing is mainly calculated according to the
blocks could be more expedient under the present scheme of the beam the size of the span of which
conditions. With the purpose of reducing losses it is
depends on the width of the chambers block and the
expedient to minimise the size of the inter-chamber angle of failure of the roofing rocks (Yu. A. Mode-
pillars allowing their crushing after the block re- stov, S.G. Borysenko, Ye.I. Kamskiy, Yu.B. Gube-
moval. nin and others). It also requires conducting mining
In these conditions it is possible to use more effi- or laboratory research.
cient equipment, for instance, “Dnepr” coal-cutting For the considered mining-geological conditions
combiner, in case of supporting stall roofing with it is impossible to use analytical ways of solving flat

problems of geomechanics on massifs, weakened by prescribed conditions on the contours of the stopes.
finite number or infinite number of planes of vari- The calculation is carried out on the action of forces
ous delineations, as all of them are received for ho- of rocks weight. The model of linear creeping is
mogenous environments not taking into account used with Abel’s kernel. The set task of geomechan-
rheological properties of rocks (G.N. Savyn, L.D. ics is solved with additional stresses. Complete
Shevyakov, D.I. Sherman, A.S. Kosmodamyanskiy, stresses are placed as equal to the sum of the initials
V.V. Rahymov, L.I. Ilshtein and others). contained in the massif till the beginning of working
Although numerous ways of solving problems out (at any point and at infinity in vertical direction
carried out by well-known numerical methods of fi-
nite and boundary elements relate to nonuniform
 0  H
it is  yy and in horizontal position it is
environments, they take into account common roof,  xx 0  H ; bulk density of rock is t / m3;
pillars and ground deformation, including time pa-
rameters, relate to concrete technological schemes,    / 1   is coefficient of lateral bearing reac-
concrete mining and geological conditions (Zh.S. tion;  is Poison’s rock coefficient) and additional
Yerzhanov, T.D. Karymbayiv, Yu.M. Liberman, ones stipulated by formation of cells and inter-
A.V. Usatenko, L.V. Novikova, Ye.A. Sdvyzhkova chamber pillars. As full stresses constitute zero on
and others) and also cannot be applied for stipulat- the chambers edges, additional stresses are known
ing parameters of heading-and-chamber method in on these chambers edges, which is taken into ac-
case of availability of solid coals and soft rocks. count while creating initial system of equations.
Another very important aspect the researchers The main stages of calculation are:
have not paid much attention to is probabilistic na- – approximation of the limits of the researched
ture of changing physical and mechanical qualities area with finite elements and setting boundary con-
of heterogeneous massif of soft rocks. The present ditions in each of them;
factor is determining not only in the process of – introduction in each finite element unknown fic-
evaluating stress-strain state of rocks massif itself titious normal Py and tangential Px uniformly dis-
but also while solving problems, connected with re- tributed loads;
liability evaluation of equipment and technology of – conveying stresses and displacements in each
carrying out second working (K.F. Sapytskiy, finite element through unknown “fictitious” loads
S.M. Lypkovych, N.N. Lebedev and others). Px and Py with the help of analytical solving of
the problem of Kelvin, calculation of influence co-
3 THE MAIN PART efficients, formation of the system of equations for
determining Px and Py ;
In the present work for increasing reliability of the – solving the obtained system of algebraic (in the
projected chamber system of developing probabilis- developed algorithm the method of Gauss is used),
tic nature of physical and mathematical characteris-
calculation of loads Px and Py , providing for per-
tics of rocks was taken into account, which was
stipulated by heterogeneity of the massif and their forming of the set boundary conditions along with
changing in course of time. the real load from the weight of the rocks;
Increasing the sizes of inter-chambers pillars rap- – calculation of stresses and displacement on the
idly enhances exploitation losses of the natural re- edges and at any inner point of the researched area
source. It stipulates the necessity of either introduc- with the help of the determined fictitious loads ac-
ing the systems of development with laying of the cording to the method of superposition.
worked-out area or advancing constructive schemes Thus, the initial system of equations is formed
and parameters of chamber system. with the help of the following correlations:
In both cases it is necessary to conduct thorough – for navigation in vertical and horizontal direc-
analysis of stress-strain state of “roof-pillars- tions:
ground” system. N N
For this purpose the authors developed calculat- u iy   B ijyx Pxj   Bijyy Pyj ,
ing algorithm, grounding on method of boundary j 1 j 1
elements and analytical solving of Kelvin’s prob-
lems (Krauch & Starfield 1987; Buzylo & Yavor- N N
u ix   Bxx
ij j ij j
Px   Bxy Py ; (1)
skiy 2011). The initial equations systems for deter- j 1 j 1
mining stresses and displacements in the researched
area of the massif on the periphery of stopes and in- – for the corresponding stresses:
ter- chambers pillars row is formed according to the

N N ing of the indicated values:
 iy   Аijyx Pxj   Аijyy Pyj ,
j 1 j 1 E y / Er  0.15; 0.39; 1.25,  r H /  c  y  0.05;
 xi  ij j
 Аxx Px   ij j
Аxy Py . (2) 0.11; 0.23; 0.36, a / b  1.55; 1.75; 2.33; 3.50;
j 1 j 1 4.66, b / m  0.4; 0.5; 0.6; 0.8; 0.9; 1.0; 1.2; 1.5;
In correlations (1) and (2) N – is the number of fi-
The height of chambers and pillars was equal to
nite elements; Bijyx , Bijyy , Bxx ij
, Bxy – navigation the thickness m of the extracted seam.
ij Moduluses of elasticity of rocks according to the
influence coefficients; Аijyx , Аijyy , Аxx ij
, Аxy –
accepted deformation model were determined
stress influence coefficients. through the known creep function, taking into ac-
The formula used for determining influence coef- count the fact that full technological cycle of proc-
ficients obtained with the use of the above men- essing one chamber with the width of 2.1 m and
tioned analytical method of solving, are included in length of 30 m with an auger constitutes 6 hours.
monograph (Novikova & Ponomarenko 1997). According to the data of VNIMI the parameter of
The researched area of the rock massif includes coal and rocks creeping  is assumed as equal to
three stopes, two support and two inter-chamber pil- 0.7, and the parameters  of argillite, siltstone,
lars. Mining and geological conditions of PLC sandstone and coal correspondingly had the follow-
“DTEK Pavlogradugol” mines are considered. ing values:
Deposition of coal strata are presented in this mine-
field with argillites and siltstones, locally with sand- 1.17 10 2  c 0.3 , 5.54 10 3  c 0.3 ,
stone and numerous coal seams. The position of 3.28  10 3  c 0.3 , 2.32 10 3  c 0.3 .
rocks and coal seam is flat. Deposition of covering The considered combinations of values of the
stratas us represented by sands, clays and loams above listed parameters from possible intervals of
with the total thickness of 120 м. Coal seams with their varieties constituted 180 calculative variants.
different thickness ranging from 0.55 m to 1.28 m Nonlinear multiple correlated analysis of the ob-
lie at different depths – from 90 m to 480 m. At tained data performed according to the known
various mines roof and ground of the seams are con- method (Lvovskiy 1982) allowed to determine
structed with above listed rocks, breaking point of equations of regression foe maximal values of ap-
which for compression  c r equals the value of proach of roof and ground in percentage of the seam
the interval of 8...40 МPа, and moduluses of elastic- thickness:
ity E r – to the interval of 0.1104...2.26104 МPа. u y  rH
Mean value of volume density and the coefficient of  0.965  6.739 
Poisson of country rocks constitute correspondingly
m  с  y
 r  2.65 t / m3,  r  0.3 . Ey  a b
 1.044  0.640  1.195  , (3)
Coal characteristics with variation coefficient of Er  b m
V  0.25 have mean values of:  y  1.47 t / m3,
as well as for correlation of maximal stretching
E y  3.5 10 3 МPа,  c r  35 МPа,  y  0.4. stresses  xx in the roof to  r H :
The width of the processed pole is determined ac-
cording to the formula: A  na  n  1 b , where
 xx roof a
 0.284  0.116 
b – width of inter-chamber pillar, m; a – the width  rН b
of the chamber, m; n – the number of chamber in b  Еy 
the allocated block.  0.00874  0.0934  . (4)
m  Еr 
Parameter A had the following value in calcula-
tions: 4.8...8.7 m, and the width of the supporting For inter-chamber pillars the following correla-
pillar b1 was assumed as equal to 2b . tions have been obtained:
Thus, initial data to calculation are physical-
mechanical E y / Er ,  r H /  c  y and geometrical  yy max
 3.555 
a / b and b / m parameters are of probabilistic na- rH
ture. Therefore calculation according to the devel- Ey  a b
oped algorithm was carried out with different mean-  1.736  1.130   0.523 ;
Er  b m

 eq max 4 CONCLUSIONS
 1.344 
rН The obtained correlations (3)-(6) are aimed at iden-
tifying parameters of the projected chamber systems
a  Еy  b of sloping coal seams development in soft rocks. In
  0.296  0.591  0.665 , (5)
b Еr m particular, according to them rational parameters of

coal augering in the conditions of West Donbass
where  yy max  max
and  eq – normal  yy and Region mines ( m  0.8 m; H  160 m; a  2.1 m;
b1  1.2 m; b  0.6 m).
equivalent  eq stress in the dangerous section of
Industrial testing at the PLC “DTEK Pavlo-
the pillar. Equivalent stress was determined accord- gradugol” has proved their efficiency.
ing to the criterion of P.P. Balandin:

 eq 
1   1   3   ,
Krauch, S. & Starfield, А. 1987. Methods of finite elements
1  2 1   3 2  4  12   32   1 3  in mechanics of solids. Moscow: Mir: 328.
 , Novikova, L., Ponomarenko, P., Prykhodko, V. &
2 Morozov, I. 1997. Methods of finite elements in prob-
lems of mining geomechanics. Dnipropetrovs’k: Science
where  1 and  3 – maximal and minimal main and education: 178.
stresses;    p /  c ;  p and  c – limits of rock Recommendations on calculation of edge displacement
and loads on the mine working support according to ex-
strength for extension and compression. perimental indicators of rock deformation beyond the
For the considered rocks   0.1 . breaking point. 1982. Leningrad: VNIMI: 36.
For the support pillars there is the following cor- Lvovskiy, Ye. 1982. Statistical method of creating empiri-
cal formula. Moscow: Vyschaya Shkola: 223.
Buzylo, V., Yavorskiy, V., Koshka, O. & other authors.
 yy max 2011. Technology of processing coal pillars with cham-
bers in the conditions of West Donbass Region mines:
 1.757 
rН monograph. Dnipropetrovs’k: National Mining Univer-
sity: 95.
a Еy  b
  0.436  0.854   0.509 . (6)
b Еr  m

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Identification the cutting machine rational feed

rate according to the working area stability factor

S. Vlasov  O. Sidelnikov
National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Methodology of identification the cutting machine rational feed rate according to the working
area stability factor is offered in the article. Its implementation allows to exclude incidents engendered by
fall of roof rocks exposures into longwall working area and, in certain cases, gives the chance to choose the
rational cutting machine operating mode that, by-turn, allows to prove-out process of coal seam sloughing.
Generally, prognostication stability of the mining seam and roof rocks in the working face plane depending
on cutting machine feed rate is an important component of technological designing the production unit op-
eration, and feed rate – important technological parameter of the coal mining technology.


The result of mining workings driving is rock mass Researching the longwall face space stability de-
discontinuity that implies the redistribution rocks pending on the cutting machine feed rate.
stress and strain state and change the initial stress
field in the mass. Process of continual stress redis-
tribution in the mass is characteristic for mining 4 RESULTS
workings which change the position in time and
space, i.e. for operating longwalls and development The problem above specified was solved taking into
faces. The artificial cavities are driven in the rock account following positions and assumptions:
mass, cause change of stresses in any limited area of – the stress in any point of the mass forms of an
mass that leads to formation so-called zone of min- initial stress (underground pressure in a virgin mass)
ing working influence on this mass that is character- and additional which results from mining operations
ized anomalous stress field in comparison with the (longwall advance);
initial one. The specified zone moves synchronous – elastic deformations extend in a mass instantly;
with working face advancing, i.e. in process of face – at once after elastic deformations redistribution
advance all new, earlier virgin parts of the rock in the mass processes of the stress relaxation begin;
mass get to zone of mining working influence. – plastic rock deformations for a considered time
interval is accepted greater infinitesimal order in
comparison with elastic deformations, therefore it is
2 FORMULATING THE PROBLEM considered that, relaxation process occurs at con-
stant relative deformation;
In the research works (Skipochka 2006; Porcevsky – eventually elastic deformations turn (transform)
2004 & Kuklin 2003) was repeatedly noticed that into the plastic;
there is a feedback between duration of operating – plastic deformations – irreversible deformations
the increased stress in the mass and rocks strength which result from displacement of rock grains from
properties. Take into consideration this phenome- each other, cracking on micro- and macrolevel and
non, it is possible to compute a rational face ad- other irreversible processes which lead to the rock
vance rate at which strength of the rocks surround- strength decrease;
ing directly a plane of exposure, taking into account – the elasticity module of rock is considered con-
time factor, will be more or equal to operating stant and weakly dependent on time and stresses op-
stresses value in the working face plane, taking into erating in the mass;
account the relaxation factor. – the form of relaxation stresses curves weakly
depends on value of the operating stress, i.e. ana-
lytical function which describes process of the stress
relaxation for concrete rock is fair for all range of

initial stresses variation.  ten
For stope accident-free operation it is necessary, where  – brittleness coefficient,   ;
 com
that value operating in the coal seam and in the im-
mediate roof stresses along the longwall, within a  ten – ultimate tensile strength;  com – ultimate
web width of a shearer cutting head, was less or compression strength.
equaled considered rocks strength, taking into ac- The account of stress relaxation can be made on
count the time factor. This condition fulfillment al- dependence of Boltsman-Volterr-Erzhanov.
lows to avoid uncontrolled coal seam sloughing and
E t 
rock fall of the immediate roof at once after shearer  t   , (3)
cutting head pass. On the assumption of it, as con-  1 
1 t
trol points for which computation will be made, 1
necessary take the most remote points, located on
boundary of the stope influence zone ahead the where  t  ,  t  – deformation and the stress cor-
longwall, accordingly in the coal seam plane and in responding to the considered time point t , counted
the plane of immediate roof rocks. from the point when loading of rock sample was
Stress distribution dependence ahead the longwall started; E – modulus of elasticity;  ,  – creep
in a considered rock seam in section, perpendicular parameters, are defined on the basis the long-run
stope line and driving through the chosen control tests of rocks on creep.
point, is identified by means of three-dimensional On the other hand, dependence of rock strength
computer simulation (Vlasov 2010, 2011 & Sidel- on a loading time can be presented the following
nikov 2009). In co-ordinate system in which coordi- formula:
nate origin is superposed with stope position, this
dependence will have the following form  t     e    ,
eq eq
 nt eq
lt (4)
 
 eq  F z ; L eq  P0eq e  kX  P0eq ,
where  t  – rock equivalent stress at time
X  0; X 0  , (1) point t, counted from the point when loading of rock
where  – equivalent stress, МPа; F z; L  –
eq eq

function of equivalent stress distribution in the stope

 
sample was started;  lteq – rock long-term equiva-
lent stress at time point t   , counted from the
plane along the longwall length z depend on long-
point when loading of rock sample was started;
wall position along the extracting pillar L , МPа;
P0eq – equivalent stress operating in the virgin rock  
in – rock instantaneous equivalent stress at
mass at the given depth of mining, MPa; k – coef- time point t  0 , counted from the point when load-
ficient of the stress attenuation along the extraction ing of rock sample was started; n – coefficient of
pillar, m-1; X – value in meters on the co-ordinate stress attenuation in time, s 1 .
axis directed in a direction of longwall advancing According to (Skipochka 2006) the variation
X  0; X 0  , value X  0 – corresponded to stope range of rocks instantaneous strength is in limits
plane, X  X 0 – control point position; X 0 – coor- 1.2-1.9 from value of their long-term strength. By
results of researches (Skipochka 2006; Kuklin 2003)
dinate the most remote point, located on boundary
for rocks in the Western Donbas
of the stope influence zone ahead the longwall, m.
Take into account that in the problem the rock  in  1.3  1.7  lt , and relaxation time is about 3-5
mass three-dimensional stress state is considered, it days.
is expedient to express the equivalent stresses by One more important factor, influencing on rocks
equivalence formula according to P.P. Balandin cri- strength characteristic, is rate of loading. For West-
terion of strength. Consequently a complex stress ern Donbas conditions the great experimental re-
state is reduced to simple one. For cause, when search work by identification rock strength, defor-
1   2   3 mation and rheological properties was carried out by
Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics. For conditions
 eq 
1  2 1   3   of Novomoskovsk, Pavlograd and Peteropavlovka
2 geological and industrial region of Donbas depend-
ence of rock strength on loading rate vary under the
1  2 21   3 2  4  3   1 2 logarithmic law. At increase of loading rate from
 , (2) 0.01 to 10 MPa / s, the ultimate uniaxial compres-

sion strength increases on 40-50%. It means that for where X – point co-ordinate in which the slope ra-
face space stability estimation it is necessary to con- tio to an abscissa axis of tangent line is defined,
sider not only rheological processes operating in the
rock mass, but also rate of stress change in rocks X
r1  r2  .
which directly surround the stope. Time of stress 2
operating in the mass and rocks loading rate at the
coal extraction are in dependence on cutting ma- 4.3 Identification dependence of rock strength on
chine feed rate. stress operating time and on loading rate
Generally, the face space stability condition can
be presented the following eq
Accept in the equation (3)  in    w , where
 eq
us     eq   , (5) w – the relation of instantaneous equivalent stress
to long-term one (as already it was marked above
eq w  1.2-1.9. In this cause (3) will be
where [ us ( )] – rock equivalent ultimate strength

 t   w   e   
as function of cutting machine feed rate, MPa; eq   eq  
 nt 
   – equivalent stress operating at face space
eq in eq
  in  in   
 w 
as function of cutting machine feed rate, MPa;  –  
cutting machine feed rate, m / s.  nt
 w  1 
To solve the inequality (5) rather  it is neces-
sary to work out correlations and corresponding
 
eq  1  e
  in
 w 
. (9)
 
equations that connecting cutting machine feed rate
with strength and rheological rock properties. It is obvious that for each particularly taken load-

4.1 Dependence of ultimate rock strength on

  will equal   , then
ing rate, strength  eq eq

loading rate substitute in (5)      , for (9) it is possible

eq eq
According to (Kuklin 2003), dependence of ultimate to write
rock strength on loading rate varies under the loga-
 nt
rithmic law and can be presented in following form  eq t    q ln  d   u  1  e w  1  . (10)
     
  dt   w 

  q ln ddt   u ,
Substitute in (10) for expression (8), get
d dt
where – loading rate, МPа / s; q , u – the fac-
dt    k r1  r2   
tors depending on type of rock.
   

 eq t    q ln k F z ; L eq  P eq e
0  2 

 u


   
4.2 Identification the face space loading rate
 1  e  nt w  1 
Function of elastic stresses distribution in rocks  . (11)
ahead of stope obey (1). Then change of stresses  w 
 
value on a final interval r  r1  r2  , which repre-
sents the shearer cutting head web width is possible 4.4 Identification time the stress relaxation in the
to find from following expression: mass as function of the cutting machine feed
 eq
d  r , (7) Time, for which the control point co-ordinate moves
from X 0 to 0 (from mass depth onto working face
Take into account that r  dt , the (7) will have plane), will correspond to time of the stresses re-
following expression: laxation and can be found from expression:
 eq
 
 
 k F z , L eq  P0eq e  kX , (8)
t  NT , (12)

where N – quantity of the extraction cycles; T –

one cycle time, s. scheme  cl   ), m / s;  – factor of increase in
Time of the stress relaxation in the mass as function time the longwall advance at the expense of pres-
of the cutting machine feed rate ence repair shift and other planned idles,
 L   L n   2 L sh Ll   Ln   X 0 t day
t   l   , where t day – quantity of hours in а day,

 cl  r  , (13) t prod
 
t prod – quantity of hours in a day on extraction;
where Ll – longwall length, m;  Ln – niche total
r – effective shearer cutting head web width, m.
length; Lsh – length of end face area where shearer Taking into account (12) and (13), the expression
self-cutting in the coal seam, m;  cl – cutting ma- (11) will have following form
chine feed rate during cleanup (only for the unilat-
eral scheme of shearer operation, for the shuttle

   k r1  r2   
 us  

 eq     q ln k F z ; L eq  P eq e
0 
2  
 

 
   

  n l

 L   L  2L
n 
sh  Ll   Ln    X 0

    cl  r 
 1 e   w  1  k .
  att (14)
 w 
 
 
 

where k att – coefficient of the rock mass structural laxation (2) and relaxation time (13) for equivalent
attenuation, k att = 0.5-0.8. stresses actually operating in the stope plane it can
be written following formula
In consideration of expressions for the stress re-

 eq   
F z ; L eq

 P0eq e  kX  P0eq
1  .
   Ll   Ln   2 Lsh Ll   Ln   X 0 
 
1     

 cl  r  
 

By substitution in (4) expressions (14) and (15) it approach to the control point there will be no loss of
is got inequality with one unknown parameter  . exposure rocks stability.
At inequality realization at the moment of the stope

F z; Leq

 P0eq e kX  P0eq
1  
   Ll   Ln   2 Lsh Ll   Ln   X 0 
 
1     

 cl  r  
 

  L   Ln  2 L sh Ll   Ln   X 0 
 n l  
 r 
   k r1  r2       cl 

 
 eq eq
  q ln k F z ; L   P0 e
 
 2   1  e
  u 
  w
w 1 
 k att . (16)
    

 

At solving inequality (16) rather  it is identified
cutting machine rational feed rate according to the
working area stability factor. It is necessary to no-
tice that the solution (16) cannot be obtained in ex-
plicitly expressed symbolical form, but only with
application of a graphic method or by means of
mathematical software packages MathCad, Math-
Lab and other.
For conditions of mining coal seam С8Н at mine
“Zapadnodonbaskay”, numerical values of parame-
ters entering in (16) for the coal seam and the im- Figure 1. Dependence of coal equivalent strength on loading
mediate roof, are presented in table 1. rate: – experimental curve; – approximating
Table 1. Initial data to computation the cutting machine ra-
tional feed rate for conditions of mining coal seam С8 at Graphic solution of the inequality (16) for the
mine “Zapadnodonbaskay”. coal seam is resulted at Figure 2.
Unit of
Parameter Coal (immediate
F ( z; L) eq MPa 17.60 15.54

P0eq MPa 5.00 3.56

k m 0.15 0.15
X0 m 30 30
 s-0.3 0.005 0.0094
 s-0.3 0.690 0.726
n s-1 86400 86400
w – 1.64 1.59
 – 0.13 0.11
q s 2.14 2.18
u MPa 31.38 24.25 Figure 2. Graphic solution of the inequality (16) for the coal
r m 0.8 0.8 seam: – strength curve; – operating stress
 curve.
– 1.33 1.33
r1 m 0 0 Dependence of long-term equivalent strength on
r2 m 0.8 0.8 loading rate for siltstone (immediate roof) is re-
X m 0 0 sulted at Figure 3.
Ll m 190 190
 Ln m 0 0
Lsh m 20 20
 cl m/s ∞ ∞
katt – 0.7 0.5

Dependence of long-term equivalent strength on

loading rate for coal is resulted at Figure 1. Initial ex-
perimental data for graphing were are taken from re-
search work (Skipochka 2006). According to (Ski-
pochka 2006), tests for coal were carried out at the Figure 3. Dependence of siltstone equivalent strength on
side pressure 1   2  3.0 MPa; for siltstone – at loading rate: – experimental curve; – ap-
the side pressure 1   2  1.5 MPa. proximating curve.

Graphic solution of the inequality (16) for the operating in working face plane on 7-10% exceed
siltstone (immediate roof) is resulted at Figure 4. maximum permissible. It makes possible to prog-
nosticate, at the specified cutting machine feed rate,
roof rocks stability loss. The experience of mining
longwall #874, where cutting machine feed rate was
0.025-0.035 m / s (1.5-2.1 m / min), showed that
practically along all extraction pillar at the longwall
midsection wedged falls, cavities and cracks in the
roof rocks were observed. It confirms operating of
the equivalent stresses exceeding equivalent rock


Kuklin, V.Y.  Bobro, N.T. 2003. The approached esti-

mation rocks rheological properties. Dnipropetrovs’k:
The geotechnical mechanics, 40: 255-258.
Figure 4. Graphic solution of the inequality (16) for the Porcevsky, A.K.  Katkov, G.A. 2004. Fundamentals of
immediate roof (siltstone): – strength curve; – rocks physics, geomechanics and management of a mass
operating stress curve. state. Moscow: 160.
Skipochka, S.I., Usachenko, B.M.  Kuklin, V.Y. 2006.
Geomechanics elements of the rock mass at high rates
5 CONCLUSIONS of longwall advance. Dnipropetrovs’k: 248.
Sidelnikov, A.A. 2009. Substantiation parameters of the
The analysis of the obtained solutions for the min- rock mass 3-D simulation around the longwalls and de-
velopment faces. Dnipropetrovs’k: The geotechnical
ing seam (Figure 2) shows that operating stress
mechanics, 82: 77-85.
curve in the working face plane and strength curve
Vlasov, S.F.  Sidelnikov, O.A. 2010. Research of the
are not crossed, and on all number scale the strength roof fall mechanism applying three-dimensional model
curve is above the operating stress curve. It means of the stratified transversely-isotropic rock mass at a
that at any cutting machine feed rate at the coal longwall advance. Dnipropetrovs’k: Naukovy vіsnyk
seam face space will be no stability loss. The ob- NMU, 2: 14-17.
tained results are well co-ordinated and confirmed Vlasov, S.F.  Sidelnikov, O.A. 2010. Results of the 3-D
by experience of mining longwall #874 at the mine simulation of the transversely isotopic rock mass stress
“Zapadnodonbaskay”. There during all operation state around a longwall. Dnipropetrovs’k: New tech-
term the coal sloughing and stability loss at the face niques and technologies in mining: 145-149.
Vlasov, S.F.  Sidelnikov, O.A. 2011. The results of con-
space was not observed.
vergence researching in the longwall. Dnipropetrovs’k:
For the roof rocks (Figure 4), which is presented Technical and geoinformational systems in mining: 243-
by siltstone, in the range of change cutting machine 246.
feed rate from 0.015 to 0.067 m / s the stresses

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Estimation of reliability and capacity of auxiliary

vehicles while preparing coal reserves for stoping

A. Shyrin, V. Rastsvetaev & T. Morozova

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Factors limiting ground transport capacity are considered. Evaluation of support transport reli-
ability while preparing coal reserves for stoping is given. Technological design of support transport using
diesel overhead monorail with high adaptive capacity to develop timely new extraction pillars while mining
stimulation was offered.

Timely development of explored reserves is one of acc/shift.

the factors determining output increase while min- Interaction of transport and technological proc-
ing stimulation. Planned deadline of developing new esses and operations while driving section develop-
extraction pillars is determined by the rate of work ment workings was analyzed with the help of 37 es-
and capacity of section bedded workings, their timated figures of nontypical, critical and emer-
maintenance-free service life as well as transport re- gency situations. For initial information seven types
liability. of failure within shifts – cases of face outage due to
Currently, coordination of transport and techno- transport facilities which are the most typical for
logical processes at most mines of Western Donbas operating system were formulated. Real factors of
carrying out coal output in complicated mining and face outage and lost time to liquidate failure within
geological conditions is hard to solve. It is due to the system of section transport were able to show
specific for this region mining and geological, min- major reasons of downtime for applied transport
ing and technical and organization factors which re- complexes. Duration of transport downtime for
tard to some extent mining development and stimu- technical reasons were characterized as its operabil-
lation (Shyrin 2007). ity, that is, capability to withstand overload and
Manifestation of these factors more often takes work for a long time without decreasing initial pa-
place spontaneously and it is practically impossible rameters.
to predict their parameters. So, section transport op- Duration of unit downtime were characterized by
eration while driving and exploitation extensive wa- its ratio which is relation of downtime hd ratio for
tered workings with active soil rock swelling should definite period to amount of time of actual transport
be considered as system working in condition of un-
operation h f and downtime duration for the same
In condition of uncertainty section transport reli- period.
ability will be characterized by the frequency and Taking into account abovementioned, transport
degree of failure as well as duration of downtime downtime ratio  d (another words, damage or fail-
and adaptive capacity to spontaneous environment ure) is expressed by the following equation :
change in extreme situations.
To determine the reasons of extreme situations as hd 1
d   .
well as to find out real sources of increasing adap- h f  hd hf
tive capability of section transport while driving 1
section development workings, failure of operative
transport and technological design at mines of PJC In constantly changeable conditions of function-
“DFEC Pavlogradugol” was analyzed. According to ing underground transport durability of productive
the program and methods of complex study all work of applied transport and technological systems
losses of development operations connected with to drive section development workings it was rec-
transport failure and necessity to repair and replace ommended to evaluate by the coefficient of their
damaged units were considered to be accidental adaptation – successful operation of transport facili-
ones and were classified as failure within shift – ties in nontypical and close to critical maintenance

conditions: complicated by necessity of blasting swelled soil
rocks, railway maintenance and working retimber-
hf ing (Shyrin 2007). However, long period of field
 ad   1  d ,
h f  hd study and impossibility of physical modeling above
mentioned processes are not able to predict immedi-
where h f – durability of transport actual work for a ately the behavior of transport and technological
systems while mining stimulation.
definite period, min / сm; hd – transport downtime Analysis of operating 88 development workings at
for the same period, min / сm. mines of Western Donbas was carried out to deter-
Such approach for planning rates of driving sec- mine factors limiting capacity of transport techno-
tion development workings including influence of logical system. According to study program techno-
adaptation coefficient of transport and technological logical methods of continuous mining section de-
systems is particularly urgent while continuous min- velopment workings were classified according to
ing to the dip (to the rise) in condition of active soil the type of transport applied (Table 1).
swelling when driving air and assembly drifts is

Table 1. Flow chat of transport facilities applied within section development workings.
Field of application
List of transport
No S, , Advantages Disadvantages
facilities L,м
м2 deg
1 Electromotive 8.5 – 2.86 There is no restriction Small transportation
(AM-8D) along the length of trans- angles
2 Belt conveyor 10.3 1500 10 There is no restriction at Small capacity at big
(1LU-80), surface big ranges of alternate transportation angles
ropeway (DKN) profile
3 Belt conveyor 10.3 – 2.86 There is no restriction Small transportation
(1LT-80), electro- along the length of trans- angles
motive (АM-8D) portation
4 Scraper conveyer 10.3 1500 10 There is no restriction at Small capacity at big
(SP-63),belt con- big ranges of alternate transportation angles
veyor (1LU-80), profile
surface ropeway
5 Scraper conveyor 10,3 – 2.86 There is no restriction Small transportation
(SP-63), electro- along the length of trans- angles
motive (АМ-8D) portation
6 End haulage 8.5 600 5 High capacity at big trans- Difficult transporta-
(LVD-34) portation angles tion within horizon-
tal workings

It was stated that transport support of develop- KSP-32 in combination with DKN are the most ef-
ment headings within 36.4% driven workings is per- fective. To evaluate adaptive capability of this tech-
formed by electromotives AM8D, 39.8% headings nological system basic and random factors charac-
are supported by surface cable ways (DKN) and terizing conditions of interacting transport facilities
23.8% of haulage and load supply is performed with with environment (rock massif) and elements of
the help of one-ended cable installations. . driven working (support, continuous miner) were
Comparative evaluation of technological effec- formulated.
tiveness of abovementioned systems to drive devel- Basic factors are the following: working cross-
opment workings was carried out by the method of section, length of transportation (working length),
expert evidence. Taking into account specific fac- winning methods, gas abundance within transport
tors it was found out (Rastsvetaev 2010) that at working, seam thickness, fluctuation of transport fa-
Western Donbas mines transport and technological cility track, working axis changeability, water con-
systems of driving workings using continuous miner tent within transport working, rate of installation of

temporary and permanent support, amount of trans- time of developing extraction pillars can be seen. It
port units. is due to low adaption capacity of operating techno-
Rate of work performance connected with liqui- logical systems and traditionally applied rail trans-
dation of emergency situations and rock pressure port while driving development workings in condi-
manifestation , temperature and country rock mois- tions of active soil rock swelling.
ture, value and frequency of rock swelling within Analyzing factors limiting capacity of workings
working, strain level of arch support, coefficient of applying ground transport it was found out that cre-
cargo traffic irregularity, etc. are “random’ factors. ating technological system of secondary transport
To determine adaptive parameters of transport based on using alternative units with high adaptive
system, model of factor analysis which is suitable to capacity which will guarantee effective system op-
many real situation of mining production was ac- eration in complicated mining and geological condi-
cepted (Okun 1974 & Harman 1972). tions is the way of problem solving.
Ultimate goal of problem solving using factor Foreign experience of continuous mining shows
analysis is to determine and reduce amount of fac- that in condition of active soil rock swelling over-
tors greatly influencing the rate of driving develop- head monorails are used as a basic secondary trans-
ment workings and their capacity, i.e. hypothesis es- port. Such technological design is widely used at
timation concerning minimum value of general fac- mines in Germany, Czech Republic, Poland and
tors which ideally reproduce available correlations. guarantee efficiency of material and equipment de-
In modern static computer programs various livery. At some mines in the USA and RSA mono-
methods of factorisation of correlation matrix are rail transport is also used as basic one to transport
used, but method of key factors (main axes) is more minerals (Gilenko 1975).
often used. In regard to this task minimum number At productive mines in Ukraine the field of over-
of factors influencing adaptive transport capacity head monorails application is limited. They are used
and rates of driving development workings was de- only at stable operated mines of Central and Eastern
termined after computer-aided estimating matrix of Donbas. It is due to insufficient experience of this
factor loads. type of secondary transport maintenance, absence of
In the course of calculation necessity to determine study of monorail maintenance parameters and
the rate of proper value of each factor took place. As technical and economic substantiating fields of their
it was mentioned in papers (Okun 1974 & Harman effective application.
1972), factoring ends up when the rate of proper According to this study estimation of operating
value is slightly changed after sudden drop and dia- characteristics of overhead monorail at mines of
gram takes the form of horizontal line. Krasnoarmeyisk region in Donbas was performed to
The next important estimation index of each fac- find out factors limiting field of their effective ap-
tor meaningfulness is percent of referable dispersion plication. It is necessary to point out that entire
of variables within correlation matrix. On the one monorail is based on general principles of moving
hand, the task is to choose minimum number of fac- large cargo units along monorail which consists of
tors which, from the other hand, could explain separate parts of 2.4…3.0 m length fixed by special
rather high percentage of entire dispersion of vari- locking joints. Monorail is packed by station and
ables. Following condition should be taken into ac- railway vehicles made up of cars and special plat-
count to meet these two requirements, that is, total forms (Gilenko 1975).
influence of basic factors on the whole process Depending on functional role of workings and
should be not less than 70-85% (Okun 1974; Har- support type monorail parts can joint to the bars or
man 1972). After that it can be possible to show legs of frame support or directly to working roof
graphically factors influencing the process of driv- under anchor support . Monorail track is mainly in
ing workings before and after axis rotation. the center of air working. The place of monorail
According to results of analysis and synthesis of fixed to the bar of support is determined by the type
estimated data it was stated that factors connected of basic transport and its location relating to work-
with necessity to liquidate consequences of soil rock ing cross-section within transport workings.
swelling greatly influence on the rates of driving Despite high technical characteristic advertised by
section development workings and their capacity at plants – manufacturers of monorail application of
mines of Western Donbas (Rastsvetaev 2010). this type of secondary transport at mines in Kras-
According to these results it’s possible to come to noarmeyisk region of Donbas causes a number of
conclusion that while soil rock swelling in techno- problems while its maintenance. Basic factors limit-
logical process of driving section development ing field of overhead monorail effective application
workings instability of rail transport and ,as a con- are rate deviation of cargo unit movement from de-
sequence, reducing rates of driving and increasing sign index and, as a consequence, time of delivering

cargos to stoping and development faces. Results of modeling interaction of joint monorail
Chronometration measurement of monorail main- parts with arch support components while passing
tenance parameters shows that the process of mov- railway vehicles showed that the process of moving
ing cargo units is characterized by frequent reducing large cargo units by monorail within workings using
movement rate of railway vehicles from 1.2 till arch support should be considered as a single inter-
0.5 m / s. However, time of cargo delivery is in- active system – “wall rocks-arch support-movable
creased as much as 1.3…1.6 times compared with railway vehicle”.
estimated index. Mining study showed that behavior of this system
According to expert evaluation of cargo transpor- unlike classic one “support-rock massif” will be de-
tation within section workings it was found out termined not only by the state of roof rocks and
(Shyrin 2008) that the main reasons of irregularity support capacity but by the parameters of railway
of moving railway vehicles are the following: sign- vehicles and, what is more important, by the place
variable track profile, deviation of sizes and weight of fixing monorail on the support frame. The last
of cargo units from normative standards, moisture one is stipulated by the fact that bearing element of
and temperature change within working, as well as this system is a bar of arch support. Static forces of
non-standard (emergency) situations taking place in rock pressure as well as forces produced by dy-
the process of cargo delivery. namic movement of monorail vehicle influence it.
Estimation of functional state of section devel- Depending on the character of rock pressure mani-
opment workings equipped by overhead monorail festation, place and method of fixing monorail on
showed that maximum curving of track profile is in the bar of “bearing arch”, support will be inade-
zones of active stratification of roof rock. As a rule, quately responded to dynamic loads while moving
these zones are situated above “bearing arches”, i.e. railway vehicle and transmit them to rock massif.
frames of arch support where conjugated monorail
components are attached (Figure 1).

Shyrin, L.N., Posunko, L.N. & Rastsveetaev, V.A. 2007.

Perspectives of developing adaptive systems of secon-
dary transport at mines of Western Donbas. School of
underground mining: Materials of international scien-
tific conference: Dnipropetrovs’k-Yalta: NMU: 374.
Technological design of underground transport within
working area at coal mines (for flat seams with dip an-
gle up to 18°). 1972. Moscow: Institute of Mining
named by A.A. Skochinsky: 74-75.
Rastsvetaev, V.A., Posunko, L.N., Dyatlenko, M.G. &
Shyrin A.L. 2010. Complex estimation of transport and
technological design of continuous mining development
workings at mines of Western Donbas. Materials of the
V International scientific conference “Mining and eco-
Figure 1. Condition of development working support in logical problems”: 36-41.
zones of active roof rock displacement. Okun, Ya. 1974. Factor analysis. Moscow: Statistics: 200.
Harman, G.1972. Contemporary factor analysis. Moscow:
Instrument measurements showed (Rastsvetaev Statistics: 488.
2011) that in the process of “bearing arch” depression Gilenko, V.A., Kadyshev, V.V. & Kostyuchenko, S.I.
1975. Monorail transport used while driving horizontal
moved by roof rocks, deformation value of compo- workings. Moscow: Review.
nents of arch support of “bearing arch” 90…140 mm Shyrin, L.N., Posunko, L.N. & Rastsvetaev, V.A. 2008.
bigger than “conventional arch” located in the middle Evaluating maintenance parameters of overhead mono-
area of conjugated monorail parts. rail. Geotechnical mechanics: Collaction of Scientific
Therefore, it is necessary to determine arch sup- papers. Dnipropetrovs’k: Institute of Geotechnical Me-
port deformation to predict in time zones of active chanics named by M.S. Polyakov of Academy of Sci-
rock pressure manifestation and carrying out meas- ence of Ukraine: Adition. 76: 91-96.
ures directed to their prevention as well as increase Rastsvetaev, V.A. 2011. Peculiarity of forming additional
loads on arch support of section workings with over-
of maintenance reliability of overhead monorail and
head monorail. Scientific Bulletin of NMU, 4: 35-38.
development working capacity.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Influence of coal layers gasification on bearing rocks

V. Timoshuk, V. Tishkov, O. Inkin & E. Sherstiuk

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Dependences of sandy-argillaceous rock permeability from volume deformations and thermal
influence by results of laboratory research are determined. Research of bearing rock technogenic permeabil-
ity at underground coal gasification with use of numerical geomechanical models is executed. The analysis
of liquid gasification product composition is executed. Сonclusions are drawn that power efficiency of UCG
technology can be essentially raised by extraction and further use of condensed gasification products.

1 INTRODUCTION research of technogenic permeability character

formed in underground gasifier vicinities and also
The limited reserves of oil and natural gas in the analysis of its influence on gasifying process
Ukraine leads to the fact that coal becoming the and extraction of thermal and hydrocarbonic gasifi-
main natural source of energy. The increase in un- cation products is important scientific and technical
derground coal extraction is associated with the issue.
transition of mining operations to great depths, in-
creasing the volume of waste dumps, air pollution
and, consequently, environment stability violation 3 RESULTS
(Arens 2001). Perspective way to rationalize the
technology of coal extraction and processing is its Study of changing permeability in covering strata
underground gasification by thermochemical and during UCG process was carried out by executing of
mass transfer processes. numerous tests of sample filtrational properties in
Domestic and foreign scientifically-practical ex- triaxial stress conditions at various hydrostatic pres-
perience of coal layers gasifying (Arens 2001) indi- sure values. Experimental specimens were presented
cates vital importance of study bearing rock condi- by sandy differences from the sediments of the bu-
tions which are exposed to influence of the big pres- chak-kiev suite composing overcoal waterbearing
sure and temperature differences in gasification strata of Dneprovskiy basin. The range of loads in a
process. test series was within 10…800 kPа, that corre-
sponds to rock conditions in their shear zone. For
studying temperature influence on bearing rock fil-
trational properties investigated samples were ex-
All calculations of dangerous strain zones in the sur- posed to the temperature processing at 400 and
650 °С.
rounding rocks of coal seam depend on the fire bot-
tomhole (the gasifying circuit and gasified seam The hydraulic gradient was controlled by assign a
thickness). These data for underground coal gasifi- hydraulic back pressure in the specimen and was
cation is quite difficult to determine analytically, so equal 10 and 20 kPа that corresponded to real hy-
the location of these zones is calculated by creating dro-geological conditions of brown-coal deposits.
mathematical numerical models of specific fields. Consolidation of sandy rock samples preceded car-
Their structural failure can lead to sharp increase rying out of filtrational tests was lead at the loadings
in filtrational abilities and causing conditions for which correspond to geostatic pressure values, be-
fore obtainment of conditional deformation stabili-
water overflow from overlying aquifers to the reac-
tionary channel. Along with it, in works (Kreynin sation, no more than 0.01% of volume change for
1982 & Sadovenko 2001) the problem of under- the control time period. The water discharge control
ground coal gasification (UCG) power efficiency in free filtration conditions at the set pressure gradi-
increasing and of its negative influence neutralisa- ent was carried out up to the moment of its condi-
tion by extraction of thermal energy and liquid gasi- tional stabilisation for the certain time period (a
fication products being accumulated in roof rocks at steady filtration mode). Filtration coefficient values
mining coal layers was already considered. Thus, were determined on the basis of measuring filtrate

flow rate for each stage of the sample load accord- The channel gasification width in the model was
ing to the test program. set on the basis of conditions for maximum gasifying
The results of laboratory tests presented on the fullness of coal seam, ensuring stable combustion
fig. 1, illustrate existing dependences of filtration heat of gas. Based on experience in gasification on
coefficients for medium and fine-grained sandy Angren station “Podzemgaz” running on brown coal,
rocks on various degree of their consolidation or lower combustion heat of gas is observed at a channel
volume deformation size at presence or absence of width of 15 m (Figure 2) (Kreynin 1982).
sample preliminary temperature processing respec- Considering the dependence of technogenic per-
tively. meability of sandy-argillaceous sediments revealed
The obtained data testify to existence of close lin- in laboratory conditions on the level of deforma-
ear dependence between filtration coefficient of tions, representation of the character and zoning of a
tested sandy rocks and the value of volume defor- filtrational field is obtained on the basis of analysis
mation ( R 2  0.55...0.80 ). In the range of effective of horizontal, vertical and volume deformation val-
ues for rocks in gasifying space vicinity.
loads 10…800 kPа and variations of volume defor-
mations of rock samples from 0.0 to 0.12 the size of
filtration coefficient changed in the range of
3.2…0.15 m / day. Dependence сharacter of filtra-
tional properties from volume deformation level
keeps the kind for the tested sandy rocks in labora-
tory conditions. Considering character of specified
dependence, and also effective loading level, it
makes sense to speak about defining influence of
active porosity and its changes at samples consoli-
dation in triaxial stress state condition on change of
sandy rock permeability.
Influence of high-temperature changes at tem-
perature processing from 400 to 650 °С was re-
vealed in growth of filtrational permeability of the
tested samples in a range from 1.15 to 3.2 m / day in Figure 2. The influence of coal gasifying width along the
relation to their natural conditions. channel on combustion heat of this gas.
The results obtained a basis for the next research
stage which purpose was studying of filtrational Results of numerical modelling of rocky massif
fields in the deformed soil massifs. For this purpose mode of deformation are obtained during problem
the numerical geomechanical model of a rocky mas- solving in elastic-plastic statement. Design parame-
sif corresponding to a cross-section of Dneprovsky ters of geomechanical model are specified according
basin, and presented by the strata of sandy- to fulfilled before research and results of studying
argillaceous sediments containing a coal layer has mechanical properties on rock samples in three-
been created. dimensional stress state conditions.
For giving conditions at a coal layer capacity of
1.0 m and width of gasifying space about 9.0 m the
field of technogenic permeability according to the
reached level of deformations of containing rocks
can be characterised by well expressed zoning by
results of modelling is established. For a vertical de-
formation component relative tensile strains defin-
ing raised conductivity formation in a horizontal di-
rection, concentrate in a roof and bottom of gasify-
ing space. Horizontal tensile strains are fixed mainly
on external contours of gasifying space and behind
its limits, reaching values of the order 0.01…0.02
(Figure 3). Thus directly over gasifying space the
Figure 1. Results of filtrational tests of broken composition zone of compressive strain is formed, defining
sandy rock specimens of the buchak-kiev suite of Palaeo- thereby existence of the lowered values of perme-
gene in triaxial stress state conditions.
ability of containing rocks in a vertical direction.

Figure 3. A field of relative horizontal deformations in gasifying space vicinity.

However, more integral representation of the rocky roof will serve as a conductor for gas leaks
character of technogenic permeability gives impos- which are formed in gasifying process of coal layers
ing of vertical and horizontal deformation fields – and being in superheated condition. In process of
that is a field of volume deformations which in con- leaks advancing their pressure and temperature will
ditions of isotropic or quasi-isotropic on the proper- decrease, while roof rocks will raise the temperature
ties of containing rocks is defining in formation of considerably. At inflowing of filtered gas in a zone
technogenic permeability. As follows the Figure 4, with pressure below condensation pressure the part
volume deformation distribution is characterised by of gasification products will pass in a liquid condi-
prevalence of positive values, that in the presence of tion. The condensate precipitated in the porous envi-
separate alteration zone will not result as a whole in ronment has not time to be filtered together with gas
essential growth of containing rocks permeability in to a day surface that will lead to its accumulation in
a gasifying space vicinity. covering rocks. Change of temperature in gas leaks
The obtained representations about the character in covering rocks deformed by technogenic perme-
of technogenic permeability allow modelling of ability is shown on the Figure 5 by results of calcu-
gazo-hydrodynamic processes in covering rocks at lations and physical simulating. The design proce-
various stages of underground gasifier operation. dure of the obtained results is described in details in
Thus volume deformations field generated in a work (Sadovenko 2007).

Figure 4. A field of relative volume deformations in a gasifying space vicinity.

The analysis of the obtained curves shows, that in roof rocks deformed by technogenic permeability, the
saturation zone of pore space with liquid gasification products is on the distance 0.5…2.5 m from a rocky
contour of underground gasifier. And in this zone, more than 96% of all condensate containing in UCG gas
is deposited.
To identify area of probable condensate formation in the overlying rocks moisture content nomogram of
natural gas used. Variation of moisture content of gas through filtration was constructed on the basis of
known values of the pressure and temperature (Sadovenko 2007).

Figure 5. Change of temperature in gas leaks in covering rocks: Figure 6. Composition of liquid gasification products be-
1 – calculated; 2 – obtained by physical simulating. ing collected in roof rocks: 1 – neutral oils; 2 – phenols;
3 – the organic alkalies; 4 – asphaltenes; 5 – carboxylic

Studying composition of liquid gasification products space of bearing rocks, are presented substantially
being accumulated in roof rocks was lead by the as unsaturated, aromatic and paraffin hydrocarbons;
method of physical modelling with spectrophotometer – power efficiency of UCG technology can be es-
UV2450 (Sadovenko 2007). The analysis of the ob- sentially raised by extraction and further use of con-
tained spectra has shown, that the precipitated conden- densed gasification products.
sate has low viscosity (less than 1.4 102 Pа·с), and its – close to linear correlation between filtration co-
efficient and volumetric strain value obtained on the
density is 0.75…0.8 g / cm3. The basic components of
results by seepage testing of sandy soil samples in
a composition are the neutral oils representing the
triaxial instrument (filtration coefficient value was
group of unsaturated, aromatic and paraffin hydrocar-
varied in the range 3.2...0.15 m / day at a value
bons with additives of neutral oxygen compounds
(Figure 6). The condensate differs by the low content  wol from 0.0 to 0.12).
of phenols (to 10%), and almost has no dust. – it was found that the temperature effect on rock
samples from 400 to 650 °C leads to an increase
in their permeability from 1.15 to 3.2 m / day.
4 CONCLUSIONS – according to the geomechanical modeling of
rock mass for Dneprobass conditions the field of
On the basis of experimental research and the analy- volume strain defined, which in almost isotropic en-
sis of gasification product distribution in roof rocks closing rocks is dominant in the man-made perme-
of coal layers the following conclusions are drawn: ability formation.
– in gasifying process of coal layers the fields of
technogenic permeability arising in covering rocks
according to the reached level of rocks deformation REFERENCES
it is characterised by well explicit zonality;
– saturation of a roof rocks by liquid gasification Arens, V.Zg. 2001. Physical and chemical geotechnology.
products occurs owing to precipitation of a conden- Tutorial, Moscow State Mining University: 656.
Kreynin, Ye.V. 1982. Underground gasification of coal.
sate from a gas phase at abrupt change thermobaric
Moscow: Nedra: 394.
conditions that forms an accumulation zone on dis- Sadovenko, I.O. & Tishkov V.V. 2001. Assessing the possi-
tance 0.5…2.5 m from a rocky contour of under- bility of taking away extra heat around the underground
ground gasifier; gas generator. Dnipropetrovs’k: Naukovyi visnyk
– the liquid gasification products filling pore NGAU, 5: 133-134.

Sadovenko, I.O. & Inkin O.V. 2007. Modelling of gasifica- Aktualni Problemy I Perspektyvy. Dnipropetrovs’k: Na-
tion product filtration in the overlying rocks. Dnipropet- tional Mining University: 598-603.
rovs’k: Naukovyi visnyk NGU, 3: 11-15. Lavrov, N.V., Kulakov, М.А., Kazachkova, S.Ts. and oth-
Sadovenko, I.O., Polyashov, O.S. & Inkin O.V. 2004. Experi- ers. 1971. About the underground gasification of brown
mental studies of gasification product filtration mechanism. coal deposit of Angren. Himiya tverdogo topliva. Acad-
Proc. Hyrnychodobuvna promyslovist Ukrainy I Polshchi: emy of Sciences USSR, 1: 73-79.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Ecological aspects of the quantitative

assessment of productive streams of coal mines

S. Salli & O. Mamajkin

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Possibility of creationof “mines-dressing plants” aggregate system model is considered in the
article. Complex index of economic and functional efficiency is used as an efficiency criterion.

1 INTRODUCTION Table 1. Definition of an ecological reserve of assimilation

potential components of the landscape natural capital of
New economic, political and ecological situation Ukraine.
which had developed in Ukraine, demands revision Assimila-
of priorities of development of the state since de- Region tion po- Load
cal stock
spite the declination in production among the Euro- tential
pean states it has the greatest integrated indicator of Donetsk 0.39 4.66 -4.27
anthropogenic loads of surrounding environment Dnepropetrovsk 0.31 2.68 -2.37
practically on all territory. Officially recognized in- Zaporozhzhe 0.29 1.40 -1.11
ternational status of our state concerning its ecologi- Kiev 0.59 1.85 -1.26
Ternopol 0.65 2.36 -1.71
cal condition and level of environmental pollution is
defined as a zone of “ecological disaster”. Based
upon it, there is a complex problem of a harmonious The coal industry which is actively destroying all
combination of acceleration of growth rates of mar- vital spheres of environment is most dangerous in
ket economic development with need of technical this regard. Burning dumps, waste heaps, an inten-
modernization of the mine enterprises which would sive dust content and an air gas contamination, res-
provide a condition of self-supporting use of natural ervoirs brighteners and settlers, tailing pounds, pol-
resources and environmental protection. lution of surface and ground waters, dumping in a
hydrographic network of the high mineral waters,
dangerous geotectonic processes and invasion into
2 CONSIDERATION OF A PROBLEM the underground hydrosphere, provoking subsidence
of a terrestrial surface, bogging of areas and regions,
Starting point of preservation of the natural capital creation of artificially increased seismicity and so
in system of formation of ecologically balanced forth it is far not the full list of anthropogenic pres-
economy in Ukraine is the determination of an eco- sure on environment in mining regions. Even with
logical stock of assimilation potential of landscapes closing of mines of a consequence of their former
in the region. Calculations (Burkinsky 1999 & Vek- activity dozens of years will negatively affect the
lich 2003), testify that in overwhelming majority of condition of environment and safety of life of the
areas level economic loads of components of the population of territories adjoining to them.
landscape natural capital exceeds their assimilation Miner's regions are practically zones of ecological
potential (Table 1). catastrophe, and the enterprises of the coal industry
Moreover, since excess of level economic load- are classified as ecologically dangerous. According
ings is tracked at more than 72.6% of the territory of to Goskomstat of Ukraine, in the coal-mining re-
Ukraine, it is already a problem of a national scale. gions of Ukraine 158 coal mines operate, each pro-
The objects of fuel and energy complex functioning ducing 1000 t of coal from 150 to 800 t of the rock
under continuously changing conditions of envi- which forms waste heaps occupying huge areas,
ronment and in many respects depending on their leading to intensive gas dust pollution of air and
dynamics, also have on it corresponding influence chemical poisoning of surface and ground waters,
with many difficult predictable and not always re- and also essentially changing hydrodynamic regime
versible consequences. and level of underground waters. Development of
coal fields negatively influences hydro-chemical

mode of surface activity and underground water, in- is annually dissolved. It is counted up that for the
creases pollution of air space, worsens fertility of prevention of negative consequences from activity
lands (Burkinsky 1999 & Veklich 2003). of mines it is necessary to perform annually nature
The total area of the earth which has been taken protection works for the sum of 230-240 million
away under industrial platform of the coal-mining UAH (Bardas 2010 & Nedodayeva 2006).
and coal remanufactures enterprises, makes about All this testifies in favor of ecological certifica-
22.5 thousand hectares. By data “Power strategy of tion of mines just because the coal enterprises don't
Ukraine for the period till 2030”, at carrying out make production, and allocate from the environment
mountain works from coal mines annually, by dif- created without participation of the person, the fin-
ferent estimates, it is allocated from 750 million m3 ished product (coal) in the course of production oc-
to 2.7 billion m3 of the methane which absolute ma- curs interaction industrial (the equipment, buildings
jority is absorbed by the atmosphere. Among unor- and constructions) and natural factors and thus vio-
ganized sources of emissions special place is occu- lation of balance of natural factors takes place. It is
pied also by dumps of rock which can light up. Vol- expressed in the following: allocation of methane,
ume of the mine waters which are pumped out dur- mine waters, delivery and warehousing of mine
ing coal mining, nearly 600 million m3 a year breed, violation of a terrestrial surface, including
whereas for economic and production needs of the built up with the territory, under working of reser-
enterprises of branch and for other consumers voirs, forests, etc.
250 million m3 (40%) are used only make. Due to Extent of this interaction depends on mine devel-
the extremely unsatisfactory purification of mine opment in time both in space and from essence of
waters in the rivers over 1 million t of mineral salts the factor (Figure 1 and 2).

Dependence of rock amount on seam thickness

Mine’s total rock amount, t

600 2
y = -167908x + 323915x + 36873





0 0,2
0.2 0,4
0.4 0,6
0.6 0,8
0.8 1 1,2
1.2 1,4 1,6
1.6 1,8
1 1.4

Seam thickness, m

Figure 1. Volume of produced rock depending on layer capacity.

Separate natural factors make on mines beneficial Finally work of mine is influenced by all factors
or adverse effect on a production activity and eco- in aggregate and consequently there is a need of the
nomic results of work of mine; for example – accounting of their joint action. Let's consider action
change of capacity of a layer involves change of and value of the specified factors from the point of
quantity by produced rock. At different times opera- view of participation in production costs of produc-
tion of mine is influenced by natural factors, for ex- tion and raw materials processing. The given factors
ample increase in depth of mining, as a rule, leads to aren't commensurable among themselves directly
growth of gas volume and increase in released and consequently it is inexpedient to accept for
methane. definition of joint action a cost assessment.

Dependence of water inflow on network topology
900 y = 95,996x

800 R = 0,6764
Water inflow, m3 / h 700
0,000.00 5.00
5,00 10.00
10,00 15,00
15.00 20.0020,00

Water in take area, m3.h / 1 km of network

Figure 2. Dependence of water inflow on length of supported excavations.

Taking into account the stated above conditions it Functionally aggregate system can be presented
is possible to plot model of aggregate system as follows
“mines-concentrating factories”, as criterion of pro-
ductivity a complex indicator of economic KE and Ke  F Di , Vi , M i , Wi
functional KF of an dispatch. And the indicator of
KE should consider a condition of maximizing tar-

K s  Z i1 , Z i2 , Z i3 , Zi4 ,
get parameters of streams of coal ( Di ), breed ( Vi ),
where K si – characterizes stability of each diagnos-
firedamp ( M i ) and mine water ( Wi ), and an indi-
tic sign, and Z ij – factors of stability of i -go of a
cator of functional efficiency – to reflect the charac-
teristic of an efficient condition of system (Sallі,
Bondarenko & Tereshchenko 2009).

Table 2. Rating of group of anthracite mines taking into account an ecological factor.
Exit of Values of
Prime cost empty Inflow of complex
Mines tion, Stock,
of 1 ton, rock, thou- water, m3 criterion ,
thousand mil. t
UAH sand in hour i
“Komsomolskaya” 1322 78.2 665.9 793 1350 0.60
“Partizanskaya” 257 10.8 917.9 77 290 0.85
“Schahterskaya Glubokaya” 449 123.5 776.4 224 190 0.71
“Progress” 466 74.9 665.1 186 340 0.72
“Tsentrosoyuz” 582 21.8 564.9 378 412 0.67
#81 “Kievskaya” 545 26.4 512.5 299 812 0.66
“Luganskaya” 222 6.8 931.8 118 1100 0.92
“n.a.Kosmonavtov” 491 29.4 611.9 294 600 0.74
“n.a. Frunze” 1663 35.7 554.3 997 637 0.58
1-2 “Rovenkovskaya” 234 18.4 889.2 117 400 0.79
“Zarya” 418 12.5 776.2 250 550 0.78
“n.a. Dzerzhynskogo” 251 18.2 894.1 130 350 0.82

Procedure of the multidimensional comparative 3 CONCLUSIONS
analysis is reduced to formation of an initial matrix
in the form of the standardized signs. Standardiza- 1. Distribution of investments to support the capac-
tion is made by the standard methods, thus impor- ity should be carryied out taking into account a
tant stage of processing of the corrected values is given mine’s rank by complex of its economic and
their differentiation on importance by means of fac- ecological consequences.
tors of hierarchy. The matrix of relationship be- 2. Location of a mine in closed circle is neces-
tween certain parameters is for this purpose formed. sary, but not an indispensable condition for its shut-
Finally there is a parameter  and this parameter is down as at each enterprise there are reserves for in-
closer to unit, the it is more deviation of values of creasing its economic and ecological rating.
diagnostic signs of mine from diagnostic signs of 3. Mines provided by balance reserves, can have a
mine standard (Table 2). low rating as a consequence of insufficient invest-
The ecological factor i changes within limits ments, unique natural situation or irrational man-
agement of a mine’s economy.
(0…1). It can't be essentially equal to zero as it
would mean lack of natural factors, and only in
some cases theoretically it can be equal to unit at REFERENCES
equality of expenses for coal mining on natural and
industrial factors. Smaller value of ecological factor Burkinsky, B.V., Stepanov, V.N., Burkinsky, B.V. &
is desirable that indirectly characterizes (in the gen- Kharichkov, S.K. 1999. Management of natural re-
eralized look) more favorable mining-and- sources: bases of economical and ecological theory.
geological conditions. Odessa: 350.
Operating mines if necessary can be distributed Veklich, O.O. 2003. Economic mechanism of ecology
(are classified) on size of ecological factor. It can be managing RNBO Ukraine Ukrainian institute of envi-
ronmental research and resources. Kyiv: 88.
demanded at the solution of various questions of Bardas, A.V. 2010. Foundations of ecological certification
management by branch. іn Ukrainian coal extraction enterprices in condition of
It is important to note that from the point of view of re-structured of sector. National Mining University.
integrated approach of assessment of the work of Nedodayeva, N. L. 2006. Ecology-economical politics of
mines, the volume of production carries out rather management of natural resources in specific conditions
important role, but not defining. Especially it is of mining. Donetsk: NAN of Ukraine. Institute of indus-
shown in respect of qualitative characteristics of coal trial economics: 356.
and in the ratio given out and overworked (that re- Sallі, S.V., Bondarenko, Y.P. & Tereshchenko M.K. 2009.
Manage of technical – economic parameters of coal
mains in mine) breeds. Unfortunately, passing meth- mines. NMU. Gerda: 150.
ane production in recent years on the majority of
mines of Donbass it is not conducted. This circum-
stance can raise a mine rating on some positions.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Development of mathematical foundations

and technological support of the processes
of complex hydro-pneumatic impact on coal seams

S. Grebyonkin, V. Pavlysh & O. Grebyonkina

Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Physical principles and mathematical foundations of the process of integrated hydropneumatic
impacts on coal seams are considered in order to reduce the intensity of the manifestations of the main haz-
ards in underground coal mining.

1 RELEVANCE OF THE WORK liminary indicative calculations of parameters of

technological schemes. In the area of improving the
Application of methods and schemes of prior expo- technology is the problem of implementation of the
sure on the coal seams, to fight with the manifesta- cascade technology for various conditions (for exam-
tions of the main dangers, – is mandatory on mines ple- flat and abrupt, thick and thin layers, factors of
and regulated by normative documents (DNAOP disturbance of the seam’s structure, especially occur-
1.1.30-1.ХХ-04 2004). To improve the efficiency of rence, etc.).
effects it is rational to apply methods of influence in As for the other two types of impact, their devel-
the complex, using all the advantages of each opment is still in initial stage. However, at this stage,
method. Application of mathematical modeling al- due to the results, obtained in (Stern 1981), have rea-
lows to improve the procedure of design and calcu- son to set the task of the theoretical foundations and
lation of parameters of technological schemes. In technology of complex hydropneumatic impact on
this regard, theme of the work is urgent. coal seams, which includes three successive stages.
Purpose of work – justification for principle and
improvement of technology of preprocessing seams,
2.1 Pneumatic treatment of unwetted seam
using an integrated approach.
At this stage removal of free and desorbing methane
is provided. In addition, this method has the pros-
2 THE MAIN CONTENT OF THE WORK pect in the aspect of changing of physical-chemical
state of the seam and, probably, will reduce the ten-
In the works (Moskalenko 1971; Stern 1981; Pavlysh dency of the seam to spontaneous combustion.
& Stern 2007) are reviewed three types of impact on
the coal seams: hydraulic impact, pneumatic handling
and degasification of bottomhole formation zone. 2.2 The hydraulic impact
Among them to date the most widely implemented This type of exposure, through use of the developed
the hydraulic impact, which is used as a tool to con- technologies allows to produce a liquid saturation of
trol major hazards in underground coal mining. the coal seam, that provides reduction of dust gen-
Through the efforts of many researchers is developed eration, helps to reduce gas emission and thus has a
basic theories and technologies for hydro-impact. In positive impact on working conditions in under-
the work (Pavlysh & Stern 2007) the theoretical ground coal mining.
foundations of the process have been further devel-
oped, that allowed to justify a modification of tech-
nology – the cascade method of hydrotreating. How- 2.3 Degassing of bottomhole zone of seam
ever in this area there are still problems as in the theo- This type of exposure can reduce gas emission into
retical aspect and in the technological area. In particu- the face.
lar, the task is to develop methods of engineering cal- Let us consider the main elements of the techno-
culation of parameters in order to practices could, logical chain during the realization of a complex
without the use of computational tools, conduct pre- exposure.

3 PNEUMATIC PROCESSING Injection pressure PH must exceed the gas pressure
in the bed, but it is chosen minimum allowable
Recommended to apply on thin and medium-sized (usually up to 20 kgf / sm²).
seams, developed by columnar system. The basic The most efficient and economical is a cyclic
version of the technological scheme is shown on mode of pneumatic processing of coal seam by long
Fig. 1 that indicates recommended equipment and wells, parallel lines of face. Even wells are injection
geometrical parameters. wells, uneven – outflow.
The diameter of the well is usually taken 76 mm.

20-30 m

bor. 1 bor. 2 bor. 3 bor. 4

150-200 m 10-15 m

10-20 m

Figure 1. The basic version of the technological scheme of pneumatic processing of coal seam: 1 – compressor, 2 – pressure
gauge; 3 – the counter of air flow; 4 – measuring of the concentration of methane (gas analyzer); 5 – mine gas pipeline.

Rate of injection: have low-risk of fire) is 130 days. In most cases

PN2 pneumatic processing does not lead to significant
q  0.33  1014 ml F K , m³ / min (1) heating of the coal seam: in all conditions the tem-
LM .S . perature increase is not dangerous in terms of spon-
The duration of injection cycles is determined by taneous combustion.
the decrease in methane concentration in the out- The time interval between injection cycles corre-
flow hole to 50-60%, the initial duration is deter- sponds to the restoration of methane concentration
mined by the formula: in the outflow hole to a maximum value.
Total time of pneumatic processing by a factor of
L2M .S .n E PG
t N  0.2  10 15 , daily (2) gas-bearing reduction is determined by the moment,
KPH2 when the air injection ceases to significantly influ-
Total duration of exposure is determined by the ence of the methane removal (when the duration of
intensity of removal of methane during the air injec- the discharge cycles, of the above condition, be-
tion and in typical conditions is 150 days. Reading comes practically equal to zero).
of gas while pneumatic processing during this pe- Reduction of gas bearing capacity of the array for
riod by 35-40% higher than during degassing. Ac- all the exposure time is:
cording to this technology pneumatic processing of a M 0  a M .out
unwetted seam is conducted. X   100 , % (3)
1.1a M 0  a M .out
The same time pneumatic processing of coal seam
allows to reduce its chemical activity almost to the The time, that is required for reducing index of
safe limits. For seams with coal chemical activity chemical activity of coal from the initial to the value
index 0.06 ml / g hour (maximum value for bitumi- a0 :
nous coal), time for pneumatic processing , that is
a0 out  а0
required to reduce this index to 0.015 ml / g hour TN  2.5 , days. (4)
(value, corresponding to the category of seams, that aout а0

3.1 The hydraulic impact state of the coal seam, needed to increase the load
on the working face, rate of conducting of mine
It is recommended as the second stage of the com-
workings and protection of labor.
plex impact next to the pneumatic processing of
New computational model for the investigation and
unwetted seam.
calculation of parameters of the pneumatic processing
The beginning of impact immediately following
process of coal seam is developed, recommended for
the end of pneumatic processing, thus it is important
use in combination with a hydraulic impact.
the fact that the wells, through which pneumatic
Pneumatic impact reduction of gas saturation of
processing was conducted, can be used as elements
coal seam is in accordance with an exponential de-
of the hydraulic impact technology.
creasing Theoretical foundations of the complex
Methodology, technology, mathematical models
hydropneumatic impact on coal seams have been
and calculation of parameters of this phase are pre-
developed, which includes three stages: pneumatic
sented in (Pavlysh & Stern 2007).
treatment of unwetted seam, cascade hydrotreatment
and degassing of bottomhole zone.
3.2 Degassing of bottomhole zone
This phase was proposed by MacNII (scientific- REFERENCES
research institute) as the final stage of works on re-
ducing dust and gas emission into mine workings. DNAOP 1.1.30-1.ХХ-04. 2004. Safe conduct of mining
The method is directly applied as a means of reduc- operations on seams prone to gas-dynamic phenomena
ing of gas emission into the face during the devel- (Revision 1). Кyiv: Fuel and Energy of Ukraine: 268.
opment of the seam. Moskalenko, E.M. 1971. Scientific basis of biochemical
Recommendations for use of technology are and physico-chemical methods of combating with meth-
given in (Pavlysh & Stern 2007). ane in the coal mines: Dis. dr. ... technical science.
Moscow: Sciences: 508.
Theoretical and experimental investigations of the
Stern, Y.M. 1981. Improvement of technology of fluid in-
proposed complex impact could be the subject of jection into a coal seam in order to improve the effi-
further research. ciency of its processing to combat with methane and
dust in mines: Dis. candidate technical science:
05.05.04. Мoscow: 211.
4 CONCLUSIONS Pavlysh, V., Stern, Y.M. Fundamentals of the theory and
technology parameters processes of hydropneumatic im-
Thus, we can assume that the complex hydropneu- pact on the coal seams. Monograph. Donetsk: “VIC”: 409.
matic impact provides a purposeful change in the

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Analysis of test methods of determining

antidust respirator quality

S. Cheberyachko, O. Yavors’ka & T. Morozova

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Comparison of calculation procedures of vagueness domestic and harmonized with European
DSTU is conducted. Efficiency of tests for the different amount of samples is analyzed. Results are given,
that it is necessary to increase the amount of samples for the increasing of results quality.

1 INTRODUCTION of methods concerning error evaluation in European

regulations in contrast to domestic ones where after
Antidust respirators are one of the most important described procedures of determining measurement
means to protect workers against such diseases as results it is shown how to check their accuracy. So,
pneumonia and dust bronchitis. Labor productivity the task is to determine the indices validity of
depends on their quality as they are additional MIPRO according to harmonized DSTU.
source of load to people breath system. Therefore, it
is very important to determine real indices of pro-
tection efficiency and breathing resistance which are 2 BASIC PART
the basic criteria of evaluating means of individual
protection of respiratory organs (MIPRO) because Protective efficiency of antidust respirators is de-
calculation accuracy of dust load and people pro- termined by coefficient of penetration K n (Petry-
ductivity depends on them. Standard methods given anov 1984):
in GOST 12.4.041-89 were used to determine them.
However, regulations harmonized with European С
Kп  , (1)
ones which represent demands and list of methods С0
and technique concerning test of MIPRO have come
into operation in Ukraine since 2004. The aim of where C – concentration of harmful substance un-
specialized laboratories is to determine measure- der respirator, mg / m3; C0 – concentration of
ment errors. It is not possible to get the permission
of regulatory authority to carry out the tests without harmful substance in atmosphere, mg / m3.
its solving. The task is complicated by the absence

Figure 1. Principle scheme of respirator tests by test-aerosol.

Figure 1 shows principle scheme of respirator ber where it is diluted by the clean air up to the nec-
tests to determine its protection efficiency. Tests are essary concentration and finally it goes to the cham-
carried out in the following way: compressed air is ber with respirator. Input and output concentration
delivered to generator with special liquid, test- of test-aerosol is determined by counter of aerosol
aerosol is delivered from generator to mixing cham- particles and coefficient of penetration is deter-

mined by formula (1). will differ between series of samples that makes dif-
The second important task of MIPRO is to deter- ficult to determine true results due to their possible
mine breath resistance according to the pressure dif- sufficient differences. Taking into consideration that
ference fixed by micromanometer. It happens be- series consist of three MIPRO it is rather hard to de-
cause certain quantity of air current passes through termine the error of final result according to each
the MIPRO (Figure 2). It can be determined by: procedure provided for “preparation». Calculation
of measurement error can be performed according to
R  ni  n0 K1 , (2) the GOST 8.207-76 “Direct measurements with
numerous observations. Methods of processing ob-
where ni – resistance registration performed by mi- servation results”. Error of measurement results
cromanometer, mm. Aq; n0 – internal resistance of consists of evaluating deviation (random error) and
micromanometer mm. Aq; K1 – temperature and air systematic error which depends on measuring tools.
pressure correction coefficient (Methods… 2001). To determine random error it is required:
– to calculate average value of n-number of the
item by formula:
1 n
R  Ri , (3)
n i 1
where n – the number of items to be tested; Ri –
induce value of i -item determined by tests (Novikov
& Kotsuba 2001; Volodarsky & Kosheva 2008);
– to determine standard deviation S by formula:

1 n
Figure 2. Principle scheme to determine resistance of
MIPRO against constant air current: 1 – entrance from
S  2
 Ri  R .
n  1 i 1
 (4)
thoroughfare, 2 – uncontrolled valve, 3 – air cleaning fil-
ter, 4 – reducing gear- stabilizer -, 5 – manometer, 6 – con- – to check on abnormal results, i.e. to determine
trolled valve, 7 – diaphragm, 8 – test chamber, 9 –
correlation U max or U min by formulas:

However, completely new approach concerning 

U max  Rmax  R / S  (5)
quality estimation of MIPRO is the basis in Euro-
pean standards research methods are principally the 
or U min  R  Rmin / S ,  (6)
same. The advantage is preparing respirators to the
tests which is absent in domestic regulations where Rmax , Rmin – maximum and minimum val-
whereas it is provided in the countries of European ues of obtained induce according to selection deter-
Community (EN 133, EN 136, EN 140, EN 143, EN mined by tests, values U max and U min are com-
149). The idea of the test is the following: the first
pared with threshold value  , at the level of sig-
series of samples (in most cases series consist of
three respirators or filters) are first subjected to nificance  = 0.05 (Methods…2001): if U max  
thermal effect (daily time delay is 24 hours at a or U min   , then the result of observation is Rmax
temperature of +70 °С and with the same duration at
or Rmin , correspondingly abnormal and should be
a temperature of -30 °С).The second series of sam-
ples pass through “modeling wearing schedule”. It excluded from selection;otherwise the result is con-
means that double air current with artificial air hu- sidered to be normal and is not excluded after exclu-
midification is conducted through filter half mask sion of normal value; average value R – deter-
fixed on the “Sheffild” head model. The third series mined again and S – calculated;
of samples are subjected to mechanical effect (imi- – to determine relative standard deviation of
tation of low frequency vibration) and undergo in- measurement results by formulas:
flammation test. Furthermore, according to GOST
EN 149-2003 protective items are tested not only S  S n (7)
with air flow at 30 l / min but with the flow rate at
95 l / min. or S   S  n 1 , (8)
Values of protective efficiency and breath resis-
tance after procedures provided for “preparation” – to find out confidence interval ε of random error

by formula: 100i
i  ,
  tS  , (9) Xi

where t – Student coefficient which depends on where i – error of i – measuring tool; X i – value
confidence probability P and number of observa- of measured one on i – measuring tool.
tions n . To calculate errors of penetration coefficient ac-
Calculation results are written in the form of: cording to the test-aerosol and breath resistance sev-
eral dozens of antidust respirators SHB-1 “Lepe-
R  R   , %. (10) stok-200” were chosen at SIE “Standart” (Dni-
propetrovs’k). The first step was to carry out a
Dependence of general systematic error on meas-
number of tests to determine basic indices of several
uring tools is determined by formula:
series of respirators according to the GOST
12.4.028-76 (respirators SHB-1 “Lepestok”). The
  k   i2 , (11) first series consist of three samples. Next series have
i 1 3 respirators more to compare with previous ones.
After that average values of measurement results for
where k – coefficient determined according to con- each group of MIPRO and their standard deviations
fidence probability;  i – limit of systematic error were calculated by formulas (4-8). Figure 3 and 4
of i – measuring tool: show the results.




0 0
3 6 9 12 1 5m
3 6 9 12 15m

Figure 3. Dependence of relative standard deviation of Figure 4. Dependence of relative standard deviation of
breath resistance on the number of observations. penetration coefficient according to test-aerosol “oil fog”
on the number of observations.

Figure 3 and 4 shows that with the increase of the passes through “wearing schedule modeling” before
number of observations standard deviation reduces, determining coefficient of penetration according to
and its value stays constant if the number of respira- test-aerosol “paraffin oil” and breath resistance.
tors is not more than ten. So, minimum number of Relative standard deviation for each group of sam-
test samples should be not less than 10 to guarantee ples (Figure 5 and 6) was calculated by formula (8).
necessary accuracy of measurement. The next step Analyzing diagrams we can come to the follow-
is to carry out test of MIPRO by harmonized meth- ing conclusion: relative standard deviation stays
ods given in GOST EN 149-2003.Their peculiarity constant when the number of samples is not more
is so-called procedure of respiratory preparation de- than 10; preliminary preparation improves homoge-
scribed above. To determine optimal number of ob- neity of quality induces of MIPRO, particularly
servations several series of samples which were dif- while obtaining coefficient of penetration according
ferent in quantity of respirators (next series have 3 to test-aerosol “paraffin oil” where deviation after
respirators more to compare with the previous ones) delivering is two times more for the same number of
were taken. The first group of MIPRO was sub- samples than for the samples passed through pre-
jected to temperature effect and the second one liminary preparation.

S' S'
1 0,3
3 0,2
3 3
2 0,15


0 0
3 6 9 12 15m 3 6 9 12 15 m

Figure 5. Dependence of relative standard deviation of Figure 6. Dependence of relative standard deviation of co-
breath resistance on a number of observations: 1 – samples efficient of penetration according to test-aerosol “paraffin
without preliminary preparation, 2 – samples subjected to oil” on a number of observations: 1 – samples without pre-
temperature effect, 3 – sampled passed through “wearing liminary preparation, 2 – samples subjected to temperature
schedule”. effect, 3 – samples passed though “wearing schedule”.

3 CONCLUSIONS which reflect their future sphere of application are

the ways of this problem solving.
Tests show high probability of error while determin-
ing quality of three samples as harmonized stan-
dards suggest. Total number of .samples (more than REFERENCES
12 while determining each induce) is sufficient for
high accuracy of measurement taking into account Petryanov, I., Koscheev V., Basmanov P. & jthers. 1984.
the procedure of preparation. However, preliminary Lepestok (Light respirators). Moscow: Science: 218.
Methods of measuring resistance of constant air current of
preparation considerably influences quality induce
filter boxes to gas masks and respirators, filter respira-
of MIPRO, particularly coefficient of penetration tors, and filter materials. 2001. RND 37.001-2001.
according to test-aerosol. It sufficiently increases Dnipropetrovs’k: NMAU: 12.
boundary range of occasional error and makes diffi- Novikov, V & Kotsuba, A. 2001. Basics of metrology and
cult to determine the type of respirator protection. metrological activity. Part 2. Manuscript. Kyiv: Nopa-
To carry out the whole complex of tests and guaran- print: 210.
tee high accuracy, it is required to spend much time Volodarsky, Ye. & Kosheva, L. 2008. Statistical data
for preparation and study. It will lead for increase of processing. Manuscript. Kyiv: NAS: 308.
«Respirators SHB-1 «Lepestok» Technical conditions».
test cost. Registration of operating conditions of
GOST 12.4.028-76.
MIPRO and preliminary preparation of samples

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Investigation of the geomechanical processes

while mining thick ore deposits by room systems
with backfill of worked-out area

E. Chistyakov
State enterprise “Scientific-research mining ore institute”
V. Ruskih
National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine
S. Zubko
JSC " Zaporizhzhya iron ore," Dniprorudne, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Mining of iron mills in Ukraine reach a depth of 1000 m or more. This leads to a significant
increase in the stress-strain state of rock, and as a consequence, the deterioration of mining conditions. The
article shows the basis of new technical solutions to mine steep ore deposits under conditions of low stability
of the hanging-wall host rock. The results of investigations of polarization-optical models and simulation of
equivalent materials are given. On mine, “Expluatacionnaya” JSC “Zaporizhzhya iron ore” an experimental
section of a mine field has been selected, where on the floor in a 740-825 m tested the results of research.

1 INTRODUCTION of chamber system and backfill of goaf. The main

production is carried out with help of chambers
Iron ore industry in Ukraine holds one of the leading from 15 to 30 m in width and 100...200 m in height
places in the world by production volume. However, in the twin floor 640...840 m (Figure 1).
providing the industry with high quality raw steel
production continues to be an actual problem. The (a) (b)
growth of consumption of the mineral resource base
requires expansion, providing the necessary quality
of salable ore, maintaining the profitability of min-
ing and ore-processing plants.
For a long time mining has reached a depth of
1000 m and deeper. As a consequence, stress-strain
state of rock at such depths has increased as well,
that led to the deterioration of mining conditions of
deposits. To save the profitability and increase the
efficiency of underground mining can be reached
mainly due to the intensification of production.
The efficiency of extraction and safety of mining
operations depend on optimal size of the main struc-
tural elements and sequence of the chamber.


One of the mining and metallurgical industry of Figure 1. Imitational model of drilling the chamber at 690-
Ukraine, which faced the task is represented, is JSC 840 m level: (a) along the strike of the ore deposits, and
“Zaporizhzhya iron ore”, based at the Uzhno- (b) across the strike of the ore deposits.
Belozyorsk deposits of rich iron ore.
Zaporizhzhya iron ore complex develops steep Surveying measurements in the drifts, and hang-
deposit with thickness from 20 to 180 m with help ing-wall gain, with the development of stoping,

value of the subsidence and horizontal displace- within three years. In this case, from year to year in
ments have been determined. In the gains at depths the diagram (Figure 2) it is clearly observed the dy-
of 605, 640, 715, 740 m, and also in the drifts at 740 namics of displacement of the massif from 0 to
and 840 m observation stations have been estab- 90 mm. This should be considered when designing
lished. Ongoing observations allowed to establish deeper levels. Figure 2 shows the results of observa-
the nature of displacement of the rock mass around tions in the hanging wall drift 740 m. The diagrams
the existing and laid down chambers. At area of show both the areas of individual chambers influ-
axes 7-11 floors of 740-840 m 14 chambers have ence and the consolidated dislocation zones of un-
been worked out and 9 chambers were laid down dermined strata.

Figure 2. The results of measurements of subsidence along the hanging wall drift profile, depth 740 m.

While developing levels 640-740-840 m on a room- pendence of (1-3) and studies performed on physical
pillar, plant, in some parts of deposit, aced with the models.
problems of stability of the country rocks in the hang-
ing-wall with room parameters: height – 100-130 m, R
Lk   2 1  sin 2ik (1)
width – 30 m, length – 40-50 m (Figure 3). The large K ph  H
size of rooms led to a decrease in the stability of the
roof and hanging wall side, which later was reflected 2 R
in some reduction of quality indicators, due to in- Ln  (2)
  2 sin  K ph  H
creased pollution of mined ore. Made in the southern
part of the mining of the ore body changes in tech-
nology and BSB parameters, namely, leaving pillars Lb   2 3 3 f (3)
of ore, separating itself from the camera hanging wall K ph  H
rocks, downward blasting, the transition to work after
two pillars did not fully resolve the problem. where Ln – inclined or vertical outcrop along the
strike of the deposit, m; Lk – horizontal outcrop

3 MATERIALS UNDER ANALYSIS along the strike of the deposit, m; Lb – vertical ex-
posure across the strike of the deposit, m; ik – dip
Order to determine rational technology to mine angle roof of room along the strike, degrees;  –
hanging wall rooms in floors 740...840 m in order to
dip angle of hanging-wall rocks, degree; H –
prevent dumping on the basis of detailed geological
prospecting and analysis of results observations of Pressure of above lying rocks t / m2;
mine, have been identified settlement and accept-
able treatment options designed room on the de-

Figure 3. Areas of dumped in mined rooms.

3.1 Polarization-optical modeling 3.2 Simulation on equivalent materials

Studies were performed on models of the polariza- If the polarization-optical modeling of the form
tion-active material – igdantin in gravitational forces stress (biaxial or triaxial) is not important, then test
field according to classical methods. for stability in static models of equivalent materials
When the polarization-optical modeling of the the role of the stress state is very important. This
volume problem was solved in a plane stress state necessitates the study of the stress state in addition
(Chystyakov 1992). Reproduced in the model plane to the array in the plane stressed state, to investigate
cut at a certain depth is a picture of stress distribu- the stability of the system components to carry out
tion in the vicinity of an infinite number of rooms, development under conditions of plane strain, pro-
the debugging on a “room-pillar”. viding triaxial stress state.
As a result, the model to mined rooms 2/1 on the Studies on models of equivalent materials in
levels 605 and 740 m 1/2 with the levels 715... compliance with the terms of full-scale similarity
840 m, taking into account the backfill mining re- model provided data on the stability of the elements
lated rooms with a levels 605 and 715...740...840 m, of systems development at different playable on
as well as rooms overlying levels set the maximum models developed shapes and sizes of spaces. The
concentration factors stresses in the zone of influ- nature of the deformation also depends on the se-
ence of rooms. Curves of maximum stress concen- quence of mining chambers. Therefore, when mod-
tration factors around the room levels 605 1/2s and eling on equivalent material was taken into account
1/1 with 740...840 m 715 levels when they are the sequence of mining.
working out a joint are presented in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Curves of the coefficients of concentration around the room.

Simulation performed on equivalent materials in

plane strain on the stand with a transparent front
wall. Figure 5 shows an example of modeling the
chamber floor 940...1040 m according to the
“chamber-pillar” mining deposits on the stage with
an exposure of the hanging wall. As a result of
simulation data obtained on the size of exposure
chamber in which the possible collapse of the host

3.3 Analysis of the study results

This research of mining of the steep ore deposits in
low stability of the country rocks in the hanging
wall of the polarization-optical models and models
of equivalent materials showed the following:
– the intensity of the stresses in the pillars in the
room equal to the width and the pillars 15 and 15 m,
30 and 30 m is the same, the stability of pillars at
equal strength is determined by the shape of ore;
– in areas of transition to the testing of rooms
15 m wide stress in the 15 meter pillars adjacent to
the rooms 30 m wide by 15...20% higher than when
Figure 5. Collapse of overlying rock when modeling min- working off a solid camera and pillars between the
ing of room level 940...1040 m according to the “room- room of equal width;

– when working out on a “room-2 pillars” zone of 4 TECHNOLOGICAL SECTION
mutual influence of cells in contact, the stresses in
the cross section of the rear sight are distributed After the submitted studies for testing rooms from
curvilinear with a maximum at the walls and a the hanging wall in the floor of 740-840 was se-
minimum at the center; at working on a “camera- lected an experimental plot where the mine field of
pillar” in the rear sight tension are distributed development adopted by the room system, followed
evenly, not exceeding the maximum intensity of the by purification of the space filled with a hardening
stresses in the walls of the chambers, the debugging tab at the bottom of the mountains. 825 m, a width
on a “room-2 pillars”; of 15 m and room height from 35 to 80 m depending
– in the ceiling pillars (the bottoms of the overly- on the contours of the ore deposits. Breaking the
ing cells), regardless of the form of cameras, the cells sublevel, the vertical layers in the same plane,
stress concentration at the hanging wall are in- or in advance of the upper sub stage, is made on a
creases by 2.5-3.0 times; pre-cutting a slot in split vertically located across
– in rooms with a sloping bottom in the end wall the room. Drilling of the ore produced an array of
of the inside / side stress increases with the ap- cameras ascending and descending fans wells
proach of breaking in to the inside / side. In this drilled from the vectors and the sublevel drifts. The
case areas of concentration are in the heel arch and bottom of the room set up in ore array flat. It is
in the bottom of the interface closer until merger af- formed by the explosion of the fans of wells drilled
ter breaking of the last layer. from a slit to the expansion of the unit vector cutting
According to the analysis and synthesis of labora- slits located across the chamber (Figure 6). Haulage
tory research recommended procedure for breaking of ore from the camera produced by Scoop trams
a room with breaking the hanging wall of the trian- TORO-400E (D).
gle as a last resort.

Figure 6. Model of mining the ore from an array of hanging-walls: 1 – haulage unit vector; 2 – slash unit vector; 3 – cut-
ting of raise; 4 – backfill; 5 – drilling unit vector; 6 – fans of boreholes.

5 CONCLUSIONS tion ratio does not exceed 1.7;

– sewage treatment notch camera in the hanging
Given the accumulated experience of operation of wall of the ore to carry out the abandonment of the
the South White Lake Field, and the results of the triangle to prevent collapses of unstable rocks and
investigations the following conclusions: dumped the hanging wall. Refinement of the trian-
– when sewage excavation work in the first gle made after excavation and laying sewage cham-
chamber in the footwall and in the central part of the ber, possibly with Scoop trams;
deposits as being due to the protective effect of – practice of cameras in the hanging wall at the
backfill in more favorable conditions on the distri- site location of the low stability of the oil shale pro-
bution and magnitude of stress, when the concentra- duction on a “two-pillar chamber”.

Based on these results a number of cameras in REFERENCES
low stability of the country rocks overlying the
South White Lake Field have been successfully de- Chystyakov, E.P. 1992. The solution volume of geome-
veloped, which confirms the validity of studies. chanical problems on fragmented physical models.
Proc. The development of metallic and nonmetallic de-
posits in Ukraine. Kryvy Rig: 49-61.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Spontaneous combustion and coal dust explosibity

related mapping of South African coalfields

B. Genc & T. Suping

School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
A. Cook
Latona Consulting (Pty) Ltd, Johannesburg, South Africa

ABSTRACT: Spontaneous combustion and coal dust explosibility are two of the paramount challenges faced
by the South African coal mining industry. Lotana Consulting (Pty) Ltd. is a consulting firm that obtained a
number of coal samples from different coal mines in South Africa to determine the probability of spontane-
ous combustions and the risk of coal dust explosibility in the majority of the South African coal mines over
the last three years. The database that Lotana Consulting (Pty) Ltd. produced consists of information col-
lected through several tests of coal samples from various mines. These tests were performed in order to de-
termine both the Wits-Ehac index and explosibility index ( K ex ). The Wits-Ehac index measures the sponta-
neous combustion liabilities of the coal samples while ( K ex ) measures the explosibility of the coal dust. Us-
ing this database, maps of the major coalfields have been generated showing the liability of both spontaneous
combustion and coal dust explosibility for the coal mines. This paper plots where the high-risk areas are in
terms of spontaneous combustion and coal dust explosibility, and it enables the South African coal mining
industry to take important steps to improve safety in coal mines.

1 INTRODUCTION ated showing the liability of both spontaneous com-

bustion and coal dust explosibility for the coal mines.
Spontaneous combustion and coal dust explosibility
are two of the paramount challenges faced by the
South African coal mining industry. Lotana Con- 2 EXPLOSIBILITY PREDICTIVE INDEX
sulting (Pty) Ltd. is a consulting firm that obtained a
number of coal samples from different coal mines in Explosibility of the coal dust is determined experi-
South Africa to determine the probability of sponta- mentally as an explosibility index ( K ex ). An appara-
neous combustions and the risk of coal dust ex- tus called a 40-litre explosion vessel is used to deter-
plosibility in the majority of the South African coal mine the K ex value of the coal dust. According to
mines. More than 80 coal samples have been ob-
tained over a three year period from various coal Gouws and Knoetze (1995), the K ex value is calcu-
mines in South Africa to determine the liability of lated from the plotted curves of gas pressure versus
spontaneous combustion and the coal dust explosi- time graphs. It is important to understand that coal
bility index. dust is considered non-explosive when the K ex value
The spontaneous combustion tests were carried is less than 70 bar / s, whilst coal dust that is highly
out at the University of the Witwatersrand to deter- likely to propagate explosion have a K ex value of
mine both the Wits-Ehac index and the crossing
point temperature, which are combined to obtain the more than 90 bar / s. Figure 1 shows the 40-litre ex-
coal liability. The coal dust explosibility index plosion vessel used during determination of the K ex
( K ex ) was carried out at the CSIR Kloppersbos value of the coal dust (Gouws & Knoetze 1995).
Explosion facility in a 40 litre pressure vessel to de- The process of predicting the K ex value is based
termine the rate of pressure rise. on the relationship between explosibility and energy
This has provided a database of results, collated released by the combustion of coal volatiles. The
and maintained by Latona Consulting, to review and calorific value (CV) of the volatiles in coal is de-
evaluate South African coal seams, and using this da- termined by finding the difference between the en-
tabase, maps of the major coalfields have been gener- ergy released by combustion of the fixed portion of

carbon of coal and the calorific value of coal. There ture can be measured. The crossing-point tempera-
is a need to assume that inorganic components of ture is defined as the temperature at which the coal
coal do not contribute to the volatile content of coal. sample equals that of an inert material sample.
It is also important to assume that the amount of en- (Gouws & Knoetze 1995).
ergy liberated during the combustion of a given When using differential thermal analysis, the dif-
quantity of fixed carbon is the same as that would ference between the temperatures of the coal sample
be liberated from a similar quantity of graphite. The and an inert material sample is measured and plotted
relationship between the total calorific content and against the temperature of the inert material sample. It
fixed amount of carbon is expressed as follows: is important to understand that in differential thermal
CV of total volatile material = ( 100  CV of the coal – analysis, three stages are realized. Initially, the tem-
32.8  FC) / 100, perature of an inert material sample is higher than the
where CV – calorific value, MJ / kg; FC – fixed temperature of the coal sample (Stage l) and this is
carbon, %; 32.8 – calorific value of graphite, based on the cooling effect of the evaporation of
MJ / kg (Gouws & Knoetze 1995). moisture content in the coal. Next, evaporation of the
moisture content, the coal sample starts to heat up at a
faster rate than the heating rate of the inert material
(Stage II) and this is based on the tendency of coal to
self-heating and attempting to reach the temperature
of the surrounding temperature (i.e. Oil bath tempera-
ture). Finally the high exothermicity is reached at a
point where the line crosses the zero base line and is
referred to as the crossing point temperature (Gouws
& Knoetze 1995).
Uludag et al, (2001) also confirmed the three stages
Figure 1. A 40 litre explosion vessel used to determine the and explained that stage I begins with minimal differ-
explosibity index. (Gouws & Knoetze 1995). ential and gradually increases towards the crossing-
point temperature where the differential is zero. Stage
It was found that K ex values were predicted best II is a continuation from the crossing point tempera-
ture to the point called kick-point. Furthermore, Stage
by the calorific value of volatiles using the following
II is referred to as one of the best indicators of spon-
relationship; K ex  15.81 (CV of volatiles) – 6.35.
taneous combustion. Stage III is when the coal begins
The equation was valid for K ex values of between 90 to burn beyond the kick–point. Figure 2 shows a typi-
and 120 bar / s. It was found that the calorific value of cal differential thermogram.
volatiles has a correlation coefficient of 0.87 and the
complete relationship to find the K ex value is as fol-
low K ex  0.1581 ( 100  CV of coal – 32.8  FC) –
6.35. (Gouws & Knoetze 1995).


The propensity of coal spontaneous combustion can

be determined using various laboratory techniques,
namely; the ignition temperature tests technique Figure 2. Typical differential analysis thermogram.
(crossing-point temperature tests (X.P.T), the differ-
ential thermal analysis (D.T.A)), and, the adiabatic It is important to understand that the kick–point
calorimetry technique. temperature means the temperature at which coal
In order to determine the crossing point tempera- starts to burn. Stage II is a good indicator of sponta-
ture measurement, it is necessary to compare the re- neous combustion liability and that the liability of
lationship of how the temperature increases against spontaneous combustion increases with the increas-
time for coal and an inert material. Crossing-point ing slope of Stage II. However the most reliable in-
temperatures tests consist of samples of coal and an dicator of spontaneous combustion is the Wits-
inert material both placed in similar sample holders EHAC Index. The Wits-EHAC Index is defined as:
and placed in an oil bath. Thereafter oil is heated at Wits-EHAC Index = 0.5 × (Stage II slope / Cross-
a constant rate so that the crossing-point tempera- ing-point temperature) × 1000 (Gouws 1987).

According to Gouws (1987), the characteristics of When preparing the coal samples, it is important to
the curves plotted using the obtained results (i.e. igni- ensure that the coal remains as fresh as possible once
tion temperature tests) are used to determine the pro- taken from the mine. This is attained by storing coal
pensity of coal to self-heat according to the Wits- in a sealed container until the preparation time of the
EHAC liability index. It is important to understand cell assembly and testing arrives. Coal preparation is
that when an index value of coal is more than five, done using a glove box that is filled with nitrogen.
there is a high propensity to spontaneous combustion The coal samples required size of (212  m ) is ob-
and when an index value is less than three, there is a tained through crushing and sieving. Thereafter, coal
low propensity to spontaneous combustion. An index is weighed on an electronic scale. A 20 g coal sample
value of between three and five indicates that the coal is used for each coal cell. When testing commences,
sample has a relatively medium risk to spontaneously the test environment must be initially at 30 ˚C tem-
combust (Gouws & Knoetze 1995). perature. This is achieved by sealing the chimneys on
The testing apparatus used for the Wits-EHAC the caps until the temperature stabilizes. The test
Index consists of an oil bath, six coal and inert ma- commences by switching on the heater, air compres-
terial cell assemblies, a circulator, a heater, a flow sor and then initiating the data capturing program on
meter used for airflow monitoring, an air supply a personal computer (PC).
compressor and a computer. The oil bath is a 40 L The Adiabatic calorimeter testing apparatus was
stainless-steel tank. The oil used has a low viscosity initiated based on an idea of overcoming the prob-
and high flash point and break down temperature. lems related to the ignition temperature test appara-
Generally, the oil used has a flash point of 210 ˚C tus and the simplification of the testing procedure.
and a maximum usable temperature of 320 ˚C. There are three testing options when using the calo-
Figure 3 shows an apparatus setup of the Wits- rimeter apparatus, namely; the incubation test, the
EHAC testing apparatus. minimum self-heating temperature test and the
crossing-point temperature test.

Figure 4. The cell caps with the inserted platinum resis-

Figure 3. Wits–EHAC apparatus setup. tance thermocouple (PRT) and the chimney.

The cell assembly consists of six cells whereby When using the incubation test, the apparatus and
three of them are used for coal samples whilst the coal samples are heated to a predetermined com-
remaining three are filled with inert material such as mencing temperature for a chosen stabilization pe-
calcined alumina. The cell assemblies have to be oil riod. Thereafter, air is infiltrated through the sam-
tight. It is important to understand that each cap ples and then the oven and the intake gas are heated
used for closing the cells has a platinum resistance to the temperature of the sample. Oxidation of the
thermocouple (PRT) inserted through the middle. sample takes place. It is important to understand that
Fumes produced during heating of coal samples in for the incubation test, the propensity of coal to self-
the cells is released through the chimney built into heat is predicted by using the initial rate of heating
the caps. Air supplied is directed to the bottom of of the coal sample and the total temperature rise fac-
the cells through a copper tube spiral. This spiral is tors The minimum self-heating temperature test is
long enough to allow air to reach the oil temperature simply an incubation test with increments of starting
before entering the cell. It is important to understand temperatures. The test is started at a specific tem-
that the airflow rate is controlled using the flow me- perature then heated to a higher temperature if there
ter located between the compressor and sample is no self-heating of coal samples. The incubation
holder which are connected with a plastic tubing. test is repeated until the coal samples self-heat. The
Figure 4 shows the inserted platinum resistance starting temperature at which self-heating occurs is
thermocouple cell caps and the chimney. taken as the sample`s minimum self-heating tem-

perature. It is important to understand that coal with as a datum against that of the coal heating so as to
a low minimum self-heating temperature is more examine the characteristics (Gouws & Eroglu 1993).
prone to spontaneous combustion than a coal with a The technique used for this experiment is called the
higher minimum self-heating temperature (Gouws rising temperature technique (or the ramping tem-
& Eroglu 1993). perature technique) and possess similar characteristics
The crossing temperature test involves heating of as the differential thermal analysis test. It is important
the coal sample using the same rate as that of the ig- to notice that both tests measures the heating rate of
nition temperature test and the observation of ther- the coal with respect to the rate at which inert mate-
mal behaviour with respect to datum temperature, rial are heated in similar circumstances.
but the experiment was initially unsuccessful when
using the calorimeter apparatus. Instead a band-
heater controlled by a variac was used to heat the 4 RESULTS
coal sample. It was necessary to set the variac so
that it can result in the heating of the inert material The results entail the explosibility of coal in bar / s,
at the required rate. In order for the oven to match crossing–point temperature in degrees Celsius and
the rise in temperature of the sample, it was required the Wits–EHAC index. The tests results are shown
to use the incubation mode of the calorimeter. The from 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. The name
test is repeated using the coal sample. The data of the coal mines have been disguised.
obtained during heating of the inert material is used

Table 1. Spontaneous Combustion and Explosibility Test Results (2009).

K ex (bar / s) Crossing-Point Tem- Spontaneous Com-

Name of mine Wits – EHAC Index
perature (°C) bustion Liability
ND 75 4.24 127.6 Medium
S1 11 5.72 120.2 High
Bo 139 4.79 115.3 Medium
Mo 10 5.09 123.3 High
M1 27 5.01 108.7 High
Po 116 5.27 136.4 High
Op 118 5.41 119.3 High
Sp 135 5.31 111.9 High
Sp 112 4.88 120.8 Medium
Sp 235 5.46 119.9 High
Bw 45 5.35 111.4 High
Pa 134 4.14 133.4 Medium
DR 131 5.31 121.9 High
Ss 63 4.53 130.9 Medium
M2 5.62 119.2 High
M3 5.02 116.4 High
M4 5.18 121 High
M5 5.33 118.4 High

Table 1 shows the 2009 tests results for spontane- 235 bar / s.
ous combustion and explosibility. It is evident from Table 2 shows 2010 tests results for spontaneous
the 2009 spontaneous combustion liability and ex- combustion and explosibility. The similar range (i.e.
plosibility results that all of the tested coal samples medium to high) is still found from the 2010 spon-
from various South African collieries ranged from taneous combustion liability results and most of the
medium to high propensity of coal to spontaneously collieries were still having high propensity. The
combust and most of the collieries have higher pro- minimum spontaneous combustion index found was
pensity. The minimum calculated Wits-EHAC index just above 4.6 and the maximum found was on 5.64.
was about 4.1 whilst the maximum index found was The explosibility index results of 2010 also fol-
just below 5.8. The explosibility index of those col- lowed a similar trend as the 2009 results but the
lieries is ranging from non-explosive coal dust at minimum K ex value was 12 bar / s whilst the
K ex value of 10 (bar / s) to the one that is highly maximum K ex value was 142 bar / s.
likely to propagate an explosion at a K ex value of

Table 2. Spontaneous Combustion and Explosibility Test Results (2010).

K ex (bar / s) Crossing-Point Tem- Spontaneous Com-

Name of mine Wits – EHAC Index
perature (°C) bustion Liability
Gr 4 142 5.64 98.6 High
Gr 5 96 5.44 102.6 High
Xs 5 131 5.31 105.2 High
Ma 106 5.14 109.3 High
Ta 106 5.47 110.8 High
SW 131 5.26 117.3 High
S1 12 5.58 104.8 High
D 16 139 4.91 118.8 Medium
D 15 128 5.51 102.9 High
Si 5.32 113.7 High
M1 4.64 117.8 Medium
NC 5.02 119.3 High
nK 5.38 108 High
Op 5.49 108.2 High
Op 5.23 120.9 High
Op 5.1 110.8 High
Op 5.52 113.6 High
Op 5.27 117 High
Wy 5.24 114.7 High
DE 5.6 121.2 High
VaA 5.58 95.2 High
KE 4.86 120.2 Medium
KW 4.71 113.9 Medium
Xs2 4.91 116.7 Medium
SW 4.92 121.9 Medium
VaG 4.86 108.5 Medium
Mo 5.33 124.7 High
Xs2N 4.91 116.7 Medium
Xs5 5.31 105.2 High

Table 3 shows the tests results of spontaneous than 5 which are known to possess a medium risk to
combustion and explosibility. The number of tests spontaneous combustion. The red part indicates coal
done on spontaneous combustion out figured the samples that have a value of more than 5 and are
explosibility tests during the year 2011 because of known to have a high risk to the propensity of spon-
some operational problems with the explosibility taneous combustion. It can be seen from Figure 5
testing equipment. A big difference was noticed be- that almost half of the tested collieries possess a
cause most of the coal samples tested from various medium risk to propensity of spontaneous combus-
collieries had a medium level of propensity to spon- tion, whilst the other half possess a high risk to pro-
taneous combustions. This could have been im- pensity of spontaneous combustion.
proved by reduced critical factors that influence The explosibility index bar chart on Figure 6 shows
spontaneous combustion. The minimum calculated the behaviour of the tested selected South African
Wits-EHAC index was 3.1, which is still above the collieries. The explosibility index margins which in-
low range identified by Gouws (1987), while the dicate the behaviour of coal are indicated using the
maximum Wits-EHAC index was approximately colours. The blue part (bottom) shows coal samples
5.9. It was also found that the minimum K ex value which have a K ex value of less than 70 bar / s and is
was 9 bar / s whilst the maximum K ex value was considered non explosive. It can be seen from Figure
217 bar / s. 6 that only a third of the tested collieries have K ex
The spontaneous combustion liability bar chart on values of less than 70 bar / s. The red colour indicates
Figure 5 shows the behaviour of the selected South coal samples with a K ex value of more than 90
African collieries with regards to spontaneous com- bar / s and the white part indicates coal samples with
bustion. The Wits-EHAC index margins are indi- a K ex value between 70 and 90 bar / s. Figure 6
cated using colours. The blue part shows the coal
samples that have a value of more than 3 but less shows that most of the collieries have a K ex value of

more than 90 bar / s which indicate that their coal samples are highly likely to propagate an explosion.

Table 3. Spontaneous Combustion and Explosibility Test Results (2011).

K ex (bar / s) Crossing-Point Tem- Spontaneous Com-

Name of mine Wits – EHAC Index
perature (°C) bustion Liability
Ta 142 4.73 124.3 Medium
S1 10 4.41 129.4 Medium
Kr 199 4.81 114.2 Medium
Gr4 217 4.74 118.7 Medium
Gr5 4.9 112.9 Medium
Kr 159 4.81 114.2 Medium
Kr 122 4.67 126.2 Medium
Dr 5.01 118.7 High
M1 28 5.36 126.8 High
M1 28 5.33 123.4 High
Sp 4.56 121.2 Medium
Sp 4.79 117.3 Medium
Tu 4.73 129.3 Medium
TshG 3.76 137.4 Medium
TshV 3.65 144.8 Medium
TshM 3.63 145.8 Medium
KG 4.3 130.3 Medium
KD 4.21 133.2 Medium
SW 4.62 126.9 Medium
M1 28 5.91 127.8 High
GGV2 5.12 123.2 High
CCV4 4.66 128.1 Medium
M2 5.18 125.9 High
M3 4.21 134.6 Medium
COA1 3.14 161.9 Medium
COA2 3.46 150.5 Medium
COA3 3.58 154.3 Medium
COA4 3.86 131.3 Medium
KW 9 4.71 113.9 Medium
S1 10
D 85
B4 67
B3 116
B2 47
B1 156
B 132
A10 28
A8 60

Figure 5. Spontaneous Combustion Liability bar chart. Figure 6. Explosibility Index bar chart.

5 SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND results of the coal samples. The map shows that
EXPLOSIBILITY RISK MAPS most of the collieries located in the Witbank and
Highveld coalfields have high index ratings, particu-
To address spontaneous combustion and coal dust larly the Kriel area. It can also be noticed that some
explosibility problems, using the database, maps of of the mines located in the Ermelo area (Waterberg
the major coalfields have been generated, showing coalfields) have high index ratings. These high risk
the liability of both spontaneous combustion and areas have an explosibility index range of 150
coal dust explosibility for the coal mines. The ex- bar / s to 250 bar / s. Although most of the collieries
plosibility index map on Figure 7 shows the risk rat- in the Witbank and Highveld coalfields are rated
ings of the selected South African collieries. The high risk, a low risk rating can also be seen on the
map is generated by adapting the mine boundaries south of Ogies. The anthracite coalfields have a low
of the South African collieries from Bartholomew risk rating for propagating explosions.
and Associates, and is based on the explosibility test

Figure 7: The Coal Dust Explosibility Index Map.

The spontaneous combustion liability map on Ogies. The southern parts of Waterberg coalfields in
Figure 8 shows the risk ratings of the selected South the Ermelo area are also rated high in terms of risk.
African collieries in terms of the Wits-Ehac index. Although most of the selected collieries possess
The map shows that most of the collieries located in high risk ratings, medium risk ratings can also be
the Witbank and Highveld coalfields have a high seen. The map also shows that the northern parts of
risk to induce spontaneous combustion. The high Ermelo have medium risk to propensity of sponta-
risk areas also include the north eastern part of neous combustion.

Figure 8. Spontaneous Combustion Liability Map.

6 CONCLUSIONS particularly our anthracite coal is embedded.

To address spontaneous combustion and coal dust

explosibility problems, using the database, maps of REFERENCES
the major coalfields have been generated, showing
the liability of both spontaneous combustion and Gouws, M.J. 1987. Crossing point characteristics and Dif-
coal dust explosibility for the coal mines. The state ferential Thermal Analysis of South African Coals.
M.Sc. Dissertation, Department of Mining Engineering,
of spontaneous combustion and explosibility of the
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
selected South African collieries was analysed and Gouws, M.J., Wade, L. & Phillips, H.R. 1987. An Appara-
classified through the series of laboratory tests. It is tus to Establish the Spontaneous Combustion Propensity
evident that South African collieries are predomi- of South African Coals. Symposium on Safety in Coal
nantly challenged by spontaneous combustion and Mines, CSIR, Pretoria: 7.1-7.2
explosibility. Most of our collieries have high risk Gouws, M.J. & Eroglu, H.N. 1993. A Spontaneous Com-
ratings of coal dust explosibility and the propensity bustion Liability Index. Istanbul: the 13th Mining Con-
of spontaneous combustion of our collieries ranges gress of Turkey: 59-68
Gouws, M.J. & Knoetze, T.P. 1995. Coal Self-heating and
from medium to high. There is an important notice
Explosibility. The Journal of The South African Institute
made during analysis of the spontaneous combus- of Mining and Metallurgy: 39-41.
tion test results which showed that there are no low Uludag, S., Phillips, H.R. & Eroglu, N.H. 2001. Assessing
results found and this shows the significance of Spontaneous Combustion Risk In South African Coal
monitoring spontaneous combustion in our collier- Mines Using A GIS Tool. Proceedings of the 17th Inter-
ies. Based on the tests results and the generated national Mining Conference and Exhibition in Turkey.
maps it was found that there are higher spontaneous Uludag, S. 2007. The Spontaneous Combustion Index and
combustion risks and explosibility risk in the Wit- its application: Past, present, and future, in Stracher,
G.B., ed. Geology of Coal Fires: Case Studies from
bank and Highveld coalfields. Relatively low spon-
Around the World: Geology Society of America Re-
taneous combustion risk and explosibility risk were views in Engineering Geology: Vol. XVIII: 15-22.
only found in the Kwa-Zulu Natal province where

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Monitoring of quality of mineral

raw material by method of conductivity

O. Svetkina
National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: It is shown that the high sensitiveness of conductivity to the changes of the superficial state of
hard materials allows to watch quality of mineral raw material, and also phase transformations of it on the
initial stages of process of enriching.

An important meaning during the carrying out of the of electric descriptions of the activated ores with the
process of enriching has a maintainance or increas- set purpose: to find correlations between mechanical
ing of metallurgical value of ore , which is deter- activity and electronic structure of these objects.
mined by the presence of useful and harmful admix- Difficulties, related to verification of electronic
tures, for example, for iron ore useful admixtures theory, are aggravated by doubts in reliabity of the
are manganese, chrome, nickel, titan, vanadium, co- experimental material used for this purpose. It is
balt, harmful – sulphur, phosphorus, copper, arsenic, specified in works, that in the conditions at which
zinc, lead, tin. the most of the data on the conductivity of minerals
To metallurgical properties of ores, determining the were got, – i.e. by the method of direct-current on
quality of the produced concentrate, such, as recovery the powders – electric descriptions of not so much
and basicity. Under recovery we understand speed of object are measured, but contacts between grains of
taking away of oxygen from a mineral by gas-repairer powder, and that on the basis of such information it
in the process of melting, under basicity the attitude is impossible for sure to differentiate the charged
of oxides of calcium and magnesium toward a silica and unloaded forms of adsorption.
and alumina in ore. One of parameters, allowing to Obviously, exactly the absence of sufficient clar-
estimate quality of the received concentrates is a of ity in the question about , what information is given
change conductivity which depends on admixtures, (in the case of polycrystalline objects) by the
on one hand, and on other – on absorption oxygen on- method of direct-current generated among experi-
the-surface of the enriched ore. menters that mistrust to electric information, which
Measuring of conductivity of materials of semi- in 70th sharply reduced interest to measurings of
conductor type (foremost – oxides of transitional conductivity of minerals. The use of alternating cur-
metals) received wide spreading in 50-60th. These rent for by-passing of intercrystalline contacts
researches were directly related to the new approach brings in new complications, related with depend-
to the explanation of mechanism of catalysis. The ence on frequency. Now it is already obvious, that at
new approach is related to the use of theoretical research of the superficial phenomena there are both
bases of physics of solid in an totality with the no- tasks which are better described in terms of area
tions of chemical connection, that was formulated in theory (collective co-operations) and problems, bet-
the theory of chemosorption border layer, on one ter interpreted from the point of view local co-
hand, and in the electronic theory of chemosorption operation between a molecule on-the-surface and
and catalysis on semiconductors – on other. superficial center.
Minerals, applied in the process of enriching in The purpose of this work is to develop the highly
most cases, have semiconductor character, in this sensitive method of control of quality of concen-
connection possibility of application of the elec- trates on metallurgical properties of ores, based on
tronic approach to the problems of enriching of measuring of conductivity in an appendix to re-
minerals, control and of the quality of minerals search the surface of polycrystalline minerals. Re-
management, appears which supposes direct corre- searches of the state of surface and the processes
lation between chemosorption and electronic prop- taking place on it, and also descriptions of the size
erties of the grounded up mineral. From here ap- of contact of potential reflecting individual proper-
peared the necessity of experimental determination ties of object got here, can serve as basis of such

highly sensitive method. (crystallines).
Conductivity of minerals submits exponential de- Researches of electric, dielectric and some other
pendence on a temperature: properties of ores, in a highlydispersed (polycrystal-
line) form, after the process of despersivity, showed
   0 exp  E / kT  , (1) that the behaviour of such systems can be described,
using a two-phase (two-layer) model: areas with
where  – specific conductivity, Om-1cm-1, recip- semiconductor conductivity (actually material of
rocal of specific electric resistance of   1 /  ; object), with intermittent relatively thin dielectric
 0 – pre-exponential multiplier, poorly tempera- layers (intergrain contacts). Chart of this model pre-
ture-dependent; E – energy of activating of con- sented on Figure 1.
Such two phase model is suitable not only to the
ductivity, eV. case of the pressed powders (with simple mechani-
For single-crystals the measured value  and the cal contacts between grains) but also to powders,
value E calculated on equation (1) directly char- sintered at a high temperature (higher 600-800 °C),
acterize all totality of the phenomena of transfer of when thin bridges (bridges, necks, “structure of
carrent in a volume and on-the-surface solid and swiss cheese”) appear between grains. The ap-
that is why the changes of these parameters reflect proximation analysis of properties of the system on
the changes of the electronic state in volume and on- the basis of this model shows, that measurings on a
the-surface and can serve for strict comparisons direct current and on low frequencies (about кГц)
with the theoretical models of these processes. In give information mainly about properties of contacts
case with polycrystalline materials of the ground up between grains of powder, and measurings on high-
minerals (powders from them and pills pressed or frequencies, shunting contact resistances, expose
pressed and then sintered) conductivity will depend properties of the studied matter itself.
on quality of contacts between grains of powder

(a) (b)

Figure 1. Polycrystalline object (a) diagrammatic picture of conglomerate of particles (pains is the area of partial charge
(b) formal model.

However the high-frequency measurings are util- “turned” off but also volume ones.
lized not often, because of difficulties in interpreta- According to the theory of Petric, the conductivity
tion of these results, due to large heterogeneity of of such sample, consisting of grains, parted by con-
structure of the real polydispersive systems, not tact barriers (which got practically all the tension at-
covered by a simple twolayer model, and deposit tached to the sample), depends, certainly, on a form
(especially on SVCH) of polarization losses; in ad- and height of barriers, but at the same time it remains
dition, a sensitiveness and exactness of measurings proportional to the conductivity of grain itself.
of conductivity go down on high-frequencies. Con- According to Petric specific conductivity of poly-
sequently, the method of alternating current does crystalline object is expressed by the equation
not solve the problem of measuring of conductivity
of polycrystalline objects, especially for the sys- qM  q / kT
 e , (2)
tems, when we are interested not only in superficial kT
layers of grains which on high-frequencies just are

where M – coefficient, determined by a form and Consequently, such measurings for polycrystal-
width of barrier;  – density of basic transmitters line objects give information mainly about the pre-
in a crystal;  – height of barrier (in relation to the superficial layer of crystallites. The thickness of this
layer, or length of the debaev screening ( L ), hesi-
edge of valency area); q – charge of electron; k –
constant of Bol'cman; T – absolute temperature. tates from 106 cm for the enriched or invertible
According to Sleter, the conductivity of the dis- layers in semiconductor minerals with high conduc-
persible system is also proportional to the multiplier tivity to 104 cm (and even to 103 cm) for the im-
of exp  H / kT  , thus for the height of barrier of poverished layers in highom (wide zone) ores. Thus,
H expression is given measured prisuperficial conductivity contains, ac-
cording to equations (1)-(3), information also about
 
H  E0  N 0 q 2 / 4 0  X 2 , (3) the volume of these crystallites. Moreover, exactly
due to the peculiarities of structure in the dispersible
where E0 – energy of electron on the border of bar- state, when we observe extraordinarily high correla-
rier layer; N 0 – concentration of admixtures in a tion of surface to a volume and to the numerous su-
perficial contacts, measurings of conductivity on a
volume; X – thickness of barrier layer; q – charge direct current, is the integral reflection of the elec-
of electron,  and  0 – dielectric constant of envi- tronic state of contacts. Such measurings appear
ronment and vacuum accordingly. very sensible, as compared to measurings on single-
It goes from a formula (3), that the height of bar- crystals and on an alternating current, by the mean
rier must change proportionally to the concentra- of research of processes on the surface.
tions of admixture in a volume. Such dependence is All of restoration properties of concentrates de-
observed, according to the calculations of Sleter, un- pend on adsorption of oxygen on the surface of
til this concentration is less than some threshold minerals, as exactly speed of desorption will be re-
value, for example, for PbS with the width of sponsible for the fall of temperature of restoration
from one side, and from other – for maintenance of
banned area a E  0.37 eV such value N 0 is
admixture elements on the surface the enriched
made by 1018 cm-3, that correspond to the maximal minerals. In the process of enriching of ores there is
thickness of barrier layer of X  382 Å. formation of new active surface on the different
Thus, a theoretical analysis shows that conductiv- stages and as a result there is a process of adsorption
ity of the polycrystalline system is though deter- of both oxygen and preventing admixtures.
mined by contact barriers, but through properties of Indeed, at grinding down of minerals there is a
these barriers depends also on the electronic state of process of adsorption in a greater or less rate in dif-
volume of crystallites and at the observance of cer- ferent gridding devices. In a Table 1 kinetic infor-
tain border conditions changes proportionally to the mation is presented on adsorption of oxygen of the
change of this state. oxidized quartzites at grinding in the different grind-
ings down and environments (alcohol).

Table 1. Content of combined O2 in the power of the oxidized quartzites.

Grinder Number of the tested sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time of grinding Star. 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 5*
MVV 0.67 1.60 2.00 2.30 2.30 2.50 2.10 2.00
O2 , %
Time of grinding Star. 5 10 15 20 30 40
O2 , % 0.67 0.97 1.27 1.30 1.30 1.35 1.30

* it is grinding down in an alcohol.

For control of quality of mineral we offered the liminary and during measurings. Measurings as a
method of termovacuum curves of conductivity rule are carried out in a vacuum, as here we have the
(TVE-curves). This method at present is one of the best display of the dependence of conductivity on
most informing and universal methods of realization desorption, and at the temperatures high enough –
of “monitoring of the stages of enriching of ores on and on beginning restoration. However in principle
conductivity”. In this method of observing the state the method can be widespread and on the conditions
of surface of minerals is carry out depending on the of warming up in any atmosphere – by restoration,
changeable temperature of warming up – both pre- oxidation, neutral. Essentially the described method

is the combination of topochemical method of adsorption, topochemical) the relative deposit of
“monitoring” depending on a temperature and which is determined by chemical nature of object
method of diagrams “conductivity – composition” and is different in different temperature areas. Basic
and can be, consequently, utilized for the construc- from these factors are as follows.
tion of three-dimensional “surface” of changes of A) The typical for semiconductors convertible
electric properties of the complicated system in co- growth of conductivity with a temperature by the
ordinates “composition – a temperature”. law of Arrhenius, characterized by the large range
A main objective of the method of ТVE-curves is of values of E for different matters – from ~ 0 to
an analysis of superficial phase composition and a few eV (equation (1)).
tracing of its changes depending on different fac- B) Desorption of gases and steams (oxygen, wa-
tors, affecting process of enriching of minerals ter), which is the most intensive at warming up in
(temperature and atmosphere of treatment, superfi- vacuum till 200-300 °C. And changes of conductiv-
cial topochemical reactions and so on.). Measurings ity caused by this are not only different in interval
of conductivity are carried out for ordinary poly- of value, but also (for minerals of n – type and
crystalline objects on a direct current and thus give
p – conductors) are contrary in sign.
information about the composition of presuperficial
C) Restoration in a vacuum (removal of the lattice
layer of particles in 106  10 4 cm thick. oxygen) with formation of greatly defect or quagi-
It is necessary to mark that conditions close to the metallic structures, that is most marked in area of
described method, were utilized in a number of 300-400 °С and for different matters greatly de-
works of other authors. However in none of such pends on energy of grate.
works conclusion was formulated that the similar D) Other topochenical and other processes in a
use of the electric measurings can be put in basis of grate (grinding down, decomposition of remaining
original method of phase analysis in the process of hydroxides and carbonates, structuring, crystalliza-
enriching of ores. Reason of it is apparently, in that tion and so on) – if temperature of preliminary proc-
traditional opinion, that the electric parameters of essing it is not high enough.
polycrystalline object are not suitable as individual
characteristic of matter because of their too high
sensitiveness to biography of this sample and to the
state of its surface. In addition, measurings not in
vacuum conditions more frequent give at different 4.0
temperature the graphs which don‘t differ from each
other in quality. The basic feature of the described
method consists in that not simply size of conduc- 8.0
tivity is fixed (or its temperature coefficient in the 10.0
conditions of the pseudostationary state of object),
but process of irreversible changes  (or energy of 12.0
activating of conductivity of E ) at warming up of
350 250 20 T, ◦C
object in a vacuum. Thus the mentionel source of
instability of electric information (high sensitiveness 14 18 22 26 30 1/T·104
of conductivity to the change of the state of solid)
becomes an advantage, as it appears that consider- Figure 2. Arrhenius deprendences conductivity of the sam-
able changes of conductivity usually observed at the ple of oxidized quartzite.
step increasing at the temperature of warming (and
reflecting the specific for this matter process of The method of formation of TVE-curves is that the
changing of its state) overcover casual (biographic) pill of the matter is warmed up in vacuum at tempera-
variation of electric values at each of these tempera- tures from 100 till 400 °С (these temperatures are
tures. Therefore got graphs – termovacuum curves marked in Figure 2 Tvak ). At this in every 50 °С the
of conductivity, or TVE-curves – have a certain
sample is kept till the constant value of conductivity
form for this chemical matter regardless of biogra-
and we determine the temperature dependence of
phy of concrete sample, and consequently, can be
specific conductivity б in interval from this Tvak till
utilized as standards in a phase analysis.
We will consider more concrete, how characteris- 20 °С (after warming up at 100 °С – interval from
tic of the got TVE-curves is conditioned. The spe- 100 °С till 20 °С, then after warming up at 150 °С till
cific type of these graphs is created by dependence 20 °С and so on). The values of conductivity at each
of conductivity on the number of factors (electronic, this top temperature Tvak are marked by figures from

1 till 6. As a result we have the series of arrenisove According to the results of tests the built curves
curves, each with its inclination giving the value of are presented on Figure 3. The method of TVE-
energy of activation of conductivity from E1 till E 2 . curves opens wide possibilities for the different
It can be seen than in chosen example the values of variants of “monitoring” of process of enriching.
conductivity depending on top Tvak go through the We will bring a few illustrations of it. The exposure
of remaining (nonenriched) phase, not noticed al-
minimum and the values of the energy of activation – ready sciagraphy, was carried out on the example of
the value of inclination – through the maximum in the hydrooxide phase, remaining in ore at not enough
given case at 250 °С. high temperature of thermolysis. Finding out of new
superficial mixture in the process of grinding of the
eV oxidized quartzites appeared possible on the most
initial stage of formation of this mixture, when a
2.0 0.5 sciagraphy method was powerless.
We will add that conclusions done on the basis of
0.4 TVE-curves conform with by information of other
used methods – roentgenophose analysis of contact
0.3 difference of potentials, magnetic receptivity and
4.0 EPR. It is necessary to suppose that in a perspective,
at the accumulation of the reliable standard graphs,
given on a Figure 3, for the large number of matters,
5.0 0.1
the method of TVE-curves can be widely utillized in
0 combination with roentgenophose and other analy-
ses as standard or as an expressmethod of control of
-0.2 process of enriching.
100 200 300 Tvak, ◦C

Figure 3. TVE- curves formed for lg  и E on the data Fi-

gure 2.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Imitating modeling stability of mine workings

O. Vladyko, M. Kononenko & O. Khomenko

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The analysis of the research to improve the stability of underground mine workings with a
random distribution of stability parameters of the containing massif. Possibility of application of the “Simu-
link” program is opened for imitating modeling of stability of mine workings. The imitating model and algo-
rithm of calculation for definition probability of destruction of excavation is developed. Dependence of
change in the probability of destruction of mining production from the depth of laying and moisture of a rock
massif are established. The obtained results allow to predict the stability of mine workings with the change
of conditions carrying out mine workings.

1 INTRODUCTION information with the known distribution law, and as

a consequence probabilistic evaluation of the char-
During the construction and exploitation of under- acteristics of the investigated processes. Statistical
ground mine workings is important their reliability, modeling is an effective method of Research poorly
that takes into account the random deviations of cal- organized system with a simple logic operation.
culated values from their average values. At calcula- In most cases, modern modeling tools allow you to
tion of stability of underground mine workings de- provide a high level of adequacy of the model. One
terministic values of physico-mechanical properties such tool is a software product “Simulink” – an inter-
of the containing rock massif are replaced by ran- active tool for modeling, simulating and analyzing
dom. Numerous scientific researches devoted to the dynamic systems. It allows you to build graphical
solution of this task, the main results of which be- block diagrams, simulate dynamic systems to investi-
long to Rzhanitsyn A.R., Bolotin V.V., Shashenko gate their performance and improve the scientific and
A.N. and others (Shashenko 1988). It is established research projects. “Simulink” is fully integrated with
that with increasing depth of mining during the op- the software product “Matlab”, providing access to a
eration of solid mineral deposits increases the wide range of tools for analysis and design of various
stresses on the contour of mine workings. This leads industrial processes. As an example it is offered to
to decrease in rates of preparatory and cut works consider imitating model of probabilistic calculation
and causing more accidents. of destruction of mine working with use of software
product of “Simulink”.

For the effective design of mine workings is often
resorted to the use of mathematical modeling as The authors propose the following sequence imitat-
natural experiments are not always available. A ing modeling:
mathematical model is an abstract description of the – analysis of the physico-mechanical properties of
object with mathematical equations. One type of rocks containing underground mine workings;
modeling is the imitating model in which the logi- – determination of the law of distribution strength
cal-mathematical model of studied system is algo- of rocks around the workings;
rithm of the system realized on computer using soft- – modeling of the characteristic of safety  with
ware products (Sovetov & Yakovlev 1999). As sta- useing software product of “Simulink”;
tistical modeling understand machine reproduction – determination of probability of destruction mine
of functioning of probabilistic models, or researches working contour using the Gause integral probability.
of the determined processes defined in the form of The analysis of acting drilling and blasting pass-
mathematical models of logic elements by means of ports which are used at carrying out mine workings
statistical tests (Monte-Carlo method). The peculiar- in the operating conditions of the South Belozersky
ity of statistical modeling is the random assignment deposit, allowed to establish probability of destruc-

tion of rock massif on the contour of mine work-
ings, which corresponds to the quite products s

 RR
 (5)
worked methods, bases on calculating factor of k 1
safety (strength reserve) and characteristics of safety
The average strength
(Rzhanitsyn 1982):
n 1 R  , (6)
 , (1) k
n 2 vсom
 v2
where R - ultimate strength a single sample; k -
where n – factor of safety; vсom and v - corre- number of tested samples.
Variation coefficient of stress v , taken as vari-
sponding coefficients of variation of strength and
stress. ability of rock v  vсom .
The value of factor of safety The probability of destruction contour of mine
 сom working, expressed in parts of its perimeter deter-
n , (2) mined by the Gause integral probability
t 2
where  сom and   – massif strength and stress on 1  2
V  0 ,5   e dt . (7)
the contour of mine working. 2 0
Stress on the contour of mine working taken as
   2 H , (3)
The South Belozersky deposit of rich iron ore,
where  and H – massif strength and stress on the
which operates on the basis of Closed Joint Stock
contour of mine working. Company “Zaporozhsky iron-ore plant” (CJSC
The coefficient of variation of strength vсom , % “ZIOP”), represented by steep-falling deposits with
an average dip angle 68º, capacity 10-120 m. Hang-
s ing block represented by ferruginous quartzite, re-
vсom   100 , (4) cumbent block – by shales quartz-chlorite-sericite.
Aim of imitating modeling is to determine the
where s - standard deviation of individual test re- probability of destruction of mine workings wich
sults of the average strength R . laid down at depths from 300 to 1200 m. Modelling
was performed using Simulink-model block dia-
gram is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The general structure of Simulink-model.

Figure 1 presents the basic notation and variables working, Subsystem 3 – security index  , the
used in the mathematical model of the mine work- block Constant – imitate the average strength of the
ing destruction: Subsystem – the voltage on the cir- rock, block Random Number imitate the distribution
cuit making, Subsystem 1 – strength of the mine of rock strength around mine working. The results

of modeling are written to the results file with the block Scope. An example of the modeling results
using block To File, and also recorded into the presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Results of imitating modeling in block Scope.

5 RESULTS OF MODELLING carried out in quartzites mine working almost did not
increase with the depth laying. In the hematite-martite
The obtained results imitating modeling of stability ore with strength 10-12 and in quartz-chlorine-sulfure
of mine workings established that with increasing shales, the value of mine working destruction prob-
depth of the production increases the probability of ability with increasing depth to 1000-1200 m growth
its destruction, depending on the strength of the sur- from 3 till 40%. For the hematite-martite ore with
rounding rock massif. This is manifested in the form strength 6-8, actually the mine working stability is
of flaking, peeling and collapse of rock in the mine observed to a depth of 600 m.
workings in the mines, “The operational” and Further studies of the probability of mine working
“Heading” CJSC “ZIOP”. The nature change in the stability with increasing humidity of the surrounding
probability of destruction mine working on the rock massif, allowed to establish graph of dependence
depth of laying is shown in Figure 3. probability of mine working destruction from the
From the dependencies in Figure 3, we can estab- rock’s humidity, which are presented in Figure 4.
lish that the value of the probability of destruction

Figure 3. Graph of dependence probability of mine working Figure 4. Graph of dependence probability of mine working
destruction from the depth of its laying: 1 – hematite-martite destruction from the rock’s humidity: 1 – hematite-martite
quartzites with strength 14-15; 2 – hematite-martite ore with quartzites with strength 14-15; 2 – hematite-martite ore with
strength 10-12; 3 – quartz-chlorine-sulfure shales with strength 10-12; 3 – quartz-chlorine-sulfure shales with
strength 7-9; 4 – hematite-martite ore strength 6-8. strength 7-9; 4 – hematite-martite ore strength 6-8.

In Figure 4, we can determine that probability of be near 1-2%, in the hematite-martite ores with
mine working destruction from the humidity of the strength 10-12 – 5-15%, in the quartz-chlorine-
surrounding rock massif is increased by 1-15%. sulfure shales with strength 7-9 – 21-29% and in the
Thus in hematite-martite quartzites with strength hematite-martite ores with strength 6-8 – 35-47%.
14-15 probability of mine working destruction will

6 CONCLUSIONS 3. Further extraction of iron ore at the plant is as-
sociated with increased depth of mining to 900-1200
1. Completed analysis of the current researches of m. Performed analysis of stability mine working at
the underground mine workings stability with the these depths allows us to establish the probability
use of the random distribution of values of the destruction of mine working, which is in the range
strength of containing massif. Established that with of the depth increases to 40%.
increasing depth of the mine workings increases
strength on the contour. Simulation model, which
was developing, let to predict the stability of un- REFERENCES
fixed mine workings at different depths of laying.
2. On the test calculations example for the condi- Shashenko, A.N. 1988. Stability of underground workings
tions of CJSC “ZIOP” establish dependence prob- in a heterogeneous rock massif: Dr. Tech.Sc. thesis.
Dnipropetrovs’k: 495.
ability of mine working destruction from the depth
Sovetov, B. Ya.& Yakovlev, S.A. 1999. Systems modeling.
of its laying and from the rock’s humidity of con- Мoscow: Higher school: 271.
taining massif. In the 300-900 m depth intervals the Rzhanitsyn, А.R. 1982. Building mechanics: Tutorial.
probability of the mine working destruction in- Мoscow: Higher school: 400.
creases from 5 till 30%. This matches with real data
of deposit’s operation.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Irregularity of deposition of hard coal

in thin seams in Poland according to the
criterion of the thickness variation seams

A. Krowiak
Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the result of analysis of deposition irregularities in the thin hard coal
seams which are in the geological resources in the active Polish mines. Thin seams have been classified as
the ones with thickness from range 0.6 to 1.6 m. By irregularity in covering of the hard coal in the meaning
of this article, it is the changeability of thickness of seams. In peculiarity it was analysed the stores
according to criterion of ranges of average thickness seams as well as the ranges of depth of covering,
including the relative positive and negative deviations from average of thickness of seams. Clustering
methods in analysis was applied as well as tools of automatic neuronal nets (algorithm Kohonena) with
programme STATISTICA v.9.0.

1 INTRODUCTION ance in the resources. Significant irregularities in

bedding of seams can have influence on choice par-
It has been abandoned exploitation of thin seams in cels to exploitation and selection of technical
the Polish coal mining industry, since many years. equipments.
Resources in these seams as an outside industrial re- There were analyzed geological resources of hard
training, having still relative affluence of thick seams. coal in the seams lying on in active mines in Poland
In a situation where in some mines already resources (except mine “Bogdanka”). It was assumed criterion
in the thick seams are getting lower or getting access that the thin seams will fall seams an average
to them requires a very large investment in deepening thickness located in the range from 0.6 to 1.6 m.
of shafts and the construction of new levels of greater The basis for an analysis were the source data
and greater depths, it is worth considering whether or prepared by the Geological Service of individual
not to return to the exploitation thin seams treating it mine, on the basis of the documentation made
as completion of exploitation of thick seams. Positive according to the rules described in literature (Nieć
experiences in exploitation thin seams are known in 1982; Materiały źródłowe 2010). Dispersed re-
Ukraine, where most seams are thin ones. They con- sources in total volume of 540 794 thousands tons,
sider to be a profitable exploitation seams over thick the abundance of several to tens of thousands of
0.65 m. This ain of this article is to show, of course tons, for which there were no detailed geological
only on selected thematic section, which geological analysis, because they not qualify for potential min-
resources of coal in thin seams we dispose, and what ing were excluded from the analysis.
mining-geological conditions are for them character-
istic one.
By irregularities in bedding of hard coal in the 2 METHOD OF ANALYSIS
sense of this article is variation of thickness of
seams. In particular, the average thickness of the Following intervals of relative deviation of maxi-
seams was analyzed and the maximum relative posi- mum positive thickness from value of average were
tive and negative deviations from this thickness. accepted: from 0 to 10%; from 10.01 to 20%; from
Irregularity of the deposition of seam is a large 20.01 to 30%; above 30%.; for the negative devia-
trouble during their exploitation. Thinning of the tions the following ranges were accepted: from 0 to
thickness of the exploited seams in long wall tech- 10%; from 10.01 to 20%; from 20.01 to 30%; from
nique and other techniques may need to cut allow- 30.01 to 40.0% as well as above 40%. Deviation
ance ceiling and floor rock, which affects the yield was calculated as a quotient of the relative differ-
of commercial coal. Significant thickening if the ence in deviation from the mean maximum and
seam can cause loss of coal by leaving his allow- minimum thickness of the seams to the average

thickness of the seams. tively, presented in the following manner, based on
Analyses were conducted for two thematic sec- the analyzed examples. Each of the records from the
tions: the division on ranges of average of thickness working set can be represented in a multi dimen-
seams as well as the division on intervals of average sional Cartesian system in the form of vectors. Top
depth of bedding. In the first section of analysis the coordinates of each of the vectors are described in
range of the average thickness of seams were ac- different compartments natural numbers corre-
cepted: from 0.6 to 0.8 m; from 0.81 to 1.0 m; from sponding to the maximum and minimum deviation
1.01 to 1.2 m; from 1.21 to 1.4 m as well as above of the relative thickness of the seam. These vari-
1.4 m. ables will be called describing variables. Clustering
For the second cross-sectional analysis, the fol- method groups the received beam vectors in Carte-
lowing ranges of average dept of bedding of seams sian space in subgroups, such whose tops are most
were accepted: from 0 to 200m, from 201 to 400 m, similar to each other. Making a summary of re-
from 401 to 600 m, from 601 to 800 m, from 801 to sources assigned to these groups of vectors, we ob-
1000 m and above 1000 m. tain the quantity resources that meet the formed
Source data for analysis consist of several thou- criteria. To solve this problem, we can use different
sands of records; each of those ones describes in de- methods of taxonomy (Bukietyński 1969; Krowiak
tail the parameters of the field or seam. For pur- 2005a; Krowiak 2005b & Krowiak 2004.
poses of analysis it was created a set consisting of Application of the Kohonen algorithm and
selected information of source data records: the av- automatic neural network allows multiple reduction
erage thickness of the seam, the maximum thickness of computation labour intensity of compared to
of the seam, the minimum thickness of the seam, the other methods (Tarczyński 2011).
average depth of bedding, the amount of resources. A practical tool for the implementation of this
For each of the records it was calculated mini- analysis was a computer program STATISTICA v.
mum relative deviation (relative to the minimum 9.0 (Dokumentacja programu STATISTICA 2010).
thickness of the seam) and the maximum relative The results of the analysis are presented in the tables
deviation (relative to the maximum thickness of the contained in the article text.
seam). Each a relative deviation is assigned of the
natural numbers from 1 to 4, depending on where
the range of variation of the relative deviation of the 3 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS
data is located.
Then it was created a working subset containing Table 1a contains division of the size of all re-
20 combinations of relative deviations. For this set it sources deposited in thin seams in subgroups ac-
was prescribed sequence records that meet the crite- cording to thickness ranges of relative deviation and
ria of cross-sections of thematic analysis, the aver- the Table 1b contains the percentages of these sub-
age thickness of the seam range or an average depth groups in the total resources deposited in thin
of bedding range. Each subset of the working was seams. Graphical illustration of the data contained
subjected to a computer treatment with the use clus- in the Table 1a is shown in Figure 1. Table 2a is
tering methods and of neural automatic networks presenting the allocation of the resources into sub-
(Cichosz 2000; Tadeusiewicz 1993). Application of groups according to the average thickness of the
the cluster methods allows the separation of subsets seams ranges and Table 2b is presenting the per-
characterized by similarity of variables relative to centages of these subgroups in the total resources
each other (Everitt, Landau & Leese 2001). deposited in thin seams.
The logic of clustering methods can be, descrip-

Table 1 (a). Division of resources based on the thickness variation ranges of maximum and minimum average thickness of
seams (size of resources in thousands Tons).
Ranges of relative positive deviation
Ranges of relative negative devia-
from the average thickness SUM
tion from the average thickness
0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30 %
0 – (-) 10.0% 263 628 96 802 167 506 0 527 936
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 154 552 209 533 987 159 0 1 351 244
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 52 155 191 880 2 950 659 - 3 194 694
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 27 198 358 607 2 843 535 78 3 229 418
above 40% 76 549 144 298 1 818 738 4 492 2 044 077
SUM 574 082 1 001 120 8 767 597 4 570 10 347 369

Source: own elaboration.

Table 1 (a). Division of resources based on the thickness variation ranges of maximum and minimum average thickness of
seams (percentage of the total resources in thin seams).
Ranges of relative negative devia- Ranges of relative positive deviation from the average thickness
tion from the average thickness 0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
0 – (-) 10.0% 0.99% 0.82% 4.79% 6.61%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 1.19% 1.58% 36.35% 39.12%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 1.19% 2.64% 28.52% 32.36%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 1.12% 4.18% 8.47% 13.78%
above 40% 1.04% 0.45% 6.60% 0.04% 8.13%
SUM 5.55% 9.68% 84.73% 0.04% 100.00%

Source: own elaboration.

3 000 000

2 500 000
[Resources in a thousands ton]

2 000 000

1 500 000

1 000 000

500 000 above 30 %

20,01 – 30,0 %
10,01 – 20,0 %
0 – (-) 10,0
(-) 10,01 – 0 – 10.0 %
% [Ranges of relative
(-) 20,0 % (-) 20,01 – (-) 30,01 – deviations of positive
(-) 30,0 %
(-) 40,0 % above 40 % thickness]
[Ranges of relative deviations of negative thickness]

Source: own elaboration.

Figure 1. Quantities of resources depending on the ranges of positive and negative deviations from the mean thickness of
the seams.

Table 2 (a). Division of resources according to criterion of ranges of deviations maximum and minimum thickness from
average thickness with division on ranges of average thickness (absolute value).
Ranges of relative negative devia- Ranges of relative positive deviation from the average thickness
tion from the average thickness 0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
Amount of resources [thousands ton]
Average seam thickness range 0.6 – 0.8 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 85 132 28 392 67 805 181 329
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 16 828 56 844 292 518 366 190
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 924 49 56 811 57 784
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 33 800 33 800
above 40% 44 400 44 400
SUM 102 884 85 285 495 334 683 503
Average seam thickness range 0.81 – 1.0 m
0 – (-) 10,0 % 45 990 36 545 85 962 168 497
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 75 032 45 850 639 657 760 539
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 695 66 292 2 007 516 2 074 503
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 1 735 14 428 1 007 059 78 1 023 300
above 40% 21 544 21 544
SUM 123 452 163 115 3 761 738 78 4 048 383

Continuation of the Table 2 (a).

Ranges of relative negative devia- Ranges of relative positive deviation from the average thickness
tion from the average thickness 0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
Average seam thickness range 1.01 – 1.2 m
0 – (-) 10,0 % 68 529 10 696 12 760 91 985
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 13 475 34 672 32 676 80 823
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 21 719 103 975 865 748 991 442
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 14 571 87 034 1 530 728 1 632 333
above 40% 5 304 37 175 509 384 551 863
SUM 123 598 273 552 2 951 296 3 348 446
Average seam thickness range 1.21 – 1.4 m
0 – (-) 10,0 % 41 188 17 334 401 58 923
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 30 180 50 637 11 087 91 904
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 9 433 19 149 19 661 48 243
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 10 072 254 241 251 570 515 883
above 40% 25 404 91 616 593 557 710 577
SUM 116 277 432 977 876 276 1 425 530
Average seam thickness range above 1.4 m
0 – (-) 10,0 % 22 789 3 835 578 27 202
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 19 037 21 530 11 221 51 788
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 19 384 2 415 923 22 722
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 820 2 904 20 378 24 102
above 40% 45 841 15 507 649 853 4 492 715 693
SUM 107 871 46 191 682 953 4 492 841 507
TOTAL 574 082 1 001 120 8 767 597 4 570 10 347 369
Source: own elaboration

Figure 2 shows the size of resources depending on resources that meet the criteria for the coordinates of
the relative deviations of positive and negative to the its measure. Similarly, in Figure 3 are given the re-
average thickness of seams for the average thickness sources for the size of an average seam thickness
of seams ranges from 0.81 to 1.0 m. The diameter of range from 1.01 to 1.2 m, and in Figure 4 for an aver-
the “bubble” on the chart is proportional to the size of age seam thickness range from 1.01 to 1.4 m.

[Relative positive deviation from the average

thickness of the seam]






0,0% 10,0% 20,0% 30,0% 40,0% 50,0% 60,0% 70,0%
[Relative negative deviation from the average thickness of the seam]

Source: own elaboration.

Figure 2. The size of the resources depending on the relative deviations of positive and negative to the average thickness
the seam – for an average seam thickness range from 0.81 to 1.0 m

[Relative positive deviation from the average

thickness of the seam]




0,0% 10,0% 20,0% 30,0% 40,0% 50,0% 60,0%
[Relative negative deviation from the average thickness of the seam]

Source: own elaboration

Source: own elaboration.
Figure 3. The size of the resources depending on the relative deviations of positive and negative to the average thickness
the seam – for an average seam thickness range from 1.01 to 1.2 m.
[Relative positive deviation from the average

thickness of the seam]




0,0% 10,0% 20,0% 30,0% 40,0% 50,0% 60,0%
[Relative negative deviation from the average thickness of the seam]
Source: own elaboration
Source: own elaboration.
Figure 4. The size of the resources depending on the relative deviations of positive and negative to the average thickness
the seam – for an average seam thickness range from 1.21 to 1.4 m.

Table 2 (b). Division of resources according to criterion of ranges of deviations maximum and minimum thickness from
average thickness with division on ranges of average thickness (percentages).
Ranges of relative positive deviation
Ranges of relative negative devia-
from the average thickness SUM
tion from the average thickness
0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
Average seam thickness range 0.6 – 0.8 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 12.46% 4.15% 9.92% 26.53%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 2.46% 8.32% 42.80% 53.58%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 0.14% 0.01% 8.31% 8.45%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 4.95% 4.95%
above 40% 6.50% 6.50%
SUM 15.05% 12.48% 72.47% 100.00%
Average seam thickness range 0.81 – 1.0 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 1.14% 0,90% 2.12% 4.16%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 1.85% 1.13% 15.80% 18.79%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 0.02% 1.64% 49.59% 51.24%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.04% 0.36% 24.88% 0.002% 25.28%
above 40% 0.53% 0.53%
SUM 3.05% 4.03% 92.92% 0.002% 100.00%

Continuation of the Table 2 (b).

Ranges of relative positive deviation

Ranges of relative negative devia-
from the average thickness SUM
tion from the average thickness
0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
Average seam thickness range 1.01 – 1.2 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 2.05% 0.32% 0.38% 2.75%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 0.40% 1.04% 0.98% 2.41%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 0.65% 3.11% 25.86% 29.61%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.44% 2.60% 45.71% 48.75%
above 40% 0.16% 1.11% 15.21% 16.48%
SUM 3.69% 8.17% 88.14% 100.00%
Average seam thickness range 1.21 – 1.4 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 2.89% 1.22% 0.03% 4.13%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 2.12% 3.55% 0.78% 6.45%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 0.66% 1.34% 1.38% 3.38%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.71% 17.83% 17.65% 36.19%
above 40% 1.78% 6.43% 41.64% 49.85%
SUM 8.16% 30.37% 61.47% 100.00%
Average seam thickness range above 1.4 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 2.71% 0.46% 0.07% 3.23%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 2.26% 2.56% 1.33% 6.15%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 2.30% 0.29% 0.11% 2.70%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.10% 0.35% 2.42% 2.86%
above 40% 5.45% 1.84% 77.22% 0.53% 85.05%
SUM 12.82% 5.49% 81.16% 0.53% 100.00%
TOTAL for the whole resources 5.55% 9.68% 84.73% 0.04% 100.00%

Source: own elaboration.

Table 3 is presenting the allocation of the re- the average thickness of seams for depth of betting
sources in the subgroups intervals according to the in the range from 201 to 400 m. The diameter of the
average depth of bedding of seams and in Table 3a “bubble” on the chart is proportional to the size of
we can observe the percentages of these subgroups resources that meet the criteria for the coordinates
in the whole of these resources deposited in thin of it’s the measure.
seams. Similarly, in Figure 6 are given the size of re-
Figure 5 shows the size of resources depending sources for depth of bedding in the range from 401 to
on the relative positive and negative deviations to 600 m and in Figure 7 for range from 601 to 800 m.

Table 3 (a). Division of the resources according to criterion of ranges of deviations maximum and minimum thickness
from average thickness with division on ranges of average depth of bedding (absolute values).

Ranges of relative positive deviation

Ranges of relative negative devia-
from the average thickness SUM
tion from the average thickness
0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
Amount of resources [thousands ton]
Average depth of bedding 0 – 200 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 29 788 7 986 11 179 48 953
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 11 574 12 200 42 079 65 853
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 7 102 93 486 100 588
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 6 546 47 540 54 086
above 40% 9 087 4 635 51 748 65 470
SUM 50 449 38 469 246 032 0 334 950
Average depth of bedding 201 – 400 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 62 307 29 970 18 209 110 486
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 32 249 30 269 157 357 219 875
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 7 031 34 395 459 029 500 455
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 5 374 28 383 365 165 398 922
above 40% 37 720 429 231 466 951
SUM 106 961 160 737 1 428 991 1 696 689

Continuation of the Table 3 (a).

Ranges of relative positive deviation

Ranges of relative negative devia-
from the average thickness SUM
tion from the average thickness
0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
Average depth of bedding 401 – 600 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 56 326 11 915 27 866 96 107
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 32 597 51 743 311 795 396 135
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 32 318 16 674 705 081 754 073
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 7 031 19 866 796 162 823 059
above 40% 15 674 51 894 423 273 490 841
SUM 143 946 152 092 2 264 177 2 560 215
Average depth of bedding 601 – 800 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 79 033 19 817 91 100 189 950
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 43 004 72 464 252 632 368 100
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 8 333 63 915 1 176 912 1 249 160
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 11 981 138 179 865 445 78 1 015 683
above 40% 20 267 30 806 329 166 4 492 384 731
SUM 162 618 325 181 2 715 255 4 570 3 207 624
Average depth of bedding 801 – 1000 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 28 957 25 873 19 152 73 982
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 35 128 32 667 138 467 206 262
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 4 473 34 428 263 495 302 396
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 1 948 72 818 675 920 750 686
above 40% 31 521 16 820 382 981 431 322
SUM 102 027 182 606 1 480 015 1 764 648
Average depth of bedding above 1000 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 7 217 1 241 8 458
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 10 190 84 829 95 019
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 35 366 252 656 288 022
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 864 92 815 93 303 186 982
above 40% 2 423 202 339 204 762
SUM 8 081 142 035 633 127 783 243
TOTAL 574 082 1 001 120 8 767 597 4 570 10 347 369
Source: own elaboration.

Table 3 (b). Division of the resources according to criterion of ranges of deviations maximum and minimum thickness
from average thickness with division on ranges of average depth of bedding (percentages).
Ranges of relative positive deviation
Ranges of relative negative devia- from the average thickness SUM
tion from the average thickness
0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
Average depth of bedding 0 – 200 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 8.89% 2.38% 3.34% 14.62%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 3.46% 3.64% 12.56% 19.66%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 0.00% 2.12% 27.91% 30.03%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.00% 1.95% 14.19% 16.15%
above 40% 2,.71% 1.38% 15.45% 19.55%
SUM 15.06% 11.48% 73.45% 100.00%
Average depth of bedding 201 – 400 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 3.67% 1.77% 1.07% 6.51%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 1.90% 1.78% 9.27% 12.96%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 0.41% 2.03% 27.05% 29.50%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.32% 1.67% 21.52% 23.51%
above 40% 0.00% 2.22% 25.30% 27.52%
SUM 6.30% 9.47% 84.22% 100.00%

Continuation of the Table 3 (b).

Ranges of relative positive deviation

Ranges of relative negative devia- from the average thickness SUM
tion from the average thickness
0-10.0% 10.01-20.0% 20.01-30.0% above 30%
Average depth of bedding 401 – 600 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 2.20% 0.47% 1.09% 3.75%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 1.27% 2.02% 12.18% 15.47%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 1.26% 0.65% 27.54% 29.45%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.27% 0.78% 31.10% 32.15%
above 40% 0.61% 2.03% 16.53% 19.17%
SUM 5.62% 5.94% 88.44% 100.00%
Average depth of bedding 601 – 800 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 2.46% 0.62% 2.84% 5.92%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 1.34% 2.26% 7.88% 11.48%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 0.26% 1.99% 36.69% 38.94%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.37% 4.31% 26.98% 0.002% 31.66%
above 40% 0.63% 0.96% 10.26% 0.14% 11.99%
SUM 5.07% 10.14% 84.65% 0.14% 100.00%
Average depth of bedding 801 – 1000 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 1.64% 1.47% 1.09% 4.19%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 1.99% 1.85% 7.85% 11.69%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 0.25% 1.95% 14.93% 17.14%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.11% 4.13% 38.30% 42.54%
above 40% 1.79% 0.95% 21.70% 24.44%
SUM 5.78% 10.35% 83.87% 100.00%
Average depth of bedding above 1000 m
0 – (-) 10.0% 0.92% 0.16% 1.08%
(-) 10.01 – (-) 20.0% 1.30% 10.83% 12.13%
(-) 20.01 – (-) 30.0% 4.52% 32.26% 36.77%
(-) 30.01 – (-) 40.0% 0.11% 11.85% 11.91% 23.87%
above 40% 0.31% 25.83% 26.14%
SUM 1.03% 18.13% 80.83% 100.00%
TOTAL for the whole resources 5.55% 9.68% 84,.73% 0.04% 100.00%
Source: own elaboration.

[Relative positive deviation from the average

thickness of the seam]



0,0% 10,0% 20,0% 30,0% 40,0% 50,0% 60,0% 70,0% 80,0%
[Relative negative deviation from the average thickness of the seam]
Source: own elaboration
Source: own elaboration.
Figure 5. The size of the resources depending on the relative deviations of positive and negative to the average thickness
the seam – for the range depth of bedding from 201 to 400 m.


[Relative positive deviation from the average

thickness of the seam]





0,0% 10,0% 20,0% 30,0% 40,0% 50,0% 60,0% 70,0% 80,0%
[Relative negative deviation from the average thickness of the seam]
Source: own elaboration
Source: own elaboration.
Figure 6. The size of the resources depending on the relative deviations of positive and negative to the average thickness
the seam – for the range depth of bedding from 401 to 600 m.

[Relative positive deviation from the average


thickness of the seam]








0,0% 10,0% 20,0% 30,0% 40,0% 50,0% 60,0% 70,0% 80,0% 90,0%
[Relative negative deviation from the average thickness of the seam]

Source: own elaboration

Source: own elaboration.
Figure 7. The size of the resources depending on the relative deviations of positive and negative to the average thickness
the seam – for the range depth of bedding from 601 to 800 m.

4 CONCLUSIONS FROM THE ANALYSIS 334 950 thousand ton i.e. the 3.24% whole of sto-
ries; in the range from 201 to 400 m – 1 696 689
Geological resources of active mines in Poland (ex- thousand ton i.e. the 16,40% whole of stories; in the
cept mine “Bogdanka”), in thin seams covers range from 400 to 600 m – 2 560 215 thousand ton
10 888 163 thousands ton of hard coal, from which i.e. the 24.74% whole of stories; in the range from
in article was subjected the resources of 10 347 369 601 to 800 m – 3 207 624 thousand tonnes i.e. the
thousands tonnes. 31.00% whole of stories; in the range from 801 to
It covers in the ranges of average of thickness of 1000 m – 1 764 648 thousand ton i.e. the 17.05%
seams as follows: in the range from 0.6 to 0.8 m – whole of stories; in the range above 1000 m –
683 503 thousand ton i.e. the 6.61% whole of stories; 783 243 thousand tonnes i.e. the 7.57% whole of
from 0.81 to 1.0 m – 4 048 383 thousand ton i.e. the stories.
39.14% whole of stories; from 1.01 to 1.2 m – It covers in the ranges of relatively positive devia-
3 348 446 thousand ton i.e. the 32.33% whole of sto- tions of thicknesses from of average value as fol-
ries; from 1.21 to 1.4 m – 1 425 520 thousand ton i.e. lows: in the range 0 to 10% – 574 082 thousand ton
the 13.78% whole of stories; in range above 1.4 m – i.e. the 5.55% whole of stories; in the range from
841 507 thousand ton i.e. the 8.14% whole of stories. 10,01 to 20.0% – 1 001 120 thousand ton i.e. the
It covers in the ranges of average depth of bed- 9.68% whole of stories; in the range from 20.01 to
ding as follows: in the range from 0 to 200 m – 30.0% – 8 767 597 thousand ton i.e. the 84.73%

whole of stories; in the range over 30% – 4 570 In the average seam thickness range from 0.6 to 0.8
thousand ton i.e. the 0.04% whole of stories. m size of resources in the various ranges negative
It covers in the range of relatively negative devia- relative deviations are, respectively: in the range from
tions of thickness from of average value as follows: 0 to (-) 10.0% – 181 329 thousand ton i.e. the 1.75%
in the range from 0 do (-) 10.0% – 527 936 thou- whole of stories: in the range from (-) 10.01% to (-)
sand ton i.e. the 6.61% whole of stories; in the range 20.0% – 366 190 thousand ton i.e. the 3.54% whole
from (-) 10.01 to (-) 20.0% – 1 351 244 thousand of stories; in the range from (-) 20.01% to (-) 30.0% –
ton i.e. the 39.12% whole of stories; in the range 57 784 thousand ton i.e. 0.56% whole of stories; in
from (-) 20.01 to (-) 30.0% – 3 194 694 thousand the range from (-) 30.01% to (-) 40.0% – 33 800
ton i.e. the 32.36% whole of stories; in the range thousand ton i.e. the 0.33% whole of stories; in the
from (-) 30.01 to (-) 40.0% – 2 044 077 thousand range above (-) 40% – 44 400 thousand tone i.e. the
ton i.e. the 13.78% whole of stories; 0.43% whole of stories.
In the average seam thickness range from 0.6 to In the average seam thickness range from 0.81 to
0.8 m size of resources in the various ranges positive 1.0 m size of resources in the various ranges nega-
relative deviations are, respectively: in the range from tive relative deviations are, respectively: in the
0 do 10% – 102 884 thousand ton i.e. the 0.99% range from 0 to (-) 10.0% – 168 thousand ton i.e.
whole of stories; in the range from 10.01 to 20.0% – the 1.63% whole of stories: in the range from (-)
85 285 thousand ton i.e. the 0.82% whole of stories; 10.01% to (-) 20.0 % – 760 539 thousand ton i.e. the
in the range from 20.01 to 30.0% – 495 334 thousand 7.35% whole of stories; in the range from (-)
ton i.e. the 4.79% whole of stories. 20.01% to (-) 30.0% – 2 074 503 thousand ton i.e.
In the average seam thickness range from 0.81 to 20.05% whole of stories; in the range from (-)
1.0 m size of resources in the various ranges positive 30.01% to (-) 40.0% – 1 023 300 thousand ton i.e.
relative deviations are, respectively: in the range from the 9.89% whole of stories; in the range above (-)
0 to 10% – 123 452 thousand ton i.e. the 1.19% 40% – 21 544 thousand tone i.e. the 0.21% whole of
whole of stories; in the range from 10.01 to 20.0% – stories.
163 115 thousand ton i.e. the 1.58% whole of stories; In the average seam thickness range from 1.01 to
in the range from 20.01 to 30.0% – 3 761 738 thou- 1.2 m size of resources in the various ranges nega-
sand ton i.e. 36.35% whole of stories; in the range tive relative deviations are, respectively: in the
above 30% – 78 thousand ton i.e. the 0.001% whole range from 0 to (-) 10.0% – 91 985 thousand ton i.e.
of stories. the 0.89% whole of stories: in the range from (-)
In the average seam thickness range from 1.0 to 10.01% to (-) 20.0% – 80 823 thousand ton i.e. the
1.2 m size of resources in the various ranges positive 0.78% whole of stories; in the range from (-)
relative deviations are, respectively: in the range from 20.01% to (-) 30.0% – 991 442 thousand ton i.e.
0 to 10% – 123 598 thousand ton i.e. the 1.19% 9.58% whole of stories; in the range from (-)
whole of stories; in the range from 10.01 to 20.0% – 30.01% to (-) 40.0 % – 1 632 333 thousand ton i.e.
273 552 thousand ton i.e. the 2.64% whole of stories; the 15.78% whole of stories; in the range above (-)
in the range from 20.01 to 30.0% – 2 951 296 thou- 40% – 551 863 thousand tone i.e. the 5.33% whole
sand ton i.e. the 28.52% whole of stories. of stories.
In the average seam thickness range from 1.21 to In the average seam thickness range from 1.21 to
1.4 m size of resources in the various ranges positive 1.4 m size of resources in the various ranges nega-
relative deviations are, respectively: in the range from tive relative deviations are, respectively: in the
0 to 10% – 116 277 thousand ton i.e. the 1.12% range from 0 to (-) 10.0% – 58 923 thousand ton i.e.
whole of stories; in the range from 10.01 to 20.0% – the 0.57% whole of stories: in the range from (-)
432 977 thousand ton i.e. the 4.18% whole of stories; 10.01% to (-) 20.0% – 91 904 thousand ton i.e. the
in the range from 20.01 to 30.0% – 876 276 thousand 0.89% whole of stories; in the range from (-)
ton i.e. 8.47% whole of stories. 20.01% to (-) 30.0% – 48 243 thousand ton i.e.
In the average seam thickness range above 1.4 m 0.47% whole of stories; in the range from (-)
size of resources in the various ranges positive rela- 30.01% to (-) 40.0% – 515 883 thousand ton i.e. the
tive deviations are, respectively: in the range from 0 4.99% whole of stories; in the range above (-)
to 10% – 107 871 thousand ton i.e. the 1.04% whole 40% – 710 577 thousand tone i.e. the 6.87% whole
of stories; in the range from 10.01 to 20.0% – 46 191 of stories.
thousand ton i.e. the 0.45% whole of stories; in the In the average seam thickness range above 1.4 m
range from 20.01 to 30.0% – 682 953 thousand ton size of resources in the various ranges negative rela-
i.e. the 6.60% whole of stories; in the range above tive deviations are, respectively: in the range from 0
30.0% – 4 492 thousand ton i.e. the 0.04% whole of to (-) 10.0% – 27 202 thousand ton i.e. the 0.26%
stories. whole of stories: in the range from (-) 10.01% to (-)

20.0% – 51 788 thousand ton i.e. the 0.50% whole of Assuming, however, for the time being theoretically
stories; in the range from (-) 20.01% to (-) 30.0% – that approximately 5% of them qualify for economi-
22 722 thousand ton i.e. 0.22% whole of stories; in cally reasonable use, without incurring huge expen-
the range from (-) 30.01% to (-) 40.0% – 24 102 ditures on the construction of new levels and mining
thousand ton i.e. the 0.23 % whole of stories; in the excavations, then we have, right now, the resources
range above (-) 40% – 715 693 thousand tone i.e. the ca. 100 million tons.
6.92% whole of stories. Source data for the performed analyses were col-
Maximum amount of resources of 2 004 516 lected from the project the Polish – Ukrainian “Tech-
thousand tonnes representing the 18.65% whole of nical and technological capabilities and economic
stories there are located in the seams meeting the merits of exploitation of thin seams of the hard coal”
following criteria: the average thickness of seams in (The decision of the Minister of Science and Higher
the range from 0.81 to 1.0 m; relative positive de- Education number 654/N-UKRAINA/2010/0).
viation in the range from 20.01 to 30.0%; relative
negative deviation in the range in the range of (-)
20.01 to (-) 30.0%. REFERENCES
Second in order of size of the maximum resource
of 1 530 728 thousand tonnes representing the Bukietyński, W., Hellwig, Z., Królik, U. & Smoluk, A.
14.79% whole of stories is located in the seams 1969. Uwagi o dyskryminacji zbiorów skończonych.
Prace Naukowe WSE Wrocław.
meeting following criteria: the average thickness of
Cichosz, P. 2000. Systemy uczące się. WNT Warszawa.
seams in the range from 1.01 to 1.2 m; positive rela- Dokumentacja programu STATISTICA. V. 9.0, 2010.
tive deviation in the range from 20.01 to 30.0%; Everitt, B.S., Landau, S. & Leese, M. 2001. Cluster
negative relative deviation in the range from (-) analysis. Londyn, Arnold, New York, Oxford
30.01 to (-) 40.0%. University Press.
Krowiak, A. 2005 (a). Wyznaczanie podobieństwa grupy
kopalni węgla kamiennego metoda podzbiorów
5 CONCLUSIONS izotropowych w oparciu o zmienne ceny
standaryzowanej oraz koszty jednostkowego na
produkcji węgla”, 6. Materiały konferencyjne “Szkoła
The method of analysis using multiple criteria si-
Eksploatacji Podziemnej-2005”. Kraków: Wydawca
multaneously, presented in the article, allows to per- IGSMiE: 459-475.
form analysis of different thematic cross sections. Krowiak, A. 2005 (b). Poszukiwanie podobieństwa relacji
Published results of the analysis should, thus, be wielkości opisujących kopalnie węgla kamiennego w
treated as one of many possible to perform thematic oparciu o zmienne unormowane. Publikacje naukowe
cross section. Presented results of analysis can be AGH Kraków, Szkoła Ekonomiki i Zarządzania w
applied, at least, as an interesting addition to geo- Górnictwie Krynica: 379-390.
logical documentation already hold by the mines Krowiak, A. 2004. Grupowanie jako metoda określania
podobieństwa relacji ekonomicznych w zbiorze kopalń
and in the strategic management of this industry. It
węgla kamiennego. Kraków: AGH Górnictwo i
could be useful as one of the elements supporting Geoinżynieria, 4/2: 135-139.
the decision-making process concerning the further Materiały źródłowe z kopalń węgla kamiennego. 2010.
development of mines in the strategic management. Nieć, M. 1982. Geologia kopalniana. Warszawa: Wydaw-
Subject of the analysis were the geological re- nictwa Geologiczne.
sources of hard coal bedding in thin seams. From Tadeusiewicz, R. 1993. Sieci neuronowe. Warszawa:
the perspective of practitioners, it is important how AOW RW.
many and which resources can be classified as in- Tarczyński, G. 2011. Algorytm Kohonena w analizie
danych ekonomicznych”. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo
dustrial resources in terms of economic viability of
Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu.
their exploitation. However, this requires additional
word study, which sooner or later, should be taken.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Experimental investigation of aeroelastic

and hydroelastic instability parameters of
a marine pipeline

Y. Kyrychenko, V. Samusia & V. Kyrychenko

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine
O. Goman
Dnipropetrovs’k state university, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The article contains the results of experimental research of unstable aeroclasticity type of wind
resonance and galloping for the elements of pipe-line of deep-water hydraulic handling. The experiments
have being carried in aerodynamic pipe on a scale models while using the strain measure balance. The laws
exposed and some qualitative results can be useful while investigating the self-excited oscillating of the con-
structions under the influence of wind load.

1 INTRODUCTION analogous researches for liquid flowing rod con-

struction, for example, submarine pulp feed-lines.
Each known problem solving of elastic construction That's why it is advisable to considerate from the
dynamics under the influence of wind loads sup- scientific point of view more common problem of
poses there is indispensable for the calculations in- self-excited oscillation beginning mechanism for
formation about aerodynamic forces which can be elastic constructions being flown by air or liquid.
obtained experimentally only. This is the main trou- While designing the construction to be interacted
ble of all aeroelastic problems as to obtain reliable with the flow it is necessary to pay much attention
information concerning the working aerodynamic to its element oscillation calculations to find such
forces needs a great number of experiments and fi- geometric and dynamic characteristics which can
nally it is connected with sizeable expenditures than exclude possible self-excited oscillation excitation.
subsequent motion equation solution. In this con- Each section of pipe-line is a set of pipe-lines. In-
nection the practical significance of similar investi- take pipe-line is the main one and it is surrounded
gations exceeds the bounds of oscillating bodies be- with some auxiliary pipe-lines which have less di-
havior in a wind flow owing to technical actuality of ameter.

Figure 1. Set #1 Scheme. Figure 2. Set #2 Scheme to study l and  parameters.

There were tested some set lay-out with fixed dispo- YD = Ymax sin 2f 0 t  ,
sition pipe-lines of selected diameters one of which
(set #l) is in Figure 1, and set #2 (Figure 2) to study X = X av + X D = X av + X max sin 4f 0 t  , (1)
according to geometrical parameters l and  . For
where Х av – average (static) value of resistance
set #l: d1  0.33 ; d 2  0.22 ; d 3  0.1 ; d 4  0.06 ;
force; Ymax and Х max – amplitude values of cross
r1  0.79 ; r2  0.74 ; r3  0.66 ; r4  0.62. For set
and resistance forces periodical components.
#2: d1  0.33 ; d 2  0.19 ; d 3  d 4  0.1 ; l and  If we use aerohydrodynamic indices, according to
have being ranged (    0 means the pipe-lines (1) they will be:
d 2 , d 3 and d 4 touch on each other). Here and be- C y = C ya sin 2f 0 t  ;
low all linear dimensions are referenced to the di-
ameter of central pipeline d. In the experimental C x = C x 0 + C xa sin 4f 0t  , (2)
aerodynamic model d diameter was 100 millimetres.
where C x0 – average value of resistance force co-

1.1 The study of hydrodynamic instability efficient; C ya and C xa – amplitude values of cor-
of vortex excitation type respondent coefficients (each coefficient is related
Vortex excitation as it is known (Kazakevich & Graf- to V 2 2 and d ).
ski 1984) originates owing to periodical eddy separa- C x values for set #2 are in Figure 3. As there is
tion from smooth surface of stream-lined extent elas-
tic body. Periodical eddy separation form so called torque which mz coefficient is in Figure 4, the sec-
Karman vortex trail in the wake of the body. The fre- tions of the pipe-line torsionally vibrate compara-
quency of f 0 vortex separation is determined by the tively to longitudinal axis.
Strouhal number: Sh = . For each section made 1.2 The study of hydrodynamic instability
fast in the flow the Strouhal number has quite definite of galloping type
value (which will depend upon the angle of incidence The loss of hydrodynamic stability of galloping type
too if profile is asymmetrical one). For single cylin- is the beginning of extent body oscillations in dia-
der Sh  0.2 . Owing to periodical vortex separation metrical direction to the flow without twist or with a
(either from one side of cylinder or from another one) small one but galloping takes place if section of the
pressure distribution along its surface gains periodical body in a definite range of angle of attack has nega-
component therefore cross force YD with f 0 fre- tive gradient of hydrodynamic lift C y   0
quency arises, and resistance Х force gains periodi- (force diametrical to flow) which is rather large as
cal Х D addition which frequency is 2f 0 : for absolute value.

Figure 3. Resistance force coefficient for the set #2: 1 – Figure 4. Moment coefficient for the set #2.
l  0.05 ;     ; 2 – l  0.05 ;   30  ; 3 – l  0.05 ;
  45 .

The trend of self-excited oscillation regime of C x  1.4 (3) criterion is not performed.
type of galloping beginning can be evaluated ac-
cording to Den-Hartog number (Den-Hartog 1960),
that is section losses its stability under given angle
of attack, if

Cy + C x < 0 , (3)

where C y – gradient of cross force coefficient.

Figure 5 shows obtained experimental depend-
ences of cross force coefficient of set upon angle of
attack for arrangement #l, and Figure 6 – for three
arrangement variants #2. As it is from the chart
there are three ranges of angles of attack where de-
rivative C y  is negative though condition (3)
isn't satisfied in every range. For arrangement #1
(Figure 5, curve 3) derivative  C y  value in Figure 6. The coefficient of cross force for nr.2 arrange-
  ment: 1 – l  0.05 ;     ; 2 – l  0.05 ;   30  ;
A (  0  80 ) and B (  0  330 ) points is
3 – l  0.05 ;   45 .
C y   5  6 and as C x value for this ar-
rangement when  and Re are any (in the range to
1.3 Dynamic tests of aerohydroelastic
be explored) is C x  0 .75  1 .4 , Den-Hartog num-
self-excited oscillations of pipe-line elements
ber (3) is performed in A and B points and their
To define qualitative and some quantitive character-
neighborhoods  20 . On the curve #1 at the C
istics of self-excited oscillations of pipe-line there
point (Figure 3) C y   1.2 and experimental were performed direct dynamic tests of pipe-line
value C x  1.34 , so (3) criterion is not performed. models in air tube. Tests procedure and measuring
instruments are described in detail in (Grafski &
Kazakevich 1983) and (Goman, Grafski &
Kyrychenko 1998). The tests took place with the
help of specially developed multicomponent strain
measurement scales which main units were me-
chanical resonant circuits. Their elastic and dissipa-
tive properties may be varied during the trial.
The tests have been performed on models of pipe-
lines sets for different variants of arrangements.
Each pipe-line itself and the whole set were separate
mechanical contours where  decrement, m mass
and  own frequency may be changed. Abovemen-
tioned strain measurement scales permitted theoreti-
cally to find the conditions of beginning and dis-
close the range of various types of aeroelastic insta-
bility existence according to their main signs.
Figure 5. The coefficient of set cross force on the whole
Two arrangement sets shown in Figures 1 and 2
for #1 arrangement.
had been used for arrangement #1 gave ability to
For #2 arrangement (Figure 6) Den-Hartog number test aeroelastic self-excited oscillations of the pipe-
is performed, e.g., for curve 3 in the neighborhood of line on the whole and every its separate pipe-line;
model for arrangement #2 – the whole pipe-line
A (  0  60  ) and B (  0  300 ) points. In these only. The range of Reynolds number was
points  C y    3.5 . Neighborhoods where (3) Re  3  10 4  2 10 5 .
criterion is performed are  15 approximately. In The results of arrangement nr.l model tests
showed the model on the whole made flexural and
C point (curve 3)  C y    1.3 , so if
torsional vibrations, and some auxiliary pipe-lines –

longitudinal and lateral flexural vibrations. The gion of galloping (1 –   0 , 2 –   20  180 ).
charts to show amplitudes of those oscillations ac-
In the region of vortex excitation the amplitude a yi
cording to Re and angle of attack are in Figures 7
and 8 (amplitudes a xi longitudinal and a yi lateral of lateral oscillations firstly increases when speed is
picked up and then dies down; in the region of gal-
vibrations of each auxiliary cylinder are referred to loping the amplitude of oscillations increases as a
d – diameter of central cylinder). Reynolds number rule with speed growth. Given results have been ob-
for each pipe-line has been calculated in accordance tained for stiff plates, that's why amplitudes of oscil-
with its own diameter. lations turned out to be insignificant.

Figure 7. The changes of kinematic parameters of flex- Figure 8. The changes of longitudinal and torsional vibra-
ural and torsional movement for the whole set and auxil- tions of the whole set according to angle of attack (#1 ar-
iary pipe-lines #l arrangement according to Reynolds rangement).
The region of self-excited oscillations of A vortex
As it is seen from Figure 7 the loss of aeroelastic
excitement with a given speed is V pr  5  10 , or
stability for the model on the whole took place when
according to Strouhal number Sh  0.2  0.1 . The
Re  5  104 , but for auxiliary pipe-lines in the set it loss of stability of galloping type was when
happened much earlier. Figure 8 shows amplitudes V pr  14.5 . If galloping takes place both lateral and
of oscillations of pipe-line model as the whole. We longitudinal oscillations occur with their own bend-
ing frequencies.
can see the amplitude of longitudinal vibrations is
rather less than lateral ones. The changes in flexural
vibrations (that is their continuous growth from
Re  4  104 to Re  2  105 ) means galloping type
of self-excited oscillations in examined speed range.
As for arrangement #2, the results discovered two
types of aerohydrodynamic instability losses (Figure
9): vortex excitation (A region) and galloping ( B
region) (the given speed is V pr = V  y d ). These
three cases are in accordance with following pa-
rameters: a) l  0.5 ;   30 , A is a region of vor-
tex excitation (   0  180 ), B is a region of gal-
loping (   0  180 ); b) l  0.5 ;    0 , A is a
region of vortex excitation (   180  20 ), B is
a region of galloping; c) l  0 ;    0 , A is a re- Figure 9. Amplitude dependence of lateral oscillations of
the set of speed given.
gion of vortex excitation (   0  10 ), B is a re-

Instability of type of galloping was revealed in all Maximal possible safety of the pipe-line against
tested ways of surrounding pipe-lines location. The hydroeiastic instability beginning in the range of pa-
most stable position as for galloping in the whole rameter change can be obtained by limiting the work-
tested range of V pr values and all angles of attack ing speed of unit transportation lower than minimal
stalling speed of vortex excitement beginning.
turned out to be the arrangement of the set when
l  0 (that is auxiliary pipe-lines are snug against
central one). REFERENCES

Kazakevich, M. & Grafski, I. 1984. Subharmonic entrain-

2 CONCLUSIONS ment of aeroelastic vibrations of circular cylinder. Re-
ports of AS of UkrSSR. A Series, 4.
The results of tests concerning the aerohydrodynamic Den-Hartog, G.P. 1960. Mechanical vibrations. Moscow:
properties of pipe-line elements showed the pipe-line Phizmatgiz.
cross-section which consists of pipe-line set with dif- Grafski, I. & Kazakevich, M. 1983. The aerodynamics of
badly-flown bodies. Hand book. Dnepropetrovsk: DSU.
ferent diameters has inclination to display aerohy-
Goman, O., Grafski, I. & Kyrychenko, E. 1998. Aerody-
droelastic instability of type of vortex excitement and namic characteristics of immersed construction of the
galloping. That's why any specific design needs pre- system for submarine extraction. Dnipropetrovs’k:
liminary careful aerohydroelastic tests. NMU of Ukraine: Transaction #2.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Basic positions of the project of

energy-efficient system for solar heat supply

M. Tabachenko & K. Ganushevych

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine
V. Ryabichev
Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University, Anthracite, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Schematic solutions during use of solar radiation in heat supply systems are presented. Rec-
ommendations for selection and calculation of flat and focusing helium receivers’ parameters are given.

In average, annual quantity of solar radiation that falls in order to receive heat currents that are sufficient for
on the Earth’s surface is equal to 2000-2500 kW functioning of the modern energy systems and tech-
year / m2 and 1000-1500 kW year / m2 in high lati- nological processes, it is necessary to use solar con-
tudes areas (Daffi Jr. 1987 & Beckman 1987). Thus, centrators.

Figure 1. Passing of the solar beams through the Earth’s atmosphere: (a) reverberation from the Earth’s surface; (b) rever-
beration by the clouds; (c) absorption by the atmosphere itself; (d) dissipation by the atmosphere with reaching the land
surface; (e) emission particle that reaches the Earth’s surface.

Specially painted and glassed, they allow to re- Types of passive solar systems are shown on
ceive low-temperature heat due to solar radiation Figure 2. Types of helium systems are chosen de-
that can be used for heating and ventilation of the pending on the structures’ purposes and existing
apartments, for water heating etc. conditions of heat supply (Table 1).

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 2. Passive solar systems.

Table 1. Recommendations for selection of helium systems.

Types of the structures Recommended helium systems

Structures that are connected to constantly func- Full year
tioning energy sources
Enterprises of social nourishment, hotels, hospitals, Seasonal with a backup unit, with 100% supply of
sanatoriums, kindergartens, bathhouses, laundries hot water
Recreation centers of seasonal operation, pioneer Seasonal with a backup unit that ensure, if neces-
camps sary, cover of technological load of hot water,
thanks to the backup unit
Dwelling houses with the boiler house for heating, Seasonal without backup unit
summer showers, camps

Designing of the systems begin with determina- face, K; T0 – temperature of the surrounding wind, K.
tion of the needed area of helium receiver that is Complexity of this equation’s application is in the
calculated depending on various variants of the col- determination of the absorbing plate’ average tem-
lectors’ structures (Daffi Jr. 1987 & Beckman perature using concepts of the absorber’s efficiency
1987). f  that is equal to ratio of actual absorbing energy
Basic accounting equation for the flat collector
computation: to absorbing energy, in case of the liquor’s and the
plate’s temperatures equality that describes the col-
qu  qabs  u Tn  T0  , (1) lector’s productivity as the function of the heat car-
rier’s average temperature
where qu – useful heat quantity that is allocated for
qu  f ' qabs  и Т Т  Т о  , (2)
the time and square unit (heat current), W / m2;
qabs – absorbing quantity of the heat, W / m2; u – where ƒ' – function of the construction parameters
coefficient of time losses of the collectors, of absorption that barely depends on the consumtion
W / (m2·K); Tn – temperature of the absorbing sur- and temperature of the heat carrier’s:

1 According to the equation (1), average tempera-
 

f '  l d  R  d  f p 1  k  d uR   , (3) ture of the heat carrier is founded ТТ .
 k in in 

where l –length of the collector, m; d – diameter of

ТТ  Т int  Т р  Т о WuF  g . (7)
the absorber’s channel, m; r – radius, distance be-
Value TТ  Т in  Text  / 2 is more suitable for the
tween the channel’s axes, m;  k – thickness of the ab-
calculations. For this purpose we will use equation
sorber’s material, m; k – heat conductivity,
of the collector’s productivity as its function and in-
W / (m2·K); d in – internal wall’s diameter, m;  in – troduce factor f , after this the equation (1) will
coefficient of heat emission of the internal collector’s look like as follows
prop, W / (m2·K); f p – efficiency of the absorber’s rib
qu  f qabs  и ТТ  Т о  , (8)

fp 

t h uc R  d  / 2  , (4) WT 2 g
iuc 1
R  d / 2 where f   .
uF 2   g
where c – heat conductivity of the absorber, WT
With f  1 and  2 , value f  1 and equa-
W / (m2·K); i – value that is attributed to the 1st uF
section of the accumulator. tion (1) turns into (8), and the error does not exceed
Thus, f  for effective absorbers is always greater 2%. Consumption value that ensures set temperature
than 0.9. For example, for the rest of stamped radia- of the collector is calculated from the following
tors f   0.95 , for aluminum – 0.97. equation
Level of the temperature’s distribution along the  u Т end  Т int  
current is calculated by integrating of accounting WT  f ' uF ln 1 1  . (9)
equation (1) for the liquid’s element  q abs  и Т int  Т end  
Т end  Т int Since during computations of helium receivers,
 1  exp  uf ' F / WT  , (5) most often the heat carrier’s temperature at the entry
Т b  Т int
is known, it is convenient to use heat efficiency
where Т end – end temperature of the collector’s equation that includes this parameter
heating , K; Т int – initial temperature of the qu  f R qabs  и Т int  Т 0  , (10)
heating, K; Т b – average balanced heating tempera-
ture, K; F – surface area of the collector, m2; where f R – coefficient of heat extraction from the
WT – water equivalent of losses (volume) – multi- collector that is the ratio of practically received en-
ergy to the energy that would be received if tem-
plication of the liquor volume’s loss to density and
perature of the whole absorbing plate would be
heat capacity, W / K;
equal to temperature of the heat carrier at the en-
Equation (5) coincides with the notes in symbols
of  – NTU equation of heat conduction between
heating current with endless consumptions and tem- WT
fR  g . (11)
perature T p and heated current from Tin to Т ext uF
kf Coefficient of the collector’s heat losses is calcu-
with number of heat carrying particles NTU 
w lated by two components: losses through transparent
that is defined by consumption WT with heat con- surface u c and bottom ub . If the heat carrier does
duction coefficient between the currents u and area not move between the absorber and glass
f F . So, the efficiency of the helium receiver, as
u  u с  ub . (12)
the heat exchanger, is defined from the following
equation This value for flat helium receivers can be found by

 g  1  exp  NTu g .  (6) the following empirical equation

  1  F
u   2   st sa   
 344 / Т d Т d  Т 0  /   c 0.31 

c F
, (13)
 1 
 

  Т d2  Т 0  Т d  Т 0 
   d   

 d  d   d  0.05 1   d 1  2  с  1 /  с  

where v –number of glass covers;  c – coefficient diffuse solar radiation. Published and saved mete-
of glass’ heat conduction, W / (m2·K); Fsa – sur- orological information in most of the cases shows
data of intensity of the radiation components on the
face area of the wall, m2;  d – thickness of the col- surface. Thus, coefficient of position q abs should
lector’s bottom, m; d – heat conduction of the be added to the calculation – ratio of intensity on the
bottom, W / (m2·K);  d – coefficient of bottom’s horizontal plane. For reverberated and dissipated ra-
heat emission;  – constant of Stefan-Boltzmann; diation, their values are determined as follows
 d – degree of the surface’s darkness. р r  sin 2  / 2 ; p D  cos 2  / 2 , (16)

 
С  1  0.04 с  5  10 4 с2 1  0.0588  . where p – ratio of solar radiation’s intensity that
falls on the collectors’ plane to horizontal – coeffi-
The first two figures of the equation (13) deter- cient of position; r – density of the current of re-
mine heat consumption through light-transparent verberated solar radiation, W / m2; D – density of
barrier. They depend on slope angle of the collector the current of solar radiation’s diffuse component,
and its darkness degree W / m2;  – slope angle of the collectors to the ho-
и с   rizon, degree.
 1    452.59  1.44 d 10  3 . (14) Absorption ability of the collector with diffuse
и с 45
radiation (reverberated and diffused) is taken to be
The second and third figures – coefficient of constant that corresponds to the value for the
losses through the bottom and walls. In the effective straight line drawn during beam’s fall at an angle of
collector, coefficient losses through the bottom is 60о. When summing up straight solar radiation
equal to 0.5-1 W / m2·K. Losses coefficient through which was absorbed by the collector it is necessary
walls for a single collector is equal to less than 3% to have p s and  a s values in terms that corre-
of total losses and in case of their combination –
spond to solar radiation current’s density S. This
less than 1% and may not be taken into account.
significantly increases volume of the calculations
For more complex cases dependence of u on u c and creates complexities in calculations directed to
and u d is defined as follows determination of long-term collectors’ characteris-
tics. In order to facilitate them it is reasonably to use
ис  и d averaged values for the period when slope angle of

1   d иС /  с   Сg .d   d  Сg .d   d .С     . (15) the solar beam on the collector’s surface is i  55 ,
ис  иd
  and p s and  a s values are for determination of
 
 d   С dg.С   d и С /  С   Сg .d
the coefficients (Rabinovich 1982.).
Important characteristics of the collectors that are In Table 2, some calculation results are shown for
the latitude of 45о according to which the calcula-
needed for calculation of q abs – reduced absorption
tions for southern regions of Ukraine can be made
ability that shows which part of the falling on the (Volevakha & Goysa 1987). Collector’s dip angles
collector solar radiation is being absorbed by it. It is are shown based on the helium system’s work pe-
determined by multiplication of the coefficients of
riod: summer     15 , all year round   
transparent surface transmittance  and absorption
(a) of the collector (  a ) separately for straight and (  – angle of geographical latitude, degree).

Table 2. Average monthly values p s and  a for collectors of southern orientation   45 (  – azimuth angle).

Month of   30    45   60

the year
ps a ps a ps a
1 2.104 0.733 2.308 0.750 2.580 0.753
2 1.727 0.755 1.924 0.754 1.980 0.753
3 1.419 0.749 1.480 0.754 1.443 0.755
4 1.195 0.752 1.171 0.756 1.074 0.744
5 1.075 0.753 1.000 0.748 0.855 0.734
6 1.020 0.755 0.938 0.747 0.828 0.727
7 1.040 0.757 1.000 0.749 0.850 0.730
8 1.130 0.754 1.095 0.754 1.000 0.740
9 1.303 0.752 1.330 0.755 1.264 0.752
10 1.586 0.750 1.710 0.753 1.747 0.754
11 2.053 0.739 2.392 0.749 2.559 0.756
12 2.255 0.721 2.992 0.742 3.133 0.755

With arbitrary orientation of the building at which

the helium receiver is installed, it is necessary to

  f R  a   u Tint  T0  / q f .  (23)
know how the deviation from southern orientation Concept of technical characteristics of the helium
changes intensity of falling on the collector solar ra- receivers of various types give results of their tests
diation. Calculations have shown that for the incline shown on the Figure 3. The results of tests are
of     15 with deviation of up to 10о does not shown in the shape of points on the straight lines
change year’s amount of the falling radiation for that are described by the equation (21-23). With
more than 5%, up to 30о – not more than 10%. that, losses coefficient equals to tangent of incline
Dustiness of the surface and shading of the absorber angle in ή coordinate system. T / q f , the point of
by walls slightly decrease amount of absorbed radia- intersection with the ordinate corresponds to rated
tion. Their precise calculation is complex and not absorption ability.
always possible, thus in the most of calculations it is
calculated by introduction of reduction coefficient Table 3. Technical characteristics of helium receivers (av-
0.951. eraged data) with average wind speed equal to 5 m / s,
Formulas for calculation of solar radiation’s in- Tn  305  325 K and a  0.95.
tensity that falls and gets absorbed by the collector Number of
of various spatial directions and its rated absorption Type of u,|
glass n
ability: structure Wt / m2·K;
Flat solar 1 0.95 5.5-7.5
q f  р 2 S  p D D  p r S  D  , (17) water heater
Also 1 0.05 2.8-3.5
-//- 2 0.95 3.2-4.8
q abs  0.951 а  p S   a  D
 D r

p D  p S  D  , (18)
-//- 2 0.05 1.8-2.2
Flat solar 2 0.95 3.6-3.8
 a   qabs / q f . (19) wind heater

Now the efficiency coefficient of helium receiver As shown on Figure 3, ratio of efficiency of the
can be calculated from the formula helium receivers of various types varies from an in-
  qu / q f (20) terval to interval and the right selection of solar
heater’s type depends on its working conditions that
and to write down three equivalent equations for its are defined by parameter T / q f .
definition For solar water heaters, the following values of
losses coefficient u , W / m2·K are established
 
   а   u Т  Т 0 / q f , (21) For single-glass ……7.5
For double-glass……4.35
  f'  a   u TT  T0  / q f , (22) When using equations (20) and (22) for the calcu-

darkness degree on the external wall.
Quantity of heat that is absorbed by the concen-
trator is calculated in some other way than for flat
receivers. It is connected, in the first place, with the
fact that on the receiver only current of the direct
solar radiation that falls on the reverberator is con-
centrated. Current of diffuse radiation that falls di-
rectly on the receiver is considerably less and is not
taken for calculation for the systems with high level
of concentration

qabs  Sp s  a F , (28)

Tin  Ta 2
,m K/Wt where (  a ) – has the same meaning as for the flat
collectors (in case of an unglassed receiver   1 );
Figure 3. Efficiency of helium receivers of various types:  – reverberating ability of the reverberator-
1 – vacuum connection sleeves; 2 – double-glass selective;
3 – double-glass non-selective; 4 – single-glass selective; reflector, averaged in angles;  – coefficient of
5 – single-glass non-selective. capture that shows the quantity of reverberated cur-
rent falling on the receiver – characteristics of orien-
f  is used for determination of the wind collectors’ tation accuracy of the concentrator and receiver; in
number, in order to find u, as a rule, formula 13 is general form, its value is calculated for each specific
used. f  values are found from the following equa- case from the following formula
tion В
А I  d
  
. (29)
  
f '  1  u /  d  1 / 1 /  d  1 /  dr .d 
. (24)  I  d

Shown calculation methods of flat collectors are When transferring, 10% of individual consumers
used for calculations of helium receivers of more to solar heat supply in regions of Ukraine, 0.17 Mt
complex structures as well. Thus, heat productivity fuel / year can be saved. With effective use of solar
equation for parabola-cylindrical concentrating col- radiation with capacity of 4 300 MJ / m² a year, the
lector can be presented as follows needs of consumers in heating can be assured for up
to 25%, in hot water supply – up to 50%, in condi-
 u  tioning – up to 75%.
qu  f R qabs  Tin  T0  , (25) Replacement of the traditional boiler houses with
 n 
the solar units allows to substitute and to save or-
where n – concentration degree that is equal to the ganic fuel, decrease volume of heat emissions and
ratio between areas of reverberator’s beams and the combustion products’ emissions into the environ-
receiver’s areas of beams. Coefficient of an external ment, to solve a line of social problems in regions
wall’s losses. where there is no centralized energy supply and to
involve working potential of unprofitable enter-
 1  prises.
и    . (26) But during exploitation of various systems and
  b 4 Т 3  devices which use solar energy, many problems
 d d 
connected with environment protection occur. Use
Factor of the heat removal, f r also defined ac- of the low-boiling liquors in solar energy systems
and inevitable leaks of these liquors during long-
cording to (11), and the value of f  – the following
time exploitation of the systems can cause signifi-
formula cant pollution of drinking water. Special danger is
1 created by liquors that contain nitrates, chromates
 ud ext ud ln  ext / d int  that are highly toxic matters.
f '  1   ext 
 . (27)
  int d ext Т  In order to decrease corrosion of water solar sys-
tems that are used for heating and cooling of the
where d ext – diameter of the external channel, m; apartments and to prevent their freezing, salts with
d int – the same for the internal wall, m; ext – chromites, borites, nitrates, sulphates etc. are added
that create serious danger to people’s health. Thus,

during solar heating and cooling systems’ function- In conclusion, it is necessary to mention that un-
ing that use rated matters it is necessary to periodi- wanted consequences that are caused by use of solar
cally check if there are no leakages of working liq- energy systems have local character and they can be
uors. avoided if to follow precise safety rules.
Darkening of the vast territories of land due to the
solar concentrators can lead to its degradation. It is
also necessary to mark ecological consequences in REFERENCES
the air heating station’s location region when solar
radiation concentrated by glass reverberators passes Daffi Jr., A. & Beckman, U.A. 1987. Heat processes with
through it. This is the change of balance, moisture, use of solar energy. Moscow: Mir: 420.
Rabinovich, M.D. 1982. Engineering method of solar ra-
wind direction, etc. It is necessary to take into ac-
diation calculation that falls and get absorbed by the
count that building of solar energy stations requires collector. Helium technique, 4: 7-9.
vast territories: for example, station of 100 MW- Volevakha, M.M. & Goysa, N.I. 1987. Energy resources
power will occupy area equal to 5 km2. of Ukraine’s climate. Kyiv: Scientific thought: 132.

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Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

The estimation of effect of the dust-proof respirators’

protective efficiency upon the mining workers’ dust load

Y. Cheberyachko
National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Here is the methodics of the coefficient’s value of dust load which proposed accounting respi-
rator’s presence while calculating the volume of dust load. It depends on the air consumption respiration re-
sistance, filters’ quality and climate conditions.


Lately is greatly increasing the number of profes- Hence not taking account the causes cited above,
sional diseases of workers respirational organs es- while setting dust’s amount in the worker’s lungs,
pecially at coal industry (Medvedev 2005). Such we get understated, results whereas in reality they
situation has turned out as a result of the whole rank are more sizable, that considerably detracts progno-
of some negative factors but the heaviest one is er- sis of arising untime diseases.
roneous calculation of value of dust load. The errors For calculation of dust load accounting DIPOR
appear first of all because of doubtful data of dust presence class of protection of respirator should be
concentration in the air of working zone, volume of defined and calculated: the coefficient of getting the
workers’ lungs aeration, wrong estimation of coeffi- harmful aerosol bath though filters unhealthy and on
cient of delivery unhealthy aerosol into respirator. obturation stripe; to clear up the value of respiration
Thus at the mines the protective devices with differ- resistance; to fix the time of exploits, working re-
ent protective efficiency are used whereas this fact gime, dispersion content of dust, air temperature and
isn’t accounted while calculation of dust load (In- air moisture degrees is quite necessary.
structions... 2003). Besides the dust-proof DIPRO’s The class of respirator’s protection is defined with
type (with the filtering half mask or isolated half a coefficient of test-aerosol penetration is defined
mask with shifting filters) is ignored; class of pro- with depends on lots of factors: the characteristics of
tection (high – FFP3, middle – FFP2, low – FFP1), filtering material, air supply, dispersional structure of
the volume of respirative resistance to air flow etc. dust, air resistance of DIPOR, climatic conditions at
So at working process the filtering cell its resistance the workings place. This index is determined through
to the half mask space because of impenetrability on experiments while certification tests of readymade
the obturation stripe (Figure 1). device (product), not the filters isolated (as certain
producers point out) over special test-aerosols under
normal conditions (air temperature 20 °C, relative
moisture not over 75%) (Golinko 2008).
Kn   100%, (1)

where W1 – mass consumption of unhealthy matters

before DIPOR; W2 – mass consumption of un-
Figure 1. The simplified design (scheme) of aerosol flows
healthy matters after DIPOR.
According to DSTU 149:2003, DSTU 149:2002
in respirators: W f.e. – mass consumption of noxious mat-
for each protection class following penetration coef-
ters getting on the respirator’s filtering cell; Wc.o . – mass ficients are fixed: through the filtering half mask:
consumption of unhealthy matters, through respirator’s FFP1 – 22%; FFP2 – 8%; FFP3 – 2%; through the
obruration stripe; S f.e. – square of filtering cell; S c.o. . – shifting filter cells of isolating half mask: P1 – low
effectiveness – 20%; P2 – middle effectiveness –
square of obturation stripe.

6%; P3 –high effectiveness – 0.05%; through obtu- where  – coefficient of filtering action m / Pа·s;
ration stripe of the isolating half mask coefficient of s – square of filter, m2; Q – air supply through the
under ejecting air mustn’t exceed 2%. respirator; р – density of aerosol particles,
That is when checking only protection class of
kg / m3;  – kinematical air toughness, m2 / s;  –
DIPOR we realize that while calculation of dust
load three coefficients should be introduced for velocity of aerosol particles, m / s.
checking DIPOR presence: for FPP1 – 0.22; FFP2 – The growth of filtering cell’s resistance increases
0.08; FFP3 – 0.02. the chance of polluted air penetration though respi-
rator. This is conditioned by the redistribution of air
flows and increasing ejection of polluted air through
3 MATERIALS UNDER ANALYSIS pass ability of obturation stripe (Figure 3).

However, at the result of experimental researches

was found that coefficient of penetrative action of
respirator while the process of dusting is changing
and depends on many factors. For example, for res-
pirator RPA-TD the growth of coefficient value of
penetration after dusting for a certain period of time
was fixed (Figure 2).

Figure 3. Dependence of penetration coefficient on air

flow resistance in filter (1) and respirator with filters (2).

As shown in formula it’s evidently clear that value

of air supply depending on heaviness of works ac-
complished influences upon the filtration efficiency
immediately raising of filtration speed causes the
growth of pressure drop at respirator (Golinko 2008).
As after raising filtration speed the probability of
Figure 2. Dependence of relative coefficient of penetration catching aerosol particle by fibre decreases, that in-
on respirator RPA-TD on the time of dusting. creases the coefficient of respirator’s penetration
(Figure 4).


Hence, is a worker works in respirator over three

hours a day so for the dust load’s calculation coeffi-
cient accounting respirator’s presence will be equal
to 0.17.
At the result of research of dependence of protec-
tive efficiency respirators from the quality of their
filters there was obtained an expression for defining
of respirator’s penetration coefficient proceeding
from values as follows: air supply through DIPOR
( Q1 ), pressure drop ( p ) filter resistance ( R f .e. ),
the meaning of coefficient of filtering.
Figure 4. Dependence of penetration coefficient respira-
2 3 tor’s RPA-TD (1) as in the whole and its filters from
K р  10

 α R f.е.S   1  0.8 ρd 4 πv
, (2) eleflen (2) apart from the air supply.
Q  Δр
п 18η
R f.е.

5 RESULTS where k1 – additional pressure drop caused by rais-
ing temperature; k2 – the additional pressure drop
Thus, for the respirator RPA-TD of eleflen while per-
forming hard works characterized by the air supply of caused by increasing air moisture.
120 l / min, the filter’s respirative resistance of eleflen Temperature raising results in increasing penetra-
will equal about 4000 kg·s / m3, then the coefficient tion coefficient of respirator (Figure 7).
counting respirator’s presence will equal – 0.1.
Particular attention should be paid to the changing Kn , %
if parameters DIPOR under the influence of climatic
conditions as in mining workings they differ greatly 2,5
from normal ones, over which they conduct labora- Кn = 0,1845t 1
tory researches on stating the principal indices. Ex-
perimental researches showed that heightening air 1,5
temperature and air moisture results in essential
pressure drop on respirators provided for the type of 1
filtering material (Figure 5, 6) (Golinko 2008). Kn = 0,0341t
15 20 25 30 35 t C

Figure 7. Curves of coefficient’s penetration dependence

on temperature: air filters of eleflen (1) and filters of
FPP15-1.5 (2).

It can be explained by the fact that under the co-

ercion of temperature aerosol particles start quicker
moving worsening the action of the main mecha-
nism for their catching that is electrostatic (Petry-
anov 1984).

Figure 5 The curves of pressure drop’s dependence of res-

pirators on air temperature for the filters: 1 – eleflen; 2 –

Figure.8. The general view of urnndow program for dust

load calculation accounting a respirator’s presence and
Figure 6. The curves of pressure drop’s dependence of res- kind of work accomplished.
pirators on air moisture, filters of eleflen at different air
temperature, °C: 1-30; 2-26; 3-24; 4-20; 5-16. Hence for the calculating of dust quantity which
got into worker’s lungs accounting DIPRO presence
Additional growth of pressure drop on DIPRO it’s necessary to define a respiration’s brand which
can be estimated due to the formula is used and its characteristics (protection effective-
ness of filters used in it, the original pressure drop
р  k1k2 R1Q1 , (3) both on respirator and apart, whether it’s possible on

filter); duration of working shift; to choose a profes- REFERENCES
sion (or designate the volume of lungs’ aeration and
average shifting dust concentration in working Medvedev, E.N., Kashuba O.I., Krivokhizha B.M. &
zone); the temperature and moisture of atmosphere Krutenko, S.A. 2005. Dusty conditions and the incidence
of pneumoconiosis in the coal Ukraine mines. Makeevka-
within working zone where the respirator’s exploita-
Donets Basin: MACNII: 205.
tion is provided. Instructions for measuring the concentration of dust in
For the dust load estimation accounting the data mines and keeping dust loads. 2003. Coll. inst. Rules for
cited above, the program was designed which lets safety in coal mines. Zatv. Order of Fuel and Energy
calculate the dust load meaning past introducing Ministry of Ukraine, 662: 151-161.
imprint needful data (Figure 8) (Golinko 2009). Golinko, V.I., Cheberyachko, S.I. & Cheberyachko, Y.I.
2008. The use of respirators and on coal mining enter-
prises: A Monograph. Dnipropetrovs’k: National Mining
6 CONCLUSIONS University: 99.
Petryanov, I.V. & Koshcheev, V.S. 1984. Lepestok (Light
respirators). Moscow: Nauka: 216.
Thus the designed program can estimate quickly Golinko, V.I. & Cheberyachko, Y.I. 2009. Develop a load
dust load accounting respirator’s work, its character- calculation dust miners considering the type of filter
istics and kinds of works that makes possible to respirator. Bulletin of the Kryvy Rig Technical Univer-
prognoze more exactly the amount of accumulated sity. Scientific Papers, 23: 226-229.
dust and the probability of disease in respiration or-
gans of workers who use the dust proof respirators.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Derivatography as the method of water

structure studying on solid mineral surface

V. Biletskyi, T. Shendrik & P. Sergeev

Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: It is proposed to use derivatographic method for investigation of water pellicle structure on
mineral surface. It allows to identify some kinds of moisture, especially to distinguish the pellicle moisture
from other types. In case of hydrophilic materials this method allows to select individual species of moisture
pellicle (probably, strongly combined and adhesive).

1 INTRODUCTION ture of capillary escalation); capillary joint moisture

and hygroscopic moisture too. By the method what
The actual problem of the dewatering and fine dis- we meant, the identification of strongly combined
persing materials process intensification is the de- moisture is difficult in according to non-clear
velopment of reliable methods for valuation of wa- thermo-grams bends of mineral system drying.
ter structure on solid mineral surface (especially, Thirdly, nowadays the unique method of moisture
coal surface). determination, which not retire by mechanical
Thus the question of correlation determination be- methods, is the method of maximal molecular mois-
tween the amount of superficial moisture which can ture capacity (MMMC) (Bochkov 1996). What is
be mechanically removed, stands especially roughly widely used on the theory and in the practice. This
and that, which is not removable by mechanical method is an integral estimation of row species
methods – filtration, centrifugal etc. The last has moisture such as: capillary, internal and partly ex-
presented by the structured (limited) pellicles. ternal, film moisture, which cannot be excised me-
Their differential estimation by MMMC method
2 UNDERGROUND is impossible. Having a concrete practical meaning,
this method is of little use for theoretical analysis of
Earlier this problem was studied by line of authors different moisture types.
(Bochkov 1996; Bejlin 1969; Ivanova 1974; Deriva- Thus, our short survey demonstrates the presence
togramms 1992; Kazanskij 1961 & Deriagin 1989), the individual methods for estimation of different
but qualitative and quantitative estimation of the moisture types and the limits of their usage. At the
pellicle moisture remains ambiguous. same time, so named “thin” and “thick” moisture
Nowadays there is a line of quantitative estima- pellicle (anot speaking about their possible ele-
tion methods for different types of moisture. ments) cannot be identified by known methods, al-
First of all, there are methods for efficiently de- though exactly they roughly differ by the energy of
termination of strongly combined (hygroscopic) connection with a hard surface from others (Deri-
moisture, for example according to GOST 8719-70 agin 1989).
and its equivalents (Bejlin 1969). As for other mois- The goal of this article – The search and investi-
ture forms, the lack of clear bounders between sepa- gation of new methodological approaches in identi-
rate moisture types (according to connection of en- fication of different moisture kinds on coal surface.
ergetic indexes “solid-liquid”) leads to difficulty of Especially, the valuation of derivatography using
quantitative appreciation. possibility as the method of moisture morphology
Secondly, there is an attempt of moisture types studies on coal surface.
identification and their quantitative determination,
which is made in (Bejlin 1969 & Kazanskij 1961)
with help of isothermal drying thermo-grams of sil- 3 EXPOSITION OF BASIC MATERIAL
ica gel. According to M.I. Bejlin (Bejlin 1969)
thermo-grams allow to differ various kinds of capil- On the practice, physical-chemical investigations of
lary moisture: “internal capillary moisture” (mois- minerals and especially coal, the method of deriva-

tography is widely used (Ivanova 1974 & Deriva- Sample 1. Non-oxidized coal, W a  1.2 %;
togramms 1992). One of its function is determina-
Sample 2. Non-oxidized moisturizing coal, wa-
tion of moisture and hydroxides content in minerals
ter:coal = 1:1;
(Derivatogramms 1992).
Sample 3. Oxidized coal, water: coal = 1:1.
The derivatography usage for estimation of water
The investigations were made by derivatigraph of
phase structure on coal surface was offered by us.
company МОМ-Q-1500.
For this, coal analytical samples of stamp “Ж (fat)”
On the Figure 1 initial derivatogramms of coal
from mine “Samsonivska-Zahidna #1” were investi-
samples are shown. Endothermic spades of water
gated with ash content 9.5%. Fresh crashed coal and
evacuation of thermogravimethric curves (DTG),
oxidized on air by 20 оС was used, during one
reduced to basic line, are shown on Figure 2. Tem-
month. Experiments were duplicated for coinci-
perature intervals and characteristic points are pro-
dence determination of results. For moisturizing
jected on basic line.
coal had been used water with pH  7.
The model of tests which was probed had such set
of characteristics:

(a) (b) (c)

2 2

о 3
135 С

3 3

о о
135 С 100 С

100 С

1 1 1

Figure 1. Fragments of coal derivatogramms in the moisture-removing region; a, b, c – corr. samples 1, 2, 3; 1 – tempera-
ture curve, 2 – thermo gravimetric (TG) curve, 3 – differential thermo gravimetric (DTG) curve.

How you can see, the maximums of water The effect of non-symmetry is connected with the
evacuation for samples sufficiently differ by inten- existence of different moisture kinds on coal sur-
sity, configuration, especially extent of symmetry face. So as different kinds of moisture have various
and area under curves. Let’s stay on this characteris- energy of connection with solid surface, that is why
tics more detailed. they are removed in different temperature intervals.
Intensity of DTG peaks by its nature determinates Especially here, different temperatures take place,
the maximal speed of moisture-removing, and area which are corresponding to maximal speed of mois-
under curve shows the mass of moisture what is re- ture-removing for different kinds of moisture
moved. (points on basic line, what are corresponding to tops

of peaks). Every kind of moisture IS characterized ric), obviously, attested to homogeneous water
by its own peak of moisture-removing (in definite structure, which in this case represents only as pelli-
temperature intervals) and their overlay leads to cle moisture. Small intensity (amplitude) and some
non-symmetric peaks on DTG. That is why, to de- plane of peak leads to low rate of moisture-
compose non-symmetric peaks of DTG to Gauss removing. This fact is exactly characterized for
curves allows to identify separate moisture forms. strongly combined moisture. Additionally, maximal
Let’s analyze these peaks of moisture-removing, us- rate of moisture-removing is observed at higher
ing DTG – curves. temperature (135 оС), that also testifies the high-
Peaks of moisture-removing for air dry coal (sam- power connection of contacting phases “water-
ple 1, Figure 2a) has small intensity, “soft” fronts of solid”.
DTG, it is practically symmetric. The last (symmet-

(a) (b) (c)

о 160 180
С 40 135 270 20 100 150 215 280 20 100 130

низькі високі
температури температури

Figure 2. Endothermic curves of water-removing corr. a, b, c – samples 1, 2, 3.

The DTG-peak of non-oxidized moisturizing coal Decomposition of peak on Gauss-components

(sample 2, Figure 2b) significantly differ from pre- gives extremes at 130; 160; 180 оС. Obviously, the
vious – it is more intensive, non-symmetric in the oxidation process of coal has led to increasing of
field of high temperature. moisture pellicle by the way of strongly-combined
Its decomposition on Gauss-components gives and adhesive moisture. Besides that, in this case
two peaks – main with maximum at 100 оС which moisture pellicle is presented by several layers of
obviously corresponds to gravitation and capillary strongly-combined moisture (  – і  -films (Deri-
moisture, and small additional peak in the region agin 1989)) and adhesive “thick” pellicle, that is
> 150 оС what is corresponding to moisture pellicle. stretched on distance to 1000 nm from solid surface
The moisture-removing DTG-peak of oxidized (Deriagin 1989).
moisturizing coal (sample 3, Figure 2b) has more
complexes configuration in the region of high tem-


1. Derivatographic method allows to identify some Bochkov, Y.N. & Zarubin, L.S. 1996. Estimation of effect
kinds of moisture, especially to separate pellicle of mechanic methods foe dewatering small coal. Theory
from other types of moisture. and practices of small coal. Moscow: Nauka: 5-20.
Bejlin, M.I. 1969. Theoretical basis for coal dewatering
2. In the case of hydrophilic (hydrophilized) ma-
process. Moscow. Nedra: 240.
terials, which are characterized by more structural Ivanova, V.P., Kasatov, B.K., Krasavina, T.N. & Rozinova
moisture layers on its surface, this method allows to E.L. 1974. Thermal analysis of minerals and mountain
excrete individual types of moisture pellicle (per- rocks. Leningrad: Nedra: 400.
haps, adhesive and strongly-combined moisture). Derivatogramms, infrared and Mossbauer spectrum of
Further, it is expedient to use derivatographic standard samples of phase state. 1992. St.-Petersburg.
method for investigation influence of various re- Committee of RF on geology and use bowels: 159.
agents on the system “solid-water”. It is actual for Kazanskij, M.F. 1961. Temperature influence on station of
adsorbed capillary moisture in macro pores of dis-
physical and chemical methods for dewatering in-
persed solids. Engineering Physical Journal, 3. V.4: 38-
tensification. 43.
At first, it will take the possibility to detect the Deriagin, B.V., Ovcharenko, F.D. & Churaev, N.V. 1989.
change relation of different kinds of moisture at Water in dispersed systems. Moscow: Chimija: 286.
physical and chemical influence of reagents.
From other side, fixation of the reagent influence
on the system “solid-water” by the help of deriva-
tographic method and interpretation of its results
will assist in developing of the DTA-method.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Organization of checking system over the state

of cross-section of layered working with the use
of informative systems

V. Fomychov , V. Pochepov & L. Fomychova

National Mining University, Dnipropetrovs’k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: Information that is describing the changes in the contour parameters of the working are the ba-
sis in the method of making decisions in information system of a mine control at the estimation of the state
of layered workings. The decreasing of measuring errors and increasing of the quality analysis of the re-
ceived data is achieved due to conducting of measurements with the use of automation means and special al-
gorithm of the working cross-section contour design. At this proposed system of state control over the state
of cross-section has a low cost, simplicity and high reliability in industrial environments.

1 CURRENCY AND ORGANIZATION cation of such informative systems on mines must

OF THE TASK be accompanied by the development and introduc-
tion in their composition, means of controls and
Ensuring in the possibility of the reuse of the lay- analysis of the state of layered workings, since, such
ered workings allows cutting the prime costs of the as mine an effective management operation is im-
coal mining. In the conditions of most mines in possible without the account of affecting geotechni-
Ukraine such task requires the difficult approach to cal factors on technological process.
the workings protection. Complication of this task Based on the above-mentioned description, it is
decision consists of the necessity of the search in necessary to develop the accessible and simultane-
optimum combination of support elements of the ously exact method of determination of the under-
layered working. To expose such combination is ground workings state, at all time of their exploita-
only possible on the basis in the analysis of the tion. This method must conform to the requirements
working moving contour, during its exploitation. of the providing possibility of its integration in
The basic problem of providing such high quality modern information systems of a production con-
analysis is receive of exact measuring information trol. In the same time, the using equipment in this
in the chosen points of real working contour. The method must not be expensive and must answer re-
second most difficult problem is correct determina- quirements on accident prevention for coal mining
tion of the working contour deformation in concern- enterprises.
ing to its initial state. Both these problems are still The developed approach in implementation of
unsolved. measurements must provide the different level of
In most methods used in natural conditions, the automation, which makes it possible to use it in the
change of the layered working cross-section begins wide range of the real conditions. And majority of
to be fixed from a few centimetres. Mainly such the applied equipment must be made on an enter-
measurements are fulfilled in arch and on soil of prise or re-used many times.
working, thus technology of measurements imple-
mentation is made in concerning to the certain cho-
sen point which is immobile. For Ukrainian mines 2 GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE SYSTEM
conditions, to define such point in the real terms of
exploitation in the specific working is not a trivial Structurally the system consists of two isolated
task, and therefore can lead to significant errors in components: set of the measurements stations and
the results. programmatic complex of data analysis. Exchange
Modern development of the management facili- between these components takes place information
ties production, allows creating the difficult infor- as photo received by a digital photo camera with
mative systems, providing a high performance and high resolution of matrix. Photographing of the
safety of labour on various industrial objects. Appli- measuring station is made from beforehand certain

position with the use of the fixed stand, which pro- Reflectors can be assembled stationary on an-
vides small angular error, within the limits of 0.1º. chors-bases or for the case of data hand removal,
Connection of image to specific measuring sta- carried and assembled by a mine survey before the
tion is carried out by the fixation of number of the implementation of photographing of the measuring
measuring station by the light-reflecting paint on station. In addition, the equipment composition
working arch elements. After checking all measur- portable by a mine survey included a reference line,
ing stations in manual mode or with use of the auto- digital photo camera with high resolution, laser
mated control stations, the information is transmit- range-finder and stand with the installation system
ted as a set of files in the image recognition contour of «horizon». For the variant of automatic control
for the receive of coordinates of measurements after the measurements stations all of this equipment
points. is replaced by the stationary automatic module as-
Based on the mine working photo that has been sembled in the district of the measuring station.
received for specific measuring station, massifs with The eventual point of data collection from all of
coordinates of point scatterers positions installed on the measurements stations is a calculable machine,
the ends of measuring bolts are determined. After it, set within the limits of surface production complex
through the special algorithm the current type of of a mine. In the task of this computing machinery
working contour is built, which is saved in the base is included conducting of final analysis of the got
of these measurements. On the basis of the received information. Depending on the level of realization
information, the system depending on the put task, of this method this equipment can work in the inter-
executes prognostication of working section active mode or real-time mode.
changes and analysis of using support efficiency. The specific element of the measuring station
The location of the measurements stations, equipment is a complex of anchor-base and reflec-
number and place of measurements points on each tor. A base is set as an ordinary steel-polymer an-
of the stations, is determined on the basis of pre- chor on the external end of which takes place knot
liminary analysis of the tensely-deformed state of of bayoneting lock. Exactly this knot is used for the
the system “roof supports of working-mining mas- reflector installation. A reflector is a steel bar on
sif” (Bondarenko 2006 & Bondarenko 2010). The one end of which a bayoneting lock takes place, and
basic factors of the determining descriptions of the on other – the light-reflecting element of small di-
measurements stations are the expected sizes and di- ameter witch is used for the receipt of light spot at
rections deformation of working contour during photographing of the measuring station.
conducting of preliminary calculations executable For the implementation of the received data
on the stage of the working planning. measurements analysis the specially developed
The measuring station composition equipment in- software is needed. The general structure of such
cludes anchor-base which is set in accordance with programmatic complex consists of the followings
the chosen assembling scheme. The example of elements: the first module is recognition on the im-
such scheme is resulted on a picture 1. For the age of technological elements of the measuring sta-
working with a circular vault there are 22 possible tion (point reflectors, reference line, mark of the
certain points of anchors setting for reflectors (Bon- measuring station); the second module is a construc-
darenko 2007). tion of current working contour from data of the
measuring station elements recognition; the third
module is an interpolation of change of working
contour on the accessible data base; the fourth mod-
ule is an analysis of applied support efficiency and
selection of its parameters for the improvement of
the working stability indexes.



Assembly of the measuring station elements is re-

duced to setting of anchors-bases in points of the
working contour. These points are chosen in accor-
dance with specifications what were advanced to the
Figure 1. Example of assembling chart of measuring points analysis of the working contour changes on the ba-
for making with a circular vault. sis of the offered method in (Bondarenko 2006 &

Bondarenko 2007). Then on the free ends of these age of this ruler, and also coordinates of reflectors
anchors, with help of the bayoneting support, point light spots in concern to the «dead» centre of image.
reflectors are supported. Such point is chosen by an operator arbitrarily at
Right after setting of anchors bases, is carried out preparation of the system to exploitation and is an
photographing of the measuring station. Thus to one object necessarily present on all of pictures of the
of reflectors is supported a ruler, which in the sub- measurements stations of one mine. By such object,
sequent analysis of pictures will be used for match- for example, there can be a standard ruler, but in
ing the horizon and linear sizes, those were got at this case it is necessary to dispose it in the same po-
measuring. sition in concern to the reflectors of the concrete
During the first photographing of the set measur- measuring station.
ing station a choice and attachment in place of cam-
era position is carried out in relation to the plane an-
chors location. The photo which was received as a
result is accepted as standard and on his basis pri-
mary attachment of initial working section and point
reflectors is carried out.
The subsequent measurements are executed
through the free or clearly specified interval of time.
Basic features during conducting of measurements
are: necessity in plane placing, the location of stan-
dard ruler anchors, and determination of camera ex-
act position in relation to the plane of anchors loca-
tion (this task decides through a laser range-finder).
Then it is possible to execute photographing of ob-
ject from hands or special stand. The second variant Figure 2. General graphic presentation of conducting
is preferable as increase the quality of the received technology of measurements data analysis for the working
image and allows controlling the point of survey in with a circular vault.
space. At photographing the off-site illuminating or
On the second stage, binding of the received re-
flash of camera can be used. In last case measuring
flectors coordinates is carried out with the previous
quality a few higher, because light spots from re-
results of measurements. Every light spot is identi-
flectors will have more clear border, that at subse-
fied as a reflector with a specific number and its
quent treatment of image will allow more precisely
new coordinates are written in the proper vector of
to define their positions in space.
After completion of the measuring station exploi- information. At the same time correction of an en-
tation, in case of stationary installation of point re- tire network of received values respectively to the
flectors, their dismantling is performed in order to initial coordinate massif is conducted that had been
plotted during analysis of template image of meas-
continue their usage at other measuring station. An-
uring station.
chor-base is the unique element of measuring station
Thus, the received data, at first, are written into
that cannot be repeatedly used, as a type of their in-
stallation is not foreseen by possibility of anchors the initial contour of S 0 (see of Figure 2), and sec-
extraction from a mining massif. ondly, through the special algorithm, connected in
the resulting contour of S .
Now there is possibility of retrograde analysis of
4 TREATMENT AND ANALYSIS the cross-section of working contour development,
OF THE RECEIVED DATA taking into account influence on this process of
various mine-technical factors those were operating
The most difficult implementation of the offered in time and space. That is, on the third stage of data
method phase is treatment and analysis of the re- processing is becoming possible to extrapolate the
ceived images for determination of the working conducting of the concrete working within the
cross-section state. framework of measures applied on its guard. In the
On the first stage with help of technologies of the systems control, plotted on the basis of strategies of
image recognition, analysis is performed and trans- the «real time», realization of this stage data proc-
formation of image in the array of data as well, essing will allow to warn accidents that were caused
which contains information of the measuring station by the swift rock collapse in the working cavity
recognized mark, real correlation of standard ruler (Fomychov 2008).
length and number of the picture points, on the im-

The fourth stage of the measurements data proc- 6 CONCLUSIONS
essing is examined and can be used in the informa-
tive systems for the search of optimum indexes of The offered method of cross-section control of the
different type’s combination of support at mainte- layer working allows with low expenses to provide
nance of working in the conditions of the certain high exactness of the measuring of the working con-
mine field. That, the received information for the tour moving and with the use of the specialized
nearby layered working is used as primary indexes mathematical tools conducts the analysis of the got
during the selection of optimum support descrip- data. On the basis of such analysis the construction
tions. For this purpose in management information of technological contour of the management infor-
by a mine include the electronic reference book of mation by a mine is possible of providing the choice
technologies of the working guard. This reference of optimum scheme of working guard.
book contains various variants directed to mine
working maintenance, contours of the cross-section
of which develop by different scenarios. REFERENCES

Bondarenko, V.I., Kovalevs’ka, I.A., Symanovych, G.A.

5 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES & Fomychov V.V. 2006. Computer simulation of the
stress-deformed state of small-layered rock mass
around the stratal of working. Book I. Prelimit stage of
deformation of the “rock-roof supports”. Dnipropet-
It is necessary to take to basic dignities of the of- rovs’k: System technologies: 172.
fered method: at first, simplicity and, as a result, Bondarenko, V.I., Kovalevs’ka I.A., Symanovych G.A. &
high exactness of the moving determination in the Fomychov V.V. 2010. The methodology and results of
chosen points of working contour (at the removal of computer simulation of the stress-strain state of the
measurements exactness is actually determined cor- "layered array-roof supports" of advance working /
relation of maximal geometrical parameters of Mining Magazine. Moscow: The Publishing house “Ore
and Metals”. Special edition: 62-66.
working cross-section and linear resolution of the
Bondarenko, V.I., Kovalevs’ka I.A., Symanovych G.A. &
digital camera matrix); secondly, possibility of Fomychov V.V. 2007. System methodology of forecast
prognostication of the working contour change and stability stratal of working in the layered coal-bearing
search, with according it, optimum parameters of thickness. Materials of International scientific and prac-
support; thirdly, low prime cost of the system, pos- tical conference “School of underground development”.
sibility of the repeated use practically of all its com- Dnipropetrovs’k: Art News: 158-165.
ponent. Fomychov V.V., Pochepov V.M. & Fomychova L.Ya.
Problems of realization: at first, development of 2008. Information model of mine – the features of engi-
neering and the basic criteria of realization. Scientific
algorithm construction of the current working sec-
Journal NMU, 11: 37-40.
tion on the results of measurements; secondly, crea-
tion on the base of the fixed changes of the working
cross-section, the interpolation system of the work-
ing contour implementation in the future.

Geomechanical Processes During Underground Mining – Pivnyak, Bondarenko, Kovalevs’ka & Illiashov (eds)
© 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-66174-4

Evaluating of metal-resin anchor parameter

influence on the support capacity

G. Larionov & N. Larionov

Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Dnipropetrovs'k, Ukraine

ABSTRACT: The paper is devoted to the important scientific problem solution: anchor spacing obtaining
with taking into account the transfer mechanism of “anchor bar-resin-rock” system. The system parameters
influence evaluating on strain – stress state is obtained as a result of two task solving. The modified general
N.E. Zhukovsky task solving is used for shear borehole surface stress distribution obtaining. Then it is used
as boundary condition for space strain – stress state task in anchor vicinity. The way allows gaining anchor
space dependence with taking into account the mine opening depth, pretension value, length and anchor di-
ameter and shear stress intensity.

1 INTRODUCTION rocks (in comparison with rebar material durability)

by means of fixing mix shell (FMS). It is evident
The increasing of bolt support problem efficiency is that loading will be distributed on the bigger area
always actually. The problem of interest is the and fitting conditions for loading transfer to sur-
knowledge of parameters which are needed to rounding will be created. But to use the well-known
change for it. An anchor capacity influence parame- design scheme and to do the design parameter esti-
ter evaluating is needed to answer the question. To
mation FMS must have the threading on external
have possibility to do reinforcement capacity influ- surface. As was found that as usual two-prong bits
ence estimation of design parameters in resin-metal are used to bore hole for anchor in the rock. During
anchor it is necessary the parameters were included the boring are present simultaneously two almost
into designed schemes. The achievement of opti- constant efforts: torque and thrust ones. Thus al-
mum reinforcement capacity is influenced by the most-periodic ribs are appeared on the borehole sur-
following parameters (Canbulat 2008): pretensions face. After bar arrangement and FMS hardening
rebar values; depth of support, length and diameters corresponding surface was formed. Thus, the sur-
of an anchor and boreholes, bolt and borehole pro- face almost-periodic ribs may be taken as a thread
files; the performance of the resin, bar and rock,
and the system “bar-FMS-rock” can be quite repro-
stress rock intensity and anchors space. The design duced the offered M.E. Zhukovsky design scheme.
schemes variety are used in mechanical engineering.
Thus an idea to use one of them for resin – metal
anchor parameters estimation is appeared. 3 SOLVING THE PROBLEM

The contact surface efforts for this scheme may be

2 FORMULATING THE PROBLEM obtained with the solving of generalized M.E.
Zhukovsky task (Figure 1).
As known, to the considerable efforts transfer in The right segment means a rebar body, middle – a
weak durability environment and to reduce the con- FMS one and the left – massive of rocks (Figure 1).
tact surface “rebar – the weak durability material” Contact rib segments mean bar and FMS thread ac-
efforts the intermediate shell with periodical ribs on cordingly. The bar and FMS thread efforts denote
an external and internal surfaces are used. Such de-
by p 0 , p1 ,..., pn , and FMS and rock thread by –
signed schemes have received wide scope of appli-
cation in various branches of manufacture and in a t 0 , t1 ,..., t n . Further as an anchor field we will un-
life. Resin-metal anchors which are wide used for derstand a part of a body which is founded between
opening supporting by the nature are very similar to two ribs.
such construction. So, considerable anchor loadings
are distributed on low level durability surrounding

carried out in borehole depth on distance which
considerably exceeds its diameter.

Figure 1. The loading and design “bar-FMS-rock” system


After updating of the generalized N.E. Zhukovsky Figure 2. To statement of elasticity problem: 1 – rock,
task (Larionov 2011) and using the simple, but 2 – an anchor, 3 – a fixing mix.
complicated transformations, we will obtain expres-
sion for efforts tk and pk : Normal surface stresses p 0 is supposed to con-
  1
  k   1  sider as constant and equal to certain depth moun-
13Q   ( k 1 ) 2
e  2 
e ; tain pressure. Shear stress as show last researches
tk  
1   2 1   2  2   (Dey, Aziz & Indraratna 2001) essentially changes
8sh sh  sh 2 sh 1 
2 2  2  along an anchor length. Pressure distribution in an-
chor vicinity is described with the basic equations of
1Q the elasticity theory, which in axe symmetric case
pk  
1   2   2 look like (Larionov 2011)
2 sh sh 1
2 2
(1)  U   1  W 
  1     2U  2   (    )  ( rU )   0;
 1 ( k 1 )1  2  k  2   2   r   r  r r z 
  sh e  sh e (2)
2 2   tk .  1  W 
   2W  (    )  ( rU )   0 ,
z  r r z 
where U , W – radial and axial components of de-
1  2  3  13  4ch1ch 2  2ch1  ch 2  ; flection vector;  ,   Lama’s coefficient; r , z –
cylindrical coordinates.
1  2  3      3  
ch1  1   1  1 2   1 2 ; 2 1  1 2 2
4  4  4 2     Laplas operator.
2 2 2
r r r r  z 2
1  2  3    2  3  
ch 2  1   1  1   1 2 . Having made replacement of variables p  r / r0 ,
4  4  4
  z / r0 , we obtain the equations (2) in Papkovi-
To define the stress-strain state in a anchor vicin- cha-Nejber form:
ity the known approach (Larionov 2011) to the solv-   1 
ing of similar problems is used (Figure 2). U  41   Br   Br  Bz  B0  ,
 
The facts of anchor arrangement closely to stop face   r0 
give a sure in elasticity methods using and the   1 
stress-strain state defining in anchor vicinity. It W  41   B z   Br  B z  B0  ,
 
  r0 
gives the grounds to believe that rocks at a face had
not time to receive plastic deformations and are in where B0 – harmonious scalar; Br , B z  harmo-
an elastic condition. Suppose that environment is nious vector components which satisfy to the Laplas
homogeneous and isotropic, and anchor fastening is equations:

Besides, harmonious functions B0  ,  , depth. Anchor borehole surface shear stresses will
Br  ,  , B z  ,  should be chosen so that to sat- be defined as square-law function of axial co-
ordinate (Larionov 2011):
isfy to boundary conditions:
  1
     a0  a1  a 2 2 ;
 p ,   b;
 r  1   0
 0 ,   b;  l  0  1 ;  l  L   2 ,
, (3)
  0 (  ),   b;
 rz 
 1  where  1 ,  2  shear stresses at the beginning and
 0,   b,
the end of a FMS anchor section (  1   2 ). Then
where  r ,  rz  radial and shear stresses tensor general solution decision will look like:
components; b  l / r0  relative length of FMS sec-
tion; p 0  H  hydrostatic rock pressure in H

2    1  
r     3  2 K 0 (  )   41       K1(  )  
 0     

  1 
  C1 p0 sin  b   C2 a 2  cos    C2 a1   sin     K 0    K1  