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Why Intergroup Conflict Occurs

In this section, we examine four factors that contribute to group conflict: work
interdependence, differences in goals, differences in perceptions, and the increased demand
for specialists.

Pada bagian ini, kita akan memeriksa 4 fakor yang menyebabkan terjadinya konflik kelompok : keadaan
kerja yang saling ketergantungan (work interdependence), perbedaan tujuan (differences in goals),
perbedaan presepsi (differences in perceptions), dan meningkatnya permintaan untuk specialists.

Work Interdependence
Work interdependence occurs when two or more organizational groups depend on one another
to complete their tasks. Conflict potential in such situations is high. Three distinct
types of interdependence among groups have been identified.

Work interdependence terjadi ketika dua atau lebih organizational group bergantung satu sama lain
dalam menyelesaikan tugasnya. Potensi konflik dalam situasi seperti itu akan tinggi. Tiga tipe berbeda
dari interdependence diantara grup yang telah di identifikasi, adalah :

Pooled interdependence requires no interaction among groups because each group, in effect,
performs separately. However, the pooled performances of all the groups determine how
successful the organization is.

Pooled interdepende menghendaki tidak adanya interaksi diantara group2 karena masing2 group
bekerja secara terpisah. Bagaimana pun juga, pooled performance dari seluruh group menentukan
seberapa sukses organisasi tsb.

Sequential interdependence requires one group to complete its task before another group
can complete its task. Tasks are performed in a sequential fashion.

Sequential interdependence memaksa satu group untuk menyelesaikan tugasnya sebelum another
group dapat menyelesaikan tugas tsb. Tugas yang dikerjakan dalam sequential fashion

Reciprocal interdependence requires each group’s output to serve as input to other groups
in the organization.

Reciprocal interdependence memaksa masing masing output group menjadi input untuk other group
dalam organisasi.

Differences in Goals
As the subunits of organization become specialized, they often develop dissimilar goals. A
goal of a production unit may include low production costs and few defective products.
A goal of the research and development unit may be innovative ideas that can be converted
into commercially successful new products. These different goals can lead to different expectations
among the members of each unit: Production engineers may expect close supervision,
while research scientists may expect a great deal of participation in decision making. Because
of the different goals, conflict can result when these two groups interact.

Ketika subunit2 dari satu organisasi telah tersepesialisasi, mereka seringkali mengembangkan dissimilar
goal. Goal of production unit mungkin termasuk menciptakan biaya produksi yang rendah dan sedikit
produk yang cacat. Goal of research and development unit mungkin menciptakan ide inovasi yang dapat
menjadikan new product sukses secara komersial. Production engineers mungkin berharap mengakhiri
supervision, sementara research scientists mungkin berharap partisipasi yang besar dalam urusan
decision making. Karena perbedaan tujuan ini, konflik dapat dihasilkan ketika dua group ini berinteraksi.

Limited Resources
When limited resources must be allocated, mutual dependencies increase, and any differences
in group goals become more apparent. If money, space, labor, and materials were
unlimited, each group could pursue (at least to a relative degree) its own goals. But resources
must be allocated and shared. Groups seek to lower pressure on themselves by
gaining control over critical resource supplies, thus reducing the uncertainty of gaining
these supplies.

Ketika limited resources harus dialokasikan, terjadi peningkatan mutual dependencies, dan semua
perbedaan dalam group goal menjadi lebih jelas terlihat. Jika money, space, labor, and materials
menjadi unlimited, masing2 group mengejar goal mereka sendiri.

Reward Structures
Intergroup conflict is more likely to occur when the reward system is related to individual group
performance rather than to overall organizational performance. This potential for conflict escalates even further
when one group has primary responsibility for distributing rewards.
The group will tend to show strong partiality toward its own members in allocating
favorable outcomes and strong partiality toward the out group in distributing negative
outcomes

intergroup conflict kemungkinan besar terjadi ketika reward system berkaitan dengan individual group
performance dibandingkan dengan overall organizational performance. Hal ini berpotensi meningkatka
konflik bahkan selanjutnya ketika satu group memiliki responsibility untuk mendistribusikan rewards.
Group tsb akan cenderung memiliki sikap memihak yang kuat terhadap anggota groupnya dalam proses
alokasi outcomes yang menguntungkan dan sikap memihak yang kuat terhadap group luar dalam
pendistribusian negative outcomes.

Differences in Perceptions
Differences in goals can be accompanied by differing perceptions of reality; disagreements
over what constitutes reality can lead to conflict. Many factors cause groups in organizations to form differing
perceptions of reality. 20 Major factors include different goals, different time horizons, status incongruency,
and inaccurate perceptions.

Differences in goals dapat diserati dengan differences preception of reality, ketidaksetujuan atas apa
yang komponen reality dapat menyebabkan koflik. Banyak factor yang menyebabkan group dalam
organisasi membentuk presepsi yang berbeda dari realita. Faktor2 utama itu termasuk different goal,
different time horizons, status incongruency, dan inaccurate perceptions.

Different Goals
Differences in group goals are an obvious contributor to differing perceptions.

Different Time Horizons


Time perspectives influence how a group perceives reality. Deadlines influence the priorities
and importance that groups assign to their various activities.
The CEOs of Google or Facebook might focus on one- and five year
time spans, while middle managers at those organizations might concentrate on much
shorter spans.
With such (dengan demikian) differences in time horizons, problems and issues deemed critical by one group may
be dismissed (dianggap) as unimportant by another, setting the stage for conflict.
Time perspective mempengaruhi bagaiman cara group mempersepsikan realita. Deadline mempengaruhi prioritas
dan kepentingan yang group nilai dari berbagai aktivitas yang mereka kerjakan.
Dengan demikian difference dalam time horizon, problem dan issues dinilai sangat penting oleh satu group yang
mungkin dianggap sebgai hal yang tidak penting oleh yang lain, menyebabkan terbentuk satge untuk terjadinya
konflik.

Status Incongruency
Usually, many different status standards, rather than an absolute one, are found in an organization.
The result is many status hierarchies. Conflicts concerning the relative status of
different groups are common and influence perceptions.

Inaccurate Perceptions
Inaccurate perceptions often cause one group to develop stereotypes about other groups.
While the differences between groups may actually be small, each group tends to exaggerate
them. Thus, you hear that “all women executives are aggressive” or “all bank officers behave
alike.” When differences between the groups are emphasized, stereotypes are reinforced,
relations deteriorate, and conflict develops.
Inaccurate perception seringkali meyebabkan satu group mengembangkan stereotype mengenai group lain.
Sementara difference anatar group mungkin sebenarnya sedikit, masing2 group cenderung mebesar2kan perbedaan
tsb. Ketika perbedaan anatar group ditekan, stereotype semakin diperkuat, hubungan semakin memburuk, dan koflik
muncul.

Increased Demand for Specialists


Conflicts between staff specialists and line generalists are probably the most common intergroup
conflict. Line and staff persons simply view one another and their roles in the organization
from different perspectives.

Consequences of Dysfunctional Intergroup Conflict


Researchers have spent more than four decades researching and analyzing how dysfunctional
intergroup conflict affects those who experience it. They have found that groups
placed in a conflict situation tend to react with fairly predictable changes within groups
and between groups as a result of dysfunctional intergroup conflict.

Para peneliti telah menghabiskan lebih dari 4 dekade meneliti dan menganalisis bagaimana
disfungsional intergroup conflict mempengaruhi mereka yang mengalami konflik tersebut.
Telah ditemukan bahwa group yang ditempatkan dalam sistuasi conflict cenderung bereaksi dengan
perubahan yang hampir dapat diramalkan dalam group dan antar group sebagai hasil dari disfunsional
intergroup conflict.

Changes within Groups


Many changes are likely to occur within groups involved in intergroup conflict. Unfortunately,
these changes generally result in either continuance or escalation of the conflict.
Banyak perubahan yang kemungkinan besar terjadi dalam group akibat intergroup conflict. Sayangnya, perubahan
ini umunya hasil dari konflik baik yang lanjutan atau peningkatan.

Increased Group Cohesiveness


Competition, conflict, and external threat usually result in group members putting aside
individual differences and closing ranks. Members become more loyal to the group, and
group membership becomes more attractive.
Kompetisi, konflik, dan ancaman dari luar biasanya hasil dari group members yang mengesampingkan individual
difference dan menutup rank. Anggota akan semakin loyal terhadap group, dan group membership menjadi lebih
menarik.

Rise in Autocratic Leadership


In extreme conflict situations, when threats are perceived, democratic methods of leadership
are likely to become less popular; members want strong leadership. Thus, leaders are likely
to become more autocratic. In a National Basketball Association strike, the union head has
tremendous negotiating authority from the players to do what he believes is best for them.
Dalam situasi konflik yang extrim, ketika acnaman telah dipersepsikan, demoktatic method of ledearship
kemungkinan besar menjadi kurang popular, anggota ingin strong leadership.

Focus on Activity
When a group is in conflict, its members usually emphasize doing what the group does and
doing it very well. The group becomes more task oriented. Tolerance for members who
“goof off ” is low, and there’s less concern for individual member satisfaction. Emphasis is
on accomplishing the group’s task and defeating the “enemy” (the other group in conflict).
Ketika satu group dalam konflik, anggotanya bisanya menekankan lakukan apa yang group lakukan dan
melakukannya dengan snagat baik. Group akan menjadi lebih task oriented. Toleransi untuk anggota yang bersalah
rendah, dan kurangnya perhatian untuk kepuasan anggota secara individunya.

Emphasis on Loyalty
Conformity to group norms tends to become more important in conflict situations. Group
goals take precedence over individual satisfaction, as members are expected to demonstrate
their complete loyalty. In major conflict situations, interaction with members of “the
other group” may be prohibited.

Kecocokan norma group cenderung menjadi lebh penting dalam conflict situation. Group goals
mengambil posisi yang lebih diutamakan atas indivisual satisfaction, karena anggota diharapkan
menunjukan loyalitas sepenunhya.

Changes between Groups


During conflicts, certain changes occur between the groups involved.
Distorted Perceptions
During conflicts, the perceptions of each group’s members become distorted. Group members
develop stronger opinions of the importance of their units. Each group sees itself as
superior in performance to the other and as more important to the survival of the organization
than other groups.
Selama konflik, persepsi dari masing2 group member menjadi berubah. Group member mengebangkan
opini yang lebih kuat mengenai kepentingan unitnya. Masing2 group melihat dirinya sebagai superior
dalam kinerja dari yang lain dan lebih mementingkan kelangsungan hidup organisasi dari pada group yg
lain.

Negative Stereotyping
As conflict increases and perceptions become more distorted, all of the negative stereotypes
that may have ever existed are reinforced.

Decreased Communication
Communication between the groups in conflict usually breaks down. This can be extremely
dysfunctional, especially where sequential interdependence or reciprocal interdependence
relationships exist. The decision-making process can be disrupted, and customers or others
the organization serves can be affected

komunikasi antar group selama terjadinya konflik akan putus. Hal ini dapat menjadi extremely
dysfunctional, khusunya dimana adanya sequential interdependence or reciprocal interdependence
relationships. Decision making process akan terganggu, dan pelayanan terhadap konsumen atau organisasi yang lain
akan terpengaruh.