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Experiment No.

(5)
Losses in Pipe Systems and Fittings

5.1 Introduction
When water flows through a pipe system there are resistances as a result of changes
in direction, valves and fittings and pipe friction. The flow resistances are directly
dependent on the geometry of the pipe elements and the number and type of fittings. In
addition, the flow velocity plays a key role in the occurrence of pressure losses.
One of the most common problems in fluid mechanics is the estimation of pressure
loss. This apparatus enables pressure loss measurements to be made on several small-bore
pipe circuit components, typical of those found in central heating installations.

5.2 Objectives
The following specific topics can be investigated on this experimental:
1. Influence of pipe diameter, flow velocity, flow rate change.
2. Losses from pipe components such as angles, bends and T-pieces.
3. Losses due to changes of cross section and shut-off fittings of various types.
4. Determination of pump characteristics, system characteristics and the operating
point.

5.3 Description of Measuring Points and Measuring Bodies

The components in each of the circuits are as shown in Figs. (5.1), (5.2) and (5.3):

Fig. (5.1): Rotameter


Fig. (5.2): Description of measuring points and measuring bodies

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Fig. (5.3): Pipe system

2.5 Results and Calculations


The head loss in pipe is:
𝑓 𝐿𝑉 2
ℎ𝑙 = (5.1)
2𝑔𝑑
Where, 𝛾 = 𝜌𝑔, substituting in Eq. (2.1),
𝑓 𝐿𝑉 2 𝜌
𝑃𝑣 = 𝛾ℎ𝑙 = (5.2)
2𝑑
Where: 𝑃𝑣 = the pressure losses in pipe.
𝛾 = the specific weight of the flow.
ℎ𝑙 = head loss in the pipe.
𝑓 = the coefficient of friction.
L = the length of the piper.
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V = the flow velocity in the pipe.
𝜌 = the density of the flow.
D = the diameter of the pipe.
In view of the small different in flow velocity between V 1 and V2, a constant
pipe coefficient of friction can be assumed 𝑓 = 0.037. The flow velocity V is
calculated from the volumetric flow 𝑉̇ and the pipe cross-section
4 𝑉̇
𝑉= (5.3)
π𝑑 2
The displays on the manometer and the rotameter are noted in tables.
Table (5.1): Circuit
V2 V7 V8 V11
Open x x x
Close

2.5.1 Influence of Different Pipe Diameters and Flow Velocities on Pipe Losses
Table (5.2): Measured results for pipe section 10 and pipe section 4
Pipe section 10: Copper pipe 18 × 1, 𝑑𝑖 = 16 𝑚𝑚, 𝐿 = 1000 𝑚𝑚
Volumetric flow 𝑉̇ in 𝑚3 /ℎ ℎ4 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 ℎ5 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 Head Loss ℎ𝐿 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚

Pipe section 4: Copper pipe 28 × 1, 𝑑𝑖 = 26 𝑚𝑚, 𝐿 = 1000 𝑚𝑚

Volumetric flow 𝑉̇ in 𝑚3 /ℎ ℎ10 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 ℎ11 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 Head Loss ℎ𝐿 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚

The measured head loss can be plotted against the flow rate. This illustrates the
quadratic dependency of the flow and thus of the flow velocity.
2.5.2 Calculation of Coefficients of Friction for Pipe Elbows
The displays on the manometer and the rotameter are noted in tables.
Table (5.3): Measured results for pipe section 1 and pipe section 5
Pipe section 1: Cu angle 900 , 𝑑𝑖 = 26 𝑚𝑚
Volumetric flow 𝑉̇ in
ℎ1 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 ℎ2 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 Head Loss ℎ𝐿 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚
𝑚3 /ℎ

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Pipe section 5: Gunmetal T bend, 𝑑𝑖 = 16 𝑚𝑚
Volumetric flow 𝑉̇ in ℎ5 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 ℎ6 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 Head Loss ℎ𝐿 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚
𝑚3 /ℎ

2.5.3 Regulation and Shut-off Fitting


The displays on the manometer and the rotameter are noted in tables.
Table (5.4): Measured results for pipe section 7 and pipe section 8
Pipe section 7: Thermostatic valve 1/2′′
Volumetric flow 𝑉̇ in
ℎ7 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 ℎ8 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 Head Loss ℎ𝐿 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚
𝑚3 /ℎ

Pipe section 8: Shut-off gate valve 1/2′′


Volumetric flow 𝑉̇ in ℎ8 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 ℎ9 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 Head Loss ℎ𝐿 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚
𝑚3 /ℎ

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