You are on page 1of 36

PUMPING OF MOLTEN SULPHUR

PRESENTER
TOM STILES P. ENG

Calgary Pump Symposium 2015 1


• Presenter
Presenter Name: Bio: Mechanical Engineer
Tom Stiles 45 Years of Pumping Experience
35 Years of Sulphur Pumping Experience
Involved in Over 300 Successful
Installations in Canada, USA, Chile, China,
India, Malaysia, Mexico, and the Middle East.

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 2


SULPHUR AS A SOLID

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 3


SULPHUR AS A
LIQUID

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 4


MOLTEN SULPHUR TRANSPORT

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 5


SULPHUR ITSELF
Solid Under Normal Atmospheric Conditions
Colour – Lemon Yellow
---------------------------------------------------------------
Melts At Approx. 118 C
Colour – Red, Orange, Yellow Combination
Good Lubricating Liquid – Non Corrosive, Non Abrasive
Viscosity 7 – 12 CPS, S.G 1.8

Caramelizes At Approx. 156 C


Thus, We Must Control The Temperature Between 118 and 156 C.

Impurities can raise the Caramelizing Temperature as High as 177 C.


Customer Must Specify Based on Actual Experience.

Very Important Property: Sulphur Is a Very Poor Conductor of Heat.

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 6


CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 7
CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 8
• WHERE MOLTEN SULPHUR PUMPS ARE USED

• Oil Refineries – Stack Gas Emissions

• Mining – Sulfide Mineral Ores

• Sour Natural Gas and Oil

• Sulfur Re-Melt Piles

• Truck or Rail Car Loading and Unloading

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 9


• TYPES OF PUMPS USED
1) CENTRIFUGAL

VERTICAL

VERTICAL CANTILEVER
SHAFT
VERTICAL TURBINE

HORIZONTAL

API 610, ANSI, OR SUMP PUMP BASED

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 10


• TYPES OF PUMPS USED CONTINUED

2) POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

ROTARY GEAR OR LOBE

USUALLY SOLD ON AN EXPENDABLE BASIS

SOMETIMES SUBMERGED

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 11


HORIZONTAL CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 12


VERTICAL
CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 13


ROTARY POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 14


API 610 VERSUS ASME B73.1 & .2

ANSI FOR PRESSURES UP TO 150 PSIG


FASTER DELIVERY AND ABOUT ¼ PRICE OF API
MORE MANUFACTURERS WITH VAST EXPERIENCE

API FOR PRESSURES ABOVE 150 PSI

API WHERE SPECIFIED

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 15


METHODS OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL / HEATING

JACKETING OR HEAT TRACING

HEATING MEDIUMS FOR JACKETING

STEAM – BY FAR THE MOST COMMON

GLYCOL

HOT OIL

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 16


VERTICAL MOLTEN SULPHUR PUMPS
NON API 610 VERSIONS

SIMILARITIES:

- JACKETED COLUMNS AND DISCHARGE PIPES


- (JACKETING IS THE KEY TO TEMPERATURE
CONTROL)

- USUALLY USE 2” OR 2.5” DIA. SHAFT DESIGN

- USUALLY DRY RUNNING PACKED STUFFING BOX

- VERY SIMILAR EXTERNAL APPEARANCE

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 17


OTHER COMMON FEATURES:

ASME Section Vlll Jacketing Fully Hydrotested

CRN Numbers for Projects in Canada

Oversized Discharge Pipe to Keep Velocities Below


10 feet/sec.

Heavy Duty Thrust Bearings Now Supplied As


Standard

Usually Packed Stuffing Box (With No Lubrication),


Rarely Mechanical Seals – Either Double Mechanical
Seals with Flush Plan 53, or Gas Seals with Gas
Panel

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 18


VERTICAL MOLTEN SULPHUR PUMPS
NON API 610 VERSIONS

DIFFERENCES:
- PLACEMENT OF JACKETING
- HOW SLEEVE BEARINGS ARE HELD IN PLACE
- MATERIALS OF SLEEVE BEARINGS – CARBON,
NIRESIST, GRAPHALLOY
- HOW SLEEVE BEARINGS ARE LUBRICATED
- HOW COLUMNS ARE DRAINED
- MATERIAL OF DRY RUNNING PACKING

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 19


CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 20
Conventional Shaft Cantilever Shaft
Bearing Type Vertical Jacketed
Vertical Jacketed Pump
Pump

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 21


• MORE FACTS ABOUT VERTICAL MOLTEN SULPHUR
PUMPS
• Most Common 2” and 2.5” Dia. Shaft Designs

• Using 2” dia. Shaft Design As An Example


• In order to stay below first critical speed, can have a max.
bearing span of 63” at a speed of 1800 RPM
• One or Two bearing span pumps are most reliable and
• provide the longest life between overhauls – Up to 10 years.
• Three bearing span pumps average 3 to 5 years between
overhauls.
• Four bearing span pumps give approx. 2 years from factory, less
than 1.5 years when repaired in the field.
• Avoid long pumps!
• For continuous operation, some manufacturers use one bearing
span of 75” to 90” and operate between first and second critical
speed.
• Avoid this!

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 22


SPEED
Usually 1750 RPM on 60 Cycle Power,
1450 RPM on 50 Cycle Power
Seldom V-belt Driven to Intermediate Speed
VFD’s Becoming More Common
Sometimes 2900 RPM on 50 Cycle Power – Poorer But
Not Bad!
Sometimes 3500 RPM on 60 Cycle Power – Poorer
Still!
Occasionally 1150 RPM (950 RPM on 50 Cycle Power)
– Wonderful!

We Recommend the Lowest Speed Practical to


Handle the Application!

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 23


• The Most Common Problem
• Too Hot, Not Too Cold

• Temperature Must be Maintained at 138 C


• If Using Steam, Use 35 PSIG Steam

• Up to 15 Degrees of Heat are Generated By the Sleeve


Bearings of a Vertical Molten Sulphur Pump.

• Symptoms of Too Hot


• Pump Runs, Motor Overloads and Cuts Out, Pump Left
for a Few Minutes, Then Started Again. Cycle Repeats
Over and Over.

• Also Watch For Too Little Flow Through Pump. Often


Minimum Flow Bypass is Used.

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 24


• 4) Velocity Freezing

• When Drawing Down Near Liquid Level

• With Sulphur Temperatures Below 127 C

• In Suction Strainers

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 25


• Contaminated Sulphur
• (i) Water
• From Steam or Groundwater
• Do not Introduce Water into the System
• Forms Sulphuric or Sulphurous Acid
• Use 316 SS or Higher Alloy

• (ii) Solids
• Where From? - Base Pad Removal
• - Spill Clean Up
• - Autoclaves
• Use Cantilever Shaft Verticals and
• Horizontals with Hard Metal Wet Ends

• (iii) Carsul
• Found Occasionally in Sulphur
• Gummy Globular Carbon Material
• Which Hardens When Exposed To Air
• Keep Evenly Distributed Sometimes
• By a Mixer

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 26


• HORIZONTAL MOLTEN SULPHUR PUMPS

• TYPES
• ANSI Pumps with jacketed casings, seal housings, and
seal glands
• Limited in pressure capability

• Fully Jacketed API 610 Pumps


• Very Expensive and Long Delivery

• Other Fully Jacketed Special Designs


• Very Expensive and Long Delivery

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 27


• HORIZONTAL MOLTEN SULPHUR PUMPS
Continued

• The “Achilles Heel” of Horizontal Molten Sulphur Pumps.

• What is it?

THE MECHANICAL SEAL!

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 28


CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 29
• THE SECRET TO LONG MECHANICAL SEAL LIFE
• A Different or Better Seal?
• A Seal Flush?
• A Steam Quench?
• A Magdrive?
• No, Then What Is The Secret?
• Eliminate What?
• ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

• UPSETS
• Deadheading
• Running Dry
• Lack of Temperature Control
• Overall or Localized Pressure Surges or Hydraulic
Shock Due to Control Valves, etc.

• THE MOST COMMON UPSET OF ALL

• STARTING AND STOPPING THE PUMP

• Eliminate It if At All Possible!

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 30


CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 31
CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 32
CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 33
CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 34
CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 35
THE END

CALGARY PUMP SYMPOSIUM 2015 36