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Global Positioning System
Artist's conception of GPS Block II-F satellite in orbit
Civilian GPS receiver ("GPS navigation device") in a marine application.
Automotive navigation system in a taxicab.
Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver. GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. It was established in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems.
GPS receivers are now integrated in many mobile phones.
GPS consists of three parts: the space segment, the control segment, and the user segment. The U.S. Air Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and control segments. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space, which each GPS receiver uses to calculate its three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus the current time. The space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit and also includes the boosters required to launch them into orbit. Ground monitor station used from 1984 to 2007, The control segment is composed of a master control station, an on display at the Air Force Space & Missile Museum alternate master control station, and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and monitor stations. The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U.S. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commercial, and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service (see GPS navigation devices).
While originally a military project, GPS is considered a dual-use technology, meaning it has significant military and civilian applications. GPS has become a widely used and a useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance. GPS's accurate timing facilitates everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids. Farmers, surveyors, geologists and countless others perform their work more efficiently, safely, economically, and accurately.
Global Positioning System
Many civilian applications use one or more of GPS's three basic components: absolute location, relative movement, and time transfer. • Surveying: Surveyors use absolute locations to make maps and determine property boundaries • Map-making: Both civilian and military cartographers use GPS extensively. • Navigation: Navigators value digitally precise velocity and orientation measurements. • Cellular telephony: Clock synchronization enables time transfer, which is critical for synchronizing its spreading codes with other base stations to facilitate inter-cell handoff and support hybrid GPS/cellular position detection for mobile emergency calls and other applications. The first handsets with integrated GPS launched in the late 1990s. The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated the feature in 2002 so emergency services could locate 911 callers. Third-party software developers later gained access to GPS APIs from Nextel upon launch, followed by Sprint in 2006, and Verizon soon thereafter. • Tectonics: GPS enables direct fault motion measurement in earthquakes.
This antenna is mounted on the roof of a hut containing a scientific experiment needing precise timing.
• Disaster relief/emergency services: Depend upon GPS for location and timing capabilities • GPS tours: Location determines which content to display; for instance, information about an approaching point of interest is displayed. • Geofencing: Vehicle tracking systems, person tracking systems, and pet tracking systems use GPS to locate a vehicle, person or pet. These devices attach to the vehicle, person, or the pet collar. The application provides 24/7 tracking and mobile or Internet updates should the trackee leave a designated area. • Recreation: For example, geocaching, geodashing, GPS drawing and waymarking • GPS Aircraft Tracking • Geotagging: Applying location coordinates to digital objects such as photographs and other documents for purposes such as creating map overlays. Restrictions on civilian use The U.S. Government controls the export of some civilian receivers. All GPS receivers capable of functioning above 18 kilometers (11 mi) altitude and 515 metres per second (1001 kn) are classified as munitions (weapons) for which U.S. State Department export licenses are required. These limits attempt to prevent use of a receiver in a ballistic missile. They would not prevent use in a cruise missile since their altitudes and speeds are similar to those of ordinary aircraft. This rule applies even to otherwise purely civilian units that only receive the L1 frequency and the C/A code and cannot correct for SA, etc. Disabling operation above these limits exempts the receiver from classification as a munition. Vendor interpretations differ. The rule targets operation given the combination of altitude and speed, while some receivers stop operating even when stationary. This has caused problems with some amateur radio balloon launches, which regularly reach 30 kilometers (19 mi).
    • Target tracking: Various military weapons systems use GPS to track potential ground and air targets before flagging them as hostile. In 1967. • Missile and projectile guidance: GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including ICBMs. a dosimeter. They realized that since they knew their exact location on the globe. because of the Doppler effect. development. almost none of those were seen as justification for the billions of dollars it would cost in research. a technology that GPS relies upon. Navy developed the Timation satellite that proved the ability to place accurate clocks in space. scientists led by Dr. The nuclear triad consisted of the US Navy's submarine-launched ballistic . was first successfully tested in 1960.1 in) howitzers. limitations of these systems drove the need for a more universal navigation solution with greater accuracy. such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator developed in the early 1940s.  History The design of GPS is based partly on similar ground-based radio navigation systems. In the 1970s. In the US armed forces.Global Positioning System 4 Military As of 2009. even in the dark or in unfamiliar territory. While there were wide needs for accurate navigation in military and civilian sectors. based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations. However. and used during World War II. and lower as it continued away from them. the ground-based Omega Navigation System. Additional inspiration for GPS came when the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite. the U. and an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensor (W-sensor). gun camera video from AH-1 Cobras in Iraq show GPS co-ordinates that can be looked up in Google Earth). and operation for a complex constellation of navigation satellites. the frequency of the signal being transmitted by Sputnik was higher as the satellite approached.000 g or about 118 km/s2 have been developed for use in 155 millimeters (6. an X-ray sensor. use GPS to find targets (for example. Embedded GPS receivers able to withstand accelerations of 12. the nuclear threat to the very existence of the United States was the one need that did justify this cost in the view of the US Congress. To achieve accuracy requirements. particularly in air-to-ground roles. Kershner were monitoring Sputnik's radio transmissions. Sputnik in 1957. Transit. These weapon systems pass target coordinates to precision-guided munitions to allow them to engage targets accurately. • Search and Rescue: Downed pilots can be located faster if their position is known. military applications of GPS include: • Navigation: GPS allows soldiers to find objectives. deployment. they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit by measuring the Doppler distortion (see Transit (satellite)).S. • GPS satellites carry a set of nuclear detonation detectors consisting of an optical sensor (Y-sensor). A team of U.S. This deterrent effect is why GPS was funded. and to coordinate troop and supply movement. Richard B. The first satellite navigation system. used by the United States Navy. Artillery projectiles. They discovered that. However during the Cold War arms race. commanders use the Commanders Digital Assistant and lower ranks use the Soldier Digital Assistant. It used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour. cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. • Reconnaissance: Patrol movement can be managed more closely. became the first worldwide radio navigation system. In 1956 Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit in artificial satellites. GPS uses principles of general relativity to correct the satellites' atomic clocks. which form a major portion of the United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System. Military aircraft.
 After Korean Air Lines Flight 007. SA). 5 Timeline and modernization Summary of satellites Block Launch Period Satellite launches Suc." Later that year. The first satellite was launched in 1989. In 1960. improving the precision of civilian GPS from 300 meters (about 1000 feet) to 20 meters (about 65 feet). Precise navigation would enable US submarines to get an accurate fix of their positions prior to launching their SLBMs. the DNSS program was named Navstar. Over the Labor Day weekend in 1973. which was later shortened simply to GPS. Initially. Considered vital to the nuclear deterrence posture. first launched in 1967. The U.Global Positioning System missiles (SLBMs) along with the US Air Force's strategic bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). The Navy and Air Force were developing their own technologies in parallel to solve what was essentially the same problem. and with the third one in 1974 carrying the first atomic clock put into orbit. With these parallel developments out of the 1960s. military by then had the ability to deny GPS service to potential adversaries on a regional basis. once it was sufficiently developed. there was a proposal to use mobile launch platforms so the need to fix the launch position had similarity to the SLBM situation. the highest quality signal was reserved for military use. was shot down in 1983 after straying into the USSR's prohibited airspace." That same year the concept was pursued as Project 621B.ned aration 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Currently in orbit and healthy I II IIA IIR 1978–1985 10 1989–1990 9 1990–1997 19 1997–2004 12 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 of the 19 launched 12 of the 13 launched 7 of the 8 launched IIR-M 2005–2009 8 . as a common good. President Bill Clinton ordering Selective Availability turned off at midnight May 1. A follow-on study called Project 57 was worked in 1963 and it was "in this study that the GPS concept was born. The Navy Research Laboratory continued advancements with their Timation (Time Navigation) satellites. Timation and SECOR in a multi-service program. This more complete name was Navstar-GPS. 2000. This changed with U. To increase the survivability of ICBMs. a meeting of about 12 military officers at the Pentagon discussed the creation of a Defense Navigation Satellite System (DNSS).Failcess ure In Planprep. accurate determination of the SLBM launch position was a force multiplier. and the 24th satellite was launched in 1994. The US Air Force with two-thirds of the nuclear triad also had requirements for a more accurate and reliable navigation system. With the individual satellites being associated with the name Navstar (as with the predecessors Transit and Timation).S. Transit. Updates from the Navy Transit system were too slow for the high speeds that the Air Force operated at. and the signal available for civilian use was intentionally degraded ("Selective Availability". in the vicinity of Sakhalin and Moneron Islands.S. a more fully encompassing name was used to identify the constellation of Navstar satellites. President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making GPS freely available for civilian use. the Air Force proposed a radio-navigation system called MOSAIC (Mobile System for Accurate ICBM Control) that was essentially a 3-D LORAN. It was at this meeting that "the real synthesis that became GPS was created. which had "many of the attributes that you now see in GPS" and promised increased accuracy for Air Force bombers as well as ICBMs. carrying 269 people. it was realized that a superior system could be developed by synthesizing the best technologies from 621B.
• In 1998. Congress authorized the effort. • Full Operational Capability was declared by NAVSTAR in April 1995. • In 2004. 2000 "Selective Availability" was discontinued as a result of the 1996 executive order. Government Accountability Office issued a report warning that some GPS satellites could fail as soon as 2010. • On May 19.Global Positioning System 6 IIF IIIA IIIB IIIC Total 2010–2011 1 2014–? 0 0 0 59 0 0 0 0 2 11 0 0 0 11 0 12 8 16 36 1 of the 1 launched 0 0 0 30 (Last update: 24 May 2010) PRN 01 from Block IIR-M is unhealthy PRN 25 from Block IIA is unhealthy PRN 32 from Block IIA is unhealthy  For a more complete list. using ground-based pseudo-satellites. the first modern Block-II satellite was launched. President George W. the first experimental Block-I GPS satellite was launched. and became operational on December 10. President Ronald Reagan announced that GPS would be made available for civilian uses once it was completed. the 2nd Space Wing. U. 2009. S. referring to it as GPS III. Bush updated the national policy and replaced the executive board with the National Executive Committee for Space-Based Positioning. U. was de-activated and replaced by the 50th Space Wing. GPS achieved initial operational capability. recognizing the importance of GPS to civilian users as well as military users. • In 1996. U. the U.  • By 1985. 1990. • On September 14.S.S. which originally managed the system. • In 1992. the U. 2007. 1990. . U. particularly with respect to aviation safety and in 2000 the U. the aging mainframe-based Ground Segment Control System was transferred to the new Architecture Evolution Plan. the United States Government signed an agreement with the European Community establishing cooperation related to GPS and Europe's planned Galileo system. and Timing. GPS technology was inducted into the Space Foundation Space Technology Hall of Fame. allowing users to receive a non-degraded signal globally. • By January 17. • The most recent launch was on May 28. • By December 1993. the first modernized GPS satellite was launched and began transmitting a second civilian signal (L2C) for enhanced user performance. • On May 2. Navigation. • In 2004.S.S. killing all 269 people on board. • November 2004. • In 2005.S. QUALCOMM announced successful tests of assisted GPS for mobile phones. 2010.S. • In 1978. 1994 a complete constellation of 24 satellites was in orbit. 1989. • On February 14. see list of GPS satellite launches • In 1972. The oldest GPS satellite still in operation was launched on November 26. conducted developmental flight tests of two prototype GPS receivers over White Sands Missile Range. Vice President Al Gore announced plans to upgrade GPS with two new civilian signals for enhanced user accuracy and reliability. President Bill Clinton issued a policy directive declaring GPS to be a dual-use system and establishing an Interagency GPS Executive Board to manage it as a national asset. ten more experimental Block-I satellites had been launched to validate the concept. • In 1998. after Soviet interceptor aircraft shot down the civilian airliner KAL 007 that strayed into prohibited airspace due to navigational errors. Air Force Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (Holloman AFB). • In 1983.
(For example. Calif. Three satellites might seem enough to solve for position. Many GPS units show derived information such as direction and speed. Air Force. calculated from position changes. • Bradford Parkinson. from 1957 to 1978. dead reckoning. a ship or plane may have known elevation. 2006. Although four satellites are required for normal operation. GPS developer Roger L.) Some GPS receivers may use additional clues or assumptions (such as reusing the last known altitude. to compute the position of the receiver. 2010.Global Positioning System • On May 21. and synchronization of cell phone base stations. fewer apply in special cases. Easton received the National Medal of Technology on February 13.S. or including information from the vehicle computer) to give a less accurate (degraded) position when fewer than four satellites are visible." Basic concept of GPS A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. The receiver utilizes the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distances to each satellite. traffic signal timing. conceived the present satellite-based system in the early 1960s and developed it in conjunction with the U. Parkinson served twenty-one years in the Air Force. This team combines researchers from the Naval Research Laboratory. Rockwell International Corporation. these include time transfer. since space has three dimensions and a position near the Earth's surface can be assumed. the U. professor of aeronautics and astronautics at Stanford University. Collier Trophy. 7 Awards Two GPS developers received the National Academy of Engineering Charles Stark Draper Prize for 2003: • Ivan Getting." • On January 11. Air Force. A few specialized GPS applications do however use the time. elevation information may be included. the nation's most prestigious aviation award. the National Aeronautic Association selected the GPS Team as winners of the 1992 Robert J. Therefore receivers use four or more satellites to solve for the receiver's location and time.S. and retired with the rank of colonel. emeritus president of The Aerospace Corporation and engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1993.   . even a very small clock error multiplied by the very large speed of light — the speed at which satellite signals propagate — results in a large positional error. a receiver can determine its position using only three satellites. If one variable is already known. the Aerospace Corporation. These distances along with the satellites' locations are used with the possible aid of trilateration. an update of ground control systems caused a software incompatibility with 8000 to 10000 military receivers manufactured by a division of Trimble Navigation Limited of Sunnyvale. improving on the World War II land-based radio system called LORAN (Long-range Radio Aid to Navigation). 2009. the Air Force Space Command allayed fears of GPS failure saying "There's only a small risk we will not continue to exceed our performance standard. established the basis for GPS. On February 10. The very accurately computed time is effectively hidden by most GPS applications. This position is then displayed. The citation honors them "for the most significant development for safe and efficient navigation and surveillance of air and spacecraft since the introduction of radio navigation 50 years ago. However. which use only the location. inertial navigation. perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitude. and IBM Federal Systems Company. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include • the time the message was transmitted • precise orbital information (the ephemeris) • the general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the almanac). depending on which algorithm is used.
This suggests that an extremely accurate and expensive clock is required for the GPS receiver to work. the GPS receiver would be at a precise intersection of the four surfaces. Another figure. Two Sphere Surfaces Intersecting in a Circle. and the time sent. y. the distance traveled or pseudorange. A satellite's position and pseudorange define a sphere. c. is shown below. The intersection of a third spherical surface with the first two will be its intersection with that circle.Global Positioning System 8 Position calculation introduction To provide an introductory description of how a GPS receiver works. The position of the receiver is somewhere on the surface of this sphere. the GPS receiver can compute the transit time of the message as . The solution for this dilemma is based on the way sphere surfaces intersect in the GPS problem. Using messages received from a minimum of four visible satellites. On the other hand. the correct position of the GPS receiver is the intersection closest to the Earth's surface. c. If the surfaces of two spheres intersect at more than one point. this means they intersect at two points. in most cases of practical interest. the intersection farthest from Earth may be the correct one. The two intersections are marked with dots. The x. Knowing the indicated time the message was received . illustrates the intersection. and z components of position. the indicated position of the GPS receiver is at or near the intersection of the surfaces of four spheres. Again the article trilateration clearly shows this mathematically. . the estimated distances from the GPS receiver to the satellites. centered on the satellite with radius equal to the pseudorange. they intersect in a circle. In the ideal case of no errors. 2. Because of the very large value of the speed of light. The correct position for the GPS receiver is also the intersection closest to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite. 3. are very sensitive to errors in the GPS receiver clock. Two sphere surfaces intersecting in a circle For automobiles and other near-earth-vehicles. Assuming the message traveled at the speed of light. For space vehicles. A figure. a GPS receiver is able to determine the times sent and then the satellite positions corresponding to these times sent. the pseudoranges. or 4. are designated as where the subscript i is the satellite number and has the value 1. Surface of Sphere Intersecting a Circle (not a solid disk) at Two Points. errors will be ignored in this section. manufacturers prefer to build inexpensive GPS receivers for mass markets. One of the most significant error sources is the GPS receiver's clock. can be computed as . The article trilateration shows this mathematically. Thus with four satellites. Correcting a GPS receiver's clock Surface of sphere Intersecting a circle (not a solid The method of calculating position for the case of no errors has been disk) at two points explained.
r4. since the circle of intersection of the first two spheres is normally quite large. and da It is likely that the surfaces of the three spheres intersect. . provides an estimate of (correct time) − (time indicated by the receiver's on-board clock). However. Unlaunched GPS satellite on display at the San Diego Air & Space Museum . Let . it should be kept in mind that a less simple function of may be needed to estimate the time error in an iterative algorithm as discussed in the Navigation section. It is very unlikely that the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite will intersect either of the two points of intersection of the first three. is the distance from the computed GPS receiver position to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite. Thus the quotient. and thus the third sphere surface is likely to intersect this large circle. However. p4. a control segment (CS). System segmentation The current GPS consists of three major segments. Let denote the distance from the valid estimate of GPS receiver position to the fourth satellite and let denote the pseudorange of the fourth satellite. the distance from the valid estimate of GPS receiver position to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite can be used to compute a clock correction.Global Positioning System 9 Diagram depicting satellite 4. and the GPS receiver clock can be advanced if is positive or delayed if is negative. since any clock error could cause it to miss intersecting a point. These are the space segment (SS). and a user segment (US). sphere.
 About eight satellites are visible from any point on the ground at any one time (see animation at right). 4. Control segment The control segment is composed of 1. The tracking information is sent to the Air Force Space Command's MCS at Schriever Air Force Base 25 km (16 miles) ESE of Colorado Springs. For military operations. each SV makes two complete orbits each sidereal day. and various other inputs. . Air Force monitoring stations in Hawaii. and Cape Canaveral). Australia and Washington DC.900 nautical miles. relative to a uniform system. retired from active service satellites kept in the constellation as orbital spares. orbital radius of approximately 26. 10 Orbiting at an altitude of approximately 20. correct alignment means all four are visible from one spot for a few hours each day. 3. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface. This was very helpful during development. The additional satellites improve the precision of GPS receiver calculations by providing redundant measurements. an alternate master control station. which is operated by the 2nd Space Operations Squadron (2 SOPS) of the United States Air Force (USAF). With the increased number of satellites. The orbits are arranged so that at least six satellites are always within line of sight from almost everywhere on Earth's surface. there are 31 actively broadcasting satellites in the GPS constellation. space weather information. The flight paths of the satellites are tracked by dedicated U. The six planes have approximately 55° inclination (tilt relative to Earth's equator) and are separated by 60° right ascension of the ascending node (angle along the equator from a reference point to the orbit's intersection). Ascension Island. changes with time. and two older. Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) ground antennas (for additional command and control capability) and NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) monitor stations. These updates synchronize the atomic clocks on board the satellites to within a few nanoseconds of each other. The updates are created by a Kalman filter. along with shared NGA monitor stations operated in England. or Space Vehicles (SV) in GPS parlance. Diego Garcia.500 mi or 14. the constellation was changed to a nonuniform arrangement. Such an arrangement was shown to improve reliability and availability of the system. and adjust the ephemeris of each satellite's internal orbital model. which uses inputs from the ground monitoring stations. Colorado and Cape Canaveral. Colorado Springs. The MCS can also access U. Diego Garcia. repeating the same ground track each day. Kwajalein. four dedicated ground antennas and six dedicated monitor stations. Bahrain. Ascension Island.400 NM)).200 kilometers (about 12. The GPS design originally called for 24 SVs. A visual example of the GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. when multiple satellites fail. the ground track repeat can be used to ensure good coverage in combat zones. a master control station (MCS). Then 2 SOPS contacts each GPS satellite regularly with a navigational update using dedicated or shared (AFSCN) ground antennas (GPS dedicated ground antennas are located at Kwajalein. eight each in three circular orbital planes. not rotating with respect to the distant stars. 2.550 miles or 10. Ecuador. in this example at 45°N.S. but this was modified to six planes with four satellites each.S. since even with just four satellites.Global Positioning System Space segment The space segment (SS) is composed of the orbiting GPS satellites.600 km (about 16. Argentina. As of March 2008. The orbital planes are centered on the Earth.
and the resulting orbit tracked from the ground. the satellite must be marked unhealthy. So to change the orbit of a satellite.S. Then the new ephemeris is uploaded and the satellite marked healthy again. This is typically in the form of an RS-232 port at 4. Then the maneuver can be carried out. references to these protocols have been compiled from public records. Many GPS receivers can relay position data to a PC or other device using the NMEA 0183 protocol. They may also include a display for providing location and speed information to the user. GPS receivers may include an input for differential corrections. 11 GPS receivers come in a variety of formats. User segment The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U. Garmin and Leica (left to right). or Bluetooth.800 bit/s speed. Receivers with internal DGPS receivers can outperform those using external RTCM data. GPS receivers are composed of an antenna. Although these protocols are officially defined by the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA). . receivers typically have between 12 and 20 channels. As of 2006. and a highly stable clock (often a crystal oscillator). using the RTCM SC-104 format. this has progressively increased over the years so that. so receivers will not use it in their calculation. A typical GPS receiver with integrated antenna. commercial and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service. and tens of millions of civil. receiver-processors. A receiver is often described by its number of channels: this signifies how many satellites it can monitor simultaneously. allowing open source tools like gpsd to read the protocol without violating intellectual property laws. even low-cost units commonly include Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) receivers. to dedicated devices such as those shown here from manufacturers Trimble. Receivers can interface with other devices using methods including a serial connection. Data is actually sent at a much lower rate. Originally limited to four or five. In general. USB.Global Positioning System Satellite maneuvers are not precise by GPS standards. as of 2007. Other proprietary protocols exist as well. tuned to the frequencies transmitted by the satellites. or the newer and less widely used NMEA 2000. phones. from devices integrated into cars. such as the SiRF and MTK protocols. and watches. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service. which limits the accuracy of the signal sent using RTCM. A typical OEM GPS receiver module measuring 15×17 mm.
Two different encodings are used. as well as the data about the health of the satellite. These signals are transmitted on two separate carrier frequencies that are common to all satellites in the network. provides the precise orbit for the satellite. The second part of the message.Global Positioning System 12 Communication The navigational signals transmitted by GPS satellites encode a variety of information including satellite positions.6 seconds each. The receiver must be aware of the PRN codes for each satellite to reconstruct the actual message data. 1. Both the C/A and P(Y) codes impart the precise time-of-day to the user. Signals are encoded using code division multiple access (CDMA) allowing messages from individual satellites to be distinguished from each other based on unique encodings for each satellite (which the receiver must be aware of). military. and the health of the network. The C/A code. error correction) 2–3 4–5 Each GPS satellite continuously broadcasts a navigation message at a rate of 50 bits per second (see bitrate). military use.2276 GHz (L2 signal).S. Each complete message is composed of 30-second frames. for civilian use. The almanac is updated typically every 24 hours. contains coarse orbit and status information for all satellites in the network as well as data related to error correction. Two distinct types of CDMA encodings are used: the coarse/acquisition (C/A) code. with provisions for updates every 6 hours or longer in non-nominal conditions. that is encrypted so that only the U. the ephemeris. Message format GPS message format Subframes 1 Description Satellite clock. a public encoding that enables lower resolution navigation. Each frame is further subdivided into 5 subframes of length 6 seconds and with 300 bits each. and the precise (P) code. Satellite frequencies All satellites broadcast at the same two frequencies. and an encrypted encoding used by the U. Each subframe contains 10 words of 30 bits with length 0.S.500 bits of information. Additionally data for a few weeks following is uploaded in case of transmission updates that delay data upload. The first part of the message encodes the week number and the time within the week. GPS time relationship Ephemeris (precise satellite orbit) Almanac component (satellite network synopsys.57542 GHz (L1 signal) and 1. which is accessible by the general public. military can access it. the state of the internal clocks. whereas the P code. transmits data at 1. The last part of the message. The satellite network uses a CDMA spread-spectrum technique where the low-bitrate message data is encoded with a high-rate pseudo-random (PRN) sequence that is different for each satellite.023 million chips per second. All satellites broadcast at the same frequencies. distinct groupings of 1. for U.23 million chips per second. transmits at 10. Each 30 second frame begins precisely on the minute or half minute as indicated by the atomic clock on each satellite. the almanac.S. The L1 carrier is modulated by both the C/A and P codes. while the L2 carrier is only modulated by the P code. . The ephemeris is updated every 2 hours and is generally valid for 4 hours. The P code can be encrypted as a so-called P(Y) code which is only available to military equipment with a proper decryption key.
As it detects each satellite's signal. after demodulation. Processing of the navigation message enables the determination of the time of transmission and the satellite position at this time. The signals are decoded. The distance between these two points is the diameter of the circle of intersection. unique numbers in the range 1 through 32. 3. Thus the receiver is at or near the intersection of the surfaces of four spheres. This is done by assigning each satellite a unique binary sequence known as a Gold code. using addition of the Gold codes corresponding to the satellites monitored by the receiver. Advanced. and z components of position and the time sent are designated as where the subscript i denotes the satellite and has the value 1. To obtain a lock.Global Positioning System Demodulation and decoding Since all of the satellite signals are modulated onto the same L1 carrier frequency. there is a need to separate the signals after demodulation. There can be a delay of up to 30 seconds before the first estimate of position because of the need to read the ephemeris data. In the ideal case of no errors. it identifies it by its distinct C/A code pattern. Demodulating and Decoding GPS Satellite Signals using the Coarse/Acquisition Gold code. Navigation equations The receiver uses messages received from four satellites to determine the satellite positions and time sent. the receiver enters a search mode until a lock is obtained on one of the satellites. Assuming the message traveled at the speed of light (c) the distance traveled. it is necessary that there be an unobstructed line of sight from the receiver to the satellite. y. Two of the points at which the surfaces of the spheres intersect are clearly marked on the figure. the receiver is at the intersection of the surfaces of four spheres. the surfaces of two intersecting spheres is either a point (if they merely touch) or a circle as depicted in the illustration below. For more information see Demodulation and Decoding. . the receiver picks which satellites to listen for by their PRNs. the receiver computes the . Knowing the distance from receiver to satellite and the satellite's position implies that the receiver is on the surface of a sphere centered at the satellite's position. Excluding the unrealistic case (for GPS purposes) of two coincident spheres. . Knowing when the message was received message's transit time as is .  13 If the almanac information has previously been acquired. or 4. The receiver can then acquire the almanac and determine the satellites it should listen for. If the almanac information is not in memory. 2. The x.
Therefore the diameter as seen from all directions is the same and thus the surfaces actually do intersect in a circle.. the edge of a disk) at two points Having provided a discussion of how sphere surfaces intersect. Let denote the clock error or bias. Another figure. This view would match the figure because of the symmetry of the spheres. is shown below to aid in visualizing this intersection. The article trilateration algebraically confirms this geometric argument that the two sphere surfaces intersect in a circle.Global Positioning System 14 Two sphere surfaces intersecting in a circle This can be seen more clearly by considering a side view of the intersecting spheres. the amount by which the receiver's clock is off. the three components of GPS receiver position and the clock bias sphere surfaces are given by: . Surface of Sphere Intersecting a Circle (not a solid disk) at Two Points. A view from any horizontal direction would look exactly the same. Trilateration algebraically confirms this geometric observation.e. Having found that two sphere surfaces intersect in a circle. the circle. we now consider how the intersection of the first two sphere surfaces. For the GPS problem we are concerned with the case of two points of intersection. intersect with the third sphere. A circle and sphere surface intersect at zero. The receiver has four . Surface of a sphere intersecting a circle (i. we now formulate the equations for the case when errors are present. The ambiguity of two points of intersection of three sphere surfaces can be resolved by noting which point is closest to the fourth sphere surface. The equation of the unknowns. one or two points.
000 feet (unknown operator: u'. the calculation can use the four best or more than four. One advantage of this method is that it involves one dimensional as opposed to multidimensional numerical root finding. the location is expressed in a specific coordinate system such as latitude and longitude. (By design. pseudoranges from various 4-way combinations can be processed to add more estimates to the location and clock offset. then solve four linear equations derived from the quadratic equations above to obtain  . Trilateration determines the intersection of the surfaces of three spheres. since it is illegal in the United States to track vehicles more than 60. da is a function of the correction since the correction changes the satellite transmission times and thus the pseudoranges.Global Positioning System 15 Another useful form of these equations is in terms of pseudoranges. which must be solved by least-squares or a similar technique. the results are as good as or better than using the four best. Using more than four is an over-determined system of equations with no unique solution. • When more than four satellites are available. The Earth's surface can also sometimes be used instead. da = r4 . Then the equations becomes: Methods of solution of navigation equations • Bancroft's method is perhaps the most important method of solving the navigation equations since it involves an algebraic as opposed to numerical method. considering number of channels. After the final location and time are calculated. based on the relative sky directions of the satellites used. "There are no good general methods for solving systems of more than one nonlinear equations. • Alternatively. such as those found in the chapter on root finding in Numerical Recipes can solve this type of problem. Iterative numerical methods. the point nearest the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite is chosen. which are the approximate ranges based on the receiver clock's uncorrected time so that . these systems use the same frequency bands. The notation. da(correction) denotes this function. multidimensional root finding method such as Newton-Raphson method can be used." For a more detailed description of the mathematics see Multidimensional Newton Raphson. a GDOP factor can be calculated. Two numerical methods of computing GPS receiver position and clock bias are (1) by using trilateration and one dimensional numerical root finding and (2) multidimensional Newton-Raphson calculations. The method requires at least four satellites but more can be used. The problem is to determine the correction such that . In the usual case of two intersections. • Finally. Errors can be estimated through the residuals. Let da denote the signed magnitude of the vector from the receiver position to the fourth satellite (i. so much of the receiver circuitry can be shared. though the decoding is different. processing capability. results from other positioning systems such as GLONASS or the upcoming Galileo can be incorporated or used to check the result. The receiver then takes the weighted average of these positions and clock offsets.) . The Newton-Raphson method is more rapidly convergent than other methods of numerical root finding. A disadvantage of this multidimensional root finding method as compared to single dimensional root findiing is that. • The receiver can solve by trilateration  and one dimensional numerical root finding.e. say from iteration k. using the WGS 84 geodetic datum or a country-specific system. If all visible satellites are used. especially by civilian GPS receivers. With each combination of four or more satellites. The approach is to linearize around an approximate solution. and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP).p4) as defined in the section "Clock correction". This is the familiar problem of finding the zeroes of a one dimensional non-linear function of a scalar variable.' m) in altitude. As more satellites are picked up.
. due to an approximate In order to drive closer to zero choose the values such that That is choose the values such that the residual in equation 2 changes by approximately Let as shown below. Linearizing the right hand side of equation 2 about the approximate solution. Let denote the unknown clock error or bias. equation 1. then the pseudorange satisfies the equation: When an approximate solution. Transforming rather than the exact solution. the partial derivatives are computed as: where . and the time the message was sent. In order to linearize equation 2. . is used in A solution will have been obtained when is zero or sufficiently close to zero for . let the GPS clock's indicated coordinates of each satellite. which is in addition to the residual.Global Positioning System 16 Multidimensional Newton-Raphson for GPS The equations used in multidimensional Newton-Raphson are as follows: Let and denote the true receiver position coordinates. there is a residual. is the residual due to linearization. to the right hand side of the equation produces. there results where solution. Let the . . The pseudorange is computed as: Assume the message travels at the speed of light. be received time be and c be the speed of light.
0 .5 C/A P(Y) ±6.5 Satellite clock errors ±2 Multipath distortion ±1 Tropospheric effects ±0. is evaluated using: Then set in equations 2 through 6. and reevaluate the residuals in equations 2.Global Positioning System Substituting and transposing to the left hand side of the equation. the delta terms. Error sources and analysis Sources of User Equivalent Range Errors (UERE) Source Signal arrival C/A Signal arrival P(Y) Ionospheric effects Ephemeris errors Effect (m) ±3 ±0. This procedure is repeated until the residuals are sufficiently small in magnitude. They are in a form for solution. plug the terms from equations 7 into equations 2.3 ±5 ±2. there results 17 Equations 6 provide four linear equations in four unknowns. Using the values of and determined by this linear equation solution.7 ±6. set in equations 7.
of about 1 meter.e. These effects also reduce the more precise P(Y) code's accuracy. . is computed by taking the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual component standard deviations. these range errors must be multiplied by the appropriate dilution of precision terms and then RSS'ed with the numerical error. the standard deviation of the user equivalent range errors. . and Numerical Errors These UERE errors are given as ± errors thereby implying that they are unbiased or zero mean errors. for the coarse/acquisition and precise codes are also shown in the table. autonomous civilian GPS horizontal position fixes are typically accurate to about 15 meters (49 ft). When taken together.. and the intersection of the four sphere surfaces. PDOP is computed as a function of receiver and satellite positions. true receiver position. the advancement of technology means that today. To get the standard deviation of receiver position estimate. A detailed description of how to calculate PDOP is given in the section. These UERE errors are therefore used in computing standard deviations. PDOP. again for the C/A code is given by: The error diagram on the left shows the inter relationship of indicated receiver position. Geometric Error Diagram Showing Typical Relation of Indicated Receiver Position. civilian GPS fixes under a clear view of the sky are on average accurate to about 5 meters (16 ft) horizontally. . The standard deviation of the error in receiver position. RSS for root sum squares). However.Global Positioning System 18 The term user equivalent range error (UERE) refers to the error of a component in the distance from receiver to a satellite. is computed by multiplying PDOP (Position Dilution Of Precision) by . and True Receiver Position in Terms of Pseudorange Errors. for the C/A code is given by: The standard deviation of the error in estimated receiver position . Electronics errors are one of several accuracy-degrading effects outlined in the table above. There is also a numerical error with an estimated value. These standard deviations are computed by taking the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual components (i. Intersection of Sphere Surfaces. User equivalent range errors (UERE) are shown in the table. geometric dilution of precision computation (GDOP). . The standard deviations.
Once the receiver's approximate location is known. Some military and survey-grade civilian receivers calculate atmospheric dispersion from the different delays in the L1 and L2 frequencies. . by tracking the carrier wave instead of the modulated code. which transmits it on the GPS frequency using a special pseudo-random noise sequence (PRN). .Global Positioning System 19 Signal arrival time measurement The position calculation requires the current time. To facilitate this on lower cost receivers. the position of the satellite and the measured delay of the received signal. a mathematical model can estimate and compensate for these errors. the high-frequency P(Y) signal results in an accuracy of or about 30 centimeters. and can be averaged over time. and apply a more precise correction. this error is relatively simple to correct. Position accuracy is primarily dependent on the satellite position and signal delay. due to the signal passing through less of the atmosphere at higher elevations. This correction is also valid for other receivers in the same general location. By comparing the rising and trailing edges of the bit transitions. modern electronics can measure signal offset to within about one percent of a bit pulse width. These effects are smallest for overhead satellites and greatest for satellites at the horizon since the path through the atmosphere is longer (see airmass). Changes in receiver altitude also change the delay. called L2C. this represents an error of about 3 meters. Ionospheric effects generally change slowly. Several systems send this information over radio or other links to allow L1-only receivers to make ionospheric corrections. The ionospheric data are transmitted via satellite in Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) such as WAAS (available in North America and Hawaii). Since GPS signals propagate at the speed of light. Correcting these errors is a significant challenge to improving position accuracy. or approximately 10 nanoseconds for the C/A code. This component of position accuracy can be improved by a factor of 10 using the higher-chiprate P(Y) signal. allowing delays at other frequencies to be estimated. This can be done in civilian receivers without decrypting the P(Y) signal carried on L2. especially the ionosphere. To measure the delay. resulting in errors similar to ionospheric delay. Since the receiver computes its approximate altitude. so only one receiver and antenna are required. a new civilian code signal on L2. first launched in 2005. but occurring in the troposphere. either by applying a function regression or correlating margin of atmospheric error to ambient pressure using a barometric altimeter. Assuming the same one percent of bit pulse width accuracy. the receiver compares the bit sequence received from the satellite with an internally generated version. and is not frequency dependent. This effect is both more localized and changes more quickly than ionospheric effects. It allows a direct comparison of the L1 and L2 signals using the coded signal instead of the carrier wave. EGNOS (Europe and Asia) or MSAS (Japan). was added to the Block IIR-M satellites. This phenomenon is known as dispersion and can be calculated from measurements of delays for two or more frequency bands. Humidity also causes a variable delay. Atmospheric effects Atmospheric inconsistencies affect the speed of the GPS signals as they pass through the Earth's atmosphere. Those for any particular geographical area can be easily calculated by comparing the measured position to a known surveyed location. These traits make precise measurement and compensation of humidity errors more difficult than ionospheric effects. Ionospheric microwave signal delay depends on its frequency.
y.. Figure 3. and z components may be components in a North. it may be up to two hours old.1 Dilution of Precision of provides a graphical indication of how geometry affect accuracy. Down coordinate system a South. HDOP. is given by: . VDOP. These x. most notably narrow correlator spacing.g. some methods of quasi-differential GPS were developed. A variety of techniques.. causing effects almost indistinguishable from routine fluctuations in atmospheric delay. In the 1990s when receivers were quite expensive. Formulate the matrix A as: .g. Ephemeris and clock errors While ephemeris data is transmitted every 30 seconds. small angular separation). These problems tend to be very small. and z denote the position of the receiver and and denote the position of satellite i.. When the antenna is moving. but may add up to a few meters (tens of feet) of inaccuracy. East. To address shorter delay multipath from the signal reflecting off the ground. If a fast time to first fix (TTFF) is needed. false solutions using reflected signals quickly fail to converge and only the direct signals result in stable solutions. At the TU Vienna the method was named qGPS and adequate post processing software was developed. Multipath effects are much less severe in moving vehicles. hard ground. using only one receiver with reoccupation of measuring points. they are based on observations and may not indicate the clock's current state. it is possible to upload a valid ephemeris to a receiver.e. Vertical. in geodesy). See also Assisted GPS. and in addition to setting the time. mitigate multipath errors. Geometric dilution of precision computation (GDOP) When visible GPS satellites are adjacent in the sky (i. Short delay reflections are harder to filter out because they interfere with the true signal. Position (3-D) and Time Dilution of Precision. consider the unit vector from the receiver to satellite i with components . . PDOP and TDOP are respectively Horizontal. Low DOP values represent a better GPS positional accuracy due to the wider angular separation. canyon walls. y. It is feasible to put such ephemeris data on the web for use in mobile GPS devices. As a first step. Up coordinate system or other convenient system. For long delay multipath.Global Positioning System 20 Multipath effects GPS signals can be affected by multipath issues. where x. the DOP values are low. the DOP values are high. obtain a position fix in under ten seconds. a choke ring antenna) may be used to reduce the signal power as received by the antenna. These delayed signals can cause inaccuracy. the receiver itself can recognize the wayward signal and discard it. buildings. We now take on the task of computing DOP terms. where the radio signals reflect off surrounding terrain. However. etc. when far apart. these effects can be eliminated by differential GPS: the simultaneous use of two or more receivers at several survey points. East. The satellite's atomic clocks experience noise and clock drift errors. and where the distance from receiver to the satellite. specialized antennae (e. The navigation message contains corrections for these errors and estimates of the accuracy of the atomic clock. For very precise positioning (e.
PDOP. Let denote the time error. as 21 The elements of the Q matrix are designated as: The Greek letter is used quite often where we have used d. Instead they are strictly geometric terms. The elements in the fourth column are c where c denotes the speed of light. Q. and receiver clock errors as shown in. This equation comes from linearizing the equation relating pseudoranges to receiver position. and denote unit vectors along the x. . . are both dependent on the coordinate system used. TDOP and GDOP are given by . where and are the errors in pseudoranges 1 through 4 respectively. . Multiplying both sides by there results . East. x. there results . East. Down coordinate system or a South.Global Positioning System The first three elements of each row of A are the components of a unit vector from the receiver to the indicated satellite. Formulate the matrix. . where bold denotes a vector and . and z should denote positions in either a North. and are the true time minus the receiver indicated time. y. y. Transposing both sides: . Up coordinate system. . and the vertical dilution of precision. and  The horizontal dilution of precision. Assume that the mean value of the three components of zero. and z axes respectively. To correspond to the local horizon plane and the local vertical. Post multiplying the matrices on both sides of equation (2) by the corresponding matrices in equation (3). defined as the vector from the intersection of the four sphere surfaces corresponding to the pseudoranges to the true position of the receiver. Derivation of DOP equations Consider the position error vector. Therefore d as in dilution of precision is used. satellite positions. However the elements of the Q matrix do not represent variances and covariances as they are defined in probability and statistics.
S. the covariance matrix on the right side can be expressed as a scalar times the identity matrix. SA errors are actually pseudorandom. During the 1990-91 Gulf War. DGPS also corrects for several other important sources of . This was intended to deny an enemy the use of civilian GPS receivers for precision weapon guidance. it follows that the variances of indicated receiver position and time are and The remaining position and time error variance terms follow in a straightforward manner.S.S. military's battlefield use of GPS. Mere possession of the receiver is insufficient. its allies and a few other users. it still needs the tightly controlled daily key. the FAA requested that the military turn off SA permanently to save millions of dollars annually to maintain their own radio navigation systems. Taking the expected value of both sides and taking the non-random matrices outside the expectation operator. Because SA affects every GPS receiver in a given area almost equally. so the military disabled SA for the duration of the war. time varying errors of up to 100 meters (328 ft) to the publicly available navigation signals. military. generated by a cryptographic algorithm from a classified seed key available only to authorized users (the U. E. Selective availability GPS includes a (currently disabled) feature called Selective Availability (SA) that adds intentional. there results: Assuming the pseudorange errors are uncorrelated and have the same variance. mostly government) with a special military GPS receiver. This is called Differential GPS or DGPS. troops and their families to buy readily–available civilian units. a fixed station with an accurately known position can measure the SA error values and transmit them to the local GPS receivers so they may correct their position fixes. SA significantly impeded the U. Also during the 1990s. the shortage of military GPS units caused many U.Global Positioning System 22 . Thus since Note: Substituting for since there follows From equation (7).
Typical SA errors were about 50 meters (164 ft) horizontally and about 100 m vertically. eventually making the policy permanent. Widespread availability of DGPS nullified SA. particularly ionospheric delay. it happened in 2000 once the U. One interesting side effect of the Selective Availability hardware is the capability to add corrections to the outgoing signal of the GPS cesium and rubidium atomic clocks to an accuracy of approximately 2 × 10−13.S. the errors at the two sites will not correlate as well. Coast Guard's network of LF marine navigation beacons. satellite clocks are tuned to 10.S. military developed a new way to deny GPS (and other navigation services) to hostile forces in a specific area without affecting the rest of the world or its own military systems. The accuracy of the corrections depends on the distance between the user and the DGPS receiver. so it continues to be widely used even though SA has been turned off. Turning off antispoof would primarily benefit surveyors and some scientists who need extremely precise positions for experiments such as tracking tectonic plate motion. antispoofing. frequency shifts of clocks in satellites due to earth's quadrupole potential.  Antispoofing Another restriction on GPS. Clinton's executive order required SA to be set to zero by 2006. Few civilian receivers have ever used the P-code. Per the directive. As distance increases.23 MHz once in orbit. leading to its demise on May 1. On 19 September 2007. Some other relativistic effects (such as gravitational time delays. 23 Relativity GPS positioning is one of the few everyday events in which relativistic effects must be accounted for.Global Positioning System GPS errors. This represented a significant improvement over the clocks' raw accuracy. remains on. Satellite clocks are slowed by their orbital speed but sped up by their distance out of the Earth's gravitational well. the induced error of SA was changed to add no error to the public signals (C/A code). This encrypts the P-code so that it cannot be mimicked by a transmitter sending false information. DGPS services are widely available from both commercial and government sources. 2000. and the accuracy attainable with the public C/A code is so much better than originally expected (especially with DGPS) that the antispoof policy has relatively little effect on most civilian users. For example. resulting in less precise differential corrections. the United States Department of Defense announced that GPS III satellites need not implement SA. and space curvature) are too small to affect the system at current accuracy levels. The latter include WAAS and the U. . to compensate for the effects of gravitational time dilation and achieve a frequency of precisely 10.22999999543 MHz before launch.
The gravitational frequency shift effect on GPS due to general relativity is that a clock closer to a massive object runs slower than a clock farther away. In addition the elliptical. Tuning the atomic clocks on GPS satellites makes the system a real-world engineering application of relativity. magnetic storms can produce strong ionospheric gradients that degrade SBAS accuracy. or about 45. causing GPS clocks to be faster by a factor of 5×10−10. . non-rotating approximately inertial reference frame. due to their constant movement and height relative to the Earth-centered. The time dilation effect has been measured and verified using GPS. A Lorentz transformation converts from the inertial system to the ECEF system. or tens of meters in position. In addition to scintillation. direct interference by solar radio burst noise in the same frequency band or by scattering of the GPS radio signal in ionospheric irregularities referred to as scintillation. the receivers are much closer to Earth than the satellites. and c = the speed 24 of light. Applied to GPS. The resulting correction has opposite algebraic signs for satellites in the Eastern and Western celestial hemispheres. Natural sources of interference Since terrestrial GPS signals tend to be relatively weak. The GPS time scale is defined in an inertial system but observations are processed in an Earth-centered. a difference of 4. Ignoring this effect produces an east-west error on the order of hundreds of nanoseconds. Sagnac distortion GPS must also compensate for the Sagnac effect. making acquiring and tracking satellite signals difficult or impossible. Without correction (i. making it run slightly slower than the desired frequency on Earth. Both forms of degradation follow the 11 year solar cycle and peak at sunspot maximum although they can occur anytime. specifically. natural radio signals or scattering can desensitize the receiver.23 MHz. satellite clocks are affected by their speed.9 μs/day. a delay of about 7 μs/day. where the orbital velocity is v = 4 km/s.Global Positioning System Special and general relativity According to the theory of relativity. without the solution algorithm correction for the initial pseudorange errors). Scintillation occurs most frequently at tropical latitudes at night. errors in position determination of roughly 10 km/day would accumulate. rather than perfectly circular. the frequency standard on board each satellite is given a rate offset prior to launch. It occurs less frequently at high latitudes or mid-latitudes where magnetic storms can lead to scintillation. at 10.465 parts in 1010. the discrepancy is about 38 microseconds per day. When combining time dilation and gravitational frequency shift.22999999543 MHz instead of 10. To offset the discrepancy. satellite orbits cause the time dilation and gravitational frequency shift effects to vary with time. This eccentricity effect causes the clock rate difference between a GPS satellite and a receiver to increase or decrease depending on the satellite's velocity orbital altitude. a system in which simultaneity is not uniquely defined. Space weather degrades GPS operation in two ways. Solar radio bursts are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their impact can affect reception over the half of the Earth facing the sun.e. Special relativity predicts that the frequency of atomic clocks moving at orbital speeds tick more slowly than stationary ground clocks by a factor of . Placing atomic clocks on artificial satellites to test Einstein's general theory was proposed by Friedwardt Winterberg in 1955. Earth-fixed (ECEF) co-rotating system.
K. it is still possible to use a codeless technique to compare the P(Y) codes on L1 and L2 to gain much of the same error information. laws. including one that was destroyed with a GPS-guided bomb. or ionospheric delay). and the U. Some systems transmit additional error information (such as clock drift. stronger signals can interfere with GPS receivers when they are within radio range or line of sight. making it an attractive target for anti-radiation missiles. The UK Ministry of Defence tested a jamming system in the UK's West Country on 7 and 8 June 2007. while a third group provides additional navigational or vehicle information. Precise monitoring Accuracy can be improved through precise monitoring and measurement of existing GPS signals in additional or alternate ways. metallic features in windshields. According to John Ruley.S. The spacecraft broadcast ionospheric model parameters. to warn if jamming or another problem is detected. so it is currently available only on specialized surveying equipment. these are prohibited because the signals can interfere with other GPS receivers that receive data from both satellites and the repeater. California due to unintentional jamming caused by malfunctioning TV antenna preamplifiers. ephemera. degrading reception inside the car. however.S. Some countries allow GPS repeaters. military has also deployed since 2004 their Selective Availability / Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM) in the Defense Advanced GPS Receiver (DAGR). A GPS jammer is relatively easy to detect and locate. to facilitate the reception of GPS signals indoors and in obscured locations. "IFR pilots should have a fallback plan in case of a GPS malfunction". such as defrosters or car window tinting films. Man-made electromagnetic interference (EMI) can also disrupt or jam GPS signals. Such augmentation systems are generally named or described based on how the information arrives. In one well-documented case it was impossible to receive GPS signals in the entire harbor of Moss Landing. Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Assisted GPS. This is one reason GPS spacecraft transmit on at least two frequencies. L1 and L2. Without decryption keys.Global Positioning System 25 Artificial sources of interference In automotive GPS receivers. Military receivers can decode the P(Y)-code transmitted on both L1 and L2. Ionospheric delay is a well-defined function of frequency and the total electron content (TEC) along the path. government believes that such jammers were used occasionally during the 2001 war in Afghanistan. Accuracy enhancement and surveying Augmentation Integrating external information into the calculation process can materially improve accuracy. military claims to have destroyed six GPS jammers during the Iraq War. Various techniques can address interference. Differential GPS. Generally. this technique is slow.S.  Intentional jamming is also possible. Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is included in some receivers. However. European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) . One is to not rely on GPS as a sole source. so measuring the arrival time difference between the frequencies determines TEC and thus the precise ionospheric delay at each frequency. The U. can act as a Faraday cage. but errors remain. DAGR detects jamming and maintains its lock on encrypted GPS signals during interference. The U. Examples of augmentation systems include the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). In 2002 a detailed description of how to build a short-range GPS L1 C/A jammer was published in the online magazine Phrack. under European Union and U. The largest remaining error is usually the unpredictable delay through the ionosphere. others characterize prior errors. In .
Relative Kinematic Positioning (RKP) is a third alternative for a precise GPS-based positioning system.Global Positioning System the future. This corrects the error that arises because the pulse transition of the PRN is not instantaneous. In this approach. transmitting GPS signal phase information and ambiguity resolution techniques via statistical tests—possibly with processing in real-time (real-time kinematic positioning. 1999 (00:00:19 TAI on August 22.584 days) to correctly translate the GPS date signal. 2008. Receivers subtract this offset from GPS time to calculate UTC and specific timezone values. to act as an additional clock 26 signal and resolve the uncertainty.024 weeks (19. The GPS navigation message includes the difference between GPS time and UTC. additional civilian codes are expected to be transmitted on the L2 and L5 frequencies (see GPS modernization).6–9. 1980. but has since diverged.2 in) of ambiguity. 1999). CPGPS utilizes the L1 carrier wave. the atomic clocks on the satellites are set to GPS time. The difference is that GPS time is not corrected to match the rotation of the Earth. the GPS date is expressed as a week number and a seconds-into-week number. The week number is transmitted as a ten-bit field in the C/A and P(Y) navigation messages.8 ft) of ambiguity. This is done by resolving the number of cycles in which the signal is transmitted and received by the receiver. Timekeeping While most clocks are synchronized to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).GPS = 19 seconds). a GPS receiver must be provided with the approximate date (to within 3. GPS week zero started at 00:00:00 UTC (00:00:19 TAI) on January 6. The GPS-UTC offset field can accommodate 255 leap seconds (eight bits) which. RTK).6 years). CPGPS working to within 1% of perfect transition reduces this error to 3 centimeters (1. month.192 weeks (157 years). and the week number became zero again for the first time at 23:59:47 UTC on August 21. and thus the correlation (satellite-receiver sequence matching) operation is imperfect. should be sufficient to last until approximately the year 2300. Then all users will be able to perform dual-frequency measurements and directly compute ionospheric delay errors. . A second form of precise monitoring is called Carrier-Phase Enhancement (CPGPS). By eliminating this error source. which as of 2009 is 15 seconds due to the leap second added to UTC December 31. This can be accomplished by using a combination of differential GPS (DGPS) correction data.9–12 in) of absolute accuracy. As opposed to the year. which only repeats every 8. so it does not contain leap seconds or other corrections that are periodically added to UTC. Periodic corrections are performed on the on-board clocks to correct relativistic effects and keep them synchronized with ground clocks. GPS time was set to match Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in 1980. which has a period of which is about one-thousandth of the C/A Gold code bit period of . thus lasting until the year 2137 (157 years after GPS week zero). and day format of the Gregorian calendar. To address this concern the modernized GPS navigation message uses a 13-bit field. The lack of corrections means that GPS time remains at a constant offset with International Atomic Time (TAI) (TAI .9 in). The phase difference error in the normal GPS amounts to 2–3 metres (6. determination of range signal can be resolved to a precision of less than 10 centimeters (3. To determine the current Gregorian date. given the current rate of change of the Earth's rotation (with one leap second introduced approximately every 18 months). New GPS units may not show the correct UTC time until after receiving the UTC offset message. CPGPS coupled with DGPS normally realizes between 20–30 centimetres (7. and so it becomes zero again every 1.
Thus the triple difference result eliminates practically all clock bias errors and the integer ambiguity. This method has many surveying applications.Global Positioning System 27 Carrier phase tracking (surveying) Another method that is used in surveying applications is carrier phase tracking. Each is a . j. These three functions are defined below. This notation shows the meaning of and the subscripts i. First. Let denote the phase of the carrier of satellite j measured by receiver i at time to balance readability and conciseness. The period of the carrier frequency times the speed of light gives the wavelength. which requires specially equipped receivers.3 meters for the P code. However. Also if are valid arguments for the three functions and a and b are constants then is a valid argument with values defined as . and time points. For example if the position of receiver 1 is known but the position of receiver 2 unknown. The satellite carrier total phase can be measured with ambiguity as to the number of cycles. . This eliminates the ambiguity associated with the integral number of wave lengths in carrier phase provided this ambiguity does not change with time. which return differences between receivers. : . let functions. compute the difference between satellites. Triple difference results for three independent time pairs quite possibly will be sufficient to solve for receiver 2's three position components. and a mathematical technique called least squares can estimate the position of one receiver given the position of another. Accuracy within 1% of wavelength in detecting the leading edge. If function of the three integer arguments. This compares to 3 meters for the C/A code and 0. reduces this component of pseudorange error to as little as 2 millimeters. Other orders of taking differences are equally valid. then between receivers. Detailed discussion of the errors is omitted. This . Also we define three . and . The receiver (r). This difference is designated as Double differencing computes the difference of receiver 1's satellite difference from that of receiver 2. and k then it is a valid argument for the functions. This triple difference is: Triple difference results can be used to estimate unknown variables. and . and k. . Receiver clock errors can be approximately eliminated by differencing the phases measured from satellite 1 with that from satellite 2 at the same epoch. j. satellite (s). and finally between epochs. with function has variables with three subscripts as its arguments. it may be possible to estimate the position of receiver 2 using numerical root finding and least squares. which is about 0. : the values defined as . satellites. respectively. This double difference is: Triple differencing subtracts the receiver difference from time 1 from that of time 2. This may require the use of a numerical procedure. Triple differencing followed by numerical root finding.19 meters for the L1 carrier.  An approximation of receiver 2's position is required to use such a numerical method. and time (t) come in alphabetical order as arguments of be a concise abbreviation. 2 millimeter accuracy requires measuring the total phase—the number of waves times the wavelength plus the fractional wavelength. This approximately eliminates satellite clock errors. Atmospheric delay and satellite ephemeris errors have been significantly reduced. i.
Least squares can estimate an overdetermined system. US Coast Guard. September 1996. covering India and Northern Indian Ocean QZSS – Japanese proposed regional system covering only Japan See also • • • • • • • • • • • • The American Practical Navigator . Such a reasonable estimate can be key to successful multidimensional root finding. planned to be operational by 2020  GLONASS – Russia's global navigation system IRNSS – India's regional navigation system. Processing additional time pairs can improve accuracy. planned to be operational by 2012. The global positioning system .Chapter 11 Satellite Navigation GPS/INS GSM localization GPS signals GPS tracking GPS navigation software High Sensitivity GPS List of inventions by the military that are now in mass use Navigation paradox S-GPS SIGI Differential GPS References • "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction"  (PDF). overdetermining the answer with multiple solutions. ISBN 9781563471063. Iterating from three time pairs and a fairly good initial value produces one observed triple difference result for receiver 2's position. Government • National Space-Based PNT Executive Committee —Established in 2004 to oversee management of GPS and GPS augmentations at a national level. . Spilker (1996). planned to be operational by 2014 Beidou – People's Republic of China's regional system. covering Asia and the West Pacific COMPASS – People's Republic of China's global system. External links • Global Positioning System  at the Open Directory Project • GPS.Global Positioning System initial value can probably be provided from the navigation message and the intersection of sphere surfaces. Further reading • Parkinson. Least squares determines the position of receiver 2 which best fits the observed triple difference results for receiver 2 positions under the criterion of minimizing the sum of the squares.S. 28 Other systems Other satellite navigation systems in use or various states of development include: • • • • • • Galileo – a global system being developed by the European Union and other partner countries.gov —General public education website created by the U. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
spotlightgps. and links to other references. mil/ factsheets/ SWAR_LW_DBCS. Retrieved 2010-06-26. touching on the upcoming Galileo • Average Latitude & Longitude of Countries  • "Sources of Errors in GPS"  • GPS and GLONASS Simulation (Java applet) Simulation and graphical depiction of space vehicle motion including computation of dilution of precision (DOP) • University of New South Wales: Carrier Phase Measurement  • University of New South Wales: Carrier Beat Phase  29 References      "Global Positioning System" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-10-13. america. McCrady. gov/ ).6 MB. com/ ) Arms Control Association. aero. htm). globalsecurity. • Air Force Space Command GPS Operations Center homepage  • The GPS Program Office (GPS Wing) —Responsible for designing and acquiring the system on behalf of the US Government. army. 5061609). icao. sandia. Retrieved 2007-09-26. • Satellite Navigation: GPS & Galileo (PDF) —16-page paper about the history and working of GPS. Retrieved 2009-12-08. James M. Retrieved 2010-01-14. ISBN 1557509735. 25 (1956)  Jerry Proc. noaa. pdf).gov. gov/ ). htm). mil/ factsheets/ SWAR_LW_CDA. Retrieved 2010-01-14. 2006. com/ print/ 22_20/ 22893-1. . "Omega" (http:/ / www. armscontrol.  "Why Did the Department of Defense Develop GPS?" (http:/ / www. gov/ bridge/ servlets/ purl/ 10176800-S2tU7w/ native/ 10176800. government policy. radioshack. Retrieved May 17. America. com/ contractors/ computers/ lago/ lago6. trimble. com/ gps/ whygps. • U. 328 pages)  • FAA GPS FAQ  • National Geodetic Survey  Orbits for the Global Positioning System satellites in the Global Navigation Satellite System • GPS SPS Performance Standard —The official Standard Positioning Service specification (2008 version). . gov/ LabNews/ LN03-07-03/ LA2003/ la03/ arms_story. org/ publications/ crosslink/ summer2002/ 01. . pl?icao/ en/ trivia/ kal_flight_007. com/ support_tutorials/ gps/ gps_tmline.  Astronautica Acta II. The Precision Revolution: GPS and the Future of Aerial Warfare (http:/ / books. gps. 2007-05-29. "The GPS Burst Detector W-Sensor" (http:/ / www. • GPS PPS Performance Standard —The official Precise Positioning Service specification. html?p=washfile-english& y=2006& m=February& x=20060203125928lcnirellep0. osti. int/ cgi/ goto_m. ca/ hyperbolic/ omega. p. February 3. Retrieved 2010-01-13. Hasik (2002). Sandia National Laboratories. gov/ FGCS/ info/ sans_SA/ docs/ GPS_SA_Event_QAs. htm). • GPS SPS Performance Standard —The official Standard Positioning Service specification (2001 version). . america. army-technology. pdf) (PDF).  "ICAO Completes Fact-Finding Investigation" (http:/ / www. htm). html).  "GPS & Selective Availability Q&A" (http:/ / www. 2006. ngs. 65.  Michael Russell Rip. . com/ ?id=mB9W3H90KDUC). pdf) "Latest version Commanders Digital Assistant" (http:/ / peosoldier. . Trimble Navigation Ltd. html)  Sinha. .  Dr. Gcn.  Soldier Digital Assistant explanation and photo (http:/ / www. . International Civil Aviation Organization.GPS Timeline" (http:/ / support.gov (http:/ / www. . The Aerospace Corporation. html). . Jproc. .com. Retrieved 2009-10-13. GlobalSecurity.  "A Guide To The Global Positioning System (GPS) . gcn. Radio Shack. gov/ xarchives/ display. shtml#0). Dennis D. Also includes satellite almanac data. google.  "United States Updates Global Positioning System Technology" (http:/ / www. org/ documents/ mtcr). html). .  "XM982 Excalibur Precision Guided Extended Range Artillery Projectile" (http:/ / www. jproc. Spotlight GPS pet locator (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-09-15.  Sandia National Laboratory's Nonproliferation programs and arms control technology (http:/ / www. Army Corps of Engineers manual: NAVSTAR HTML  and PDF (22. Vandana (2003-07-24). Retrieved 2010-05-28. "Commanders and Soldiers' GPS-receivers" (http:/ / www.Global Positioning System • USCG Navigation Center —Status of the GPS constellation. html). Commanders Digital Assistant explanation and photo (http:/ / peosoldier. gov/ systems/ gps/ index. Naval Institute Press. . Retrieved 2010-01-14. Gps. pdf).org.S. noaa. army. org/ military/ systems/ munitions/ m982-155.  "Charting a Course Toward Global Navigation" (http:/ / www. .ca. (http:/ / www. Missile Technology Control Regime (http:/ / www.
edu/ geography/ gcraft/ notes/ gps/ gif/ oplanes. some receivers carefully compute the amount of atmosphere the signal traveled through and adjust the distance accordingly. However.  "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-11-10.co. google. Excluding the exceptional case in which the three satellites are all in a plane containing the center of the earth. asp). all three on the same straight line) the sphere surface could intersect the entire circumference of the circle. edu/ ~kristine/ gpsrep. aero. Ashgate. html). . Retrieved 2009-10-13. they almost all use one of the chipsets produced for this purpose. or in the very special case in which the centers of the three spheres are colinear (i. . bund. com/ node/ 918) in InsideGNSS November 10. GPS Constellation Status (ftp:/ / tycho. bkg. "Optimizing performance through constellation management" (http:/ / www. de/ root_ftp/ IGS/ mail/ igsmail/ year2005/ 5209)  USNO NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (http:/ / tycho. .  US Coast Guard General GPS News 9-9-05 (http:/ / igs. (1996-08-08). htm). . go. html).  losangeles. The Precision Revolution: GPS and the Future of Aerial Warfare (http:/ / books. Retrieved 2008-05-25. National Medal of Technology for GPS (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. co. gov/ ?pageName=gpsFaq).. asp?id=5325). navcen. txt). navy. IEEE.  National Archives and Records Administration. US Government. uscg. Chapter 7  "GPS Support Notes" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-12-08. D. January 19. one point. . James M.  National Executive Committee for Space-Based Positioning.  Johnson. uscg. 2006. Mirco Elena (2000). Wayne Brady (Summer 2002).  Though there are many receiver manufacturers. Pascal Flammant (2005-04-01). GPS Solutions (Springer) 11 (1): 71–76. Paul.  Dana. Retrieved 2008-05-25. com/ ?id=I7JRAAAAMAAJ).uk. and Larson. 2007.  Georg zur Bonsen. 1996. losangeles.C. com/ 2007/ 04/ 14/ gps-receiver-chip-performance-survey/ ). 2007. November 21. usno. uk/ PR/ November2004/ 8641.1007/s10291-006-0038-4. 2009). "Nanu 2008030" (http:/ / cgls. colorado. mil/ library/ factsheets/ factsheet. gov/ textonly/ WH/ EOP/ OSTP/ html/ gps-factsheet. gov/ ?pageName=gpsAlmanacs)  Dietrich Schroeer.  Agnew. . Once a rough position is determined.  Massatt. .Global Positioning System  GPS Wing Reaches GPS III IBR Milestone (http:/ / www. uk/ technology/ 2009/ may/ 19/ gps-close-to-breakdown). Retrieved December 20. nara. U. af. and Timing (http:/ / pnt.  Coursey. Michael Ammann. "GPS III Operational Control Segment (OCX)" (http:/ / www. . com/ Technology/ AheadoftheCurve/ story?id=7647002& page=1). 2005  GPS signals travel at the speed of light. . ISBN 1557509735. "Finding the repeat times of the GPS constellation". 2006. mil/ news/ story. org/ cosmology/ gps-relativity. gif) (GIF). com/ gpsworld/ article/ articleDetail. with minor correction. GPS World. Naval Institute Press.  National Marine Electronics Association NMEA 2000 (http:/ / nmea.M. af. . navcen. 80. org/ pub/ 2000/ index. Navigation. gpsworld. pdf) (PDF). com/ ?id=_wpUAAAAMAAJ). . huffingtonpost. . usno. "GPS system 'close to breakdown'" (http:/ / www. html). Bobbie (May 19. eurekalert. txt). . (2007). mil/ pipermail/ gps/ 2008-March/ 001625.e.. Retrieved December 15. mil/ gpsinfo.  Michael Russell Rip. 3g. Daniel Ammann. org/ pub_releases/ 2005-11/ nrl-par112205. usno. navy. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ air-force-gps-problem-gli_n_595727. .mil (http:/ / www. doi:10. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 2009).  "USCG Navcen: GPS Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / www. March 29.  It is also possible for a circle and a spherical surface to intersect at zero points. navcen. Crosslink: 17–21. ABC News.co. Retrieved 2009-10-13. insidegnss. org/ space/ systems/ gps_3-ocx. "Air Force Responds to GPS Outage Concerns" (http:/ / abcnews.af.  United States Naval Observatory. GPS Technology Reviews. mil/ pub/ gps/ gpsb2.  Tis-pf-nisws. David (May 21. gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser. Retrieved May 14. "GPS Orbital Planes" (http:/ / www.  The two intersections are symmetrical about the plane containing the three satellites. 2008  GPS almanacs (http:/ / www. This article from author's web site (http:/ / spot. pdf?arnumber=285510). ISBN 075462045X. Technology Transfer (http:/ / books. Globalsecurity. colorado. so computing the distance for a given elapsed time is almost a straightforward calculation. the speed of light varies slightly between the partial vacuum of space and the atmosphere.org. html). htm). guardian. ieee. asp?id=123068412)  "United States Naval Observatory (USNO) GPS Constellation Status" (ftp:/ / tycho. A receiver can approximate these effects and produce a reasonable estimate. mil/ pub/ gps/ gpstd.uk" (http:/ / www. navy. Global Positioning System Policy (http:/ / clinton4. org/ publications/ crosslink/ summer2002/ index. pdf). . "Navstar GPS and GLONASS: global satellite navigation systems" (http:/ / ieeexplore. 2004-11-10.  Air Force GPS Problem: Glitch Shows How Much U. An example: "GPS Receiver Chip Performance Survey" (http:/ / gpstekreviews. jsp?id=154870& pageID=6). Etienne Favey. P. gov/ )  "3g. Hasik (2002). "Continuous Navigation Combining GPS with Sensor-Based Dead Reckoning" (http:/ / www.  What the Global Positioning System Tells Us about Relativity (http:/ / metaresearch. Military Relies On GPS (http:/ / www.S. Retrieved January 2.S. org/ iel1/ 2219/ 7072/ 00285510. Retrieved 2009-12-08. uscg.  Daly. html)  United States Naval Research Laboratory. losangeles. google. uscg. 3g. navmanwireless. pdf) (PDF). K. com/ uploads/ EK/ C8/ EKC8zb1ITsNwDqWcqLQxiQ/ Support_Notes_GPS_OperatingParameters. 2008. co. html) 30 . one intersection will be nearer the earth than the other. php). The Guardian.  GPS Overview from the NAVSTAR Joint Program Office (http:/ / www.  John Pike. . Retrieved 2009-05-22. p. Peter H.
 Strang. and Time" (http:/ / www. University of Colorado at Boulder. 2007. htm)  The method used here is similar to that used in "Global Positioning System (preview) by Parkinson and Spiker" (http:/ / books. National space-based Positioning. gov/ about/ office_org/ headquarters_offices/ ato/ service_units/ techops/ navservices/ gnss/ faq/ gps/ index. p. June 13. co.  "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (http:/ / www. de/ en/ gps/ signals. Retrieved 2008-07-07. gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser. astronomy. Page 103. ISBN 047135032X. uk/ index. John Wiley and Sons.4. inertial navigation.de (2005). html). p. com/ books?id=MjNwWUY8jx4C). 25 (1956).9 of PRINCIPLES OF SATELLITE POSITIONING" (http:/ / www.M1)  Česky. livingreviews. unsw.  "Astronautica Acta II.de (2005). gov/ ?pageName=gpsAlmanacs). Gold Code Generators in Virtex Devices (http:/ / www. aspx?releaseid=11335). html)  Rizos. phys. faa. htm)  time-of-week (http:/ / www. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Retrieved 2009-10-13. Retrieved 2009-02-02. "Relativity in the Global Positioning System" by Neil Ashby. net/ gpssignal. gov/ FGCS/ info/ sans_SA/ docs/ statement. google. May 2002. pdf). May 1. Physics Today. 451 (http:/ / books.  Ashby. M.  Grewal.  SNT080408. . pdf)PDF (126 KB)  Global Positioning Systems (http:/ / www. geodesy. .Global Positioning System  "Publications and Standards from the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA)" (http:/ / www. the free encyclopedia" (http:/ / en.  "Unit 1 . Chapter 14. html#3).  "GNSS . edu/ ~halverson/ math36/ GPS. com/ books?id=lvI1a5J_4ewC& pg=PA474& lpg=PA474& dq=PDOP+ derivation& source=web& ots=k5ojJtGZFu& sig=NwwUJb5wAKYuXooiYmvwGKRWkJQ& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA470. Retrieved 2009-10-13. gmat. lsu. google. SIAM.  The Global Positioning System by Robert A. google. navcen. Gilbert. unsw. Navigation. Kai (1997). ISBN 0-961-40886-3. aticourses. . nmea. berkeley. and integration (http:/ / books. edu/ geography/ gcraft/ notes/ gps/ gps. Retrieved 2008-06-27. org/ pub/ index. and Ops Advisories (including archives)" (http:/ / www. DefenseLink.org. htm) at How Stuff Works  Press. "Global Positioning System . Navstar GPS Joint Program Office.  "George. Andrews. Numerical Recipes. Retrieved 25 January 2008. 1996. gmat. . com/ support/ documentation/ application_notes/ xapp217. section 5 (http:/ / relativity. be/ books?id=MjNwWUY8jx4C& pg=PA451)  Living reviews in relativity. edu/ geography/ gcraft/ notes/ gps/ gps. edu. (http:/ / www. . edu/ mog/ mog9/ node9. htm). noaa. . US Coast Guard. . edu/ ~battag/ GAMITwrkshp/ lecturenotes/ unit1/ unit1. "Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) and Visibility" (http:/ / www.  Satellite message format (http:/ / gpsinformation. Nelson Via Satellite (http:/ / www. Angus P. 451. pdf) (PDF). US Government.Wikipedia. htm) Konowa. Retrieved 2008-02-20. Borre. be/ books?id=ZM7muB8Y35wC& pg=PA103)  "DoD Permanently Discontinues Procurement Of Global Positioning System Selective Availability" (http:/ / www. Neil Relativity and GPS (http:/ / www. html#Gdop). GPS Satellite Signals (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 103 (http:/ / books. htm)  "Interface Specification IS-GPS-200. ipgp. . kowoma. 9780471350323.  The same principle. html). Tdc. org/ wiki/ Global_Positioning_System#multi_nr).Introduction to GPS" (http:/ / seismo. 1956-08-10. NANUS. National Marine Electronics Association. Richard W. . 2000.  How GPS Receivers Work (http:/ / electronics. colorado. htm). pdf) (PDF). En. com/ gadgets/ travel/ gps2. and Miller A. Dana." (http:/ / bourabai. "Ephemeris Server Example" (http:/ / www. com/ global_positioning_system. com/ ?id=lvI1a5J_4ewC).  Dana. (http:/ / www.  "Section 1. . . and GPS (http:/ / books. . kz/ winter/ satelliten. . html).  "Statement by the President regarding the United States' Decision to Stop Degrading Global Positioning System Accuracy" (http:/ / www.GPS: Will SA ever be turned back on?" (http:/ / www. Flannery. ngs. Tekolsky. defenselink. org/ Articles/ lrr-2003-1/ )  General relativity in the global positioning system by Neil Ashby (http:/ / www. macalester. mil/ releases/ release. . Velocity. p.. edu/ ~pogge/ Ast162/ Unit5/ gps. Chapter 5.Frequently Asked Questions . Global positioning systems. kowoma. p. 103. "Receiver Position. Retrieved 2009-10-23. xilinx. uscg. University of New South Wales. Lawrence Randolph.  How GPS works. uscg. The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press). de/ en/ gps/ data_composition. google.wikipedia.. 1999. kowoma.uk. University of Colorado at Boulder. and the math behind it. Retrieved 2007-12-17. fr/ ~tarantola/ Files/ Professional/ GPS/ Neil_Ashby_Relativity_GPS. 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Jerzy. Suruena. Nintendude. Lollerskates. Wiki-vr. Qutezuce. Dzogchenpa. Captainsriram. Cpl Syx. Sathyah. Bjdehut. Mdukas. Altenmann. Inputpersona. JFreeman. Alvestrand. Coltongarder. Kcordina. David.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3. Maroof. Heron. Stevertigo. CanadianLinuxUser. Pol098. Stratocracy. Jleedev. Catbar. Vera Cruz. Joean. Lion789. Finbarr Saunders.org/w/index. Into The Fray. Spotsaurian. TiCPU. Patrishia Welch. Mifter. Kano14. PEHowland. Crazypete101. User270981. Bibinboy. Mozzerati. Trafford09.Article Sources and Contributors 34 Article Sources and Contributors Global Positioning System Source: http://en. The Anome. Dicklyon. Abu badali. Trewornan. CLEGG. Geognerd. Tdadamemd. Chris the speller. Mav. Dhaluza. MBCF. Minghong. CarbonX. Think outside the box. Greenmind. Lumos3. Woohookitty. Svick. Michaelfavor. Wilsondavidc. Skarebo. Mondorescue. L7HOMAS. Lvyinwangzi. Oxymoron83. Alexlynne123. Miguelzinho. DerHexer. Blofeld. Iediteverything. Pervect. Susan118. Cyrius. DeadEyeArrow.5 Contributors: User:Nachoman-au Image:KyotoTaxiRide. Ryan-D. Crusher7485. Rightofcenter. George k. Delaroyas. Umapathy. Diomidis Spinellis. Freemo96.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Bubba73 (You talkin' to me?). Elassint. KPH2293. Altermike. Eplack. Martarius. Hydrogen Iodide. Sciurinæ. Gpsmobiletracker. Acdx. MarkMentovai. Brian Geppert. Olegwiki. Philip Trueman. Leonard G.php?title=File:GPS_monitor_station. Ndunruh. Lego1496. AnnaBananaBear. Ikescs.Monniaux. Tejblum. MyronAub. Jim Douglas. Closedmouth. Kintnerp1. CrashingWave. DavidWBrooks. Kevin Forsyth. Ajkgordon. Irishguy. Dolive21. 1 anonymous edits Image:GPS on smartphone cycling. Deor. Doulos Christos. Flewis. Lostchicken. AndrewWTaylor. Clark89. David. Frau K. BeteTest.0 Contributors: User:HawaiianMama File:GPS monitor station. Jurohi. Thingg. Vanished User 1004. Antonycarthy. TF TD U TH TC. Wikieditor06. Ripepette. Richwales. Lowfly. Mmeijeri. Yamamoto Ichiro. Zundark. Nova77. Patstuart. CzarB. Solitude. Studdocs. ArielGold. Fotinakis. JMiall. Nuggetboy. Timmo1234. GrahamStw. P199. Can't sleep. Ilikebooks123. Stefanolio2. SJK. JForget. Katieh5584. Dirkbb. Eric119. Leevclarke. Epbr123. Superm401. Paul Klenk. Richss. Gerry Ashton. Rrburke. RHB. Roesser. Akradecki. Kanguole. Alansohn. Ottawa4ever. Mdd. Zocky. BarretBonden. Fullstop. Arthur Rubin. Derek.php?title=File:Magellan_GPS_Blazer12. Gutza. Jamestastic. ArglebargleIV. Urhixidur. Yosef1987. Groomer. EncMstr. Nikevich.Monniaux Image:NAVSTAR GPS logo shield-official. Paranoid. Ros Power. Zewill. Bryan Derksen. Darin-0. Carasmatic. Sunny256. Mikue. LouScheffer. Hydrargyrum.org/w/index. RJFJR. Stankov. Barefootguru. Hamitr. Danielbird. I'm the Cavalry. Mxn. ABF. Bdelisle.peterson. Wernher. Iridescent. Quillaja. Richard Taylor. Morio. Kars777. Seabhcan. Mike1024. Hcobb. ST47. Mryashc. Mirgolth. Luna Santin. Stoubora. 213. Extransit. DHN. Synergyplease. Kirov Airship. Euchiasmus. NuclearWarfare. Autarch. Bigmak.org/w/index. Thisisbossi. Ehollon. ERsdfer34w. NellieBly. Jutiphan.png License: unknown Contributors: United States Air Force . Friviere. Cowtippingrl. Hadal. Scarian. Uknewthat. Looxix. Datapark. Damian Yerrick.png Source: http://en. Simbad82. Estoy Aquí. Thue. M. Harald88. Nuttycoconut. Carey Evans. Rogper. Hamiltondaniel. Rootbeer. Frankenschulz.php?title=File:GPS_on_smartphone_cycling. Sir Vicious.org/w/index. Alphachimp. Rchandra. MBK004. Cus07. BD2412. Proca. Almighty001. JHMM13. 5 anonymous edits Image:50th Space Wing. Michaelfavor. Wwoods. Olive639. Texboy. Motorspin. Dogcow. Delirium. Cashpot. Icairns. Wintermute115. By78. Varnav. Julesd. Dr. Kevinwparker. RobertG. Пика Пика. Leszek Jańczuk. Guaka. Mdf. M.uk. Yidisheryid. Tex23. Beaver.wikipedia. Wikiborg. Wonderstruck. SCEhardt. Midnightcomm. Lvb. Rhbucher. Dethme0w. The Rambling Man. Robert Xia. Tecoutlet. Tero. Rettetast.php?title=File:GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-iif. Qwikifix. Epson291. Bcorr. Tsaitgaist. Jim. Crazy Software Productions. Tbackstr. Bert Schlossberg. N328KF. NewEnglandYankee. Niczar. Stevietheman. Grim23. Pelleapa. Vaeiou. Ground Zero. White Cat. Gogo Dodo. Chexum. Irene Avetisyan. Joyous!. Cardamon. LjL. Civil Engineer III. Poccil. Hooperbloob. Benbread. DineshAdv. AlexD. MER-C. Materialscientist. Hergio. Caesura. Vduran410. MasterNetHead. Brianga.php?title=File:NAVSTAR_GPS_logo_shield-official. Tom Ketchum. Lowellian. Nightstallion. BeenBeren.org/w/index. Gillis54. Neurolysis. Stimpy. Fuzzy Logic. Calrosfing. BrianWilloughby. CalendarWatcher.murphy. Pizza1512. King of Hearts. Dcizk. Mike s. SimonInOz. Donfbreed. AcademyAD. Jdorwin. MithrandirMage. Ohnoitsjamie. Thumperward. Rehnn83. Pharaoh of the Wizards. Nescio. Bambuway. Piano non troppo. Parabellum101. EEPROM Eagle. Bricktop. Madelinefelkins. Lethe.qaiser.enh. Vclaw. Thenimaj.wikipedia. Jpbowen. Richtom80. Badger Drink. Ahoerstemeier. Thermochap. Imroy. Linton. Gjs238. ForthOK. Buster2058. Lradrama. Jhertel. Everyguy. Ztyler90.nl. Bidabadi. TheJosh. Zzuuzz.php?title=File:50th_Space_Wing. JaGa. Sdsds.wikipedia. ThreeBlindMice. Gujjar123. Joey-das-WBF. Tempshill. Jok2000. SlimVirgin. MoRsE. JPAntonios. Freestyle. Lupin. Chairboy. Inkling. Bovineone. Themfromspace. Odie5533. Kenyon. Pfalstad. Carboncopy. Isidore. Artem Karimov. Eleassar. Commander Keane. Simxp. Himatsu Bushi. HexaChord. Eric Shalov. Twohoos. Velella.jpg Source: http://en. John. Xionbox. Reconfirmer.wikipedia. Anon lynx. Joonysam. Hqduong.wikipedia. Supertouch. FergusM1970. J. Winchelsea. Mac. Txuspe. Tukss. Vinoth. Neep. L33th4x0rguy. Nk. Muhandes. RHB100. Rumping. Download.org. Geologyguy. GrandDrake. Macboots. DarkFalls. Ericcolley. Quia. Peter k john. Joe Jarvis. Mdd4696. Flip619. Eliasen. Sara 171. Alan012. Matthew Woodcraft. Aaron.wikipedia. OrbitOne. Anog. Kubigula. JonHarder. AEMoreira042281. Minesweeper. Alpha 4615. Fitzaubrey. Badanedwa. Tonyfaull. Haakon. Velle. Mcorazao. Rshin. Coneslayer. Twilsonb. Baylink. Cleared as filed. Chris-gore. RossA. Mystic Pixel. Hankwang. Ed Poor. The Epopt. Ehn. Ndenison. Pakaran. Amcfreely. SEISMO212. Ozlorimer. Michael Hardy. Miquonranger03.253. Lsheats.php?title=File:KyotoTaxiRide. 6 anonymous edits Image:Magellan GPS Blazer12. Troy. Cgingold. GregLoutsenko. Mp3phile. Sv1xv. Bhavesh871. Robhd. Orderud. Arcman. (Jud McCranie). MBisanz. G33rt. Paulseldon. John Vandenberg.MacInnes.henderson. Wikiscient. GB fan. Vyarovoy. Otaku32. Tedp. Petruza. JG123456789. MatthewSchor. Marek69. PaulHanson. N. Dispenser. Pwaring. Benandorsqueaks. Xuiolhcarlos. Andrew Maiman. Wikier. Tjmartinwp. IanBailey. GW Simulations. RichF. DocWatson42. Brews ohare.Divband. Kuru. Onco p53. Jesse Viviano. Prolog. Schmock. Ckatz. DrBob. Shaddack. PubLife. CynicalMe. Davewild. Avnjay. Lylenorton. Санта Клаус.php?title=File:GPS_roof_antenna_dsc06160. Brighterorange.delanoy. Ncc1701zzz. Lambiam. Snowolf. JQF. Mononomic. ZZninepluralZalpha. Ric. Kingpin13. Alan Pascoe. Daniel. Pimlottc. LA2. Zahid Abdassabur.jpg Source: http://en. Tom Worthington. Karthikavij. Dysprosia. Drz. Cavrdg. Kimse. Asanka123. Pumpmeup. Sonjaaa. Lupinoid. Tenro1. Wthornton0206. AxelBoldt. M jurrens. Dryzhov. Kjkolb. Jfromcanada. Karn. Read-write-services. Comatose51.wikipedia. Hogyn Lleol. Kusunose. Angela. EnviroGranny. Scarykitty. Night Gyr.hillshafer. Dan East. Roybb95. Bigjoestalin. ErikEngerd. Duk. Empty Buffer. L. Poeloq. Tomlouie. Redjar. Donreed. Kslotte. Edmundgreen. Rhobite. Sjktje. Sjc. Gulftrotter. Jluttichau. Mozillaman. MattieTK.cashman. Dual Freq. Seo001. Bubba73. Aitias. Joejava. Astronaut. Mtmelendez.Siegel. Lightmouse. Versus22. Gpswatcher. Andres. Romanski. RandomWalk. Alex43223. Athanasius1. Chase me ladies. Gadget17. Denimadept. Onevalefan. Cmapm. Will Beback. Niteowlneils.39. Symane. AndyA-UK. ReedConstruction. Katimawan2005. The Belgain. Omicronpersei8. GregorB. Eaglestrike117.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bricktop. Jaho. NHJG. Zapvet. Shantavira. Aude. 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Enormousdude.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2. Larry Doolittle. Tellyaddict. QuantumEleven. Jesusz. Licon. Halsteadk. Naddy. Josephf. Kliek. Texture. Sleigh. Hmrox.org/w/index. Ali@gwc. Markus Kuhn. ADNghiem501. Nachoman-au. Edward. Davandron. Fox. Slowmover. Gurch. Jmorgan. Nagi Punyamurthula. Shadowlynk. Wiki alf. Natl1. Lunchtimemama. Lars Washington. Blanchardb. Dan D. Jrkarp. Nv8200p. P40K. Brianh6630. Bigbadjosh. GDK. Deamon138. Onorem. Andersjm. Teryx. Maury Markowitz. Kcomstock. GCW50. Bkkbrad. BenFrantzDale. Ludington. Man vyi. RonH. Netbymatt. Garo. DVdm. Ma. MONGO. Palopt. Ka9q. Marcotrue. Voidxor. Tsaitgaist. Blaxthos. Internetsurferpaul. Common Good. Arkrishna. Ao333. Franamax. Carnildo. Ypy31. Grandhougday. Tawker. Didle5. Barras. L337p4wn. Koyaanis Qatsi. Gary King. RobertFritzius. Globe199. X14n. D. Atif. CandyNetwork2005. Seraphim. Val42. Eb3686. Optionweb. Saros136.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Ed g2s. Patrick. Lwanex.t2. Stubb. SusanLesch. S. JosephWong. TravelJournalNetwork. The other steve jobs. Licenses and Contributors Image:GPS Satellite NASA art-iif. Sidb. Fritz Jörn. Huwfinney. Hertz1888. Beland. Darth Panda. CambridgeBayWeather. Koavf. RoySmith. Swhitehead. Mauls. Kungfuadam. Alanbrowne. Mossig. Bevo. LorenzoB. Mangogirl2. clown will eat me. Glenn. Długosz.wikipedia. Adambro. Easphi. Olivier. PhoenixV. Avono. Ankooshgawande. Loadmaster. Michael Shields.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:David.rkus. Garaffer. Conversion script. Bgruber. LrdChaos.org/w/index. Mike Dill. Dcamp314. StuffOfInterest. Netsnipe. Pi314-429. Skcpublic. SineWave. Brion VIBBER. Aspectacle. ZorroIII. Rich Farmbrough. Keenan Pepper. Eenemy. Spatialthoughts. Springnuts. Prodego. CiaPan. Ahunt. Andareed. NickelShoe. Eclectica. Socrates2008. Chasingsol. Thamis. Hcberkowitz. Bkell. Eltener. Geof. Johann38. LPetrie. Shirik. TGC55. Wog7777. Llywrch. KitSolidor. AssegaiAli. Robbrady. ThomasMurray3. Rosser1238. Ka Faraq Gatri. Qwertyuioper. Ibagli. Crzycrzy. Balabiot. SEWilco. Partyzan XXI. Grayshi. Sam Hocevar. Espoo. One half 3544. Petershen1984. Fiazsiddique. Zodon.. Haus. Mark. Shura007. HughGRex. Jfrincon. CapeCanaveral321. Eptin. Roachmeister. Janipewter. Rangutan. Ivansanchez. Achilles03. Canberra photographer.org/w/index. Frymaster. Birdvosh. Pengo. Mwtoews. D2holdings. Morcheeba. DeliDumrul.xxx. Nick123. Joema. Hessi. Syndicate. AlexiusHoratius. Bobblewik. CrypticBacon. Jecowa. Kaszeta. Tedchuang. Dmoss. SoundGod3. Neil. Pauli133. Jaymarcos. Charlesnu. Cypherpunk. Tide rolls. Millerliu0414. Pip2andahalf.wikipedia File:GPS roof antenna dsc06160. 2146 anonymous edits Image Sources. Jesse Ruderman. Mannafredo. Kostisl. Giftlite. Tflight. Antandrus. Shaw. CyclePat. Geoeg. Fredb. Agateller. Goltz20707. CaribDigita. Glaurung.djinevski. Arch dude. Chris 73. Rjwilmsi. J rey3. Woodstone. Dolda2000. Matthew Yeager. Musiconeologist. HyperSonic X. Beetstra. 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