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CONTENTS November 2018 Vol 01 | Issue 01

10 16 20 55

62 49 64

67 68

Smart Water & Waste World reaches out to wastewater companies,
regulators, contractors, and engineering experts to look at the needs
of wastewater segment, with a focus on opportunities in wastewater
technology and innovation, while developing cost-effective strategies.





<< editor’s note

Put Your Money Where

The Value Is!
would begin with a humble and heartfelt ‘thank you’ - to all of you - who have accepted and sup-
ported our new initiative - Smart Water & Waste World (SWWW). We launched our inaugural issue
in October and introduced it at the IFAT India show in Mumbai. The timing proved to be perfect,
as all the exhibitors, participants, and visitors gave us a big thumbs-up (see page 14-15). A special
thanks to national and international water experts, authors, and consultants who reached out to me with
their positive feedback and insightful suggestions for the magazine. We promise to keep surprising you
with new features, interesting sections, and ground-breaking content, as always in an unbiased manner.
MAYUR SHARMA | Editor This month, our cover story is the “Value of Wastewater”. We reached out to wastewater technology and service providers, contractors, and engineering experts to analyze the current and future needs of waste-
@SmartWWW_IN water segment, with a focus on innovations and cost-effective strategies for recycle and reuse.
The fast-growing population and expanding industrial landscape have rapidly increased sewerage and
industrial waste. Water scarcity and day-zero like situations are no longer a future threat. There is no sur-
prise then that wastewater in already being seen as a potential source of drinking water.
The wastewater market has been growing at a fast pace and will continue to do so. China’s wastewater
treatment market, for example, was valued at USD 39.3 billion in 2016. The wastewater treatment compa-
nies in China treated more than 100.0 billion metric tons of wastewater in 2017 alone.
The largest segment of global wastewater market - residential & commercial - is expected to increase
its market share because of improving standards of treated water. The other big segment - industrial - will
grow steadily right now but may slow in future because of reduced water consumption and emissions
(results of new manufacturing technologies), though it would take longer than what is being expected,
specifically in developing countries.
I only feel angry Enforcement of new laws on wastewater management is already driving the adoption of technologies
when I see waste. like Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD). The global market for ZLD could reach USD 1,002 million by 2025. In
a country like India, Thermal Power, Distillery, Iron & Steel, Textile, and Pulp & Paper industries need to
When I see people adopt ZLD sooner than later, being major the most water-intensive and highly polluting industries.
throwing away things And then there is the point of “Value of Wastewater” itself. Currently, a Wastewater Treatment Plant
we could use. (WWTP) consumes the energy equivalent of more than two power plants per year, at most places. On the
other hand, if innovative techniques, combined with an optimized integration of available technologies,
- Mother Teresa are used for an energy-positive wastewater treatment, then the same plants can produce up to 12 power
plants’ worth of efficient and renewable energy. Converting WWTPs into efficient renewable-energy gen-
erators will help in making our economies even stronger.
Our next two issues will be December (we will focus on “CTOs Speak on Exciting New Technologies”,
and “Automation & Instrumentation”, and January (Annual Edition - “Municipal Cases Studies Special
Issue). I welcome editorial contributions on these and all other topics which you find significant for the
water sector.
Keep sharing your thoughts, inputs, and suggestions.

Smart Water & Waste WorldTM Vol 01 No 1 November 2018

Pages 76
FOUNDER & CEO Printed and Published by Shailesh
Kailash Shirodkar Ramaswamy Iyer, B-305, Gopinath Copyright © 2018
Smruti CHS Ltd. Goddeo, Bhayander
EDITOR (East) Dist - Thane 401105 on behalf Beyond Expectations.
Mayur Sharma of Beyond Expectations, Printed All rights reserved throughout the world.
at Taco Visions Pvt. Ltd. 105- ABC, Reproduction in any manner, electronic
DESIGN & LAYOUT or otherwise, in whole or in part, without
Govt. Industrial Estate,Charkop,
Nocturnal Brains prior written permission is prohibited.
Kandivali (W), Mumbai 400067, and
PRODUCTION Published at Beyond Expectations *Responsible for selection
Shailesh Iyer B-305, Gopinath Smruti CHS Ltd. of news under PRB Act
Goddeo, Bhayander (East) Dist,
Thane 401105 Maharashtra, India.

Important: Whilst care is taken prior to acceptance of advertising copy, it is not possible to verify its contents. Beyond Expectations cannot be held responsible for such contents,
nor for any loss or damages incurred as a result of transactions with companies, associations or individuals advertising in its publications. We therefore recommend that readers
make necessary inquiries before sending any monies or entering into any agreements with advertisers or otherwise acting on an advertisement in any manner whatsoever.



(A Joint Venture between Concord Enviro Pvt Ltd &

Danish Climate Investment Fund I.e DCIF)

ROserve = Reverse Osmosis (RO) + Service

Using the technology of Reverse Osmosis we recycle waste water for industries.
ROSERVE provides a blend of advanced technology and financial solutions
delivering a ‘Pay as you Treat’ solution.




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• Jubilant Life Sciences Ltd • Rayapuram CETP Pvt Ltd • Kasipalayam CETP Pvt Ltd
• Kanchan International Ltd • Amitasha enterprises Pvt Ltd • ONGC Ltd
• AKR Textiles • Anshika Fasteners Pvt Ltd • AB Mauri Pvt Ltd

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+91-22-67049000 @ROserveTweets

IDE Technologies to Build BWRO Desalination Plant in Israel

The plant will take brackish surface water and produce high-quality water for
agricultural and hydroelectric applications.
SWWW Staff plant will be located in Emek technological experience,” said plant, and operate it. IDE’s ex- has the lowest-ever cost for
Israel Hamainot, near Sde Eliyahu, Ran Ben Noon, CEO of Afikei perience includes the operation high-quality desalinated water.
Israel, and will produce 6,750 Mayim. “Considering IDE’s vast of the world’s largest seawater “We’re proud to partner with
IDE TECHNOLOGIES HAS m³/day of high-quality water for experience in the water treat- desalination plant in Sorek, Is- Afikei Mayim to create this lead-
been commissioned by Afikei agricultural and hydroelectric ment industry both globally rael, as well as two other plants ing-edge BWRO desalination
Mayim, a local water utility, en- applications. and in Israel, the company was in Israel located in Hadera and plant,” said Guy Sagie, CEO of
gaged in water distribution in “The feed water of our plant a natural choice.” Ashkelon. All these plants use IDE Projects. “This is a great op-
the Beit Shean valley in Israel, is very challenging; therefore, it IDE will design the Afikei reverse osmosis technology portunity to build and operate
to build its Brackish Water Re- was important for us to choose Mayim brackish water desali- and integrate the world’s most another desalination plant in
verse Osmosis (BWRO) desali- a vendor for our BWRO desali- nation plant, supply and install advanced desalination technol- Israel and expand IDE’s capabil-
nation plant. The desalination nation plant who has proven equipment, commission the ogies. The Hadera plant also ities in the BWRO market.”

LANXESS India Bags Awards for R&D Multiples Awarded

Sustainable Practices and CSR Initiatives the Contract for Supply of
Butterfly Valves at a Canal
LANXESS India on the 27th
September in Mumbai and
Project in Telangana
was received by Mr. Neelanjan
Banerjee, Vice Chairman and
Managing Director, LANXESS
India and Mr. Sunder Rajan,
Head – CSR, LANXESS India.
The organization initiated and
completed twelve unique CSR
projects across locations in
the country in 2017. This in-
cluded projects like Teach for
India, empowering municipal
school with digital classrooms,
SWWW Staff ensuring minimum impact on infrastructure development of
India the environment. At its Jhaga- municipal schools, sanitation
dia site, LANXESS has spent & hygiene camps for working
LANXESS INDIA PRIVATE 20 percent of total building women from slums in Thane,
Limited has been acknowl- cost on sustainability proj- upgrading healthcare facilities
edged for its diligent adher- ects like effluent treatment in Nagda Municipal Hospital
ence towards sustainable plant, sewage treatment plant, by way of installing a sonogra-
practices and concerted ef- multi-fuel boiler, off-gas in- phy machine, maintenance of
forts in the field of corporate cinerator and creating a green overhead water tank in Nagda SWWW Staff This project envisages the
social responsibility (CSR), zone. Similarly, the Nagda supplying water to the local India transportation of one thousand
and has been conferred with site has co-generation plant, population and installing solar million cubic feet of water a
the Indo-German Chamber wastewater treatment, sewage street lamps among others. R&D MULTIPLES HAS been day for 60 days a year from the
of Commerce (IGCC) Award treatment plant, wastewater On the receipt of the two awarded a new contract for link between Yellampalli and
for ‘Outstanding Contribution post-treatment plant and off- awards, Neelanjan Banerjee, design, engineering, and man- Mid Manair projects using the
towards best Sustainable Busi- gas incinerator. Further, to Vice Chairman and Managing ufacturing of 48 nos. of 3600 SRSP flood flow canal. When
ness Practices by a Large En- significantly reduce carbon Director, LANXESS India, said, mm/144” butterfly valves for the SRSP is in flood, the canal
terprise’ for the year 2018 and footprint, 96% of Jhagadia’s “LANXESS is a good example the ongoing Sri Ram Sagar is expected to serve its purpose
the Indian Chemical Council and 60% of Nagda’s export of creating a long-term vision Flood Flow canal project in the of taking the excess water using
(ICC) Award 2017 Certificate consignments have been shift- to develop our business while state of Telangana. This is the gravity to Mid-Manair for meet-
of Merit for Social Responsi- ed from road to railways. keeping our commitment to largest single order in the com- ing the irrigation and drinking
bility. The ICC Award 2017 Cer- sustainable practices and giv- pany’s history and it expects to water needs of Adilabad, Ni-
LANXESS’ sites focus on op- tificate of Merit for Social Re- ing back to society a part of complete the deliveries in the zamabad and Karimnagar dis-
timal use of natural resources sponsibility was presented to our success.” ongoing financial year. tricts in Telangana, India.



SPML Infra Receives Zee Business ‘Dare to Dream’ Award 2018

Mayur Sharma with a project of Rs.15 Lac for almost every states of India
India water supply in Mizoram and and providing drinking water
at that point in time, water was facilities to more than 40 mil-
SPML INFRA LIMITED has not a business proposition at lion people across the country.
received the ‘Zee Business-Dare all. But we dared to dream to SPML Infra is the first Indian
to Dream Award 2018’ as ‘Com- make clean drinking water company that has continuously
pany of the Year-Infrastructure’ available to all citizen of India featured among the world’s top
at a ceremony held in Kolkata and started with the North 50 private water companies. On
on 27th October 2018. Abhi- Eastern part of the country. behalf of hundreds of SPML
nandan Sethi, Associate Direc- With our continued focus on employees and associates, we
tor of SPML Infra received the improving water distribution are thankful to Zee Business
award for the company. management and infrastruc- for this recognition of our work
Subhash Sethi, Chairman, ture development, SPML Infra and certainly, it will enhance
SPML Infra said, “SPML Infra almost four decades and de- lenging and iconic projects in is currently executing projects the optimism to continue
has been in the business for livered some of the most chal- the country. Our journey began worth over Rs. 6,000 crores in dreaming and realizing.”

The Government of India ACCIONA Expands Footprint in Italy with

Reviews Ongoing Namami Two Water Contracts Worth €31.5 Million
Gange Projects The contracts are for maintaining and upgrading
water and sewer networks for Acquedotto
Claims that 70-80 percent Pugliese and for sewer management in Tuscany
of work will be completed by for Publiacqua.
SWWW Staff charge of water management Acquedotto Pugliese, the
Italy in the area of Florence (Tus- public water company in the
SWWW Staff been sanctioned in the Uttara- cany) has awarded ACCIONA Apulia region, the most indus-
India khand state. Two sewerage in- ACCIONA AGUA HAS ob- Agua a contract to maintain trialized region in Southern It-
frastructure projects have been tained two new contracts in drinking water and wastewater aly, has awarded a consortium
NITIN GADKARI, MINIS- sanctioned in Jharkhand state. Italy: one for sanitation and treatment plants. The contract headed by ACCIONA Agua
TER for Water Resources, River Both projects are in progress. water treatment plant mainte- covers ordinary and extraor- a contract for sewer inspec-
Development & Ganga Reju- Around 21 sewerage infra- nance in Tuscany, and another dinary maintenance work and tion and maintenance in the
venation recently carried out a structure projects have been to manage sewer networks in upgrading water treatment province of Taranto, in which
review of each ongoing project sanctioned in Bihar. 13 STPs Apulia. The two contracts are plants, including ancillary ACCIONA Service also partic-
under the Namami Gange Pro- in Bihar are at various stages of worth a total of €31.57 mil- work such as civil engineering, ipates with its environmental
gram in the states of Uttara- progress. Tenders for 4 projects lion. waste transport and mainte- activity. The contract is worth
khand, Jharkhand, Bihar, and have been received and are un- Publiacqua, the company in nance of thermal dryers. €15.57 million.
West Bengal. der evaluation while 3 projects
Gadkari said, “Some projects are under tendering and 1 proj-

Bentley Systems Announces Winners of

have been completed, some are ect is to be tendered. 16 sewer-
under progress and tenders age infrastructure projects have
for some projects have been is- been sanctioned in the state of
sued. I am hopeful that we will
complete 70-80 percent work
West Bengal.
The Central Government Year in Infrastructure 2018 Awards
in the Namami Gange Program has also notified the minimum
by March 2019.” environmental flows for River SWWW Staff Chengdu City - Chengdu, Si-
National Mission for Clean Ganga that has to be main- UK chuan, China. Water, Wastewa-
Ganga has sanctioned over 288 tained at various locations on ter, and Stormwater Networks
projects on Ganga in the states the river. Environmental flows The winners for going digi- Category: DTK Hydronet Solu-
of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, are the acceptable flow regimes tal advancements in infrastruc- tions - Conceptioneering and
Bihar, Jharkhand, and West that are required to maintain ture for “water segment” are: Master Planning of Bankura
Bengal. a river in the desired environ- Water and Wastewater Treat- search Incorporation Limited - Multi Village Bulk Water Sup-
Around 32 sewerage infra- mental state or predetermined ment Plants Category: MCC 400,000 ton/day Water Supply ply Scheme - Bankura, West
structure projects (STPs) have state. Capital Engineering & Re- Project of Wenjiang District, Bengal, India.

10 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Royal HaskoningDHV’s Nereda Wastewater Treatment Technology

Expands into China
SWWW Staff BEIES has already iden- technology, owned by the
China tified two potential Nereda prestigious company Royal
wastewater treatment proj- HaskoningDHV, is the best
BEIJING ENTERPRISES ects, which when complete example of it. Nereda has
INDUSTRIAL Environmen- will not only provide im- been proven to achieve or-
tal Solutions Limited (BEIES) proved wastewater treat- ganic waste and simultane-
has entered into a partner- ment at a lower cost to the ous nutrient removal within
ship with Royal Haskoning- environment but will also a considerably smaller foot-
DHV and Century 3 (Shang- act as demonstration plants print, with very low energy
hai) for the delivery of to showcase the capability of and chemical consumption.”
sustainable Nereda® waste- the technology. Rong He, CEO of Centu-
water treatment technology Xu, Deputy General Man- ry 3 (Shanghai) Inc. added:
into China. ager of BEIES said: “We “Nereda technology offers a
The move to introduce BEIES can now install this ing excellent and sustainable have been following the de- huge advantage in land sav-
Nereda® Technology into state-of-the-art technology wastewater treatment while velopment of Aerobic Gran- ing and energy conservation
China represents an exciting in its wastewater treatment effectively expanding its in- ular Sludge technology for while achieving high effluent
opportunity for the country. projects across China, ensur- stallations’ capacity. more than ten years. Nereda quality.”

Danfoss Chairman Receives SUEZ Group Announces 5 Contracts

Worth €100 Million in Europe
Prestigious Chinese Award
SWWW Staff 62,000 tons of residual waste
Europe to Energy-from-Waste facilities
for Cyclus, representing 8 mu-
SUEZ HAS STRENGTH- nicipalities located in the prov-
ENED its recycling & recovery ince of South Holland.
activities in Europe with the The group has also commis-
award and the renewal of 5 sioned a new center in Huy,
contracts, for total revenues of near Liège for the collection
about €100 million. and treatment of polluted soil
In Germany, the Waste Man- from construction and sani-
agement Association of Chem- tation sites in Belgium. With
nitz (Land of Saxony) has or- a total surface area of 12,000
ganized an intensive European m2, the site will have a charac-
tender and has chosen SUEZ terization and sorting capacity
solutions for the treatment of 150,000 tonnes a year.
and the recycling of pre-treat- SUEZ expands its activities
SWWW Staff the company with more than Danfoss CEO, Kim Fausing ed municipal waste produced with pilot of an innovative col-
China 5000 employees, 6 production is expecting the big potential by 580,000 inhabitants. This lection solution alongside the
sites, and 6 billion DKK (805 in China to be further un- contract, worth more than €20 inter-municipal organization
DANFOSS CHAIRMAN OF M Euro) in sales. leashed over the coming years. million and for 5 years, will
the board Jørgen M. Clausen Danfoss chairman of the “The China Friendship start in June 2020. OPTIMO’s objective is to
has been awarded The China board, Jørgen M. Clausen was Award is a recognition of the In the Netherlands, AVU standardize them and simpli-
Friendship award - the high- awarded the prestigious Chi- work the Danfoss China team has selected SUEZ for the col- fy sorting. A single collection
est award for foreigners - as a nese Government Friendship has been doing the last 22 lection of municipal waste of takes place every week, with
recognition of 22 years of Dan- Award, by the Chinese Vice years. We are proud to receive 6 municipalities located in the all flows in resistant bags of
foss contribution to the devel- Premier Liu He. this recognition, and by taking province of Utrecht. This con- different colors. They are then
opment of the Chinese society. Danfoss has experienced an active part in the develop- tract will serve approximately separated at sorting center,
22 years after Jørgen M. high growth rates in China ment in China, we expect to be 75,000 households for con- before recycling or recovery.
Clausen decided to open up - due to focus on energy ef- able to grow our business fur- solidated revenues of around In this area, teams also collect
Danfoss first operations in ficient solutions to create a ther in the years to come. And €21m and 4 years. The service most of the waste since the cre-
China in 1996, the Chinese healthy environment, food & at the same time work hard to will be mainly provided by ation of 10 years
market has grown to be Dan- water safety and creating solu- continue to develop business LNG-powered vehicles. The ago and until 2020, represent-
foss second home market and tions for heavy urbanization with our partners in China,” Group will also guarantee the ing around €20m of consoli-
the second biggest market for process taking place in China. says Kim Fausing. disposal and the transport of dated revenues.

12 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


IDE Technologies
SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions
IDE Technologies has launched its brine desalter
technology - MAXH2O - which aims to effectively
reduce brine reject from brackish water desalination SUEZ Water innovative design reduces cost and footprint with-
plants by ensuring a more durable and efficient pro- Technologies & out compromising quality or performance.
cess. To increase brine recovery of brackish water re- Solutions has an- It provides one of the largest surface area mod-
verse osmosis (BWRO) desalination plants, the MAX- nounced a new ules on the market, which allows customers greater
H2O desalter technology integrates a proprietary ultrafiltration (UF) treatment capacity in the same footprint. The inte-
reverse osmosis (RO) system with an integrated salt rackless membrane grated header concept in the ZeeWeed 700B-RMS
precipitation unit, which together overcome the tradi- system, the Zee- makes upgrading existing systems simple by re-
tional limitations of brine recovery systems. The tech- Weed 700B-RMS. placing the module and rack to gain added treat-
nology increases water recovery and benefits both When compared ment capacity. SUEZ’s ZeeWeed 700B-RMS in-
municipal and industrial applications such as mining to most rack types, side-out UF membranes can be used for drinking
sites, power stations, and cooling towers. Early pilots the required foot- water, seawater reverse-osmosis pre-treatment and
of MAXH2O on both existing and new BWRO desali- print needed for tertiary treatment for water reuse. They are suitable
nation plants have shown an increased brine recovery installation is re- for both new and retrofit water treatment projects.
of up to 98 percent. MAXH2O can be installed as a duced and the cost The new ZeeWeed 700B-RMS is an upgrade to
standalone system or connected to an existing BWRO of the system is the existing ZeeWeed 700B membrane system. The
plant as a tail unit on the brine stream in order to lowered since there is no need for a steel rack or RMS benefits from the proven strength of the Sev-
maximize the plant production while minimizing the feed, permeate or reject pipes. This product targets enBore fiber and increased membrane surface area
brine discharge flow. both industrial and municipal applications as its which results in reduced footprint and costs.

KSB SE & Co. KGA Endress+Hauser tion and performance curve optimization. The com-
pany decided to transfer the proven multi-platform
Endress+Hauser has released the Memograph M concept to Quick&Easy that means that besides the
RSG45 Advanced Data Manager DIN rail version, an desktop version, the software is also available as the
web and mobile version. Spaix 5 Quick&Easy is es-
pecially suitable for small and medium-sized compa-
nies which are focusing on performance curve man-
agement and pump selection.

Munson Machinery Company

intelligent remote device with extensive communica-

tion capabilities, making it ideal for IIoT applications
and use as an edge device for getting data to cloud-
based servers. It is able to acquire data from up to
20 HART or universal analog input channels and 14
digital inputs, has two analog outputs and up to 12
The KSB Group has developed a special impeller relay outputs and makes its data available to IIoT sys-
for its Movitec multistage high-pressure pumps. This tems and all major automation system architectures A new Model HD-510-MS Paddle Blender equipped
new impeller significantly improves these pumps’ via multiple communication interfaces and protocols. with four high-speed choppers provides added shear
suction characteristics (NPSH value). It proves its Interfaces and protocols include 4-20mA HART, Mod- to break lumps and/or disperse dry bulk solids,
worth particularly in applications with critical inlet bus RTU/Modbus TCP/IP, PROFIBUS DP, PROFINET, pastes, slurries and emulsions containing agglomer-
conditions (e.g. boiler feed applications) as well as EtherNet/IP, Ethernet TCP/IP, USB, RS-232C/RS485, ates during blending. It handles free- and non-free-
applications in which the pump is required to take in and OPC. With all these interfaces, the Memograph flowing materials that are dry, moist, oily or paste-like
water from low-lying tanks or at higher temperatures. M easily communicates with new and existing PLCs, in batches up to 5.7 m3. A high-strength agitator with
The multistage centrifugal pumps from the Movitec SCADA systems, distributed control systems, histori- paddle blades configured for the application pushes
range are designed for handling fluids such as water, ans and cloud-based data structures. material into the path of the choppers. The combined
coolants, condensate and mineral oils. They are ideal actions rapidly break down lumpy, agglomerated or
for a wide variety of applications ranging from indus- otherwise difficult-to-blend materials into discrete
trial boiler feed installations in steam circuits, recircu- VSX - Vogel Software particles, which are distributed uniformly throughout
lation and fire-fighting systems, cooling water circuits the batch. Each high-speed tulip-style chopper fea-
and washing plants to pressure boosting in general VSX VOGEL SOFTWARE has extended its Spaix 5 tures air purge seals for long life and is driven by a
process applications. product family by a compact version for pump selec- 5.6 kW motor.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 13

SWWW @ IFAT 2018

Bryan Orchard interviews Yagnesh Buch, Dy. General Manager, KSB Ltd, for Smart
Water & Waste World on the many issues that are now affecting the global pump
and valve industries and how KSB is reacting by offering integrated and automated
solutions that address the potential of India’s growing and transforming the

multi-stage pumps and associ- in La Roche-Chalais in 2017.

ated drive and control systems. KSB Limited India has also
The valves segment covers the been the focus of significant of
butterfly, globe, gate, control, its investment with the inau-
diaphragm, and ball valves guration of its sixth manufac-
together with associated actu- turing base, the Energy Pumps
ators and control systems. The Division at Shirwal, Pune last
services segment covers the year.
installation, commissioning,
start-up, and inspection ser- KSB in India
vice, maintenance of pumps, It is now over half a century
related systems, and valves. since KSB established a man-
Its many pumps and valve ufacturing operation in India
product ranges meet the fluid and this has expanded in line
handling demands of all in- with the country’s significant
dustries, encompassing water development in order to be
infrastructure, petrochemicals, fully prepared for satisfying
power generation, mining, ma- the emerging and accelerated
rine, food and beverage pro- growth of Indian industry and
cessing, agriculture and build- other market needs. Known
ing services to name just a few. for its technology leadership,
KSB’s global position is KSB has built its business on
largely attributable to its stra- customer trust and being able
tegic investment in global to draw on over 145 years of
regions where there has been experience from its parent
and continues to be, demand company.
for its products and services. “KSB Limited India has long
By establishing manufactur- been a dominant player in the
ing facilities in all continents, pumps and valves industry
it is able to deliver products and the undisputed leader in
and services at a local level certain product categories”,
and which satisfy the specific reports Yagnesh Buch, Dy.
Yagnesh Buch, Dy. General Manager, KSB Ltd.
requirements of the regions. General Manager, KSB Ltd.
This approach is illustrated by “It is recognized as an organi-
IN A GLOBAL PUMP market KSB has manufacturing tablished network of facilities the recent acquisition by KSB zation which has always been
estimated to be around USD facilities in 16 countries and means that customers benefit USA of Dubric Industries, a proactive and receptive to
84 billion KSB SE & Co. KGaA is represented in over 100 from the company’s extensive Midwestern-based engineered the evolving and constantly
is one of the top five players, countries, employing 15,500 experience, global service sup- repair provider of pumps and changing market needs.” For
this position resulting from its people. In addition, it also has port, and in-depth technical process equipment and dis- example, the company has pi-
presence and manufacturing 150 service centers and over training. tributor of pumps, seals and oneered the indigenous man-
activities across all continents. 3,000 service staff to provide The KSB Group is organized related equipment, whilst in ufacture of vertical canister
In addition, the organization inspection, maintenance and into three segments based France a major service center pumps and boiler feed pumps
holds a significant position repair services for industrial on product groups: pumps, was opened in Marseille and for supercritical power plants.
in the global industrial valve pumps and valves, as well as valves, and service. The pumps a new valve manufacturing With the ambitious program
market. spare parts worldwide. This es- segment covers single and plant at the KSB Valves factory of 12 PHWR 700 MW projects

16 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD

at various locations through- ries we can ensure that our ufacture the main feedwater cerned, we support our prod- vations and availability,” says
out the country, KSB Pumps end products are robust and pumps. ucts through our spare parts Mr. Buch. “This effort was ably
have responded to this and reliable, thereby conforming operation, as well as providing supported by the concerted
equipped itself to locally man- to KSB’s global quality stan- Pumps and Valves supervision of installation and efforts of the very loyal and
ufacture the primary coolant dards.” for All Industries commissioning, or any further strong dealer network.”
pumps (Figure 1). The sixth and most recent The availability of a broad support that the customer may It has to be recognized that
manufacturing plant is the En- portfolio of centrifugal pumps require of us.” India has a long way to go to in
ergy Pumps Division at Shirw- and industrial valves for the Since every item of any terms of further development,
al, Pune. Located on a 100,000 India sub-continent and its rotating equipment results but there is a feeling that im-
sq.m. site, this division has export territories results from in some wear and tear, this provements in the economy
been set up to handle the man- many years of diversifica- leads to deterioration of per- should be coming through by
ufacture of pumps required tion and expansion in India, formance as well as potential the end of 2018. Development
for supercritical power plants backed by the experience and hazards. Hence it’s prudent to is slow and needs speeding up
and nuclear power plants. The expertise of its principle KSB replace the pump after it has and rural India has yet to get
opening of this Rs. 2500 mil- SE & Co. KGaA, Germany. This served its design life, which the full benefits of modern
lion site signalled a new era relationship has contributed can be 10 years to 25 years. To technology. However, growth
in the history of KSB in India to new products being con- ensure that the pump is run- in the power sector is immi-
as it showcased KSB‘s contin- sistently introduced enabling ning at its optimum efficiency, nent and infrastructure devel-
ued commitment towards the the company to be proactive the exercise starts with agree- opment is looking positive. In
development of high technol- and receptive to the evolv- ing and understanding the the longer term, with water is
ogy engineered products to ing and constantly changing specification with the designer becoming scarce, the introduc-
meet India’s quest for energy, market requirements in India. of the application/plant. Every tion of seawater desalination
through supercritical pow- The portfolio includes pumps pump has an optimum pump will need serious consider-
er plants and nuclear power ranging from small domes- range and the best efficiency ation in the coming years.
plants. Significantly, it also tic pumps for household and point. This is the combination “India is gearing up to be a
embraces the ‘Make in India’ building applications through of flow and head at which superpower in the near future
initiative. to pumps used in the water pump works most efficiently. and we have the resources
Key features of this environ- supply, irrigation and sewage If the pumps are operated in (including talent and knowl-
mentally friendly plant are the applications, industrial pro- this preferred operating range, edge) in the country to secure
material handling capability cessing and power generation then their long service life can a leading position worldwide,”
of up to 80 tons, power capac- (Figure 2). be expected. This is where cus- says Mr. Buch. “In doing so, the
Figure 1: Eight Vertical Canister ity expandable up to 10 MW “Our portfolio also address- tomers access KSB’s skill and pump and valve industry has a
Primary Coolant Pumps - RSR 400/2 from 6 MW, the capability to es the needs of power plants, expertise. major part to play because it is
and Related Accessories will be
Installed at NPCIL’s Gorakhpur Anu
handle products up to 13 m which cover the spectrum of central to all activities.
Vidyut Pariyojana 1 & 2 Project in high and assembly in a dust- conventional, supercritical and The Future The other significant chal-
Haryana. free environment. The plant even nuclear power plants,” In keeping with many inter- lenge that has to be addressed
also provides state-of-the-art explains Mr. Buch. “Our cast national pump manufacturers, is that of counterfeit products
Local Manufacturing testing facilities including hot and forged gate, globe, check KSB Limited India has been in what is very much an unreg-
and Sales water testing, thermal shock, and ball valves manufactured affected in recent years by the ulated environment. Not only
The company has a network dry-running, and string test- at Coimbatore cater predom- global economic climate. How- do they undercut prices, but
of four regional sales offices, ing. It is also proposed that a inantly for the energy and in- ever, it has maintained growth they also introduce sub-stan-
18 branch offices, and over 1 MW solar plant will come on dustrial sectors. As far as our and sees a promising future. dard and potentially danger-
800 dealers and 200 autho- stream in the near future. aftermarket services are con- “Expectancies have been ous products on to the market.
rized service partners across The advantages of this new very high since the Govern- It is a global problem particu-
the country, as well as four ser- facility are already been re- ment came into power, but in larly in India, China and South
vice stations. alized. With the Indian Gov- reality, the situation has been East Asia where many indus-
“Our six manufacturing ernment’s ambitious growth rather different,” comments try sectors are price conscious.
sites across India address spe- plans in the energy sector, and Mr. Buch. “The activities in the KSB is taking a proactive ap-
cific customer requirements the aim to raise contribution core sectors that would nor- proach to closing down on-line
and market sectors continues in indigenous manufacturing mally stimulate the economy sales operations and distribu-
Mr. Buch. “The Irrigation and under “Make in India” initia- and industrial activity, such tors of counterfeit KSB pumps,
Process Division is in Pimpri, tive, M/s Nuclear Power Cor- as those in power, oil and gas but like many other reputable
Pune; the Power Projects Di- poration of India (NPCIL) has sectors remained at a low level. international manufacturers
vision is in Chinchwad, Pune; awarded KSB Pumps Limited However, there has been an in- business is being lost to rogue
the Water Pumps Division in with an order worth Rupees crease in activities in the oil in- operators. Around 90 percent
Sinnar, Nashik; and the Valves 4130 million (Euros 55 mil- dustry over the past year and of the pumps and valves re-
Division is in Coimbatore. In lion) for the supply of eight a clear direction is visible in quired by Indian customers
order to support these man- primary coolant pumps - RSR the Indian nuclear programme come from multinationals and
ufacturing units with quality 400/2 and related accessories. since 2017.” organized local players. Multi-
castings, we have an alloy These pumps will be installed “Whilst many manufactur- national companies continue
steel and a cast iron foundry at NPCIL’s Gorakhpur Anu ers reported business reduc- to introduce new technolo-
in Vambori, near Ahmednagar. Vidyut Pariyojana 1 & 2 proj- tions throughout 2016/17, gies and designs suitable for
A pump or a valve is only as ect in Haryana. The plant is KSB India was able to sustain local manufacture and which
good as its casting; so by man- already geared up to supply Figure 2: KSB’s KRT is a Global-
and grow its performance due accommodate the advanced
ufacturing our own castings the primary coolant pumps ly-Proven Workhorse Pump in the to introducing strategic mea- needs customers.
in these ultramodern found- and will also be able to man- Wastewater Sector. sures involving product inno- The breadth of the KSB Lim-

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 17

ited India product portfolio which we operate in and our one such example. When the and installation and commis-
affords the company access products are designed to meet market in India is ready for sioning. It is a way of life, and
to a wide range of customers, needs of applications ranging high efficiency, integrated and that is why a KSB user enjoys
thereby ensuring that quality from domestic water supply to automated solutions we are being our customer because
control and product improve- the most critical applications completely ready to satisfy all they are assured of the reliabil-
ment is a vital part of the busi- in nuclear, supercritical and requirements.” ity and quality performance of
ness. thermal power. We have access At KSB, the mantra is ‘Spe- KSB pumps or valves.”
“Customer feedback heav- to advanced products and sys- cial is our standard’. “This”,
ily influences such improve- tems from our principles for says Mr. Buch, “means taking Bryan Orchard is an inter-
ments”, continues Mr. Buch. which Indian customers are special care during pump or national freelance journalist
“We are the technology lead- yet not ready. Remote moni- valve selection, matching the who specializes in water and
ers in most of the markets in toring of pumping systems is materials the liquids handled, environmental engineering.

CASE STUDY of rainwater. KSB Pumps Ltd ture pontoon/ barge. This modular maintenance or replacement.
has successfully undertaken • T emporary foundation on construction can be assembled Floating barge pumping
Introducing many such projects, so with river bed or bed of reser- and dismantled as required provides an easy flow and the
the Concept of its wealth of experience, it voir/ water body
Floating Barges is a preferred option when • Transportable installation
Traditionally split case it comes to supplying the of pumps
and vertical turbine pumps pumps their correct installa- • Nonclog submersible
have been used for water tion. pumps along with HDPE
transfer and are installed The problems or challeng- floating barge
in large pumping stations. es faced when pumps are
It is necessary, therefore, to installed directly in river lo- KSB’s Floating
construct these pumping cations without the construc- Barge Platforms
stations appropriate loca- tion of a civil structure or KSB offers a proven alter-
tions where there is plenty floating barge are: native technology to these
of space and civil engineered • Water schemes at the hill problems. This involves con-
ground works, elements that station structing custom-designed
can incur high costs. Howev- • Riverbank floating barge packages for
er, where the pumps are on • River sand applications that require Figure 5: KSB Recommends Supplying Floating Barge Along with IP: 68
a river bank or in a mining • Solid particles or pollutants mounting the pump over a Protected Submersible Pumps which Cater to High Flow and High Head.
environment, changing water in the river large body of liquid (Figure
level is the major constraint in • Water stream 3). Floating barge platforms on site. Providing balanced enables the rate of liquid flow
building a pump house. Also, • Change in the water stream can be towed into place and buoyancy, the HDPE cubes are to be altered as duty condi-
in many cases, the geology at in monsoon anchored, where a pump can corrosion resistant and enable tions change. Perfect for appli-
such site does not allow any When it comes to mines, then be lowered or raised on KSB’s engineers to modify the cations in which mounting the
civil construction. The answer the challenges include: an integral hoist for ease of design of barge in the event of pump over a large liquid body
to this problem is to construct • Changing water levels access. adding a pump on the barge is required; these independent
a floating barge because it • Solid contents pumping systems are mobile
avoids the issues of priming • Continuous digging of and can be used in various
and balancing the pump and open pits varies the water locations, thus allowing for
motor, plus it saves on civil level during every mon- improved mine water manage-
costs and routine mainte- soon ment as conditions demand.
nance (Figure 3). The main solutions that Considering the require-
ments of an application, KSB
recommends supplying float-
ing barge along with IP: 68
protected submersible pumps
which cater for high flow and
high head (Figure 5). Being
submersible pumps NPSH
Figure 4: Providing Balanced Buoyancy, the HDPE Cubes are Corrosion (net positive suction head)
Resistant. and balancing issues are re-
solved automatically and can
KSB engineers work with (Figure 4). A further advantage be operated in monsoon con-
their customers in the design of the HDPE cubes is that if ditions. The maintenance of
Figure 3: A Floating Barge Because it Avoids the Issues of Priming and of the system so that it meets one or two cubes are damaged KSB’s submersible pump is
Balancing the Pump and Motor, Plus it Saves on Civil Costs and Routine the specific requirements of (punctured), buoyancy is not comparatively less than sur-
the project. The buoyancy is affected. This is in stark con- face-mounted pumps and is
In regions where monsoons address the above problems/ provided by HDPE cubes po- trast to the traditional barge/ designed to handle solids up
occur, river bank and mining challenges typically are: sitioned within a rugged steel pontoon damage which can to 120 mm size, thereby re-
pumping stations can become • Traditional pumping sta- envelope that provides the ad- unbalance the buoyancy and moving the problem of clog-
inoperative due to high levels tion with the civil struc- equate rigidity for the entire therefore requires immediate ing.

18 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment

By Frost & Sullivan
Europe. Micro-pollutants can of the key technologies and Many African cities are con-
be addressed with technolo- services in the advanced wa- tinuing to grow both in pop-
gies that can detect and treat ter treatment systems that will ulation and development at
low-concentration pollutants. add great value are advanced historic rates. Basic facilities
Activated carbon adsorption desalination technologies, such as water supply and sani-
and innovative filtration tech- UV-LED disinfection, Ceram- tation are struggling to keep up
nologies are employed by util- ic membranes, big data, and with this growth rate. Driven
ities to treat micro-pollutants. predictive analytics, etc. While by challenges experienced by
Many technology compa- the innovations in desalina- many water utilities to connect
nies are constantly address- tion technologies will move to- unaffordable or poor commu-
ing issues related to drinking wards removal of salt from the nities to networks and recover
water quality and effluent water rather than water from the cost of water supply, there
quality. Automation of such the salt, with a drastic reduc- has been a tremendous rise in
treatment processes has been tion in energy consumption, the interest for pre-paid meters
made possible through Super- LED-based UV disinfection for water supply provisions in
visory Control and Data Ac- systems will be the microchip African cities. As urban service
WITH RAPID URBAN- their designed lifespan, it will quisition (SCADA), albeit with of health, due to their ability providers in Africa still have
IZATION, availability of make more sense for equip- limitations. Developments in to achieve 99.999% disinfec- low network penetration rate
good-quality water is becom- ment to be replaced with the field of IoT in the water tion in 60 seconds. Also, Digi- and are unable to deliver con-
ing scarce. Adding to that new and advanced treatment industry have improved wa- tal transformation has enabled tinuous 24-hour water supply
pressure is increasing popula- systems. Many systems are ter management. With various the prediction of chemical to existing customers, many
tion and pollution. The world close to 100 years old—far collaborative tools that can usage and dosage patterns, en- dwellers are forced to rely on
population is increasing by surpassing their design lives. integrate water treatment tech- abling reduction of treatment expensive alternatives such as
80 million each year, growing Over time, these systems will nologies with sensors, analyt- chemical wastage. vendors, wells, and boreholes.
to be globally water-scarce by have experienced inadequate ics platforms have enhanced Despite all these advance- which carry a high risk of po-
2025. Hence, it is getting cru- repair, upgrades, and main- customer satisfaction. IoT-led ments in the water and waste- tential contamination. The
cial to consider alternative op- tenance, leading to increased innovation is re-designing the water treatment systems, focus of this business model
tions before the global scarcity stress, reduced efficiency, water industry and its value many emerging economies lies in not just prepaid meters,
increases significantly. The and rapid failure and dete- chain. It is changing a verti- lack the funding option to but an entire prepaid system.
increasing population trigger- rioration. Hence, it becomes cally integrated water industry move to advanced treatment Numerous factors can drive or
ing growth in water demand important to replace such into a diverse, dynamic, and systems. These utilities heavily restrain the effectiveness of the
calls for improvement in both systems with new and smart well-distributed system. For rely on subsidies and, hence, prepaid system. These include
the quantity and quality of wa- treatment technologies. One instance, IoT has transformed look out for financially viable access to a potentially scarce re-
ter. Increasing water demand of the pivotal drivers for ad- the way smart meters are col- options or business models. In placement of parts by services
to support cities, industries, vanced treatment systems is lecting and processing custom- some cases, the utilities delay providers, accessibility and
and agriculture is resulting stringent regulations. Globally, er data, thus aiding utilities in the implementation of such convenience of pay points of
in a limited distribution of every country has its own leg- producing critical business technologies. Such lacuna can customers, the existence of un-
freshwater resources. Urban islation on water quality and insights concerning real-time be addressed by innovative interrupted water supply to re-
development is also impacting reuse with an increasing level and historic usage, peer com- business models that can add duce technical failures, data in-
freshwater resources and the of enforcement. parison, behavioral analysis, tremendous value to the utili- tegration and IT management,
water cycle. Hence, decreas- Innovation in the water in- and so much more. ties and increase the penetra- and importance of strong com-
ing freshwater resources will dustry has led to a number of Customer-centric innova- tion rate of these technologies. munication strategy.
encourage resource recovery cutting-edge advancements in tion, digital transformation, One of the innovative business The advanced treatment
and water recycling and reuse, wastewater treatment. Water predictive analytics, val- models is Pay for Performance technologies or smart technol-
thereby driving the need for and wastewater municipali- ue-added services, and exem- where companies set up pilot ogies will be the ‘new green’, as
advanced treatment systems. ties are on a continuous search plary customer service will plants for utilities or industries they serve to improve process
The ageing wastewater in- for novel tools. The treatment drive the advanced water treat- and establish the performance efficiencies while cutting costs
frastructure is making the technologies have been evolv- ment systems market. Frost of the system before charging and making the measurements
treatment process complex ing over time, addressing & Sullivan has identified the clients. and indication aspect of a tech-
and forcing operators to make different kinds of pollution market potential of advanced Prepaid water and wastewa- nology simple and hassle-free.
the difficult decision of ei- problems. For instance, util- water treatment systems with ter treatment services is anoth- Deepthi Sugumar is a Re-
ther refurbishing or replacing ities were not too particular an estimated market revenue er innovative business model search Analyst at Frost and
equipment with new advanced about treating micro-pollut- of USD 4.5 billion and is ex- that can robustly address lack Sullivan.
technology. With numerous ants a few years ago; howev- pected to grow at a CAGR of of funding problems in utili-
facilities functioning beyond er, it has become a concern in 14.3% from 2017-2022. Some ties in emerging economies. @FrostSullivanEE

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 19


20 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Coming from a humble background and beginning his career with numerous small jobs to
now owning a well-respected and fast growing water treatment equipment company in India
with an annual turnover of Rs. 20 crores, Battala Munuswamy Balakrishna, Founder & CEO -
AQUAPOT, believes that quality and service are the pillars of his success. Mayur Sharma talks
to him about his interesting and very inspiring journey so far...

MR. BM BALAKRISHNA, “I had decided to go back lages. My job was to create my Venture Came at a Wa- amount to him and buy prod-
FONDLY called as ‘Bala’ by to my village if I didn’t get company’s brand awareness ter Expo ucts from him. So I transferred
his friends and industry col- any work. I requested a small among the customers. Maybe At one point in time, things the amount and also got 15-
leagues, had come to Banga- Maruti service station own- that is the experience that I am started to become a regular 20 systems from Salem. One
lore with just 1000 rupees in er saying that I would accept using right now in my brand routine for Mr. Balakrishna of my friends, Mr. Navin, was
his pocket which his mother any salary and any kind of awareness programme. There which was very unlike him. also in the same business. He
had saved by milking cows. He job. He told me that if I want- I learned - how one can create His dynamic nature wanted was already operating from an
had something more valuable ed to do even a mechanic job, the brand awareness. We used him to do something different. office. But he wanted to dis-
hidden with him though...a I will have to wash cars for at to travel in open-top jeeps to He recollects, “I thought of do- pose of that office. He asked
strong conviction in his abili- least 1 year. I accepted his of- all the villages. The roads were ing something myself, on my me if I wanted to take it. Ini-
ties and the discipline required fer and started working. He not good. We had the target to own. One of my friends asked tially, I had got 20 systems
to channel all his energies into offered me 400 rupees per cover 5-10 villages in a day. We me to go to an expo that was from Salem.
whatever he worked at. month. It was in the year 2002. used to keep a mike with us going on in Chennai. It was
After completing his 10th I had completed my diploma and announced our branding the place where we decided to The Precious First Order
standards, Mr. Balakrishna in 2001. Within 3 months of through it. We used to meet start our business venture. He “My first order was given by
joined Intermediate wherein completing my diploma, I had the farmers, carry irrigation asked me what we wanted to my friend’s neighbor. I had got
he passed in the subject Math- joined into Maruti. I worked pumps and give them demon- do. I told him that I wanted to it at 5000 rupees and sold it at
ematics in his 8th attempt after there for around 6 months.” strations. These 3 years were a work with domestic products. 7500 rupees. I took the system
failing in it 7 times. He says, very big learning point for me One of my friends came from on my back and went for its
“Later on, I was further inter- From Rs. 400 Rs. to at that time.” Salem also. He was already installation. I had fitted it on
ested to complete my educa- Rs. 2000 a Month there in this business. He told my own and everything went
tion. Therefore, I joined for a Mr. Balakrishna had been Moving to Hyderabad me that he would train me for right.
diploma in Nellore and came applying for many jobs while Mr. Balakrishna had bigger the same. This was the year I became confident in my-
out with a good 72%. So in he was working as a car wash- aspirations. He now wanted 2010. I visited the Water Today self then. Within 1 month, all
college days, I can say that I er. His parents had provided to move to a bigger market. Expo. From here, I straight- the systems were sold out. It
was topping in my trade. That him with more educational He comments, “After those 3 away went to Salem though it was the year 2010 then. There-
is how I finished my diploma.” facilities compared to his sib- years, I decided to go to Hyder- was not in my plan.” after, I got to know that I could
He completed his Automobile ling. They had spent quite a abad. I was working in a town make it on my own by sourc-
Diploma in the year 2001. lot of money to educate him. but I wanted to move to a city. I Started RO Business ing the components from Hy-
He thought if he kept continu- applied for jobs in Hyderabad. with PF Amount derabad. It was suggested to
When 72% Marks ing there, it would take a lot of In those 3 years, I had travelled Before going to the expo, Mr. me that it was always better to
Couldn’t Land time to reach a certain level. a lot and suffered from back Balakrishna had read about the procure it locally and then as-
a Job Offer Therefore, he started applying pain due to the continuous water industry online. He had semble on your own. Initially,
Coming to jobs, Mr. Bal- for other jobs. He adds, “One long journeys. There is a com- read somewhere that only 12% I went to a few of the traders
akrishna thought 72% marks day I got the call from CRI pany who are into air pollution of the world’s population has in Hyderabad and got the com-
were more than enough to Pumps. They needed a Mar- control. access to safe drinking water. ponents and assembled it. Ini-
get a good job. He had walked keting Executive. The starting They offered me a job as So it was one of the budding tially, I used to assemble them.
in almost all the automobile salary that they offered me was a Resident Engineer. My job businesses. At Salem, he was Later, I hired 2-3 people for the
showrooms in Bangalore like 2000 rupees plus a stipend of was to cater to industries like handling domestic assembling same. I had hired some techni-
Opal, Mahindra, Maruti, etc. 150 rupees for each tour. I felt cement, food, pharma, steel, of ROs. “I sat with their techni- cians and trained them as well.
Though every showroom had it was something crazy jump- and all those where there was cians and tried to understand I was concentrating on mar-
his resume, he did not get a ing from 400 rupees to 2000 air pollution. I used to pro- the technology and learned keting. I made a small notice
single call from any of them. rupees. I decided to do mar- mote my company products in how to assemble the system. stating the Aquapot products.
By now, he had decided to join keting and come out of the all these industries. I worked I also learned to make minor I still have one or two copies of
any random job as the 1000 ru- automobile mindset. I then there for 7 years. I had worked repairs, etc. My friend told me them.
pees given to him by his moth- joined as a Marketing Execu- well and the company had also that if I wanted, I could buy At that time, Aquapot brand
er was slowly getting spent. tive in the Chittoor branch of taken care of me. It was a very products from him. was not there. One fine day, we
She had saved this money by CRI Pumps. It is in the border good journey in that company. I had just received my PF decided that we must give it a
milking cows which at those of Tamil Nadu. I worked there I had loved working there.” amount of 1,27,000 rupees in name because it will then be
times was sold at 3 rupees a for 3 years. In those 3 years, I my bank account. I told him a branded product. Instead of
liter. travelled to almost all the vil- The Idea of Business that I would transfer the same selling it as a local product, we

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 21


with the help of cranes back water purifiers. The solar water the product, quote the best
then. Even today, I can claim purifier is rugged and requires price, and then limit himself.
that it is the biggest water zero maintenance. Thereafter, He never allows his people to
softener in Hyderabad. After they have developed 3 to 4 follow-up the orders. He asks
we sent them the quote with models of the same. his customers to finally come
the technical specifications, to him with the least quotation
they had asked for competitive People were Amused that they might have procured
quotations. There were a total at the Idea of RO from 10 other people. “I would
of 17 people. On the basis of Superstore show him the difference and
the technical requirement, 10 Mr. Balakrishna believes still give him the best prod-
people were rejected. Among in thinking beyond the lim- uct. So the customer will start
the 7 left, they again wanted a its in whatever one does. He believing me.”, says Mr. Bal-
(L-R) BM Balakrishna with Mayur Sharma and Kailash Shirodkar (SWWW team)
price list. At the last moment, launched the RO superstore in akrishna.
could make it a brand and then First Major Order - they asked for its rough draw- June 2017. It is located at Kom- He wants to make his cus-
sell it.”, says Mr. Balakrishna. First Year Turnover ing. They said that they could pally, exactly 14 km from his tomer base strong and perma-
of Rs. 20-25 Lakhs make the vessel, procure the office at Hyderabad. He has nent. Whenever a customer
Aquapot Name - A Mix While Mr. Balakrishna was resin, and make it on their rented a huge space at 1.5 lakh calls, he takes the order, gives
of Tradition and Water doing domestic RO business, own. They would save 2-3 lakh rupees per month for the Su- the prices, and does every-
Mr. Balakrishna made his he got an inquiry from MNR rupees in the project in this perstore. It is a warehouse cum thing within seconds. He fur-
first product in the year 2010. Dairy Farm of Hyderabad re- manner. Its value back then store. “When I started the RO ther adds, “My service is very
It was of the capacity of 13 li- quiring 10,000 litres capacity was around 10 lakh rupees. I Superstore, I invited around fast. This encourages word of
ters per hour. When his friends RO. He had submitted a quo- told them that no doubt they 100 traders for lunch. Every- mouth publicity of our Com-
saw the product for the first tation of 10 lakh rupees back could make it, but a little bit body was shocked. They said pany. There are so many peo-
time, they found it quite good then. His team’s approach and of expertise was also needed. it was unnecessary and would ple who are surprised. They
and thought he could do way of clarifying their techni- If they could give us a chance, never work. Almost 20 people ask me who is supporting me,
something in the market with cal doubts made the customer it would be good. Initially, they among them assumed that we who is behind me and all. But
it. He had started selling it by straightaway believe them and were worried about its perfor- were going to do it successful- there is nothing else than my
the brand name Aquapot. He give them the order. This order mance and therefore asked me ly. From that day itself, they motivation behind me.”
had first stored water in a clay gave them the confidence that a bank guarantee of 10%. We stopped talking to me. I my-
pot. So, mixing tradition with they could take even project had to arrange a bank guar- self made them my enemies Open for Collaboration
water, he came up with the orders, industrial orders, and antee as there was a shortage from that day. Many of them with Foreign Companies
combination name Aquapot. grow further. He says that this of money. L&T said that if we laughed at that time.” Battala Balakrishna is ready
The one thing that he was sure in parallel gave them a good wanted some advance money, “For example, if you want to open branches in new cities
about is that it would start with number of enemies also. they would give us 10% - 20% 1000 pieces of small O-Rings, once he finds the right people.
Aqua. Since it was a water-re- Their first year’s turnover of the total amount. They had you will find them at the Super- He is ready to enter into joint
lated product, he captioned was 20-25 lakh rupees with not never done that before. We store easily. In short, you will ventures, collaboration with
it - ‘Purity Assured’. Aquapot even 100 units in 2010. It was gave them a bank guarantee have the availability of com- foreign companies. “If some-
is his brand name and ‘Purity then 45 lakh rupees, 80 lakh against their order of 10 lakh ponents, complete readymade thing comes, like joint venture
Assured’ is the caption. rupees, 1.2 crore rupees, and rupees. We took the complete products, and also products or manufacturing, I am open
1.8 crore rupees in the consec- amount of 90% started work- with particular combination for it. I am selling more than
First Product was a utive years. “We may cross 15- ing on it. It was executed very volume-wise. Technicians are a manufacturer. A steel tank/
46-Components RO 20 crore rupees this year. No well. We never received a shown with actual floor prod- container manufacturer in Hy-
Quality was his first prefer- doubt, it is a very good figure single call from them except ucts, given rock-bottom prices, derabad usually has a stock of
ence. It is the reason why he based on the Hyderabad mar- after 1 year to take that 10% as well as immediate availabil- 10 or 20. In my store, you will
put together an entire gamut ket.”, says Mr. Balakrishna. bank guarantee back. We had ity.”, says Mr. Balakrishna. find 300 tanks.
of 46 components together to thought that the 10% money The one thing that he wants
make a seamless domestic RO. An Incident to would never come back. This to assure his customer is Searching for New
He believed that people would Remember is because even we did not that he is capable and strong Technologies in RO
pay for quality. Once the peo- Mr. Balakrishna tells us have 100% confidence in the enough to supply any quan- New technologies, innova-
ple were satisfied they sug- about an interesting incident regular traditional softener, tity. He says, “Many suppliers tions, new products, indus-
gested it to their neighbours. that took place in his early and this was a huge one. Luck- in Hyderabad don’t even have try peers stories, and related
He believes it is better than days. He says, “We got a call ily everything went well and a godown. Whereas, we have events catch Mr. Balakrishna’s
1000 people refer Aquapot to from L&T, Hyderabad Metro finally, we received our bank 7 Godowns and 1 Superstore. attention. As he pioneers the
a single person than a single Rail Project stating that they guarantee money.” What they see is what they RO field, he is glued to articles
person refer Aquapot to 1000 required a 10,000 liter RO. We buy. For this purpose, I have that have knowledge related to
people. It was then that he de- went to the site to see the exact How did the Solar Water brought in the Superstore.” the same. The columns on peo-
cided to push the product into situation. What they needed Purifier Happen? ple who develop new products
the market. He requested the was a water softener, not an After 3-4 years of being in Never Followed up with also interest him.
local OEMs to sell his product. RO. We told them that techni- RO business, Mr. Balakrishna a Customer in 7 Years AQUAPOT recently won
Initially, they were not much cally they were looking for a thought of mixing solar power In the 7 years of his career, an award in Dubai at World’s
interested. But later on, people wrong product and the best al- with water. He made a compact Mr. Balakrishna has never ‘Greatest Brand & Leaders
started believing in his prod- ternative would be a softener. system that had inbuilt com- sought the phone number of 2017-18 (Asia & GCC)’ in Wa-
uct. They asked how big it would ponents. The product came a customer for follow-up. He ter Treatment Manufacturing
Thereafter, he opened his be. We told them it would be out very well and even today says his job ends after giving category- a testimony to the
offices at Vijayawada, Tirupati, a 4000-liter resin model with a he claims that it is more eco- the customer a quotation. He fact that it always stands for
and Bangalore. big vessel. It was actually lifted nomical than the traditional will assure the quality, explain the ‘new’ and ‘innovation’.

22 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Smart Water & Waste World
reaches out to wastewater
companies, regulators,
contractors, and engineering
experts to look at the future
needs of wastewater segment,
with a focus on opportunities
in wastewater technology and
innovation, while developing
cost-effective strategies
for recycle & reuse.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 23


Take a Proactive Approach to Rehabilitate Aging

A historic Massachusetts town has implemented a comprehensive rehabilitation
program to create a more efficient, less costly, and more predictable wastewater
collection system.
By Patrick M. Cotton, Nathan E. Michael, and Jason L. Mammone

As Part of its Comprehensive Asset Management Program, the Town of Dedham, Mass., has Smoke Tested its Entire Sewer System. The Process Entails Pumping a Nontoxic White Smoke into the System
and Observing the Surrounding Area for Smoke Escaping from the Ground or from Drainage Structures. The Appearance of Smoke Indicates Either a Direct (Image on Left) or Indirect (Image on Right)
Connection Through Which Surface Runoff May Enter the System.

DEDHAM, MASS., IS a res- ing collection system; remove vestigation and rehabilitation system and separating it into meters were installed during
idential community located extraneous infiltration and program. The approach, incor- 26 sewer basins. The basins the spring of 2012. The I/I
southwest of Boston in USA. inflow (I/I); and keep sewer porated in the annual program, then were prioritized for in- analysis identified 3.4 MGD of
The town’s wastewater drains related costs low. The annual benefits the town by identify- vestigation and rehabilitation peak infiltration and 8.5 MGD
east to the Boston line, where program is a model tool that ing and removing extraneous based on age, known prob- of peak storm inflow. The I/I
it enters the Massachusetts supports the community’s I/I while repairing structural lem areas, amount of work analysis results were used to
Water Resources Authority wastewater collection system deficiencies within the collec- previously completed, and in- create the annual program.
(MWRA) interceptor and is and saves money. tion system before emergency creased flow rates during wet Each project year includes
ultimately treated at the Deer In 2006, Dedham faced a ne- repairs are required. weather. manhole inspections and tele-
Island Wastewater Treatment glected sanitary sewer collec- Repairs were made from vision inspections in the proj-
Plant. tion system, first constructed ANALYZING AGING 2006 to 2012. The town then ect area. Evaluation, design,
Dedham’s sewer man- in 1901, and increased costs INFRASTRUCTURE developed the annual program and rehabilitation of cost-ef-
agement program (annual associated with operation and The program began by an- in 2013 based on the results of fective and value-effective de-
program) is used to operate, maintenance. The town soon alyzing the town’s entire 94- a comprehensive flow meter- fects are then completed.
maintain, and manage its ag- began a comprehensive in- mile gravity sewer collection ing project in which 24 flow A follow-up flow metering

24 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


effects of a five-year, 24-hour

storm event on the wastewater
collection system. A scenario
was run that included average
daily flow, plus the estimated It’s estimated
five-year, 24-hour peak inflow
as observed at the 24 flow me- that the annual
ters during the 2016 I/I anal- program has
ysis. No SSO conditions were
generated during this scenario saved rate payers
Television Inspection is Used to Re-
cord the Interior Condition of Each
run, which confirmed the sew-
er system isn’t at risk of an SSO
USD 10 million
Sewer Line Segment, in This Case
Revealing a Potential Collapse. during such a storm event.

several other types of infra- Topside Manhole Inspec- during the

structure analysis. tions program’s short
Manhole inspections consist
A Topside Manhole Inspection Revealed Wall Infiltration and a Damaged
Internal Connection. Sanitary Sewer Overflows of a topside visual inspection life.”
(SSOs) and Hydraulic Model- of sanitary sewer manholes
program was performed in being needlessly treated by ing and are typically performed fects in manholes that could
the spring of 2016 to identify MWRA. Historically, Dedham has during the spring, when peak be repaired as part of the
how the repairs performed be- Every five years, a flow me- experienced only one SSO groundwater conditions exist town’s regular maintenance
tween the spring of 2012 and tering project is conducted within the last 10 years, and and allow for visual confirma- activities. Since 2007, Dedham
the spring of 2016 affected I/I to analyze the program’s suc- it wasn’t because of a signifi- tion of infiltration. Manhole has inspected all sewer man-
rates. The same 24-meter pro- cess and reprioritize it. This cant rain event. The town ex- location, diameter, depth, ma- holes several times, totaling
gram was performed, and the ensures the sewer system is perienced five significant rain terial, and cover casting and approximately 4,250 manhole
analysis identified 2.7 MGD of operating efficiently and new events during that time, none size, as well as a flow estimate inspections.
peak infiltration and 7.3 MGD I/I sources are identified reg- of which caused an SSO to oc- for all infiltration sources, are
of peak storm inflow. The re- ularly. cur. recorded for each manhole Television Inspection of
sults showed the annual pro- In addition to reviewing inspected. Information on in- Sewers
gram was benefiting the town ADDITIONAL historical SSOs and rainfall flow sources are also recorded. Television inspection is con-
by reducing I/I, which in turn ANALYSES data, Dedham developed a hy- The inspection also provides ducted to locate and document
decreases the amount of flow Dedham also has performed draulic model to analyze the information on structural de- pipeline defects and to directly

Dye Testing is Conducted by Introducing Dyed Water into a Suspected Inflow Source (Left) and Observing the Surrounding Sewer and Drain Lines for the Dye’s Emergence (Right).

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 25


sewer system defect, such as sanitary sewer system. These The CEA can result in one of program based on the 2016 I/I
cracked pipes or offset joints sources often are used by the following conditions: analysis. The I/I removed from
in adjacent sewer and drain the building owner to relieve • Excessive means the cost to the sewer system is no longer
pipes that create an indirect flooding conditions in or rehabilitate the infiltration needlessly treated and allows
connection between the drain around the building during source is less than the T&T for sewer costs to increase at a
and sewer systems. It’s as- wet weather. A public notifi- cost. All inflow sources are rate that’s 75 percent less than
sumed that rehabilitation can cation campaign is conducted considered excessive. that of neighboring commu-
remove only 50 percent of in- prior to and during the build- • Non-excessive is the oppo- nities. It’s estimated that the
Inflow Sources Identified During direct inflow, as the rainwater ing inspection program. site, where the cost to reha- annual program has saved rate
Building Inspections Included could enter the sewer system bilitate the source is more payers approximately USD 10
Sump Pumps (Left) and Floor Drains at another defect that has yet Cost-Effectiveness Analysis than the T&T cost. million during the program’s
(Right). to be identified. Indirect in- A Cost-Effectiveness Analy- • Value-effective means the short life.
observe infiltration rates. As flow sources can occur during sis (CEA) is performed for all cost to rehabilitate the
with the manhole inspections, a rain event when there’s an identified pipe and manhole source is more than the T&T About the Authors
television inspection is con- opportunity for a drainage defects to determine the merit cost, but rehabilitation is rec- Patrick M. Cotton is a Proj-
ducted during the spring to structure to be hydraulically of rehabilitating each defect. ommended because of the ect Manager and Nathan E.
coincide with peak groundwa- connected to the sanitary sew- The CEA compares the esti- relative value of the repair. Michael is a Team Leader for
ter conditions. A closed-circuit er system. An example of this mated cost for removing I/I In this case, the T&T cost is Weston & Sampson Engineers,
television camera is used to re- is a cracked service connection with the estimated savings in within a certain percentage Peabody, Mass. Jason L. Mam-
cord the interior condition of located below a cracked drain Transportation and Treatment of the rehabilitation cost. mone is Director of Engineer-
each line segment. Television line. When a rain event occurs, (T&T) costs resulting from I/I • Non-excessive Recommend- ing for the town of Dedham,
inspection logs are completed rainwater migrates from the removal. ed means the cost to rehabil- Mass.
for each segment, document- drain line, through the soil, T&T costs consist of capital itate the source is more than Source: This article original-
ing the location of each service and into the defective service costs to expand and upgrade the T&T cost, but rehabilita- ly appeared in the August 2018
connection, joint condition connection. Since 2007, the the wastewater system as tion is still recommended for issue of Opflow, the water in-
and spacing, debris deposi- town has smoke tested the en- well as annual operation and structural repairs that are a dustry’s most popular resource
tion, pipe defect locations, tire sewer system as part of its maintenance costs, which are priority. on operations issues pub-
and infiltration rates. This in- annual program. directly related to the quanti- lished by the American Water
formation is used to specify ty of flow being discharged to EFFECTIVE RESULTS Works Association (AWWA).
the appropriate rehabilitation Dye Testing and Dye Flood- pump stations and treatment Dedham’s annual program The award-winning monthly
technique and to determine ing facilities. Increased usage will treats the collection system like magazine presents new and
the cost-effectiveness of reha- Sources identified during be reflected by increased op- a valuable asset that requires established technologies and
bilitating each defect. During the smoke testing process are eration and maintenance costs routine maintenance. As a re- ideas that readers can apply
the inspection, a pan-and-tilt confirmed by performing dye for electricity, cleaning, equip- sult, the town’s flow share at to water treatment and distri-
camera is used to observe the testing or dye flooding. Dye ment repair, etc. MWRA has dropped consis- bution as well as wastewater
pipe defects, leaks, and the testing uses less than 10 gal The present worth of Ded- tently during the last 10 years operations. Opflow is a benefit
internal condition of service of water and is conducted by ham’s T&T costs was calculat- by removing extraneous flows. for members of AWWAIndia
connections. Since 2007, the introducing dyed water into a ed using MWRA charges and To date, the town has removed and a valued resource for wa-
town has completed television suspected inflow source and the town’s operation and main- an estimated 700,000 GPD of ter professionals around the
inspection of all gravity sewer observing the surrounding tenance and capital costs. The peak infiltration and 1.2 MGD world. To join AWWAIndia,
pipes multiple times. sewer and drain lines for the T&T costs have been extended of peak storm inflow as part of visit To view
emerging dye. Dye flooding throughout the life of rehabili- the existing annual sewer in- the original article, see https://
Smoke Testing uses more than 10 gal of water. tation methods. vestigation and rehabilitation
Smoke testing consists of If dye appears in the sewer sys-
pumping a nontoxic white tem, it indicates the nature of Investigation/Rehabilitation Total
smoke into the sanitary sew- the inflow source’s connection
er collection system and ob- to the sewer system. Sources Cementitious Lining of Sewer Manholes (per vertical ft) 7,722
serving the surrounding area that are inconclusive or unable
for smoke escaping from the to be tested are followed up Clean, Inspect, Test and Seal - 6 in. to 24 in. (per linear ft) 48,356
ground or from drainage with a visual field or television
structures. The appearance of inspection. Cured-in-Place Short Liners - 6 in. to 24 in. (per linear ft) 2,987
smoke indicates either a direct Private Building Inspections
or indirect connection through The building inspection Cured-in-Place Pipe - 6 in. to 24 in. (per linear ft) 166,086
which surface runoff may en- process involves a two-person
ter the sewer system. Direct team entering the basement Grout Service Connections (per service) 557
sources include catch basins, or lowest level of as many
driveway drains, patio drains, buildings as possible within Cured-in-Place Lateral Liners (per service) 182
stairwell drains, or yard drains the project area to identify
that discharge directly to the inflow sources to the sanitary Topside Manhole Inspection (per manhole) 4,242
sewer system. It’s assumed sewer system. Inflow sourc-
that rehabilitation can remove es identified during building Clean and Television Inspection - 6 in. to 24 in. (per linear ft) 1,165,035
100 percent of direct inflow. inspections have included
An indirect source consti- sump pumps, floor drains Cost (USD) 11,961,157
tutes rainwater that infiltrates that are subject to inflow, and
into the ground before en- open sewer cleanouts that al- Sewer System Investigation and Rehabilitation Summary (Since 2007, the town of Dedham has
tering the sewer system at a low clean water to enter the inspected its entire sewer system multiple times as part of its annual program)

26 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Advanced MBBR/IFAS Technology for Biological

Nutrient Removal and Upgradation of Existing
Activated Sludge Systems
The PPP models for wastewater treatment projects demand a much stricter and
robust performance of the plant in terms of treated water quality.
By Amit Christian
projects demand a much strict- Sludge (IFAS) technologies e) The versatility of the tech-
er and robust performance of have emerged as simple yet nologies allows for different
the plant in terms of treated robust, flexible and compact tank geometries, and
water quality achieved at the solutions for wastewater treat- f ) Upgradation and expansion
point of discharge from the ment. The technologies have of existing plant without
wastewater treatment plant. been successfully implement- adding new basins to it.
Under such circumstanc- ed for BOD/COD removal and
es, the wastewater treatment nitrification-denitrification Bio-carriers: Most Crucial
projects are becoming more and removal of toxic and per- Elements for a Better MBBR/
and more technology driven sistent pollutants under anaer- IFAS Design
as not only the major cost but obic as well as aerobic condi- As the micro-organisms
also the performance, O&M tions. growing on the biofilm at-
cost and final treated water tached to carriers are respon-
quality achievable for further MBBR/IFAS Advantage: A Tru- sible for removal efficiency
reuse and recycle at optimum ly Hybrid System Bridging the and thus overall performance
Figures 1-2: Media Filling and Fluidization at NINGAN Plant treatment economics are tech- Gap Between Two Modes of of the reactor, carriers on
OVER THE PAST few years, charge standards are being nology dependent. Biological Growth which bio-film grows are the
wastewater treatment industry implemented not only for pol- In principle, the MBBR most crucial elements of the
has witnessed a rapid change lution abatement but also for MBBR and IFAS and IFAS are a combination MBBR/IFAS system. Histori-
in the awareness towards tech- promoting reuse and recycle Technologies: Emerging of fixed-film and suspended cally various carrier materials
nology selection for a waste- of the treated effluent at much Technologies on growth processes of biolog- such as pulverized or granular
water treatment project due higher level taking it to the Horizon ical wastewater treatment. activated carbon, quartz sand,
to drastic changes in the dis- point of direct or indirect po- Among various fixed-film Both systems utilize specially expanded clay, lava slag, tex-
charge standards required to table reuse. Furthermore, the based processes, Moving Bed designed carrier material for tile sheets, porous-non porous
be met by the treatment plant. PPP models implemented for Bio Reactor (MBBR) and In- the growth of biofilm which is plastics in the form of granules
More and more stringent dis- various wastewater treatment tegrated Fixed Film Activated held in suspension within the or various packing of differ-
reactor using aeration and me- ent size and shapes have been
chanical mixing energy. utilized extensively for fixed
The combination of sus- film technologies. As the ap-
pended growth and fixed film plication of MBBR technology
technology offers many advan- has gained momentum, much
tages which include: of the focus has been on the
a) The growth of highly spe- development of plastic based
cialized biomass to achieve carriers of different size and
desired treatment goals, geometries.
b) A continuous flow process
eliminating the backwash- Plastic Carriers and Their Lim-
ing requirement unlike oth- itations
er fixed film processes, At present a wide variety of
c) Flow simplicity and flexibil- plastic carrier manufactured
ity as CAS systems, from different plastic mate-
d) Biological performance is rials available in the market.
not dependent upon solids Depending upon their design
separation as much of the they offer a specific surface
active biomass is retained area in the range of 200-1200
on the carrier material al- m2/m3, density close to water
lowing for applications of (1.0 g/cm3), sp. Weight 80-140
various solids separation kg/m3 with a void ratio of 70-
Figure 5 technologies, 90%. However, due to their

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 27


durable foam cubes impreg- wastewater treatment tech-

nated with adsorbing, surface nologies namely fixed film
active pigments with an ex- growth and suspended growth
tremely high surface. One cu- technology.
bic meter of flexible PU foam In the IFAS/CFAS process,
has a surface area of 2500 m2/ fixed film media/carriers are
m3. Their impregnation with added to the conventional ac-
15 to 50 kg highly adsorbing tivated sludge system aeration
activated carbon powder, with tank which allows growth of
surfaces of 1000 to 2000 m2 biomass on it. The growth of
per 1 gram (!) weight, results microorganisms on the at-
in extremely high adsorbing tached phase enables a signif-
surface and high porosity. icant increase in the biomass
in the aeration tank increasing
Advantages of Levapor Carri- the SRT of the system without
ers an increase of recycled sludge
Due to their mentioned flow rate.
advantageous properties, LE- This hybrid configuration,
VAPOR carriers enable a very of suspended as well as at-
fast: tached growth technologies,
• Reversible adsorption of in- combines distinct advantag-
hibitory, slowly degradable es of both the technologies,
Figure 6
particle size, sedimentation pollutants which are:
very poor adsorbent capacity, Carrier Material velocity) can be varied at will • Colonization of carrier sur- • Retention of higher biomass
adhesion of microorganisms Poly Urethane (PU) first in- • Ease of handling
requires time and thus takes vented by Bayer AG in 1937
3-4 weeks to colonize and of- form a group of plastic whose LEVAPOR Carriers: First Syn-
fers no adsorption of toxic properties show more vari- thetically Modified PU Carrier
and inhibitory substances pro- ability than those of other Levapor Bio Film Technol-
viding no protection against groups. PU as carrier material ogies and Bio Consulting is a
them. is favored due to following rea- Germany based organization
For desired treatment lev- sons: started by Dr. Imre Pascik, pro-
el a filling ratio of 30-60% • Higher mechanical strength vides innovative fixed-film-
required for these carriers with the flexibility of rubber based solutions for the treat-
increasing the reactor size. and toughness of metal ment of complex effluents.
Moreover, the specific weight • Higher internal porosity After basic research activities,
of these carriers is very high • Higher stability to hydrolysis Levapor carriers were designed
requiring additional energy • Non-biodegradability and to meet the requirement of
for mixing and recirculation in resistant to solvent especial- ideal carriers for microbial
the reactor. ly of poly-ether based PUs immobilization. The carriers
Poly Urethane (PU): An Ideal • Their properties (density, comprise porous, flexible and

face by more active, special, in the system rendering

biofilm-forming microor- higher loading rates and im-
ganisms than simple carriers proved process stability,
resulting in • Smaller footprint, and
• Faster process start-up • Lower sludge production
• Higher removal efficiency compared to suspended
• Higher process stability growth only system.
• Lower sludge yields and
• Better process economy Improved Settling Characteris-
• Only 10-15% filling required tics of Sludge
compared 40-60% require-
ment for conventional plas- • Lower solids loading rate
tic media to secondary clarifiers and
thus improving their perfor-
LEVAPOR MBBR/IFAS Pro- mance and operation, and
cess • Improved process recovery
IFAS, Integrated Fixed Film from upsets.
Activated Sludge (IFAS) also
known as CFAS (Combined Application Case Study:
Fixed Film Activated Sludge) 20 MLD Ningan Plant,
process is a combination of China
two fundamental biological Ningan is a city with

28 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


immobilization of nitrifying
Inlet Effluent biomass and nitrification by
wastewater Levapor MBBR/IFAS Media
Clarifier represents one of the best and
economic methods for a suc-
cessful a stable process. As ni-
Aeration tank with Levapor media trifying bacteria tend to build
biofilms, the Levapor MBBR/
IFAS Media provides ideal
habitat for the growth of active
Return Activated Sludge Line nitrifying biofilms at much
faster rates compared to sus-
pended growth only systems
and conventional MBBR Me-
dia based on plastic materials.
Waste Sludge Despite fluctuations in the
inlet nitrogen load, tempera-
ture and COD values, the
plant is consistently achieving
4,40,000 inhabitants located fact, conventional activated day. The reactors were filled able COD reduction and Total NH4.N outlet in the range of
ca. 20 km southwest of Mu- sludge system based nitrifi- with 400 m3 of Levapor media nitrogen removal with lowest 5-7 ppm with TN<15 ppm at
danjiang in the Heilongjiang cation reactor requires very at a filling ratio of 12.5%. possible NH4.N values and TN all time meeting the discharge
province. The city is situated large volume and still there are During the period of Octo- values due to simultaneous criteria (Figure 6).
in the colder climate region chances of washout of Nitrifi- ber-2010, the plant was start- nitrification and denitrifica- As observed with COD re-
of Northern China and expe- cation biomass due to its poor ed without any nitrification tion suspected within the in- duction trend, the Nitrogen re-
rience hard winter with tem- flocculant properties. sludge seeding. The plant ner pores of fine pore Levapor moval efficiencies are also re-
peratures as low as -24°C. Due Due to our past experience achieved stable COD reduc- MBBR/IFAS Media. maining independent of load
to new Chinese legislation of with cold temperature Nitri- tion within a few days and af- A typical year-long COD fluctuations and temperature
Class -I, its Sewage Treatment fication for municipal waste- ter four weeks of start-up, the trend is presented in Figure which is quite contrary to con-
Plant required to meet strin- water, a solution based on plant also started Nitrification 3. The graph clearly indicates ventional suspended growth
gent treated municipal efflu- Levapor Media based hybrid even though there was no well a seasonal fluctuation in the reactors (Figure 7).
ent criteria of BOD<10 ppm, activated sludge system was acclimatized nitrifying bio- COD load which is typical
COD<50 ppm, NH4.N<5 ppm selected for the project. The mass was added to the reactor. characteristics of any munic-
and TN<15 ppm. plant required to treat 22,000 ipal wastewater treatment
Due to an adverse effect of m3/day wastewater generated Performance of the Plant plant.
temperature on Nitrification meeting discharge limits as The plant is receiving mu- Despite such a high varia-
kinetics, often it is very diffi- per Chinese Class-I criteria. nicipal wastewater having tion in COD values and also
cult to achieve even a low lev- The Aerobic Hybrid Reactor COD range of 140-570 mg/lit temperature fluctuations, the
el of nitrification for a sewage comprised 4 X 800 m3 reac- and TKN range of 18-55 mg/ plant is consistently achieving
treatment project where the tors having the total volume of lit. Despite such high variation COD<50 ppm in the outlet,
liquid temperature plummets 3200 m3 corresponding to 3.5- in the COD and TKN values and satisfying the Chinese
to as low as 5-8°C during the 3.8 hours retention time at an and also colder winter climate. Class-I treatment criteria re-
winter period. Because of this average flow rate of 22,000 m3/ The plant is achieving remark- quirements for all the days of
its operation throughout the About the Author
year. Amit Christian is a gradu-
The remarkable feature of ate in Mechanical Engineering
the plant performance is that with a MS degree in Environ-
despite temperature fluctua- mental Pollution Control from
tions the COD outlet values Middlesex University, Lon-
are fluctuating within much don, UK. He has more than
narrower range and also meet- fourteen years of experience
ing the treatment goals of <50 in the field of water and waste-
ppm outlet COD throughout water treatment. His areas of
the year (Figure 5). specialization are biological
process designs for wastewa-
Nitrification at Ningan Plant: ter treatment based on CAS,
The Levapor Advantage MBBR, and IFAS technologies,
Due to the high sensitivi- plant operation and mainte-
ty of the slowly growing and nance, trouble shooting and
non-settling, non-flocculating process control. Presently, he
nitrifying bacteria to changing is involved in promoting fixed
temperature, pH, salinity and film based process solutions
certain pollutants, the nitri- using high performance acti-
fication represents the main vated carbon impregnated PU
problem for the biological media for MBBR/IFAS appli-
Figure 7 nutrient removal process. The cation.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 29


130 MLD Sewage Water Treatment Plant Reuse EPC
in Koradi
This project is first in India to use recycled water from a wastewater treatment
plant to generate electricity. Endress+Hauser supplied the entire measurement
technology, nearly 100 instruments for level, flow, pressure, and temperature
measurement as well as liquid analysis.
By Endress+Hauser India

Wastewater as a part of the Indian state of Ma- even the monsoons do little growing demand for clean wa- city is now working on a large-
Resource harashtra, lacks water, despite to ensure the residents are ter caused by the construction scale project together with Ma-
Nagpur, an industrial city being located on the Nag Riv- adequately supplied. The sit- of new thermal power plants. hagenco, a government-owned
of 2.4 million in the eastern er. The river is polluted, and uation is compounded by a To address this demand, the energy company, to create a

30 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


We are the only provider in the

country that offers a complete
instrumentation portfolio in
combination with extensive
expertise in the area of water and
wastewater. The treated water will
cool three, 660-megawatt thermal
power plant units, thus saving 47
million cubic meters of fresh water
per year.
- Sunil Bhor, Sr. Director - Environmental
Industry, Endress+Hauser India
supplied the products to Orbit economical source of water
Infra. supply for the power plant.
• In future, power generation
Reason from STP sludge is also en-
Considering the water scar- visaged to make the power
city in the Vidharbha Region requirement of STP self-sus-
new, five-hectare water treat- water from the Nag each day Endress+Hauser supplied and huge water demand for tainable.
ment plant that will draw 130 and treat it for use as cooling the entire measurement tech- upcoming power plants, MA-
million liters of contaminated water. nology, nearly 100 instru- HAGENCO decided to go for Why Endress+Hauser
ments for level, flow, pressure, an alternate unconventional India
Feasibility of the Project and temperature measure- source. Endress+Hauser is the only
• U SAID conducted a feasibility study for reuse of treated ment as well as liquid analysis. one vendor which has a com-
sewage from Nagpur city for its use in a Thermal Power Sta- Benefits plete range of products for
tion. Project Details • S aving of fresh water to the water and wastewater in India.
• MAHAGENCO found the proposal feasible and economical. 130 MLD Sewage Water extent of 47 mm3 per an- The company also provides af-
• Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) had already submit- Treatment Plant Reuse EPC num. ter-sales services for the prod-
ted a proposal of 110 MLD STP under JnNURM. project is for 3x660 MW Kora- • New STP of 130 MLD will uct and solutions. To back this
• MoU signed between NMC and MAHAGENCO for “Con- di TPS, in Koradi. improve ecology and envi- range of solutions, the compa-
struction and Operating Agreement of Treatment and The project was won by SMS ronment of surrounding wa- ny also has a strong know-how
Transmission Facilities for Reclaimed Water Usage”. Infra, and orbit was sub-con- ter bodies. and expertise in the water and
tractor for this project and we • There will be a reliable and wastewater industry.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 31


Circular Economy in Water - An Initiative of Government of

Tamil Nadu
If the industrial demand is less than treated water, excess water will be utilized for
agriculture and groundwater recharge. With this initiative, water loop will be closed.
By K. Ashok Natarajan

In order to reduce the gap The Initiative of District, and State shall be
between demand and sup- Government of Tamil mapped in a district or grid
ply, water should be used ju- Nadu wise maps in open source
diciously and efficiently by Considering the present sce- GIS formats with all salient
employing water-efficient nario of demand and supply, attributes).
equipment in domestic and Government of Tamil Nadu • Identify the tentative loca-

agricultural sectors and water initiated to prepare a “Feasi- tions and capacities of new
should be reused in Industrial bility Report for setting up of wastewater treatment plants
sectors. Wastewater Reuse grid and to generate re-use water that
preparation of Policy Frame- can be supplied for industri-
Tamil Nadu State Profile work for the state of Tamil al use.
Tamil Nadu is the most Nadu” through Tamil Nadu • At other locations, TTRO

urbanized state in India and Urban Infrastructure Financial plants to cater to the needs
about 48.45% of the popu- Services Limited (TNUIFSL). of treating the water from
lation lives in urban towns. TNUIFSL had entrusted the wastewater grid will be locat-
There are 12 municipal cor- work to Tamil Nadu Water In- ed. The study shall identify
porations, 124 municipalities vestment Company Limited such suitable locations.
and 528 town panchayats in (TWIC). • Identify the tentative routing
Tamil Nadu. The urban pop- of reuse water grids across
ulation as per 2011 census The Scope of the Work the state of Tamil Nadu.
is 349.50 lakhs. The sewage The scope of the study com- • Block Costing to determine
generated is about 2800 MLD. prises the following major the viability of the system -
At present, there are sewage components: Based on the locations of the
treatment plants in 24 towns • To prepare “Feasibility Re- proposed treatment facilities
Figure 1: Source: Kirchherr, et al., 2017
with an installed capacity of port for Setting-up of Waste- of ULB, under construction,
1160.20 MLD. In 30 towns, water Reuse Grid and Prepa- existing wastewater treat-
THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY Water Potential and sewage treatment plants with a ration of Policy Framework ment plants and as well as
offers a new way of looking at Demand capacity of 418.58 MLD are un- for the State of Tamil Nadu”. the new treatment facilities
the relationships between mar- In the state of Tamil Nadu, der construction. In 13 towns, • Assess the demand for in- identified under this study
kets, customers and natural the water potential in the year sewage treatment plants with a dustrial water at a dispersed keeping in view the quan-
resources, promoting sustain- 2011 is 47,680 MCM as against capacity of 241.41 MLD are in level (at the level of districts). tum of reuse water required
able and resource-efficient pol- the demand of 49,773 MCM pipeline. • Assessment of demand fore- at various locations, broad
icies and practices. A business with a shortage of 2093 MCM Tamil Nadu is also a most casts for future water-reuse mapping of the system com-
model that enables the econo- as shown in Figure 2. industrialized State in India. with assumptions. ponents with block costs and
my to grow, while minimizing The projected demand in Most of the industries are tak- • Review of the provision viability shall be arrived at.
the number of virgin resources the year 2020 and 2048 will ing either groundwater or sur- made by the TWAD Board Including pipeline align-
that are extracted. be 52,891 MCM and 55,919 face/ subsurface water, thereby CMWSS Board in all CWSS ments.
MCM respectively as shown in creating stress on domestic towards industrial demand. • Pricing mechanism for reuse
Figure 3. water supply. • Assess the potential waste- of wastewater.
water output in the districts. • Cost-benefit analysis with a
• Assess the availability of comparison on the amount
treated municipal wastewa- of investment needed
ter. for each grid against the
• Assess the water consump- increase in water reuse
tion by industries across dif- achieved, allowing the gov-
ferent sources. ernment to prioritize the op-
• Identify regions under wa- tions are the most efficient to
ter-stress and potential wa- maximize water reuse.
ter-stressed regions. • In areas where there is no in-
• Mapping of all STPs (loca- dustrial demand, duly study
tion of the project site cov- the feasibility of agricultural
Figure 2 Figure 3 ering village, Taluka/ Tehsil, use and water recharge.

32 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


departments, agencies etc., cial costs of wastewater recy-

and prepare dissemination cling and reuse may outweigh
report at his own cost. The the pure financial returns, it
stakeholder consultation makes immense economic
strategy report by identify- sense to mainstream this prac-
ing different stakeholders to tice owing to the considerable
be prepared prior to consul- environmental, social and
tations after the draft report. health benefits generated. The
Consultants shall also orga- various financial and econom-
nize one single day work- ic benefits of wastewater recy-
shop/ consultative meeting cling are given in Figure 7.
in Chennai with various • Recycled Wastewater: An ad-
stakeholders after the Draft ditional, reliable and cost-ef-
Report stage. fective source of water.
Based on the study, more • Wastewater Recycling: Off-
STPs will be constructed, setting the need for addition-
Sewage will be recycled and al sources of water.
Wastewater Reuse grids will • Recycled Wastewater: An af-
be formed as shown in Figure fordable and assured source
4, 5, and 6. of water for industries.
• Wastewater recycling to meet
GRID - Consist of Pumping agricultural water demand.
Main, Feeder Main and Branch • Sale of Recycled Water: A
Main source of revenue for Urban
If the industrial demand is Local Bodies (ULBs)
less than the treated water, the • Valuing the nutrients present
excess water will be utilized in wastewater.
Figure 4: Wastewater Recycling Process for agriculture and groundwa- • Economic value of the nutri-
ter recharge. With this initia- ent load in wastewater.
• A
 ssessment of the econom- of possible strategies and treatment facilities. tive, water loop will be closed. • Reduction in fertilizer use on
ic and financial feasibility final choice of implementa- • Survey of Industrial Units: account of wastewater irriga-
of the proposed grids on a tion (EPC, DBO, DBOT, DB- Comprehensive manage- Economic and Financial tion.
standalone basis, which im- FOT, O&M, etc.) and project ment of wastewater is neces- Benefits of Wastewater • Increase in overall farm in-
plies: (i) identification and implementation including a sary to achieve sustainabili- Recycling and Reuse come due to wastewater irri-
quantification of project tentative time planning. ty. This highlights the need to Recycled water can provide gation.
benefits, namely the positive • 
Prepare a framework on create the right framework. an additional and valuable • Reduction in groundwater
externalities from wastewa- “Water Reuse” for Commis- A multi-pronged approach source of water. This resource pumping due to wastewater
to be used to elicit responses also presents opportunities to irrigation.
from the units. The approach recover nutrients and energy • Reduction in energy require-
consists of written commu- from wastewater. The recovery ments due to reduced water
nication for responses fol- of phosphorus and potassium pumping for irrigation.
lowed by physical visits with is particularly attractive be- • Greenhouse gas mitiga-
a structured questionnaire. cause India imports most of its tion from the use of treated
Data to be collated finally phosphorus and all of its potas- wastewater for irrigation.
in an electronic format and sium needs to meet demand.
should cover all the districts Use of recycled wastewater About the Author
in Tamil Nadu. The industri- for irrigation can help to cir- K. Ashok Natarajan is the
Figure 5
al survey will comprise: cumvent groundwater pump- CEO of Tamil Nadu Water
o SIPCOT and SEZ Units: ing and hence reduce energy Investment Company Ltd
ter reuse grid wise; (ii) cal- sionerate of Municipal Ad- 2,400 Units (All Units) requirements for irrigation. (TWIC).
culation of the project’s Eco- ministration (CMA), TN and o Other Large Units: 1,850 Reduction in the use of energy
nomic Rate of Return (ERR) CMWSS Board. Units also reduces GHGs, which are
grid-wise. • Land identification at suit- o MSME: 7,500 Units typically produced during the
• Suggest proposals grid wise able locations for additional o Total: 11,750 Units production and combustion
• Prepare an action of fuel and energy. There are
plan for implementation, insti- also opportunities to tap into
tutional mechanism, prioritiz- carbon credits as an additional
ing & phasing, policy interven- revenue stream as and when
tions etc., the carbon market becomes
• Stakeholder Consultation viable and subject to demand
and Dissemination: The and supply constraints. Fig-
consultant should conduct ure 7 illustrates the financial
one consultation meeting and economic cost-benefit
per grid with various stake- concepts related to recycling
holders to elicit the views and reuse of wastewater. It is
Figure 6 of industries, government apparent that while the finan-

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 33


Gas Hydrate Based Industrial Wastewater Treatment

The treatment of industrial wastewater containing a variety of dissolved solids and
miscible liquids with existing technologies is expensive requiring huge infrastructure.
By Amit Katyal

INDUSTRIAL WASTEWA- required for highly polluted of gaseous hydrate former is ter treatment vessel along with After this, the temperature
TER IS a potent pollutant and water are very low because of required for the formation of concentrated wastewater. As of the water treatment vessel is
industrial wastewater treat- freezing point depression and a substantial quantity of gas microbubble generator is opti- raised above the hydrate disso-
ment is an active subject of controlling of ice formation hydrates, so it is proposed to mized to operate near a partic- ciation temperature of gas hy-
research with a few existing and separation of ice and con- store the hydrate former in ular operating pressure so con- drates resulting in dissociation
technologies. The treatment of centrated wastewater is very the storage vessel in the liq- stant pressure is maintained in of gas hydrates to give pure
industrial wastewater contain- difficult. As gas hydrates can uid phase. However, as the the water treatment vessel and water and hydrate former. Hy-
ing a variety of dissolved sol- be formed at temperatures formation of gas hydrates out connected storage vessel by drate former gets transferred
ids and miscible liquids with much higher than ice forming of gaseous hydrate former is maintaining a constant tem- to the storage vessel through
existing technologies is expen- temperatures of highly pollut- much easier and faster than perature in the storage vessel. the connecting pipe where the
sive requiring huge infrastruc- ed water and as formation of the formation of gas hydrates Suitable hydrate formation same constant temperature is
ture with multiple steps for gas hydrates can be controlled out of liquid hydrate former temperature is maintained maintained which results in
separating various pollutants easily by stopping the input of so hydrate former is trans- in the water treatment vessel the conversion of hydrate for-
present. There exists a need hydrate formers and separa- ferred from the storage vessel which results in an instanta- mer into the liquid phase. Rel-
for an industrial wastewater tion of gas hydrates and con- to the water treatment vessel neous conversion of microbub- atively pure water is removed
treatment technology which is centrated wastewater is easier in gaseous form. Microbub- bles of hydrate former into gas from the bottom of the water
simple to implement requiring compared to freeze-thaw water bles of hydrate formers are hydrates. Microbubble genera- treatment vessel and next
low capital and operating cost. treatment so gas hydrate based generated using a microbub- tor is stopped after a suitable batch of highly polluted water
A new wastewater treatment water treatment presents a ble generator and put in the amount of gas hydrates are is pumped into the water treat-
technology for producing rela- techno-economic method for highly polluted water present formed in the water treatment ment tank. The same water
tively pure water out of highly wastewater treatment. in the water treatment vessel. vessel and concentrated waste- treatment cycle is repeated to
polluting industrial waste- The gas hydrate based water The storage vessel and water water is removed from the treat batches of highly pollut-
water containing a variety of treatment, in general, includes treatment vessel are connect- bottom of the water treatment ed water again and again and
dissolved solids and miscible the following steps: ed to each other through their vessel. The temperature of the produce more and more rela-
liquids has been developed. • Formation of gas hydrates respective vapor spaces by a storage vessel is maintained tively pure water.
The technology uses the gas • Separation of gas hydrates connecting pipe. Microbubble at a constant value during hy-
hydrate concept to produce from concentrated water generator is connected to the drate formation and removal
relatively pure water out of • Washing of gas hydrates to vapor space of water treatment of concentrated wastewater
highly polluting industrial remove surface impurities vessel from where it sucks the resulting in constant pressure
wastewater. Gas hydrates are • Dissociation of gas hy- hydrate former by generating in both the vessels avoiding
ice-like inclusion compounds drates to give pure water low pressure within itself. Low dissociation of gas hydrates
formed at above ice forming Existing gas hydrate based pressure is generated inside during removal of concentrat-
temperatures at elevated pres- water treatment technologies the microbubble generator by ed wastewater.
sures by the interaction of low use separate pressure vessels using ventury principle or oth- Gas hydrates recede to the
molecular weight hydrocarbon for separate steps of gas hy- er means. In a ventury based lower portion of water treat-
gases like methane, ethane, drate based water treatment microbubble generator, a mi- ment vessel where these are
propane and butane, inert and different methods for crobubble generator pump washed to remove surface
gases like argon and xenon, transporting gas hydrates from is used to take concentrated impurities using low salinity
inorganic gases like carbon one pressure vessel to the oth- wastewater from the bottom water sprayed through nozzles Gas Hydrate Based Water Treatment
dioxide, carbon monoxide, ni- er. However, the developed gas of water treatment vessel and present in the lower portion of System
trogen, oxygen, and hydrogen hydrate based water treatment pump it through a ventury the water treatment vessel. Hy-
sulfide and freons with water. technology carries out all the nozzle back into the middle drate wash water is removed The configuration of the sys-
In a gas hydrate molecule, a steps of gas hydrate based portion of water treatment from the bottom of the water tem is shown in Figure 1.
molecule of hydrate formers water treatment in the same vessel. A low pressure is creat- treatment vessel and hydrate Various hydrate formers
sits in a cavity formed by the pressure vessel thus saving ed in the ventury nozzle which washing is continued till sa- were analyzed for their suit-
water molecule. Gas hydrate on additional pressure vessels is connected to the vapor space linity of hydrate wash water ability for the developed gas
based water treatment is sim- and methods of transportation of water treatment vessel be- becomes sufficiently low. The hydrate based water treatment
ilar to freeze-thaw water treat- of gas hydrates among mul- cause of which hydrate former temperature of the storage ves- technology and ethane was
ment where water is frozen, tiple pressure vessels. A sep- is sucked into the ventury noz- sel is maintained at the same found to be the most suitable
separated from concentrated arate pressure vessel is used zle to form bubbles. However, constant value during hydrate hydrate former due to its low
wastewater and melted to give for storage of hydrate former. the flow of water through the washing to maintain the same cost, ready availability, suit-
pure water. However, freeze- Formation of gas hydrates out ventury nozzle shears the bub- constant pressure in both the able handling properties, and
thaw water treatment is not of gaseous hydrate former re- bles formed resulting in the vessels avoiding any dissoci- high hydrate formation tem-
techno-economically feasible sults in a 160 times decrease formation of microbubbles ation of gas hydrates during perature and low hydrate for-
as the freezing temperatures in volume. A huge amount which are injected into the wa- hydrate washing. mation pressure compared to

34 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Ethane Hydrate Equilibrium Pressure Vs. Salinity

other hydrate formers. the storage tank for condensa- in hydrate formation mode systems.
The hydrate equilibrium tion of hydrate former. In order and water treatment vessel of The steady-state modelling
pressure for ethane hydrates to facilitate easy temperature the other gas hydrate based and simulation of the thermal-
vs. salinity of NaCl brine for control of vessels and to de- water treatment system in hy- ly coupled system for treat-
different temperature values is crease the capital and operat- drate dissociation mode using ment of near eutectic NaCl
shown in Figure 2. ing cost of temperature control a heat pump type system. This brine using MS Excel and VBA
It is observed after analysis system, thermal integration results in the vessels releasing has been performed and the
of the developed gas hydrate of two developed gas hydrate heat to be on the cooling side operating energy consumption
based water treatment system based water treatment systems of the heat pump while vessels of the system is anticipated to
that the temperature of the operating out of phase with absorbing heat to be on the be around 0.05 KWH/ liter of
storage vessel always remains each other using a heat pump heating side of the heat pump. treated water for treatment of
below the temperature of the is proposed. In the proposed The configuration of the heat near eutectic NaCl brine. A US
water treatment vessel. It is thermally coupled system, the pump is interchanged after patent has been granted to the
also observed that when heat water treatment vessel of one hydrate formation mode in technology and an Indian pat-
is released during hydrate for- of the gas hydrate based water one of the gas hydrate based ent is pending.
mation in the water treatment treatment system in hydrate water treatment system and About the Author
hydrate dissociation mode in Amit Katyal is an inde-
The companies, interested in licensing this technology, the other gas hydrate based pendent inventor/ researcher
are being sought. Amit Katyal, inventor of the technology, water treatment system is over. based in New Delhi, India
can be contacted through this publication for more infor- This results in the same heat with a Bachelors in Chemical
mation and licensing related queries. pump being used for two gas Engineering (B.Tech.) from
hydrate based water treatment the prestigious Indian Insti- izontal Distillation Column
systems and effective and effi- tute of Technology, Delhi (IIT, Technology, patent pending
vessel, lesser amount of heat is formation mode and storage cient transfer of heat from one Delhi) and a total experience Simultaneous Evaporation
absorbed in the storage vessel vessel of the other gas hydrate gas hydrate based water treat- of around 25 years in hydro- and Condensation Technolo-
for evaporation of hydrate for- based water treatment system ment system to the other using carbons and water treatment gy, and numerous oil and gas
mer and when heat is absorbed in hydrate dissociation mode a refrigeration fluid decreasing sector. Apart from Gas Hy- software, having application
during hydrate dissociation in are heat integrated with the both capital and operating cost drate Based Water Treatment in design and operations of
water treatment vessel, lesser storage vessel of gas hydrate of the thermally coupled gas Technology, he has also de- downstream, midstream, and
amount of heat is released in based water treatment system hydrate based water treatment veloped the US patented Hor- upstream oil & gas systems.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 35


Reverse Osmosis and Ion Exchange - Unique Process

Steps to Minimize the Liquid Discharge
In this article, two MLD (Minimal Liquid Discharge) processes, which were
implemented in existing industrial plants in India, are presented and explained.
By LANXESS India Pvt. Ltd.

ing on the type of contami- Chemical Industry concentrate is treated via an

nants by either mechanical, This zero liquid discharge evaporation step to achieve
biological, or filtration steps wastewater treatment plant is the zero liquid discharge op-
to produce a water quality that located inside the water treat- eration.
can be reused in an upstream ment facility section of a major
plant process. specialty chemicals producer. Membrane Performance
In MLD/ZLD processes, it The wastewater plant pro- The water treatment instal-
is common that both inter- cesses treated sewage water via lation was originally designed
ception and end-of-pipe treat- UF (Ultrafiltration) pre-treat- around “ultralow energy” sea-
ment options can be applied ment, cartridge filtration, and water RO elements.
for overall water management. RO membrane desalination. However, after three years,
Which treatment process The desalinated water is these elements were replaced
THE APPLICATION OF wa- the water supply for a separate is adopted usually depends further treated by degasifica- with Lewabrane® RO B400
ter treatment technologies production step. on the size of the plant, and tion, and ion exchange mixed HR elements since a perfor-
to achieve the Minimal Liq- If usage is not possible, an whether the treatment process bed columns installed with mance projection (prepared
uid Discharge (MLD) or Zero interception technology may is added to an existing plant. Lewatit® MonoPlusS108H and with the LewaPlus® design
Liquid Discharge (ZLD) is be used to get the water qual- If an MLD/ZLD process imple- MonoPlusM800 to prepare software) showed that the re-
increasingly under consider- ity to the level suitable so that mented to an existing plant, boiler feed water. quired permeate quality could
ation in today’s water-stressed it can be reused. A typical tech- in most cases an end-of-pipe The RO installation is a two- be achieved with standard test
world. nology for this is membrane treatment is preferred since stage system with a capacity of pressure BW elements operat-
MLD and ZLD are processes technology. less new piping, and less inter- 38 m3/h. The feed water to the ing at an even lower feed pres-
that minimize or eliminate the Depending on the type of ference with the existing pro- RO has a TDS in the range of sure.
discharge of water or liquids contaminants, it can be Micro- cess is required. 600-1,300 mg/l. The permeate After start-up, the predicted
from a plant process. filtration (MF) to remove bac- In the following industrial has a TDS below 20 mg/l, and performance advantages of
The reasons to implement terial substances, Ultrafiltra- examples, two MLD (Minimal after mix bed application, a fi- the Lewabrane® BWRO mem-
these processes can be: tion (UF) to remove particulate Liquid Discharge) processes, nal boiler feed water quality of branes were confirmed during
• Regulatory and high molecular weight which were implemented in < 0.1mg/l TDS and 0.02 mg/l routine daily operation.
• Cost saving from water recy- organics, Nanofiltration (NF) existing plants in India, are silica. The RO feed pressure with
cling, and reduction of water to remove divalent salts and presented. The concentrate is further Lewabrane® RO B400 HR
discharge costs organics, or Reverse Osmosis These examples represent treated by high-pressure RO. was throughout three years
• Environmental - Increase (RO) to remove salts and small two different industries: the The permeate of this concen- below 9.5bar (with the pre-
sustainability of industrial organic compounds. textile and the chemicals in- trate RO is reused in the pro- vious SWRO elements feed
sites in water-stressed re- Another technology that can dustry. cess, and, finally, the brine pressures were on average 12
gions be used is ion exchange treat-
There are two treatment op- ment (IX). This technology Industry Chemical Industry
tions for process water: inter- should be applied if a selective
nal recycling, and end-of-pipe separation is preferred, e.g., to Application Wastewater Treatment
treatment. remove specifically some ionic
The internal recycling is contaminants from the process Location India
conducted inside the plant water or to recover valuable
processes, and implemented ionic or non-ionic substances Product Lewabrane® RO B400 HR and Lewatit® MonoPlusS108 +Mono-
by analyzing the water com- selectively. Plus M800
position and the water quan- This separation can be
tity to make a so-called “pinch achieved using a special IX Volume 48 pieces Lewabrane® and 2,000l M+ S108 + 4,000l M+ M800
point” analysis. product called scavenger, se-
In this analysis, the water lective resin or absorber resin. Production capacity 38 m3/hr
quality and water quantity are When interception technol-
determined for a specific pro- ogy is not possible, the client Water type High Salinity and Organic Loaded Wastewater
duction step, and a decision is should consider an end-of-
made as to whether it is possi- pipe treatment solution. In this Installation November 2013
ble to use the wastewater from case, the plant wastewater is
a certain production step as collected and treated depend- Table 1: At a Glance

36 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Industry Textile Industry

Digital Planning and Design of try. LewaPlus is a freely available, compre-
Water Treatment Plants hensive tool for the planning of water treat- Application Wastewater Treatment
ment systems with reverse osmosis and ion
Water treatment is becoming increasingly exchange resins. The design software allows Location India
complex due to demands for higher quality both methods to be implemented and com-
of water, such as for example those for boil- bined within the same program. This makes it Product Lewabrane® RO S400 HR and Le-
er-feed water in power plants. possible to quickly and accurately design the watit® CNP-80 WS
Ion exchangers and reverse osmosis full desalination system.
amongst other things are being used as stan- Precisely Calculated Proposals Volume 1 54 Pieces Lewabrane® and 7,500
dard technologies in water treatment plants. LewaPlus is providing support in the de- lLewatit® CNP-80 WS
For the planning of such systems, LANXESS sign of five different water treatment process-
is offering the LewaPlus design software on a es. For designing a plant, the software only Production 85 m3/hr
free-of-charge basis. needs a water analysis, the water source, the Capacity
Integrated Competence for Ion Exchange water quantity, and the temperature. This us-
and Reverse Osmosis er-friendly tool then uses this data to calculate Water Type High Salinity and Organic Loaded
LANXESS offers a broad range of prod- recommendations for LANXESS products to Wastewater
ucts and extensive experience in both ion be used in the corresponding quantity and
exchange and reverse osmosis for the wa- with process-specific details. Furthermore, Installation August 2016
ter-treatment industry. In addition to that, the operating and investment costs can be calcu- Table 3: At a Glance
specialty chemicals company also provides lated for reverse osmosis plants.
the LewaPlus planning tool for industrial wa- The software is being continually upgraded. ber of organics in the wastewa- of reduced COD content from
ter treatment. It is now employed by users in over 100 coun- ter. the scavenger resin treatment
The design software is unique in the indus- tries and is available in ten languages. This step is followed by step to reduce the potential of
quartz filtration. The process biogrowth.
bar). The RO system salt re- a 34mil feed spacer (recom- is an important employer, the water is then passed through
jection was approx. 98.6% (as mended for wastewater appli- Indian government strongly an ion exchange treatment Conclusion
compared to the 97.3% rejec- cation), which has resulted in supports projects with MLD stage consisting of a scavenger The above industrial exam-
tion achieved with the SWRO a reduced cleaning frequency. processes. resin to remove the organic ples show that the reduction of
elements). The aim of this MLD process substances, followed by a high wastewater, even in challenging
The new Lewabrane® ele- Textile Industry was to reuse the process water TDS water softening. Since so- process industries, is possible
ments also provided an in- The second industrial exam- and recovery of the salt to: dium sulfate is added during using the right tools.
creased silica rejection (from ple is an innovative process in • Save feed water costs the process, calcium must be Ion exchange and reverse os-
94% to 96.6%) resulting in the textile industry. The dying • Realize cost savings by the removed to avoid the precipi- mosis is a smart and efficient
an increase of the cycle time process requires high concen- recovery of the process salt tation of calcium sulfate. combination to treat wastewater
between regenerations for the trations of salt to fix the dyes • Produce less waste After the ion exchange se- with a high organics load and
mixed bed ion exchange sys- onto the cellulose textile. The key technologies to quence, the water is passed high salinity.
tem. At the end of the process, achieve a water quality, which through a reverse osmosis sys- Even with wastewater as feed
After three years in opera- the wastewater stream consists could be reused in the process, tem to remove salts and other solution a final water quality,
tion (with monthly cleaning), of a high concentration of salts were the application of a scav- remaining organics. that can be used for boiler feed
the RO system rejection level and organics. Discharging the enger resin, a softening resin The RO system operates at a water, can be achieved by the
is still in the order of 97.5%. untreated wastewater would process, and a reverse osmosis recovery rate of 80%. The RO combination of an RO system
Recently, the first stage Lew- not only be harmful to the process. brine reject is further treated followed by polishing ion ex-
abrane® RO elements were environment, but it may also In this process, the waste- by NF (Nanofiltration) mem- change mix bed.
replaced with a Fouling Re- impact existing drinking water water is first treated with a branes to recover the sulfate, The use of scavenger resin as a
sistant Type (Lewabrane® sources. biological treatment (tertiary while the sodium chloride, pre-treatment before RO should
RO B400 FR) incorporating Since the textile industry treatment) to reduce the num- which passes through the NF be considered, to remove organ-
membrane, is concentrated by ics from the wastewater that can
Parameters Treated After After After RO a multiple effect evaporator. pass through an ultrafiltration
Effluent After Scavenger Resin Softening Membrane Unit The sodium chloride salts are process and lead to potential
Tertiary Resin finally dried in a solar pan (as biofouling in the RO process.
Treatment solid waste). Finally, for MLD/ZLD pro-
The concentrated sulfate cesses, it must be noted that it
pH 7.5 6.7 5.5-6.5 6.3 from the NF process step is re- is often challenging to achieve
used in the process. standards, but innovative com-
TSS (mg/l) 16 3-4 NIL NIL The efficiency of the dif- binations of existing technolo-
ferent treatment steps can be gies make it possible to reach the
Hardness (mg/l) 150-200 150-200 <5 ppm NIL seen in Table 2. targeted goal.
The MLD treatment process
TDS (mg/l) 11,000 11,000 10,500 <100 is extremely efficient, and this LANXESS is a leading spe-
underlines the advantages of cialty chemicals company with
Color (Pt/Co) 500-600 <50 <50 NIL an ion exchange pre-treatment sales of EUR 9.7 billion in 2017
for an RO process. and about 19,200 employees in
COD (ppm) 150–200 30-35 30-35 NIL The lifetime of the RO el- 25 countries. The company is
ements in this process is 3-4 currently represented at 74 pro-
Table 2: Water Quality After Treatment Step years, with the added benefit duction sites worldwide.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 37


Hurricane-Force Performance as New Screen Lives up

to Recommendations in Utah
Due to the increasing use and disposal of wet wipes, Ash Creek Special Service
District regularly struggled with mechanical breakdowns in their lagoon aeration
By Lakeside Equipment Corporation

Lakeside’s Raptor Screen - Running Trouble Free in Hurricane, Utah

AT A UTAH FACILITY that regularly struggled with me- the towns of Hurricane, La ed a very high capture efficien- Raptor Fine Screen”.
has seven wastewater treat- chanical breakdowns in their Verkin, and Toquerville), were cy, a full penetration cleaning
ment lagoons treating 1.5 lagoon aeration system. An ac- spending excessive amounts mechanism to eliminate the Reduced Disposal Costs
MGD and over 300 acres of cumulation of wipes and rags of time on maintenance, while possibility of screen blinding Benefits of this screen in-
farmland, a new screen has would become bound around aeration performance in the la- and a single integral screen- clude increased removal ef-
immediately improved aerator the aerator drive shafts, re- goons was regularly impaired. ing/ washer/ compactor unit. ficiency and low headloss
reliability, with an added ben- ducing performance until the District staff began a pro- “We quizzed local engineers - brought about by its cylindri-
efit of significantly improved motor became completely cess of site visits to wastewater about perceived strengths of cal screenings basket, angled
system aesthetics. bound, resulting in an over- plants in the area, requesting various screen types that they installation and screen bars
Constructed in the early 80s, amp fault. A grinder installed feedback from system opera- had seen implemented in facil- of varied heights. Inorganic
the lagoons transitioned over for the purpose of shredding tors on their satisfaction with ities like ours”, reflected Mike solids that can be harmful to
the course of the next 20 years the rags proved ineffective be- screening performance at their Chandler, District Superinten- downstream equipment are
from facultative to aerobic la- cause shredded rags and wipes facility. Simultaneously, staff dent. securely captured. The screen’s
goons, with the installation recombined in the lagoon began identifying key require- “That information, coupled rotating rake teeth fully pen-
of surface-mounted aerators. mixing areas and re-emerged ments for the screening sys- with a strong endorsement etrate the cylindrical screen
Due to the increasing use and as chords and ropes of the re- tem that they would ultimately from a neighboring facility bars, positively removing
disposal of wet wipes (‘flush- sidual debris. Frustrated per- like to see implemented at the pointed us in the direction of debris and grease to prevent
able’ or ‘non-flushable’), Ash sonnel at Ash Creek Special District’s facility. the inclined basket screen, and blinding or plugging. Also
Creek Special Service District Service District (which serves These requirements includ- more specifically, Lakeside’s suitable for septage receiv-

38 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


We quizzed local
engineers about
the perceived
strengths of
various screen
types that
they had seen
implemented in
facilities like ours.
That information,
with strong
from a
facility pointed
us in the
400 Goats Graze Freely in Pastures Between the Lagoons direction of
inclined basket
ing, sludge, scum and grease of engineers to design an influ- down hose bib. Ash Creek’s top of the screenings basket
trap applications, the screen’s ent receiving box and control operators then later installed and passes through a hinged screen, and
heavy-duty design provides structure that could be easily the (supplied) fully assembled cleaning comb. The debris is more specifically,
durability and long life in the provided by a local supplier of screen and worked closely removed from the collection Lakeside’s Raptor
most severe conditions. pre-cast concrete structures. alongside Lakeside during fi- trough by a central screw con-
Captured screenings are One month ahead of the ar- nal commissioning. veyor. Fine Screen.
compacted, dewatered and rival of the all-stainless steel When the upstream water The conveyed material trav- - Mike Chandler,
washed free of most organics Lakeside Raptor Screen, the level rises to a high-level set els up the inclined transport District
to approximately 40 percent team at Ash Creek installed point, the Raptor Screen’s rake tube where the material is
solids. Volume is reduced by the control structure and arm begins to rotate for remov- washed, compacted, and dewa- Superintendent,
50 percent and weight by 67 screening channel, also erect- al of the captured material. Af- tered prior to being discharged Utah
into a debris container.
Made in the USA, the Rap- recommendations we received
The Goats at Ash Creek Special used in eliminating the threat of mosquitoes. On
tor Screen’s hinged structur- from happy plant operators”.
Service District the banks of the seven-lagoon system, the goats
al support allows the unit to
It’s not every day that you see goats at a waste- are put to work eliminating all shoreline vegeta-
pivot out of the channel for Lakeside Equipment Cor-
water treatment plant, but at Ash Creek Spe- tion necessary for completion of the mosquito
life-cycle, saving Ash Creek around USD 20,000
inspection at floor level, whilst poration is an engineering
cial Service District, there are over 400 of them
in chemical costs annually.
its simple drive assembly also and manufacturing company
- and they certainly earn their keep.
Raised by the district’s farm manager, Kim
makes service easy and further concentrating on helping to
The ever-increasing awareness of the general
Spendlove, the goats graze freely in pastures
reduces maintenance costs. improve the quality of our wa-
public requires more careful stewardship of envi-
between the lagoons and on the 300-plus acres ter resources. Lakeside started
ronmental resources. Typically, careful attention
of farmland maintained by the District. Natural Trouble-Free in the Spring of 1928 to en-
to public health would require that in addition to
birthing in the pastures maintains numbers to “We made a minor adjust- gineer, develop, and provide
treating and disposing of wastewater that a treat-
175 nannies, with about 250 goats sold on the ment on the new screen’s con- water purification systems to
ment entity does not create any new nuisance in
market each February, bringing in close to USD trol floats”, continued Mike municipalities and companies
the process. A common challenge for wastewater
20,000 in additional income. Chandler, “and the Lakeside throughout North America.
professionals is eliminating the threat of second-
All effluent from the treatment lagoons is used Raptor has run totally trou- Today, it not only serves cus-
ary pathogen carriers, namely mosquitoes. In
to irrigate 300 acres of crops, which include al- ble-free. The amount of rags tomers in North America but
addition to effectively treating wastewater, the
falfa, oats, and triticale, which is another critical and debris it removes has sur- also helps global customers
staff at the District has made a conscious effort to
source of operating income for the district. prised us all here at Ash Creek. to purify their water supplies.
reduce the amount of insecticide and herbicide
The washed and compacted The early Lakesiders recog-
screenings are also very low on nized the value of providing
odor, which has been a bonus”. clean healthy drinking water
percent, thus reducing dispos- ing an electrical building and ter the rake arm makes a com- He concluded: “Overall, to the public as well as eco-
al costs. non-potable water air-gap tank plete revolution, material falls we can see what a tough and nomically treating water and
Together, Ash Creek’s per- for the screening washdown into a collection trough. For well-designed piece of equip- wastewater biologically and
sonnel worked with Lakeside’s nozzles – as well as installing complete cleaning, the rake ment this is from Lakeside, returning it safely to the envi-
Jim Aitkenhead and his team a screening structure wash- arm reverses direction at the who have clearly earned the ronment.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 39


Grit King System Saves the Plant From a Near Disaster

Chehalis was building a new WWTP and required a grit removal system that was
simple to use with minimal moving parts.
By Hydro International

Chehalis Grit King® System During Installation

THE GRIT SYSTEM was not ing an entirely new treatment rected sand from the effluent the installed Grit King grit began for the Chehalis Region-
the most important process plant in Chehalis, Washington. filters to the plant drain (rath- removal system not only kept al Water Reclamation Facili-
consideration when design- When a pump malfunction di- er than back to the filter beds) the plant running, it alerted ty, a completely new plant to
plant operators that there was be located on a new site, 200
a problem.
Chehalis straddles Inter-
state 5 at a point almost exact-
ly halfway between Portland
and Seattle. The city was orig-
inally called Saundersville in
honor of the donator of the Construction
land. The city is now named of the new [grit
after the Chehalis people, a na-
tive tribe of western Washing-
removal] system
ton State. The city of Chehalis was easy. It was
got its start in 1873 as a settle- delivered to the
ment around a warehouse next
to the railroad track. The first
site and the
wastewater treatment plant contractor bolted
was built in 1948. Following it in place within
several upgrades over the
years, the plant became un-
able to keep up with projected - Patrick Wiltzus,
future flow rates and stringent Wastewater
Department of Ecology permit
Sand Filter Media Entering the Grit King® requirements. In 2002, design Superintendent

40 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


couple of days.”
The Grit King is an advanced
hydrodynamic separator that
augments gravitational forc-
es to effectively separate grit
from the water. Internal flow
structuring components create
a long flow path for solids, aid-
ing settlement and maximiz-
ing grit capture in an all-hy-
draulic device. The Grit King
is available as a free-standing
or in-situ unit. The free-stand-
ing unit often requires no grit
pump making the classifier
screw the only mechanical
component on the grit system.
The new grit system typical-
ly filled their 1 cubic yard (0.7
m3) grit dumpster every week.
They knew something was
amiss in August 2012 when
the dumpster began filling up
within days. It quickly became
apparent that the material in
the dumpster was identical to
the high-grade silica sand used
in the sand filters. An inves-
tigation determined that the
discharge to one of the airlift
pumps designed to cycle the
sand back through the filters
was plugged. Rather than be-
ing directed into the sand fil-
Chehalis Grit King® System ter, the sand ended up in the
plant drain system which is di-
yards to the northeast. low a certain level, up to 3.5 dry weather, the wastewater is tendent “We were building a rected back to the headwords.
A design-bid-build project, Mgal/d (153 L/s) is treated to chemically treated with alum brand new plant with all new The filter sand was captured
the plant was constructed in reclaimed water standards and prior to sand filtration and UV processes so the grit system and removed by the Grit King
2007. The facility treats an av- used to irrigate the city’s 250 disinfection and then pumped was the least of our worries, units, protecting the SBRs
erage flow of 1.3 Mgal/d (57 acres (1 km2) poplar tree plan- to the city’s poplar tree plan- it just needed to be simple to downstream. Once the cause
L/s), with peak flows in excess tation. tation. Sludge is dewatered use and have minimal moving of the problem was identified,
of 10 Mgal/d (438 L/s) three Flow is pumped to two par- by a belt filter press then lime parts. The Grit King system the fluidizing and discharging
to four times per year. When allel screens with ¼” (6 mm) of grit from the Grit King units
the Chehalis River drops be- openings in the elevated head- was performed more frequent-
works. Flow is then directed The Objective pump sent filter media back ly to purge the system of the
to two 11’ (3.4 m) diameter Chehalis was building a new into the headworks. increased load. The plant con-
free-standing Grit King units, WWTP and required a grit re- tinued to successfully operate
with shared influent and efflu- moval system that was simple Plant Equipment during the entire event with no
ent boxes, designed to remove to use with minimal moving •T  wo (2) 11’ (3.4 m) Diame- equipment shutdowns.
The Grit King 95% of all grit 150 microns parts. ter Free Standing Grit King® “The Grit King system
system has (μm) and larger at a peak flow Units worked great without any
of 13 Mgal/d (570 L/s) through The Solution • One (1) Grit Classifier problems”, said Patrick about
worked great both units. Collected grit is Hydro’s Grit King® grit re- the event. Regarding normal
without any washed and discharged from moval system not only pre- Project Parameters operation, he comments “Since
problems. It has the bottom of the Grit King vented grit from impacting the • 1 .3 Mgal/d (57 L/s) Average its installation, the system has
units into a classifier for dewa- plant, but it also protected the Flow been excellent. It has been
been virtually tering. Grit and screenings are plant from being overwhelmed • 13 Mgal/d (570 L/s) Peak virtually trouble free. Our grit
trouble free. Our disposed of at the landfill. when a sand filter recirculation Flow is cleaner with fewer odors.”
grit is cleaner From the headwords, flow Each year one of the three
is treated in one or more of SBRs is cleaned. Patrick esti-
with fewer odors. three Sequencing Batch Re- pasteurized and heated to pro- met this requirement. Con- mates the amount of grit in the
- Patrick Wiltzus, actor (SBR) tanks, depending duce a class A biosolid which struction of the new system bottom of one basin, measur-
Wastewater on flow, each having a capac- is sold to local farmers. was easy. It was delivered to ing 97 feet (30 m) on each side
ity of 1.55 million gallons According to Patrick Wilt- the site and the contractor - 9,409 ft2 (874 m2) is “maybe a
Superintendent (58.9 million liters). During zius, Wastewater Superin- bolted it into place within a wheelbarrow full”.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 41


Generating Surplus Power from Wastewater Treatment

Marselisborg wastewater treatment plant produces more electricity and heat than it
By Danfoss

plying the district heating sys-

tem in Denmark’s second-larg-
est municipality, Aarhus. The
carbon footprint has been re-
duced by 35% accordingly.
Water and wastewater treat-
ment facilities are normally
the single largest electricity
consumer for a municipality.
Typically water and waste-
water treatment processes
account for 25-40% of the mu-
nicipal electricity consump-
tion. The high consumption is
related to the energy-intensive
processes but also its continu-
Biogas Power Generation: VLT® AQUA Drives Control Cooling Fans and Booster
ous operation cycle, 24/7 and
365 days annually.
Over the years, the focus has Water and wastewater treat- consultants to improve the en-
been on developing new pro- ment processes are character- ergy balance for Marselisborg
cesses and control strategies ized by high load variation wastewater treatment plant.
to reduce energy consumed during the 24-hour cycle and
per liter of water processed. seasonally throughout the Key Steps in the
However, at the same time year. The use of frequency con- Strategy:
the increasing demands upon verters has therefore steady 1. 
Optimization of the nitro-
wastewater treatment quality, increased in order to control gen removal process using
130% Electricity Generation Results in 30% Annual Net Surplus, After Internal
Consumption. for example in nutrient remov- blowers, pumps and other mo- online sensor control. The
al, in turn, increase the net en- torized equipment, to adapt to frequency converter adapts
Maximizing Energy yond minimizing the energy ergy consumption. the changing demand. the level of aeration precise-
Surplus consumed, to maximizing net Since 2010 Aarhus Water ly to the need. This control
Since 2010, Marselisborg energy surplus. Nowadays, the Energy Balance has worked intensively togeth- system reduces energy con-
wastewater treatment plant facility has net production of Optimization er with water environment sumption and increases the
has transformed its focus be- both electricity and heat, sup-

We have always specified Danfoss

VLT® frequency converters
specifically for the features we
need which only VLT® can offer. The
difference between 25 years ago
and today is that processes now run
right at their limit - but not beyond.
And to achieve that we cannot do
without the precision control we can
get from VLT®s.
- Flemming Husum, Plant Manager,
Marselisborg WWTP

42 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


We use VLTs in every corner of the

plant. We are constantly seeking the
ideal operating point. Our goal is to
maximize liters of water processed
per kilowatt consumption. The
current measure is 0.32 kWh/m3
treated wastewater.
- Flemming Husum, Plant Manager,
Marselisborg WWTP

flexibility. Over 100 motors are surplus production of energy

controlled by VLT® frequency from its wastewater treatment
converters at Marselisborg. plants so high, that it can also
meet the energy requirement
Activated Sludge Nitrification & Denitrification: 16 VLT® Drives Rated 4 kW with PROFIBUS, RFI Filter, IP 66 Enclosure Energy Generation of the city’s potable water sup-
Rating and Climate Shield Control the Aeration Mixers. Vision ply. This will transform the
The vision for Aarhus City single largest electricity con-
amount of carbon left in the 3. Aerobic sludge age control tem. is to extend energy genera- sumer for the authority into an
system. as a function of temperature 4. Upgrade of Combined Heat tion even further, to achieve energy-neutral party.
2. Blower technology upgrade and load on the plant. Here and Power (CHP) process

Aarhus Water WWTPs

More than 300,000 people live in Aarhus, Denmark’s second largest city. Aarhus Water serves
the population with both water supply and wastewater treatment. The wastewater treatment
plants receive a total of 35 million m3 of wastewater annually.
At the largest of these plants, Marselisborg, capacity is 200,000 PE (person equivalent units).
Here the wastewater treatment efficiency has been optimized using Danfoss VLT® frequency
converters ever since initial commissioning in 1990. Today, control using VLT®s is more relevant
than ever.
The long-term plan is to close several plants and upgrade the remaining three. The upgrade
will comprise the implementation of new technologies, for example, anaerobic digestion tech-
niques such as anammox processing, and increasing capacity to 500,000 PE.

to a high-speed turbo blow- frequency converter control for energy production, with
er. The upgrade achieves of the return sludge pumps 90% energy efficiency.
further reduction of energy is the key to achieving ener- These changes together with
consumption in the aeration gy reduction and increased improvements including the
process. retained carbon in the sys- effective co-production of
electricity and heat based on
methane gas extracted from
the aerobic sludge digestion
process have created the im-
pressive results of:
• 130% electricity production
(30% excess electricity)
• Excess heat production of
about 2.5 GWh/year

VLT® in Every Corner

Frequency converters are
installed on almost all rotat-
ing equipment at Marselisborg
WWTP: blowers, pumps, mix-
ers and dewatering pumps.
The frequency converters al-
low the plant to adapt to load Discharge Pumping Station: A VLT® Rated 160 kW with IP 54 Enclosure Con-
variations, with maximum trols This Pump Weighing 1.25 Tonnes.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 43


Hunting for Microplastics

How woven solutions sustainably improve drinking water quality.
By Dominik Herper

but also plastic that wears

from tires or shoes. Secondary
plastic forms the lion’s share
of contamination. The effects
of microplastic on biological
organisms are currently a hot
topic of discussion and still
need to be backed up scientif-
ically. Yet, it is known that ma-
rine animals mistake micro-
plastic particles for food and
ingest them. This can lead to
internal injuries and even ob-
struction of food intake. Fish
that we catch for food also take
in not inconsiderable amounts
of microplastic. A study shows
that microplastic (HDPE par-
ticles) is ingested by mussels
and stored in cells and tissue.
This resulted in histological
changes and inflammatory re-
actions. Microplastic particles
are also suspected of being
able to act as carrier substanc-
es for pathogenic bacteria.
Even though a large pro-
portion of the water polluted
with microplastic is treated
in sewage plants, the small-
est particles are able to pass
Within the Project OEMP, Optimized Materials and Procedures for Removing Microplastics from the Water Cycle, GKD Developed the Optimized Dutch Weaves through the sewage plant and
ODW6 and ODW8, which are Unrivalled in Their Fineness. make their way into surface
THEY’RE EVERYWHERE. produced around the world in oceans. Estimates state that just macroscopic plastic parts waters such as lakes and rivers.
In packaging, bottles, clothes, 2015. around ten percent of annual such as bottles but also micro- This is precisely where GKD -
electronic devices, cars, build- This is not without conse- plastic production lands in scopically small plastic parti- Gebr. Kufferath AG is tackling
ing materials, or even cosmet- quences. As a result of this the world’s oceans. The plastic cles are carried into waters in the problem with the OEMP
ics: plastics. Humans have massive production and use, parts accumulate there to form the same way. These particles project - Optimized Materials
been using this class of ma- a large proportion of the giant islands of waste such are known as microplastics. and Procedures for Removing
terials for over 60 years and products made from plastic, as the Great Pacific Garbage Microplastics include all plas- Microplastics from the Water
we can no longer imagine life or parts of them, have found Patch. So it’s hardly surprising tic particles that do not exceed Cycle. One aim of the project
without them. This is because their way into global ecosys- that plastic pollution consti- five millimeters in length at is to develop suitable analy-
plastics, unlike other groups of tems. Just as we find plastics tutes around 80 percent of the their largest extent. A distinc- sis procedures for tracing and
materials, have an extremely in virtually every application, total waste found in aquatic tion is also made between characterizing various plastics
broad array of material prop- so is the plastic pollution they systems. The problem of the primary and secondary micro- in treated wastewater. As the
erties and can, therefore, be cause omnipresent. This waste contamination and pollu- plastics. Primary microplastic name of the project suggests,
used for a whole range of ap- is particularly damaging to tion of aquatic ecosystems by - usually used as an abrasive or however, the main goal is to
plications. This characteristic - aquatic ecosystems. Plastics plastic products such as bags, filling agent - is a component develop new materials to re-
along with their generally low have a relatively low density bottles, packaging, etc. has of cosmetics, care products, tain microplastic more reliably
cost and good workability - has (between 0.8 g/cm3 and 2.2 g/ already been the object of dis- and cleaning products. Sec- and thus prevent it from con-
led to plastics being used to a cm3), which means that they cussion and research for some ondary microplastic compris- taminating the environment.
massive extent in more and are carried away especially time; avoidance and removal es all plastic particles that arise The OEMP project is funded
more areas in recent decades. easily with draining water. Ini- strategies have been and con- through biological, physical, under the initiative “Materials
Whereas annual global plastic tially, this water carries plastic tinue to be developed. and/or chemical degradation. for a sustainable water man-
production stood at just 2 mil- waste into surface waters such A problem that has been Prominent examples include agement – MachWas” by the
lion tons in 1950, some 380 as lakes or rivers, from where largely neglected up until now, synthetic fibers that detach Federal Ministry of Education
million tons of plastic were it ultimately ends up in the however, is the fact that not from textiles during washing and Research in Germany. A

44 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


For GKD the focus of the project

is the treatment of wastewater
in the sewage plant. Despite the
already high-tech and sophisticated
treatment of wastewater, the tiniest
of plastic particles are still able to
pass through sewage plants and
flow into rivers, lakes, and ultimately
area of material development tion is. Yet they also show that
but also in the field of sam- microplastic particles have
Initial Tests with ODW 6 Showed That the Volume of All Retained Particles is Around Double That of the Standard Mesh pling, analysis, and analytics. long been widespread in the
ODW 20. The newly developed com- global ecosystem, particular-
parative measurements with ly in water. If the problem of
widely varied project consor- wastewater in the sewage Water filtration in sew- ODW 20 show that even this microplastic in water is to be
tium has convened to tackle plant. Despite the already age treatment plants poses a standard mesh retains micro- eliminated, it has already been
the numerous challenges from high-tech and sophisticat- particular challenge as high plastic particles of various proven that current sewage
a broad array of specialist ed treatment of wastewater, wastewater flow rates need sizes. treatment technology is not
areas in the project. GKD is the tiniest of plastic particles to be dealt with in a sewage In developing the analytics, sufficient to do this. Although
not just a technology partner are still able to pass through plant. Yet to retain the finest it was agreed that the samples modern sewage plants already
here but is also heading the sewage plants and flow into plastic particles, extremely would be examined for three retain around 96 percent of
OEMP project. Together with rivers, lakes, and ultimately fine filter materials must be common plastics: polypropyl- the microplastics carried into
the Technical University of oceans. To find out how much used. High flow rates in com- ene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and them, a higher proportion
Berlin, Invent Umwelt- und microplastic can actually pass bination with small pore sizes polyethylene (PE). Initial tests needs to be aimed for.
Verfahrenstechnik GmbH, through a sewage plant, a disc and good separation perfor- with ODW 6 showed that the
the German Federal Environ- filtration system constructed mance are characteristic of volume of all retained parti- GKD - Gebr. Kufferath AG
ment Agency, Berlin Center by Invent Umwelt- und Ver- the optimized dutch weaves cles is around double that of is the world market leader in
of Competence for Water, the fahrenstechnik was installed from GKD. That’s why it was ODW 20. However, it still re- metal, synthetic and spiral
Federal Institute for Materials at the most productive sewage decided during the project to mains to be determined what mesh solutions. Its headquar-
Research and Testing, Meier- plant in Berlin, the Ruhleben develop even finer variants of proportion of this retained ma- ter is in Germany and five
Guss Limburg GmbH, Berliner sewage plant, in December this weave, with six and eight terial is composed of plastics. other facilities are in the US,
Wasserbetriebe, Funke Kunst- 2016. The filter discs are fitted micrometer apertures. The The findings made so far South Africa, China, India, and
stoffe GmbH, and Mecana with optimized dutch weaves result is the products ODW 6 show just how difficult the Chile - alongwith the branches
Umwelttechnik GmbH, pio- from GKD. They are used to and ODW 8. In the disc filtra- subject of microplastic and in France, Spain, Dubai and
neering studies and solutions filter the water from the sew- tion system at the Ruhleben its scientific-technical evalua- worldwide representatives.
concerning microplastic are age plant run-off, that is to say, sewage plant, these two new
being developed. water that has already passed developments are now under-
For GKD the focus of the through all cleaning stages in going side-by-side comparison
project is the treatment of the treatment plant. with ODW 20, an optimized
dutch weave with an aperture
of 20 micrometers, which is a
standard mesh in wastewater
The sampling of the real
process poses a particular
challenge to all project part-
ners. Thanks to the good coop-
eration in the interdisciplinary
team, a number of unforeseen
problems were able to be suc-
cessfully eliminated. It became
apparent that methods for tak-
ing samples and evaluating
them for microplastic, in par-
ticular, were simply not avail-
able. As such, the OEMP team
Filter Discs, which are Used to Filter the Water from Sewage Plant Run-Off, are is performing absolutely pio- Microplastic is a Global Environmental Problem that GKD, Together with Many
Fitted with Optimized Dutch Weaves from GKD. neering work not only in the Other Experts, Faces Within the Funded Project OEMP.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 45


Arlington County, VA Tertiary Wastewater

Denitrification Best-in-Class Nutrient Removal

maximizing methanol feed, Sievers TOC Analyzers have

thus pushing the plant close to provided an accurate, reliable,
its Biological Oxygen Demand and successful indication of
(BOD) discharge limits. This BOD breakthrough and ter-
threatened to cause the bug tiary denitrification perfor-
bed to transition from anoxic mance. TOC data helps pre-
to anaerobic, where sulfate vent discharge BOD fines and
breakdown results in the for- helps control methanol costs.
mation of hydrogen sulfide.
While the methanol feed Conclusion
was paced by a NO3 analyzer, The Arlington WPCP want-
the operators discovered an ed to minimize effluent dis-
urgent need for Total Organ- charge for nitrogen and phos-
ic Carbon (TOC) analysis to phorus into Four Mile Run,
watch for BOD breakthrough which flows into the Potomac
and avoid discharge penalties. River and eventually the Ches-
Methanol addition is linear apeake Bay. Reducing nutrient
with NO3 removal. However, loading protects the water-
below 1 mg/L NO3, methanol shed’s water quality and raises
addition increases almost ex- the standards for Arlington’s
ponentially with diminishing treatment. This led the plant
returns. The single carbon to install a best in class tertia-
compound makes the chem- ry denitrification system using
istry easier and reduces the methanol as the carbon source
chance for BOD breakthrough. to achieve phenomenally low
Arlington ensures all safety nitrogen in their plant effluent.
precautions for methanol use The treatment requires high-
Figure 1: Arlington, VA WPCP Process are followed. er methanol loading to achieve
flows into the Chesapeake Bay. of the watershed. excellent nitrogen removal.
The Challenge By minimal, they aimed to get The WPCP installed a ter- The Solution To avoid excess BOD in the
Around 2010, Arlington as low as possible (Table 1). tiary system to combine filtra- A Sievers TOC Analyzer was discharge and to assess the bi-
County Water Pollution Con- Excess nutrients cause algae tion and denitrification using chosen based on the simple ological system, TOC analysis
trol Plant (WPCP) located in blooms and oxygen depletion methanol as the carbon feed technology, ease of use, reli- was added to monitor carbon
Arlington, VA just outside that subsequently create dead for maximum nitrate-nitro- ability, and robustness. In ad- in the plant effluent. Contin-
Washington, DC set a target zones in rivers, streams, and gen (NO3-N) removal follow- dition to serving as an alarm uous carbon data allows for
to achieve minimal nitrogen most importantly, the Bay. ing preliminary, primary, and for BOD tight con-
and phosphorus discharge High nutrient discharges can secondary treatment (Figure b r e a k - trol of the
into the Potomac River which limit life and recreation value 1). The fixed film biological through, process to
denitrification system reduces TOC indi- meet low ni-
Residential and Commercial NO3-N to <1 mg/L by convert- cates the trate levels
Waste (Including Fats, Oils, & ing the remaining nitrogen o v e ra l l without in-
Greases) oxides to nitrogen gas and health of the creasing ef-
ensures low suspended solids bug bed and fluent BOD.
Population Approx. 220,000 and phosphorus. While the signals to Overall,
plant permit is 3 mg/L total ni- operators if the Arling-
Capacity 40 MGD Permit trogen (TN) from the Virginia something ton WPCP
Department of Environmental needs to be achieves
23 MGD Average Effluent Quality (DEQ), they averaged adjusted. greater than
0.79 mg/L in 2012 and in De- Today, two 99% remov-
TN < 1.5-1.8 mg/L cember 2012 achieved 0.25 Sievers TOC al of all con-
Typical Effluent mg/L. These levels are amongst Analyzers taminants
TP < 0.1 mg/L the lowest in the entire Chesa- are operated they face
peake Bay Watershed. in parallel from both
TOC < 5-7 mg/L Achieving those low levels to provide reliable spike de- commercial and residential
Table 1: Arlington, VA WPCP Plant Specifications of nutrient discharge required tection and continuous data. waste.

46 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


High-Performance Biofilm Carrier Used in Municipal

Wastewater Treatment
By Multi Umwelttechnologie AG

tank volume of 200 m3 and In this connection, the treat-

is filled with 27 m3 Mutag ment capacity was increased
BioChip™ carriers. Hence, from 16,000 PE to 20,750 PE
the carrier media fill fraction in terms of the BOD5 load
accounts for 13.5% of the ac- whereas the design of the ni-
tive reactor volume which is trification part of the plant is
available for the nitrification based on the ammonium ni-
process. trogen load (NH4-N load) of
As mentioned above, the 118 kg to be removed per day.
plant had originally been oper- After the finalization of the
ated with activated sludge pro- plant upgrade, all wastewater
cess which is characterized by discharge requirements have
the pollutant-degrading bacte- been safely and reliably com-
ria being present in the form plied with within the scope of
Mutag BioChip™ High-Performance Carrier Media for Biofilms - Uncolored, w/o Biofilm (White) and Colored, w/o
Biofilm (Orange)
of activated sludge flocs which the performance test.
freely move in the wastewater. Additionally, it must be
IN THE RECENT past, a new depth of substrate and oxygen, multiple steps by the Swiss After the plant reconstruction, mentioned that the Mutag Bio-
and very innovative biofilm the bacteria are optimally sup- company Techfina SA located the nitrifying bacteria attached Chip™ carrier is also in opera-
carrier named Mutag Bio- plied from both sides of the in Winterthur whereas the pro- themselves to the Mutag Bio- tion in the municipal sewage
Chip™, developed and pro- thin carrier (thickness: approx. cess-technological designing Chip™ carrier media. treatment plant of the city of
duced by the German compa- 1 mm). of the new Moving Bed Bio Re- The previous activated Erkelenz (Germany) in clear
ny Multi Umwelttechnologie In this article, it will be ex- actor (MBBR) stage was effect- sludge reactors are now being water nitrification since 2010.
AG, has increasingly and very plained by taking the example ed in close cooperation with operated with the hybrid pro- Another five municipal sew-
successfully got into the news of the Swiss-based municipal the technology provider Multi cess (also called IFAS - a com- age treatment plants are suc-
with regard to the biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) Umwelttechnologie AG. bination of MBBR and activat- cessfully being operated with
treatment of municipal/do- called “oberes Surbtal” how rel- After the reconstruction, the ed sludge process) whereas the Mutag BioChip™ in Vietnam
mestic sewage. atively easy it is to significant- STP is now treating the sew- biofilm carriers are retained by and Bangladesh since 2012.
In this field of application, the ly enhance the nitrification age accounting for 20,750 PE a system of carrier media re- Moreover, another municipal
chip-shaped high-performance performance of existing STPs and is designed for automatic tention screens installed in the sewage treatment plant near
biofilm carrier is unsurpassed by applying Mutag BioChip™ permanent operation with a respective nitrification reactor. Leipzig (Germany) having
especially when it comes to carriers. hybrid process (combination Accompanied by the pol- a treatment capacity of 900
nitrification. Attached to the Before the reconstruction of activated sludge and MBBR lutant load which increased PE was equipped with the
carrier media surface, which measure, the STP oberes process). according to the upgrade high-performance biofilm car-
accounts for more than 3,000 Surbtal had been operated The scope of the plant recon- target of the plant, the corre- rier in 2014.
m2/m3 (914 ft2/ft3) and which with activated sludge process struction was the supply of the spondingly increased oxygen At present, further munic-
is provided in the form of a de- and was originally designed complete electro-mechanical requirement had to be con- ipal sewage treatment plant
tailed pore system, the highly for treating the sewage corre- equipment for the biological sidered. Consequently, the projects are about to being im-
sensitive nitrifying bacteria sponding to 16,000 Popula- wastewater treatment (hybrid existing blower station was plemented and in the future,
are optimally protected from tion Equivalents (PE). In 2012 process), of the return sludge equipped with more powerful the Mutag BioChip™ will show
external mechanical influenc- and 2013 the reconstruction pumps as well as the blower blowers. its high efficiency also in these
es. Despite the low diffusion measure was performed in station by the company Tech- The aeration systems which projects.
fina SA. had been available in the As outlined above, the
The biological treatment reaction tanks earlier were treatment capacity of existing
stage of the STP consists of completely replaced with wastewater treatment plants
three identical trains where- high-performance plate-type is possible to be significantly
as each train comprises three membrane diffusers. enhanced simply by adding
treatment zones. Within the scope of the up- Mutag BioChip™ carriers.
Within the scope of the grading measure of the STP With regard to this, also
reconstruction measure, the oberes Surbtal, 81 m3 of Mutag containerized wastewater
respective nitrification zone BioChip™ carriers in total were treatment plants, which are
of each treatment train was filled into the previous acti- complete units from the con-
equipped with Mutag Bio- vated sludge tanks at similar ceptual point of view, can
Chip™ high-performance bio- percentages and the treatment reach significantly higher
film carriers. concept was hence changed treatment efficiency by using
Sewage Treatment Plant “Oberes Surbtal”. The Biological Treatment Part of the Each single nitrification from activated sludge process the high-performance biofilm
Plant Consists of Three Identical Treatment Trains. stage has an active reaction into a hybrid process (IFAS). carriers.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 47


Compact Technology Halves the Heavy Costs of

Transporting Sodden Wast
The compact and portable automatic liquid-to-solid waste separator that removes
more than 50 percent of the water from wastewater sludge to provide a 50 percent
reduction in transportation costs.
By CST Wastewater Solutions

that removes more than 50 farm wastewater and sludge. material with ease. The ad-
percent of the water from Cattle manure cake dryness vantage of such a system for
wastewater sludge to provide a of 25-35 percent is typically small-to-medium operators is
50 percent reduction in trans- achieved. low maintenance so they don’t
portation costs. • Pig farm raw manure and require a high level skilled
The KDS separator uses less sludge, with cake dryness of operator in places where they
than a kW of electricity to op- 20-30 percent. might be difficult or expensive
erate, far less than a centrifuge, • Barrel polishing water, wa- to obtain, says Mr. Bambridge.
and uses no water during op- ter-based paint wastewater, Designed for efficiency, sus-
eration unlike a belt press or grease trap waste, dyeing tainability and conservation of
a screw press. For a relatively wastewater, waste oil, and resources in small-to-medium
low investment cost, it offers plastic recycling. applications, the energy-effi-
a high-performance alterna- • Seafood processing cient KDS separator consumes
tive to sludge drying beds and • Food processing waste, in- as little as 0.06kW hr of elec-
TONS OF SODDEN, sticky, in a way that doesn’t threaten geobags, for example, says Mr. cluding snackfoods, kitchen tricity, says Mike Bambridge.
unhealthy and potentially groundwaters,” says Mr. Bam- Bambridge. and restaurant waste, raw The simple-to-maintain sep-
environmentally hazardous bridge, Managing Director of Used for thickening of dis- wastewater (primary screen- arator offers a high throughput
wastewater by-product from CST Wastewater Solutions, solved air flotation sludge ing) and sludge. within a small body, with the
small-to-medium enterprises who has more than 40 years’ - a very common application • Sewage treatment, includ- smallest model being just un-
are expensively transported experience in treating waste- throughout wastewater oper- ing raw wastewater (prima- der 350 mm wide and weigh-
every day in Australasia to water throughout Australia ations - it achieves solids cap- ry screening) and sludge to ing 50 kg.
costly processing and disposal and New Zealand, including in ture of 97 percent thickened landfill. The compact rotational
facilities. environmentally sensitive and sludge at a dryness of 17 per- The compact KDS multi- oval plate structure achieves
These wet cakes of by-prod- World Heritage listed sites. cent. Waste activated sludge disc roller separator features high transportation and sep-
uct from farms, food proces- One of CST Wastewater dryness levels are typically 15- a unique self-cleaning dewa- aration efficiencies, while the
sors, kitchens, manufactur- Solutions’ latest innova- 25 percent. tering and conveying system simplicity of the machine’s
ers and primary producers tions to address the needs of The clog-free automatic with oval plate separation and overall structure offers low
can cost upwards of $A150 small-to-medium business’ technology is suitable for com- transfer structure that prevents maintenance, achieving cost
($NZ160+) a ton to move by disposal issues is a compact pact dewatering applications clogging and permits auto- and OH&S benefits through
specialized transport from the and portable automatic liq- including: matic continuous operation less handling being required
places where effluent is pro- uid-to-solid waste separator • Abattoir, feedlots, and dairy that handles oily and fibrous to clear hazardous materials.
duced, to centers where com-
pacting, drying and disposal
can take place in controlled
“Often this sodden waste
has to be carried away by
road, because many small to
medium-scale producers can’t
afford to install expensive
processing, compacting and
drying plants at their own
facilities,” says Australasian
wastewater authority Michael
“So, these producers use
up money, time and fuel they
often can’t afford hauling sod-
den cake to facilities where it
can be treated and disposed of Fixed or Portable Skid-Mounted KDS Separators (left) Produce Much Cleaner, Drier and More Easily Transported Sludge Cake (right).

48 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Microvi MNE™ Process Demonstrates Total Nitrogen Removal

at Oro Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant
By WesTech

Aerobic Reactor Min. Max. In A Nutshell

• Location: San Lorenzo,
Volume 2200 Gallons California
• Owner: Oro Loma Sani-
HRT 1 Hour 4 Hours tary District
• Agent: MISCOwater
Biocatalyst Aerovi for NH4 Removal
to a Modified Ludzack-Etting-
Air Supply File Bubble er (MLE). Though this configu-
ration achieves interim goal of
Water Depth 5 ft. partial nitrogen removal, it has
a relatively high capital and
Anoxic Reactor Min. Max. operating cost. Also, the con- for expensive solids recycling Microvi MNE Bioreactors
version requires an addition- and complex control systems.
Volume 875 Gallons al activated sludge (AS) train, The process reduces biosolids 1 mg/L NH4-N in less than
incorporating anoxic zones, generation to virtually zero. two hours of retention time.
HRT 0.4 Hour 1.7 Hours internal recycles and changing The MNE process is highly The water is then fed into an
from surface to fine bubble dif- applicable for Oro Loma, as it anoxic basin, where nitrate
Biocatalyst Denitrovi for NOx Removal fused aeration. While the MLE has the potential to integrate is converted to nitrogen gas.
configuration achieves full ni- with existing processes or use Effluent nitrate levels of <1
Water Depth 4.5 ft. trification, this option has de- redundant tankage as a stand- mg/L NO3-N are consistently
nitrification limitations dictat- alone process. Microvi MNE achieved. The overall process
Water Depth 5 ft. ed by influent characteristics has the potential to provide a has shown the consistent re-
that can restrict the achievable robust and resilient, low total moval of total nitrogen to less
The Problem ually, with more relaxed inter- total nitrogen standard. expenditure (TOTEX) solution than 3 mg/L, and as low as 1
In the coming decade, the im standards. that meets the needs of Oro mg/L throughout the course of
quantity of nitrogen dis- Finding a Solution Loma and other utilities that the pilot study. Further, no bio-
charged into the San Francisco Analysis of Alternatives Microvi MNE™ is an innova- are facing similar challenges. logical solids have been shown
Bay will become highly regu- The District is seeking an eco- tive solution with a low whole- to be generated in the first
lated. These regulations will nomical and technically at- life cost that would meet both The Results stage (aerobic reactor), as in-
likely result in a significant tractive solution by exploring interim and future nitrogen The WesTech pilot was in- dicated by the analysis of TSS
capital investment. In antici- several approaches to accom- limits. The MNE technology stalled in April 2018, initially in the influent and effluent of
pation of the new limits, the modate interim nitrogen limits is a next-generation biological to demonstrate tertiary total this basin. Some indigenous
Oro Loma Sanitary District is of 15 mg/L. Preferred options treatment process, making use nitrogen removal. The pilot is growth has been observed in
proactively looking at possible maximize the use of existing of uniquely engineered envi- receiving secondary effluent the second stage (anoxic reac-
changes to its existing treat- assets and minimize the resul- ronments that house selected water having ammonia con- tor), likely due to the addition
ment process. The District is tant impact on ancillary pro- species of microorganisms to centrations as high as 50 mg/L. of supplemental carbon. Mea-
considering innovative tech- cesses, such as biosolids treat- undertake treatment require- The water is fed first into an sures are being taken to fur-
nologies to meet projected ef- ment and disposal. One option ments. The MNE bioreactors aerobic basin, where ammonia ther optimize the process and
fluent limits, possibly as low as being considered augments have significantly higher or- is converted to nitrate. This reduce growth in the basin.
< 6 mg/L total nitrogen (TN). and converts existing activat- ganism density in comparison initial nitrification step has
However, it is anticipated that ed sludge reactors from a con- to conventional biological sys- achieved removal to less than
limits will be introduced grad- ventional, carbonaceous only, tems. This eliminates a need

Influent Flow NH4-N NO3 TSS Temperature

Min. 6 gpm 15 mg/L 0.2-0.4 mg/L 8 mg/L 15°C

Max. 35 gpm 50 mg/L 2 mg/L 18 mg/L 28°C

Effluent NH4-N Total Nitrogen TSS

Target <1 mg/L <3 mg/L No Net Increase

Avg. Results <0.5 mg/L TBD Target Achieved Oro Loma Tour Participants

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 49


Changing Scenario of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) in India

By Suhas Ruikar

the ecological balance. remove solid particles, and a vast subject and depending plants/ industrial use/ flush-
The scope of a typical sew- impurities. This treated water on the suitability and by con- ing water for toilets/ public
age treatment plant for a city is then being released to the sidering various other aspects/ gardens, etc.). In fact, it is un-
covers the collection of sewage rivers or ponds or Nallas, etc. parameters, a correct invest- derstood that there is a rule
in a well, followed by primary The incoming sewage has been ment model is selected for in- to use the treated wastewater
and secondary treatment, and considered a liability, as a lot stalling an STP. for cooling water application
finally releasing the treated of money is required to treat it. Generally, the cost structure, for thermal power plants in
water to rivers/ ponds. The To avoid direct disposing of in case of such projects, is: case the plant is in the vicini-
Sewage Treatment Plants sewage/ wastewater to rivers • Initially, the project cost, de- ty of 50 KMs from STPs.
(STPs) which were/are being or ponds has been the basic pending on MLD sewage to
installed (including the on- purpose of installing STPs. be treated (capital cost), is by Benefits of Using the
going projects) are capital-in- The possible commercial the contractor fully or partly Above Model
THE RECYCLING/ REUSE of tense and in addition to the gains coming out of the whole (and partly by Government • C ost Reduction and Quali-
wastewater has gained a lot of initial capital costs, there are process were given low or no or municipal bodies). ty of the Plant: As the pay-
momentum in the recent past, other costs like operating or weightage. It was considered a • Daily running cost (opera- back/ repayment is by the
mainly due to the following: running costs and the costs secondary objective. tional cost), by the contrac- generation of revenue, the
• Ever-increasing water de- involved in maintaining these Generally, the cost structure tor running the plant (in contractor/ investor will be
mand. plants. in case of such projects has some cases, partly by mu- very careful about the ini-
• Limited natural resources Furthermore, the desired been: nicipal bodies/ Government tial costs and quality of the
and erratic monsoon rainfall. results are not achieved in • Initially, projects cost de- schemes). plant/ equipment used.
• Cost-effective way to get wa- many cases, as the outgoing pending on MLD sewage to • Maintenance cost is by the • Mobilizing the resources
ter for some applications as treated water is not being be treated (capital cost) contractor running the plant. will be much faster.
mentioned above. used effectively for any ap- • Daily running cost (opera- • Saving On Time Factor: In-
• Restrictions of wastewater plication, hence the control tional cost) Revenue Generation/ stallation and commission-
disposal and costs involved. over the outgoing treated • Maintenance cost Payback to Contractors/ ing of the plant will be fast-
• Pollution control norms and water is almost non-existent. Since the treated water is Investors er, as the revenues will start
awareness of pollution con- Projects are currently being mostly being left to the exist- • R evenue is generated by sell- only after commissioning
trol in general. funded through various Cen- ing rivers, ponds, etc., quality ing the treated water for in- the plant successfully.
• Confidence gained from re- tral Government and State of this water was/is not prime dustrial purpose or for pow- • Quality of the Treated Wa-
cent successful projects of Government schemes, while focus area and in many cases, er generation. ter: The outgoing water qual-
getting a better quality of some projects are supported there was/is no strict quality • Generating electricity by us- ity will be monitored almost
treated water from sewage by foreign banks or by foreign control over the released wa- ing the gas generated in the on a daily basis by the pur-
treatment plants. funding agencies on soft loans ter. Hence, in spite of invest- process and then running chaser/ user of this treated
Two main categories of funding basis. ing higher capital costs, the the plant on this generated water. Hence, there will be
wastewater treatment are: The good news is that this desired results to the extent electricity to reduce the op- control over the parameters
Industrial Wastewater Treat- trend (of installing sewage required are not been achieved erational costs and selling set for the treated water.
ment, and treatment plants) is changing in many cases. the excess electricity, if avail- • Saving of Fresh Water: The
Sewage Treatment. Let’s slowly and a few projects can able. most significant part is the
look at the sewage treatment be seen having a new way of Changing Scenario • By selling manure. savings of fresh water (in
in this article. working. This is likely to con- In a few recent STP projects MLD - as installed plant ca-
Growing population and tinue and expected to go on a being laid down in different Role of the Government pacity), which otherwise
urbanization has called for the bigger scale in the near future. parts of the country, the fol- • T o make the pollution con- would be used from the exist-
need for an effective sewage The STPs are expected to gen- lowing important issues have trol norms stringent and ing reservoirs for these appli-
treatment. The rate of imple- erate revenues to take care of been considered: monitor them regularly. cations. Thus, the saved fresh
mentation of such systems, initial costs and operational/ • Treating incoming sewage as • Make PPP model to the ex- water can be used for other
at present, is very low. Only maintenance costs. There are an asset/ opportunity to gen- tent possible for the new important applications.
some bigger cities or towns various other benefits associ- erate revenue projects and convert the
have facilities for treating sew- ated with the changing struc- • Making the project self-stand- older projects by adding sec- About the Author
age effectively. These are not ture. Some of the broad points ing/ commercial viable/ as a ondary/ tertiary treatment Suhas Ruikar is working
adequate for the size of the are discussed below. revenue-generating unit plants (depending on the in the field of Sales & Market-
cities or the population. As per • Public-Private Participation requirement), to recycle the ing of Pumps, and Automatic
a study, roughly about 30 to Conventional STPs in the project to the extent treated water and reuse the Pumping Systems etc. for over
40% of city sewage is treated. The basic thinking behind possible. water. 25 years, out of which he has
On the all India basis, a very putting up a new STP was to • Integration of secondary • To make suitable rules/ reg- worked at Dubai for Building
small percentage of sewage is control pollution (damage and tertiary treatment plants ulations so that for certain & Construction segment for
actually treated. In many parts to the river’s ecology). These with RO plants in STPs. applications only good qual- about 7 years. He is working
of the country, the untreated schemes normally cover the There are various modules ity treated water should be as Director Marketing with a
sewage is connected to rivers, collection and transportation for investment/ funding the allowed to be used (like cool- reputed pump manufacturer
polluting them, and disturbing of sewage and treatment to projects in this structure. It is ing water for thermal power in India.

50 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


A Vision for Waste Management in India

By Anand Krishnamurthy

the State Governments under tive and generate more ener- waste treatment sites should
the Solid Waste Management gy than they consume. Large focus on upgrading technolo-
Rules 2016. public events and conferences gy and ‘squeezing the lemon’
A policy and shared vi- can be planned as zero-waste further to treat more waste in
sion for waste management or net-positive events. The up- the same or lesser land area.
is a sine qua non when con- coming Ardha Kumbh in Alla-
fronting one of the biggest habad is being planned to be Market Creation for
challenges facing the nation. plastic-free. It is a good start, Recycled Goods
Countries operating in a fed- but there is a far bigger poten- While discouraging con-
eral structure like Brazil have tial if the scope is enhanced sumption of single-use ma-
outlined a National Policy for to beyond just plastic and is terials is good, it is also im-
Waste that encompasses crit- aligned with a broader and portant to actively encourage
ical aspects like the “need for powerful vision. For example, the consumption of recycled
a systemic vision to consider all the human waste generat- products. The Government can
environmental, social, cultur- ed over the course of the Mela play a strong enabling role in
al, economic, technological can be treated in decentralized improving the market for recy-
and public health variables”. sewage treatment plants to cled goods by at the very least
The fifteen principles outlined produce clean water, biogas, incentivizing procurement
in the Policy discuss in a sys- and fertilizer. from recycled sources.
temic manner the need to re-
duce, recycle and derive value Improved Data Skill Development for
from waste. Another case in Collection and Waste Management
point is South Korea that has Analytics Waste recovery has till
legislated ‘The Promotion Law India’s statistics on waste recently been practiced in
for Achieving a Resource Cir- generation, recycling and re- back-alleys by unskilled peo-
culation Society’. One of the use are not in place. Improved ple working in extremely haz-
stated objectives of this law is data is needed at local, district ardous conditions. From slums
to ‘Construct a Resource Circu- and state levels to understand of Dharavi to the shipyards of
lation Society’ as opposed to the different sources of waste Alang, the processes involved
the earlier ‘Create clean living generation, being a prerequi- are labor-intensive and primi-
conditions’. Australia is in the site for intelligent analytics. It tive, to extract maximum value
process of updating its 2011 is also important to map out from the waste products. Giv-
policy for waste management the channels taken by different en the increasing complexity
to prepare better for a sus- waste elements or categories of waste, it is important to
tainable future; some of the in the recycling and reuse or create specialized technical
THE FIRST HALF of 2016 eration against a 25% increase underlying principles include disposal process. streams that impart a deep
saw significant changes in in population across the top the focus on waste minimiza- knowledge of waste and value
waste management rules, after 10 cities of India in the last de- tion, resource recovery, and Focus on Waste extraction processes.
a gap of almost 16 years. Al- cade. The quantum and com- reduction in per-capita waste Minimization Waste management in an
most two years thereafter, the plexity of waste generation is generation. Indians have thrived for opportunity to boost the econ-
market is currently abuzz with only set to increase significant- A vision for waste manage- hundreds of years on frugali- omy to extract value, gener-
KKR, one of the world’s largest ly with higher urbanization ment is urgently needed for ty and harmony with nature, ate employment and create
investment firms completing and affluence. the Government and Private to their advantage. These em- a cleaner environment. A
the first PE buyout in India’s The waste management sector to work collectively to- bedded societal values need National Waste Management
environment sector. It is plan- rules covering hazardous wards a pollution controlled to be communicated strongly Policy with a powerful vision
ning to invest in Ramky Enviro waste, e-waste, construction and sustainable future. A few to minimize waste generation and underlying principles can
Engineers Ltd, India’s leading & demolition waste, plastic underlying principles for such wherever possible. lend clarity and provide stim-
waste management company, waste, bio-medical waste, and a vision, that could be further ulus to the waste management
valuing Ramky at USD 925 municipal solid waste are emulated by the States, are Focus on Technology economy.
million. These two interspaced quite detailed outlining the outlined as follows: Retrofits
events are a signal of the grow- responsibility of waste gen- A useful and increasingly About the Author
ing seriousness about pollu- erators, waste handlers, recy- Moving Towards popular concept in wastewater Anand Krishnamurthy is
tion and waste management clers and administrators. It is Zero Waste treatment has been the upgra- the co-founder and a Partner at
in India and for good reasons. intriguing, however, to note Moving towards a ze- dation of existing sewage/ Envint. Envint is an advisory
Envistats, a recently published that there is no overarching ro-waste society can start with effluent treatment plants with and implementation services
report by Ministry of Statistics policy on waste management ‘sub-systems’ turning zero advanced technologies that re- firm that helps organizations
and Programme Implementa- for India. The responsibility waste or net positive for the sult in a 2-3x capacity increase, develop leadership in pollu-
tion has shown a 72% jump in of formulating waste manage- environment. Many organiza- with higher standards of treat- tion management, resources
the municipal solid waste gen- ment policies has been left to tions have turned water posi- ment. Existing landfills and management, and cleantech.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 51


Understanding Zero Liquid Discharge and the Key

Considerations to Choose the Right Solution
This article provides a brief primer on various typical ZLD configurations and focuses
on the factors that are critical to the successful design and operation of a ZLD
By Daniel Bjorklund

Key Components of a True ZLD System are Evaporators for Brine Concentration and Crystallizers to Achieve Zero Liquid Discharge. (Photo Courtesy: Aquatech International)

ZERO LIQUID DISCHARGE city issues, comply with en- Choosing the right system de- wastewater to be treated to the industries, generate large vol-
is becoming more widely used vironmental regulations, and pends on a number of consid- experience of the supplier. umes of wastewater that must
and increasingly important as address concerns about dis- erations, from understanding The power industry, as well be managed. Commonly these
industries in multiple sectors charging contaminated waste- what comprises ZLD process- as oil & gas, chemical, petro- wastewaters are discharged
strive to address water scar- water into the environment. es to the characteristics of the chemicals, mining, and other via a plant outfall to a surface

52 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


The chemical constituents of concern for a ZLD system typically imize the capital investment lent cations can significantly um relative to divalent cations
are as follows: and system operating cost, contribute to the increase in are beneficial in controlling
Sodium Chloride while not significantly impact- boiling point elevation. As the chloride concentration.
ing the manpower required for wastewater brines concen- Silica is present in varying
Potassium Fluoride operation. Further, the system trate the boiling temperature concentrations in natural wa-
Calcium Sulfate must be designed with oper- increases above that of pure ter sources. The solubility is
ational flexibility to meet the water due to a physical prop- very limited at near neutral
Magnesium Nitrate facility needs and be safe and erty of the solution known as pH; however, solubility is
Barium Phosphate reliable. boiling point elevation (BPE). greatly enhanced if the pH is
The design of an evaporator increased. If allowed to pre-
Strontium Ammonia
Wastewater Chemistry requires accurate knowledge cipitate without control, silica
Silica Boron Careful consideration of of the boiling point elevation. can scale pre-concentrating
TDS/TSS Alkalinity wastewater chemistry is need- Further, high concentrations membrane systems and the
ed for the successful design of these divalent cations can heat transfer surface of evapo-
COD/TOC/BOD Oil & Grease and operation of a ZLD system. result in high concentrations rators. Such scales are difficult
pH - Sometimes prior experience of chloride ions and lead to to remove by chemical clean-
with similar water chemistry is costlier metallurgy. ing and therefore need to be
Table 1: Typical Chemical Constituents of Concern
available to the ZLD designer. Calcium is generally spar- avoided and considered in the
water body, an evaporation are mandating initiatives for Where experience is lacking, ingly soluble due to the pres- design of the system.
pond, or in some cases deep reducing water discharge by proprietary water chemistry ence of alkalinity and sulfate Ammonia when present
well injected. However, there recycle and reuse, as well as modeling software can be ap- cations and must be properly will volatilize in an evaporator
are growing environmental ZLD, to reduce their environ- plied to understand the solu- considered to avoid scaling of system and partition between
concerns regarding such dis- mental footprint and improve bility limits of various species a pre-concentrating membrane the distillate and atmospheric
charge practices, which has sustainability. as the water is concentrated to system, as well as brine con- vent. As the ammonia volatil-
resulted in the development of Zero liquid discharge can a high TDS brine. Such soft- centration evaporators (Brine izes the pH of the system may
Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) be achieved in various ways. ware is also useful for estimat- Concentrator). Membrane decrease and caustic may be
processes. There is no “one size fits all” ing the chemical consumption pre=concentrators generally needed to control the system
ZLD can be defined broad- solution, as the optimal sys- of various chemicals that may rely upon softening and an- pH. If ammonia is present ad-
ly as a process for maximum tem design is site specific. be used in the ZLD process for tiscalants to control scaling. ditional controls on the vent
recovery of water from a The wastewater composition, conditioning and pH control. Brine concentrators are de- may be required depending on
wastewater source that would various streams to be treated, If water is available, bench top signed with seeded slurry the concentration of the vent
otherwise be discharged. This site-specific operating costs, studies can also be useful to scale control. By using seeded to avoid a health hazard, an air
water is beneficially reused footprint availability and oth- validate chemistry modeling; slurry scale control brine con- permit violation or a nuisance
and the salts and other solids er factors are determining where water may not be avail- centrators scaling is retarded odor.
contained in the wastewater factors for an optimal design. able, synthetic analogues can by maintaining a proper con-
are produced and generally This article provides a brief sometimes be used. A sound centration such that a high ZLD System Design
disposed of in a landfill. primer on various typical ZLD water chemistry design basis ratio of crystal surface area is Evaporation systems gen-
The drivers for ZLD in- configurations and focuses on is the key to successful ZLD maintained. erally are more capital and
clude a growing concern by the factors that are critical to design. Generally, forced circulation operating cost intensive than
the public about the impact the successful design and op- In a ZLD system, the waste- crystallizers receive the blow- membrane systems, with crys-
of such discharges on the en- eration of a ZLD system. water being processed is con- down from upstream pre-con- tallizers being the costliest. For
vironment, and in many areas The system objectives for a centrated to solubility limits centrating membrane systems that reason, and when possi-
of the world, water is a scarce ZLD system are to eliminate of the dissolved salts. When or brine concentrators. Crys- ble, membrane systems can be
resource. Such concern is re- a liquid wastewater discharge, the solubility limits are ex- tallizers are designed to man- utilized to reduce the capital
sulting in increased regulation generate solids for landfill dis- ceeded, salts crystallize and age precipitation of highly sol- and operating cost of the evap-
and limitation of wastewater posal or reuse, and to recycle can then be harvested using uble species such as sodium oration system.
discharges. Even without the a high-quality water that can an appropriate means. Brine chloride and sodium sulfate, Conventional membrane
regulatory push, many com- be beneficially reused. The chemistries in which monova- as well as sparingly soluble systems can concentrate up
panies in various industries design objectives are to min- lent cations such as sodium salts such as calcium sulfate. to 2 to 3% TDS, specially de-
are balanced with sulfate and High concentrations of sodi- signed high recovery systems
chloride, generally are limit-
ed to a maximum TDS of less
than 30% and a chloride con-
centration (an important fac-
tor in metallurgy selection) of
less than 170,000 ppm.
Divalent cations such as cal-
cium and magnesium are of
primary concern for the design
of a ZLD system. High calcium
and magnesium concentra-
tions can lead to concentra-
tion of highly soluble species
such as calcium chloride and
Brine Concentrator (Photo Courtesy: Aquatech International)
magnesium chloride. High
concentrations of these diva- Forced Circulation Crystallizer (Photo Courtesy: Aquatech International)

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 53


Just as important in the supply

of the equipment is the sup-
port that the supplier provides
after the system is started up.
The ZLD supplier should have
a strong organization to pro-
vide such support and be able
to demonstrate the same.

Wastewater Chemistry Design

There are no “one size fits
all solutions”. It is critical to
establish a wastewater chem-
istry design basis that is repre-
sentative of the average condi-
tions, as well as the minimum
and more importantly the
maximum conditions. Care
should be taken to not be over-
ly heavy-handed in applying
a margin to design chemis-
tries as such practice may not
achieve the desired result. It is
better to estimate the expected
chemistry and discuss impli-
cations of deviations with the
ZLD system supplier.

Metallurgy plays a signif-
icant role in the capital cost
of a ZLD system. Alloys that
provide corrosion resistance to
the highly concentrated brines
are required. There are options
available that allow for cost op-
timization without sacrificing
Aquatech Designed the HEVAP™ High-Efficiency Technology Evaporator with a Very Low Temperature Difference Between the Heating Medium and Boiling Brine plant service life.
and with a High Recirculation Rate. The Result is Scale-Free Evaporator Operation and Lower Power Consumption. (Photo Courtesy: Aquatech International)
Conservative Design Margin
can concentrate to as high as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) crystallization of all salts, spar- pond. Such a configuration The ZLD system is the “end
6% to 8% in some applica- brine solutions up to 12% to ingly soluble as well as highly reduces the footprint of the of the pipe” in most plants;
tions. Depending on the waste- as high as 25% total solids and soluble sodium salts such as evaporation pond and the la- anything that has washed into
water composition, pre-con- are used to minimize the de- sodium chloride and sodium bor and expense of operating a waste sump concentrates in
centrating using a membrane sign capacity of a downstream sulfate, without excessive scal- the dewatering equipment. the ZLD system. Experience
system can dramatically re- forced circulation crystallizer. ing and cleaning frequencies. shows that actual wastewater
duce the sizing requirement Brine concentrators are spe- This robustness comes at the Checklist for Choosing chemistry will deviate from
of the backend evaporations cifically designed to manage expense of higher specific en- the Right ZLD System the design chemistry.
system and thus the system the scaling of sparingly sol- ergy consumption and higher and Supplier Once properly designed op-
capital and operating cost. As uble divalent salts such as specific capital cost. erating issues can be handled
an example, if a wastewater calcium sulfate and calcium The solids generated by a Relevant Experience of the by the plant operating team
with a feed TDS concentration carbonate, as well as silica forced circulation crystallizer ZLD Supplier working with a ZLD system
of 5000 is concentrated using that is also commonly pres- are generally harvested and ZLD systems must be cus- supplier that has demonstrat-
a high recovery membrane ent. Forced circulation crys- dewatered by either an index- tom designed based on the ed experience in operating
system, the duty requirement tallizers are generally used to ing belt filter or by centrifuge. wastewater chemistry and similar facilities.
of the evaporation system may concentrate brine blowdown In such case, the solids are col- flow of wastewater to be treat-
be reduced by 90 to 95%. Note from upstream concentration lected and typically landfilled ed. ZLD system design is the About the Author
that to reach high recoveries equipment, although small in a conventional landfill as intellectual property of the Daniel Bjorklund is Vice
in a wastewater membrane wastewater flows are some- long as the waste passes Tox- system supplier and is gener- President of Aquatech Interna-
system, appropriate pre-treat- times treated directly with a icity Characteristic Leaching ally not available from text- tional, a global leader in water
ment such as softening and pH forced circulation crystallizer. Procedure (TCLP) testing. books, journals or Wikipedia. purification technology for
adjustment is often required. Such applications generally However, in some applications A successful implementation industrial and infrastructure
Vertical tube falling film involve wastewater flows less involving, ZLD equipment the of a ZLD system requires that markets with a focus on water
brine concentrators are gener- than 20 to 30 GPM. Crystal- highly concentrated brine is the supplier can demonstrate reuse, zero liquid discharge,
ally used to concentrate lower lizers are designed to manage discharged to an evaporation relevant successful experience. and desalination.

54 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Transforming Wastewater Recycling & Treatment Through

an Innovative Service Model
Turbaashu Bhattacharya, Business Head of Mumbai-based company Roserve Enviro
Pvt. Ltd. talks to Mayur Sharma about the concept and features of Roserve.

What are some of the the Roserve solution enables provider. As per the need of
salient features of this all industries in achieving the the client, Roserve brings the
approach? long-term Sustainability there- best-suited technologies, such
Mr. Bhattacharya: Roserve by ensuring the reduction in as RO/ MEE/ Dryers, etc. There
is a truly a “solution-based ap- carbon footprint while at the is zero asset risk as the residu-
proach”. In this approach, ab- same time meeting environ- al risk vests with the owner of
solute filtration, using mem- mental regulations. the asset. The recycle/ ZLD op-
branes for water recycle and erations handled by Roserve
consequent zero liquid dis- Which technologies are team deployed at customer’s
charge, provides the best op- involved in this model? premises helps the clients in
tions from a safe environment Mr. Bhattacharya: The tech- focusing on his principal busi-
impact perspective. The treat- nologies which we employ in ness needs. The contracts can
ment philosophy followed by this model are Straight Tube be “structured” to meet the cli-
us is to recycle the wastewater RO Systems, Plate Frame RO ent’s current operational costs.
back to the process using the Systems, Waste Heat Evapora- The rentals are lower due to re-
lowest energy and keeping the tors using Membrane Distilla- sidual value dependence - the
cost of recycled water to the tion, MVR Systems, Conven- lease period is lesser than the
minimum possible. The cost of tional Evaporators, Finishers economic life of the asset.
recycled water is equal to the & Crystallizers, and the Brine As we manage the entire
cost of wastewater treatment & Recovery. life-cycle of asset taken on the
recycle minus the cost of fresh lease which includes insur-
water replaced. With increas- What are the benefits ance, repair & maintenance,
ing scarcity and cost of fresh of this unique model the client only focuses on the
water, and reducing the cost of for your industrial best utility of the asset, while
treatment & recycle, the cost of customers? complete maintenance and
recycled water will be the low- Mr. Bhattacharya: I can service upkeep is taken care of
est in the long-term. give you several benefits. First by us. The client also has the
This approach also increas- of all, there is “Pure Service flexibility to purchase the as-
es compliance with both local Concept” as there is no upfront set, go in for another release of
government and customer capital investment or invest- the asset or return the asset to
First, tell us about the “Roserve”? requirements. The recycling ment in non-core assets. The the Roserve as per terms men-
background of Roserve Mr. Bhattacharya: The con- allows our client to meet more upfront capital investment tioned in the service agree-
Enviro. cept originates from Reverse than 80% of their total daily for the customer is zero and it ment. The O&M (Operations
Mr. Bhattacharya: Roserve Osmosis (RO) + Service = RO- water consumption, thereby, conserves precious capital for and Maintenance) contracts
Enviro Pvt Ltd (A joint ven- serve. Using the technology of reducing their intake of fresh core business requirements. can be continued even after
ture between Concord Enviro Reverse Osmosis, we recycle water significantly. It reduces Then there is the “Pay-Per-Use” the end of the contract period
Pvt Ltd and Danish Climate wastewater for industries. Ro- client’s dependence on fresh- benefit, as the costs are guar- if the customer decides to pur-
Investment Fund - DCIF) was serve provides a blend of ad- water/ groundwater, thereby, anteed! The customer pays chase or renew the lease.
set up in October 2016 to cater vanced technology and finan- reduces the pollution and only for what he gets - Capex
to the fast-growing industri- cial solutions delivering a ’Pay groundwater contamination is converted into Opex. Anything else you
al wastewater recycling, and as you Treat’ solution. This as well. Each solution is specifical- would like to share?
treatment sector. Concord En- unique FinTech Solution shifts It gives the lowest operat- ly designed, keeping in mind Mr. Bhattacharya: We be-
viro is a leading manufacturer the responsibility of wastewa- ing and capital cost solutions the requirements of the cli- lieve that Roserve is very much
and service provider of indus- ter management to Roserve by deploying proven and sus- ent. There is flexibility to start a business concept for the fu-
trial wastewater recycling and including Investment, Opera- tainable solutions for waste- with part effluent recycle and ture as we move ahead into
desalination systems where- tions & Compliance. Through water reuse and Zero Liquid achieve the ZLD over an agreed a service-oriented structure,
as DCIF is a fund managed our wastewater recycle solu- Discharge (ZLD). There is target period. Customer buys with a total “Pay Per Use” type
by IFU, an investment fund tions we have been successful a complete outsourcing of nothing, just defines the need model. We are very confident
owned by the Government of in reducing the consumption wastewater reuse and zero liq- and scope. The service agree- that such an option would find
Denmark, with a mandate to of freshwater/ groundwater uid discharge responsibility. ment period can be designed traction at our customers’ end
invest in the developing coun- for industries, and have also It also has a phase-wise ap- for >1 year to < 10 years. for the solutions related to
tries. enabled them to move towards proach to adapt the solutions The pay-per-use model the recycling of wastewater at
Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD). and achieve zero liquid dis- transfers the risk of technol- their manufacturing facilities
What is the concept of charge. And, most importantly, ogy selection to the service and plants.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 55


Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Food &

Beverages Industries
Discussing some of the challenges faced and various approaches set to arrive at
providing best-in-class solutions at best-in-industry costs for wastewater treatment
and reuse facilities.
By Jahanvi Kulshreshtha and Umesh Sharma

Typical EPC Contract (Civil Works in Most Small Industrial Projects is Carried Out by a Separate BOB Model (Technology Integration Involves: Piping, Electrical, Instrumentation, and Erection &
Civil Contractor Who is Also Generally the Contractor for the Manufacturing Building and Other Commissioning of Bought-Outs. Civil Work in Most Small Industrial Projects is Carried Out by a
Civil Construction Works.) Separate Civil Contractor Who is Also Generally the Contractor for the Manufacturing Building and
Other Civil Construction Works.)

WE HAVE HAD a long asso- still optimizing on total proj- is a lump-sum fixed price”. into the contracts. Many times plementation due to chang-
ciation with a multinational ect costs. The key problem with most our clients faced the following ing requirements or site con-
FMCG company, helping them • S imple proven technologies EPC contracts is that they have challenges during project ex- ditions
in managing the wastewater and multiple stages of treat- fixed scope, timelines, and ecution because of which the • Non-availability of materials
generated from the various ment can still deliver very costs, which makes execution projects got delayed, went over from local vendors/suppliers
processes and sewage gener- good results at a lower capi- in a real-life industrial project budget or worse the client nev- • Poor choice of vendor for
ated through communal ac- tal and operational costs. very difficult as there is limit- er got the final outcome that particular equipment due to
tivities in most of their man- • There is no substitute for ed in-built flexibility for pric- they had sought. cost cutting by EPC contrac-
ufacturing plants. Through good operations and mainte- ing and vendor selection built • Change of scope during im- tor
this case study we will share nance practices.
some of the challenges faced The following sections brief- Item EPC Model (Exclud- BOB Model
and various approaches set ly discuss our approach and ing Civil Works)
to arrive at providing best-in- lessons we have garnered over
class solutions at best-in-in- the last many years. System Basic Design Consultant Technology Provider
dustry costs for a wastewater
treatment and reuse facilities. Innovative Project Technology EPC Contractor Technology Provider
Most of the manufacturing fa- Delivery Model - Best Detailed Engineering EPC Contractor Technology Provider
cilities have a total wastewater of Best (BOB) Model Civil Works Civil Contractor (Nominat- Civil Contractor (Nominated
generation in the range of 75 Most water infrastructure ed by Client) by Client)
to 125 m3/day (for a matter projects are built by engineer-
of simplicity and uniformity ing companies by executing Bought Outs EPC Contractor Client Using Material Specifica-
we are assuming a standard EPC (Engineering Procure- tions Provided by Technology
wastewater treatment facility ment Construction) contracts. Provider
of 100 m3/day. In a typical EPC contract, the Plant Components Integration EPC Contractor Electro-Mechanical Contractor
After working with our in- following process is followed. for Integration Works (Nomi-
dustrial clients on numerous As you will notice, under nated by Client)
water and wastewater infra- EPC contracts, the contractors
structure projects, we have had are responsible for the entire Project Management Client/ Nominated Consul- Technology Provider
experienced three key lessons design, execution, and com- tant
that we aim to share with the missioning of the required O&M Start-Up & Trial period EPC Contractor (or Client) Technology Provider is Respon-
readers. infrastructure. Such contracts sible for Start-Up & Trial Opera-
• Alternative project deliv- are awarded after competitive tion of Project Assets
ery mechanisms can help bidding based on conceptual
service providers to deliver engineering for price discov- Table 1 Summarizes the Division of Scope of Work Between the Various Parties in Case Cost
higher quality services while ery and the “price to end-user EPC and BOB Implantation Models.

56 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Parameter EPC Model BOB Model treatment, secondary treat-

ment comprising multiple
Technology Selection Control with End-Users Full Control with End-User staged biological treatment
which includes attached
Flexibility in Value Engineering Average Very Good to Excellent growth high-rate anaerobic
Flexibility to Change Scope Poor Excellent as Work Executed on treatment followed by 2-stag-
BOQ Basis es of aerobic treatment and
finally tertiary treatment for
Quality Control Average Good to Excellent
water reuse which include
Cost Control Fixed Cost but Quality Variable Within Limits +/- 5% chlorination, filtration using
Figure 2: Typical In-Sump Installation
Might Suffer but Quality Ensured of Basket Screen multi-grade filters and Ultravi-
No. of Purchase Orders At Least 2 Many Orders Requiring Addi- olet radiation (UV) system. We
tional Efforts on Part of End-Us- followed under the BOB mod- shall discuss a few steps taken
er el is summarized in Figure 1. at various stages of treatment
Based on the above compar- which helped to enhance the
Alignment of Interests with That Contractor Provides Just Consultant (i.e. Designer) is ison it is clear that the BOB treatment efficiency or save
of the End-User Achievable Service Levels Ultimately Responsible for model is not only efficient but cost or maximum utilization
at the Lowest Purchase Service Deliverables Without also maximizes the capital of existing assets at some proj-
Cost to Protect Margins Having Vested Interests in Low- productivity of the end-user. ect sites. The typical block dia-
ering Quality/ Increasing Con- This model ensures that the gram of the treatment scheme
tract Value client gets the “Best of the provided is shown in Figure 3.
Best” for each and every proj-
Table 2 Compares the Two Implementation Models. ect component. Collection and Pre-
After repeatedly facing is- services which enabled us to ensured that the design given Keep it Simple Stupid For screening, most of the
sues because of the above hand-hold the client through- by us was executed exactly (KISS) Principle designers use manual bar
factors, we had proposed out out the project development, according to the marked spec- Now moving onto the pro- screens at the inlet to sewage
client(s) with an innovative execution, and commissioning ifications and thus the system cess design element of the collection sumps and some
project delivery approach that stages. This approach not gave guaranteed from a process per- wastewater treatment process, use expensive mechanized
not only empowered our cli- the client greater freedom to spective. Equipment guaran- we have learned that while bar screens. For small sized
ent’s project teams to fast-track make decisions about capi- tee is provided by the supplier there are many new technolo- treatment plants, we found
projects but also significant- tal specifications and which or integrator or civil contrac- gies such as high rate anaero- that basket screens proved to
ly saved on the total project low-cost equipment suppliers tor (for structural). This also bic reactors, UF, RO, etc., there be a cost-saving solution as
costs. We called this new ap- to use but also enabled them means better savings as many are many age-old processes civil work for a channel re-
proach - the Best-of-best (BOB) to execute the project at 20% of the small problems are that can be arranged in a com- quired in bar screen is avoid-
ed and the mechanization is
relatively simpler. Learning
from previous projects where
operators were reluctant to
clean the screenings manually,
a mechanical drive was given
for the basket screens to run
on a guide rail which tilts the
basket as it reaches the top
of the sump. Thus, the basket
screens can be operated with
minimum handling required
from operators, who are able
to scrape down the screenings
into a trolley without any di-
rect contact.
Figure 3: Typical In-Sump Installation For continuous mixing in
of Hydraulic Mixers the wastewater in pumping
sumps and small tasks, a hy-
pact structure with multiple draulic mixer can be effective-
stages of treatment in a cost-ef- ly used. For small systems,
fective manner to achieve the many times even the smallest
desired wastewater treatment commercially available pump
Figure 1: Block Schematic Diagram of Treatment Scheme and reuse objectives. is pumping greater than the
The treatment scheme we required flows, which causes
model. Under the BOB mod- lower project cost than other avoided due to continuous su- have to work most effectively overloading and other opera-
el, we were able to provide a players in the same market pervision by the designer. This for treating wastewater from tional issues. By using a sim-
one-stop solution to our client spent. optimizes project cost, quality food industries comprises ple design for high-pressure
by providing complete engi- Under the BOB model, as and long-term sustainability primary treatment which in- hydraulic mixing we were
neering, project management, the Technology Provider to the of the projects. The project cludes fats, oils and grease able to overcome two issues:
and operations supervision client, our role at each stage implantation process that was removal and physicochemical (1) Effectively control flows to

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 57


biological units, and (2) Pro- ational difficulties because the 1st treatment stage itself for high cost filtration systems treatment plants in the de-
vide mixing in tanks where operators turn off sludge under average loading con- such as UF/RO or having mul- veloping world are poorly
settling of solids leads of op- recirculation during off- ditions. The second stage of tiple parallel units. operated because of low-
erational issues such as pump peak or night hours in order aerobic treatment is given skill of operators and hence
blockage, etc. When pumped to save energy or save the with a relatively lower F/M Efficient Operations it makes immense sense to
water is directed back into the pumps. To overcome this ratio and moderate oxygen is as Critical as a automate some of the sim-
sump through the hydraulic operational challenge, we concentration inducing Good Design, Never ple processes which not only
mixer the jet from the mixer provide continuous recircu- scavenging in the aeration Compromise on it! improves the robustness of
induces turbulent fluid mo- lation of activated sludge by tank giving another >99% For a particular F&B FMCG the treatment process but
tion resulting in mixing of providing a slightly (~5% to reduction. This provides a company, we have designed also helps in reducing O&M
contents in the tank/sump. 10%) larger aeration blower >99% of pollutant removal 6 to 7 wastewater treatment costs due to lower manpower
This simple equipment not which powers air-lift pumps efficiency. plants at different manufactur- requirements.
only saves considerable cap- for continuous sludge re- ing locations that utilize more • 
Technology is critical for
ital cost that is spent on me- circulation which in turn Tertiary Treatment or less the same raw materials operational excellence. We
chanical mixers (by spending ensure a healthy biomass is It is an industry standard and have similar manufac- used an application called
a small amount on electricity developed and retained in practice to provide a Pressure turing processes. This gave a ‘Orgzit’ that is easily acces-
for the time for which pump the system. Air-lift pumps Sand Filter (PSF) and Activat- fantastic opportunity to ana- sible through internet en-
is running), but the energy have no moving parts re- ed Carbon Filter (ACF) for ter- lyze and compare how differ- abled laptops, PCs, as well
usage and control are further quire no or negligible incre- tiary treatment. In our opinion ent operational processes and as mobile phones to collab-
optimized by the use of a so- mental power to operate as giving a Multi-Media Filter quality of operation impacted orate with our field force
lenoid control valve. the blowers which run any- with layers of pebbles, sand the wastewater generation and team of operators and su-
way for 24 hours to provide and activated carbon/coal is a treatment processes. While pervisors. Through this soft-
Biological Treatment air to the aeration system in much better design as ACFs re- there were many insightful ware solution, we were able
• F or anaerobic treatment, aeration tanks. quire frequent renewal of the comparisons, we are highlight- to seamlessly share data in
SMAR (Submerged Media • Many wastewater treatment media (every 6 months or so) ing the top 3 that we believe real-time which enabled us
Anaerobic Reactor) was giv- plants fail to continuously which is costly and difficult to are most revealing. to provide timely guidance
en which is an old but effec- deliver high performance maintain and thus they many • 
Reduce Moving Parts: As to field staff on day to day
tive anaerobic process due due to process upsets ei- times the media is not replen- discussed above, by elimi- operational and preventive
to its better biomass reten- ther because of changing ished and thereby provides no nating the need for separate maintenance issues.
tion capability over the sus- wastewater quality or oper- treatment. pumps for activated sludge
pended processes. A high ational mistakes. To reduce In summary, we would like recirculation, we were able About the Authors
recirculation rate is kept to upsets and also to increase to highlight that when treat- to reduce process failures as Jahanvi Kulshreshtha is
ensure relatively lower or- treatment efficiency we pro- ment takes place in multiple well as mechanical mainte- a water/wastewater process
ganic loading rates to the vide specially engineered steps, there are various process nance issues and by going engineer for sustainable en-
reactor and higher pollutant two-stage aerobic treatment control points as well as barri- for simple basket screens gineering designs of water/
removal efficiencies (~60 process that is optimized ers that provide uninterrupted that have no moving parts wastewater treatment proj-
to 65%). Other advantages to operate at high, yet ro- high quality treated wastewa- in water, we were able to ects. She has worked with
of fixed film anaerobic pro- bust, pollutant removal ter for reuse. Even in case of significantly reduce the cost firms in consumer goods and
cess for low quantity high rates created by providing shock loads, if any upstream of the screening system. pharma industries for perfor-
strength wastewater treat-
ment include: (1) Lower A Typical Wastewater Sample Picture from Various Stages of Treatment is Shown in Figure 4 and Table 3 Shows the Typical
sludge production rate, (2) COD Values at Various Treatment Stages:
Higher resilience to shock
loads compared to suspend- Unit Name Industrial Post Primary Treat- Post-Anaerobic Mixed-Wastewater (70/30 Treated
ed growth systems, (3) Elim- Wastewater ment Wastewater Treatment Dilution with Sewage) Wastewater
inates the need to dose cost- COD (mg/l) 20,000 to 15,000 to 17,500 7500 to 8000 1440 50 to 60
ly enzyme-based products 25,000
for retaining or increasing
microbial activity in the an-
aerobic reactors. •W
 astewater treatment plants mance improvements of their
• Communal wastewater is that were provided with sim- water and wastewater treat-
added prior to the aerobic ple automation for pumps ment projects which helped
stages carried as a healthy operations with level switch- these firms significantly re-
microbial culture with it es significantly improved duce operational difficulties
that enhances the efficien- the quality of long-term sus- and thereby O&M costs.
cy of the aerobic treatment tainable performance of the Umesh Sharma is a chem-
process. A continuous sup- treatment plants. This to us ical engineer with on-ground
ply of microbes at this stage Figure 4: Treatment Stage-wise Water Quality clearly showed that having project execution experience
further discards the need operators manage treatment with a keen eye for simplify-
for any enzyme or microbial a well-designed mixture unit is upset or out of service, processes on the field and ing day to day operations. He
culture in case of any upset of food to microorganism the downstream units can take daily operations deci- has worked on projects in the
or start-up or restarting of (F/M) ratio, high oxygen take up a slightly higher load sions is actually worse than food and beverages industry
the biological system. concentration (OC), as well at each step, hence it contin- simple automated systems to deliver practical solutions
• From experience, we know as high MLSS concentra- ues to treat wastewater to the that are designed to work on and also efficiently operate
that many small wastewater tions. This arrangement al- desired quality requirements well-defined control points. wastewater treatment plants
treatment plants face oper- lows for > 90% removal in without incurring high-cost We believe that many small in various parts of India.

58 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


How Chemical Companies Can Evaporate and Completely

Recycle Their Wastewater in a Sustainable Way
Evaporating wastewater seems expensive and energy-intensive, but it doesn’t have
to be. “Companies can recoup their investment within three to five years if they
filter the condensate and reuse it as process water.” Bernard De Jonghe, an expert
in separation techniques for the chemical industry, talks about the sustainable
possibilities of evaporation technology, during the interaction with Mayur Sharma.
inform the customer about the for process water. That calls
various possible techniques for techniques like membrane
so that we can be sure evapo- treatment, stripping, distilla-
ration is the right choice. With tion, etc. We have experience
larger customers who have the with separation techniques in Companies
requisite expertise in-house the food industry - which has that pump up
and know that an evaporator to meet the most rigorous stan-
is what they need, it’s simply a dards - and can use it to advise groundwater are
question of taking a quick look
at their decision process and
companies in the chemical
industry. MDF manufacturers
being denied
endorsing the outcome. such as Spanolux and Unilin access to the
The investment is consid- completely recycle their con-
erable, but the equipment is densed water, for instance. water table more
very robust and is built to last This kind of exercise inevi- and more often
a generation and more. The tably involves a financial anal-
energy consumption of evap- ysis: what are the tax benefits? as a result of
oration can be optimized with
thermal or Mechanical Vapour
How much can we save if we
have much less or no waste
taxes levied by
Recompression (MVR). You’d to dispose of if we no lon- the government.
be amazed how efficiently wa- ger need to pump water, etc.?
ter can be evaporated! Those savings will be weighed for example. Some companies
Another thing is that the against the investment and are resorting to diluting water,
composition of wastewater is energy costs. Depending on but that’s just a temporary fix.”
variable - unlike that of milk the industry, companies want
or sugar, for instance. No two to be able to write off the in- Q. Finally, why should
batches of wastewater are the vestment within three to five I choose GEA for
same. So it has to be thorough- years.” wastewater evaporation
ly tested, as we need to be sure equipment?
we’re using the right physical Q. Do you think the Bernard:“I believe that GEA
parameters to correctly dimen- need for recycling will is second to none when it
sion our equipment. Testing increase? comes to product experience.
is done in three stages: 1) in Bernard: “Absolutely. Wa- Our technical center in Karl-
the lab, 2) in a pilot plant and ter is becoming a precious sruhe, where 15 people con-
3) during a continuous endur- resource. We as a society are stantly run tests, is a crucible
ance test for 3-6 weeks. Only going to have to think about of ideas and ensures that we’re
EVAPORATING WASTE- use the condensate as process then can we give the customer how we deal with water. Com- at the cutting edge of tech-
WATER SEEMS expensive water.” MDF manufacturers realistic and reliable informa- panies with drilling wells nology. What’s more, we can
and energy-intensive, but it Spanolux and Unilin already tion about the solution, in- sometimes pump up large quickly check all the details of
doesn’t have to be. Companies recycle 100% of their waste- cluding energy consumption quantities of groundwater. But the project together with the
do it because sometimes it’s water thanks to GEA Belgium. and purchase price.” more and more often they’re customer. And the customer
the only feasible, robust solu- being denied access to the wa- knows that GEA has the right
tion. “Solving the wastewater Q. Bernard, why is Q. But they can recoup ter table as a result of taxes lev- expertise in-house. Last but
problem using a perfectly di- wastewater evaporation investment, can’t they? ied by the government, which not least, we’re well organized
mensioned evaporator is one so expensive? Bernard: “Yes, that’s right. wants to use the groundwater and can successfully manage
thing,” says Bernard De Jong- Bernard: “Evaporation is The evaporation process pro- as drinking water. We’re seeing major projects because we
he, GEA expert in separation a separation technique that duces condensed water, which that not just in Belgium, but have excellent resources in
techniques for the chemical demands a substantial invest- they would like to recycle in throughout Western Europe. Germany in the areas of pro-
industry. “But companies can ment while at the same time the plant as process water. But Other sectors will follow, such cess technology, automation,
recoup their investment with- seemingly wastes a lot of en- to do this, the water has to as the waste-processing, metal- equipment manufacturing,
in three to five years if they re- ergy. So it’s our job to properly meet the quality requirements lurgical and textile industries, and structural steelwork.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 59


Advanced Wastewater Reuse Technology

By Lior Eshed

Pismo Beach Demonstration Facility

LIKE MANY OTHER places, itation District, together with early June, according to the Purification Demonstration Central Coast Blue has col-
California has been severe- their member agencies - the County of San Luis Obispo Facility at the site of its ex- laborated with IDE Technol-
ly impacted by drought. As Cities of Grover Beach, Ar- Public Works Department, the isting wastewater treatment ogies, which is providing the
the state faces an ongoing royo Grande and the Oceano water body was at 50 percent plant. With a treatment capaci- technology for this facility.
shortage of groundwater, ad- Community Services District capacity. Meanwhile, concerns ty of 45,000 Gal/d, the demon- This includes a three-stage
vanced water reuse is proving (OCSD) - in California have about the possibility of sea- stration facility treats effluent treatment composed of Mi-
a sustainable alternative for a initiated Central Coast Blue, water intrusion into the San- from the Pismo Beach Waste- crofiltration (MF), which re-
clean, efficient and safe water an indirect potable reuse proj- ta Maria Groundwater Basin water Treatment Plant and moves suspended solids and
source. The reused water can ect. The aim of this project is prompted Pismo Beach and subjects the wastewater to ad- pathogens such as bacteria
be used to recharge the deplet- to prove the reliability of the its neighbors to decrease their ditional advanced treatment and protozoa; followed by
ing-aquifers and avoid seawa- process and the feasibility use of groundwater. processes designed to achieve Reverse-Osmosis (RO) that
ter intrusion, help maintain of turning wastewater into In order to develop a a finished product that is of removes dissolved salts and
proper water levels in lakes, high-quality fresh water that drought-proof, sustainable wa- drinking water quality. Al- sub-micronic constituents
supply water to the industrial will be recharged into the ter supply, Pismo Beach and though the goal of the Central such as viruses; and finally Ul-
sector or even for direct use in groundwater basin. its Central Coast Blue partners Coast Blue project is ultimate- traviolet/Advanced Oxidation
the potable conveyance sys- Historically, the three cities aim to reuse the wastewater ly to inject the purified water (UV/AOP), which degrades
tem. and Oceano have obtained that they currently treat to sec- into the groundwater basin for
The key to reaching this surface water from Lopez Lake ondary levels before discharg- later extraction and potable
level of high-quality water is - a reservoir on Arroyo Grande ing it to the Pacific Ocean. To reuse, there will not be any in-
the implementation of cut- Creek formed by the Lopez this end, Pismo Beach oper- jection during the pilot phase.
ting-edge treatment technol- Dam - and groundwater from ates a 1.9 MGD wastewater Instead, the purified water
ogy with tight control of the the underlying Santa Maria treatment facility that uses ox- from the demonstration facil- Figure 1: DOHS Process
treatment process. Groundwater Basin. Oceano idation ditches, clarification, ity is returned to the Pismo
and Pismo Beach also receive and disinfection. On average, Beach Wastewater Treatment any residual organic contam-
Case Study a portion of their water supply the facility discharges about 1 Plant. inants (Figure 1).
In an effort to demonstrate from the California State Wa- MGD of treated effluent to the The full-scale advanced The first phase of the
the feasibility of a treatment ter Project. ocean. treatment facility is currently demonstration implements
process of this kind, the City Severely affected by the re- Recently Pismo Beach be- in the design phase, with facil- IDE’s ECO-Reuse process. This
of Pismo Beach and the South cent drought, Lopez Lake has gan operating the new Central ity completion still a few years process offers several advan-
San Luis Obispo County San- struggled to recover. As of Coast Blue Advanced Water out, anticipated in 2020. tages over the standard reuse

60 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


higher energy demand and taminants by RO: Out of

larger facility requirement. 30 tested Contaminants of
Avoiding the use of Chlora- Emerging Concern (CECs),
mine may, therefore, reduce 25 were found in the sec-
the OPEX and CAPEX de- ondary effluent. Only one
Figure 2: IDE’s ECO-Reuse Water Reuse Process mand by 30-40%. (Sucralose, 28 ng/l) was
The second phase of the found in the RO permeate.
process (termed FAT- Fully used. Instead, RO membranes demonstration (which is cur- Sucralose concentration
Advanced Treatment): are kept clean by the preven- rently running) is the conven- showed a 3-log removal in
tive maintenance approach - Figure 5: Amount of CEC’s Found in
tional Fully Advanced Treat- the RO. The RO showed bet-
A) No Chloramine Injection periodic cleaning of the mem- the Secondary Effluent (SE) and in ment (FAT) process, which ter than expected results,
Normally Chloramine is branes using a proprietary the RO Permeate will serve as a reference for the rejecting 94% of the nitrate
dosed to the feed water to process termed DOHS (Direct Eco-reuse process. and 99.9% of organic con-
control the formation of bio- Osmosis High Salinity). This membranes with permeate The RO recovery is 75-80%; taminants.
fouling on the membranes. process includes a short in- water, which prevents the for- each phase will run for about • MF Performance: remained
However, when Chloramine jection of the concentrated mation of scaling. Both these 3 months. stable throughout the
processes maintain the mem- demonstration time, with
branes clean, thus saving en- Operational Results the flux of 33 gfd and specif-
ergy, extending membrane life • Specific Flux: The specific ic flux of 4-5 gfd/psi. Chem-
expectancy and requiring less flux stabilized at about 0.12- ical maintenance cleanings
frequent chemical cleanings 0.13 gfd/psi in the first stage used only hypochlorite
(CIP) of the membranes. and 0.09-0.1 gfd/psi in the (every 48 h). Daily pressure
second stage (Figure 3). The decay tests proved that the
membrane kept its integrity
throughout the demonstra-
tion time.

Drought and climate chang-
es push for new water sources,
and water reuse is a valuable
Figure 3: Specific Flux of the RO approach in this effort. The
recently-opened demonstra-
comes into contact with or- saline solution that reverses tion facility in Pismo beach
ganic matter in the water, sev- the flow direction in the RO CA yields good results and
eral byproducts are formed, membrane, thus backwashing increases confidence in this
including NDMA (a suspected the membrane surface. process while proving that a
human carcinogen, currently The injection of a short Figure 6: MF Specific Flux more environmentally-friend-
limited to 10 ng/l according to pulse of concentrated sa- ly approach is feasible by min-
discharge regulation), as well line solution that takes place B) Lower CAPEX and OPEX specific flux of the 1st stage imizing the use of chemicals
as other chlorination-byprod- during DOHS causes: Cost in the UV/AOP Process is about 25% higher than a and ensuring effective perfor-
ucts such as Trihalomethanes o The backwash of membrane Following RO desalination, parallel reuse facility in Or- mance of the future full-scale
and Haloacetic acids. In ad- surface by forward osmosis the water flows to its final ange County (which is 0.09- facility. The Demonstration
dition, Chloramine increases o A rapid increase in cross- treatment unit - the Ultra- 0.1gfd/psi). Facility is open for tours and
the risk of membrane oxida- flow velocity (shear force) violet/ Advanced oxidation • D
 ifferential Pressure: The provides the community with
tion, shortens the life expec- o Bacteria dehydration due to process (UV/AOP), in which differential pressure is an in- an opportunity for a first-hand
tancy of the membranes and osmotic shock high UV irradiation and in- dication of the fouling and observation on how the pro-
adds complexity and cost to Another method used to jection of an oxidant initiate scaling on the membranes. cess works.
the process. In the ECO reuse keep the membranes clean is the formation of short-liv- During the demonstration About the Author
process, no Chloramine is the periodic flushing of the ing free radicals that rapidly time, a moderate increase Lior Eshed is the Water Re-
attack and degrade organic of about 10% has been ob- use Technologist and Product
contaminants. The efficiency served, indicating that pre- Manager at IDE Technologies.
of this process is dependent ventive maintenance is ef-
on the transparency of the fective (Figure 4). The dP in
water (UVT value). Presence Orange County is 50% high-
of Chloramine in the perme- er (in the first stage) and
ate water (most of the Chlo- about 10% lower during the
ramine passes through RO second stage.
membranes) reduces the UVT • U
 VT: As no chloramine was
value. In fact, the Chloramine dosed, the UVT reached
acts as a “radical scavenger”, 100%, thus allowing sav-
causes part of the free radi- ings on the UV/AOP system
cals formed to react fist with OPEX and CAPEX of 30-
the Chloramine, therefore 40% (in a full-scale installa-
reduces the efficiency of the tion).
Figure 4: Normalized Differential Pressure of the RO process. All this results in a • R
 ejection of Organic Con-

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 61


Saving Our Water Bodies...

Puneet Srivastava is the Manager - Policy at WaterAid India. Mayur Sharma
interacted with him about community’s role in increasing groundwater levels.

not just at the household level can be implemented at an in- both diffuse and localized re-
but at a society, community dividual level as well as insti- charge. As the aridity of region
level is needed. tutional level thus accounting increases, the possibility of
Reducing fresh water use for people’s wisdom in the gov- diffused recharge decreases. It
for activities such as garden- ernance of water. may be noted that most water
ing, using the bucket and not Realizing this, WaterAid In- from rainfall that infiltrates in
pipes for washing cars and so dia has started the initiative the ground does not contrib-
on. These may be small but im- of conducting Jal Choupal at ute to groundwater recharge.
portant steps in the direction different levels of water gov- Such water is stored in the soil
of avoiding day zero situation ernance (Village, Gram Pan- zone and finally comes back
in most cities and towns in In- chayat, Block, District, State, to the atmosphere by evapo-
dia. and National) to trigger de- ration and plant transpiration.
Also, the government mocratization of water and Water recharging is import-
should take necessary steps ensuring rapid action on water ant to maintain water levels
to ensure that our reservoirs security through structured beneath the surface of the
have enough water to store for discussions at community earth.
year round and also ensure platforms on issues related to
that water storage capacity in integrated water management. Do we have laws in
different parts of the country Jal Choupal is playing the role existence for mandating
The recent Niti Aayog’s local governance and its access is expanded to fulfill the rising of informing citizens of their water conservation/
Composite Water to data, water use efficiency, demands of cities and towns role in securing water and live- water recharge? If yes,
Management Index and water demand as per the in India. lihoods. are they effective? If
(CWMI) report describes crops, drinking water supply no, what is it that we
‘600 million Indians rates, quality of water supply, How do you see the What is water require immediately?
face high to extreme water-borne diseases, environ- role of decentralized recharging and why Mr. Srivastava: We do have
water stress and about mental impact and so on. water governance in is it important? existing laws in many states
two lakh people die mitigating the water Mr. Srivastava: Ground- for mandating water conser-
every year due to What are the immediate crisis as projected water recharge may include vation and water recharge.
inadequate access measures that need in the Composite recharge as a natural part of Except for the industries, these
to safe water’. How to be undertaken to Water Management the hydrologic cycle and hu- laws are too dispersed and
grim is the situation of prevent India from Index report? man-induced recharge, either loosely understood by water
water scarcity in India? reaching the “Day Mr. Srivastava: Decentral- directly through spreading sector stakeholders in munic-
Is it truly alarming? Zero” situation? ized water governance with water in basins or through ipal and irrigation supplies.
Mr. Srivastava: As stated in Mr. Srivastava: People play the support of an equally ro- injection wells, or as a conse- Many of them are in the shape
Niti Aayog’s Composite Water a central role in taking up ur- bust policy and regulatory quence of human activities of guidelines and policy notes/
Management Index (CWMI), gent measures to stop Indian framework is a critical step to such as irrigation and waste directives/ government orders
the situation with regards to cities from reaching day zero mitigate the water crisis as the disposal. Artificial recharge and so on than in the shape
water scarcity in India is grim. situation. Rainwater harvest- evidence suggests from differ- with excess surface water or of laws that can bring serious-
The rate of groundwater de- ing needs to be practiced and ent parts of the country. reclaimed wastewater is in- ness to its implementation.
pletion in India is among the monitored continuously at Many of the gaps suggested creasing gradually making it What we need now is to have
highest in the world. This has both individual as well as insti- in CWMI report results from - a part of the hydrologic cycle. one umbrella framework for
led to a massive fall in water tutional level to reduce water weak participatory water user Natural recharge to the wa- the water sector in India at fed-
tables over a period of time. extraction and also recharge groups in the irrigation sector, ter table can be diffused or eral level and umbrella state
Overall, this situation is truly groundwater. More and more non-adoption of water saving localized. Diffuse recharge is laws for each of the states that
alarming and needs immedi- thrust on water saving tech- techniques in irrigation sector the widespread movement of defines key policy objectives
ate attention of both the citi- nologies in farming should be at the farmers level, no interest water from the land surface to and stakeholder responsibili-
zens as well as the government adopted as agriculture is the and investments in rainwater the water table as a result of ty in water sector governance
for initiating urgent action on biggest consumer of ground- harvesting by people, lack of precipitation over large areas and also helps in prioritizing
policy and water governance. water in India. Industries in awareness regarding the qual- infiltrating and percolating water conservation and water
Moreover, we believe that their backyards, as well as the ity of water. through the unsaturated zone. recharge at industries, irriga-
there are a number of addition- civil society network, should Thus, providing people with Localized recharge refers to tion, municipal and rural areas
al indicators that should be con- help communities to adopt information to raise awareness the movement of water from level. We also need to acknowl-
sidered for inclusion in CWMI water conservation measures about the ongoing water scar- surface water bodies to the edge the resources required
so that we are able to make at the local level thus making city situation in the country groundwater system and is for eco-system services man-
more informed and apt deci- them water sufficient. Overall, is important to make citizens less uniform in space com- agement between rural and
sions. Some of the indicators improved water management accountable and also support pared to diffuse recharge. Most urban communities to ensure
are data related to water quality, practices - awareness around it them in finding solutions that groundwater systems receive that people in rural areas are

62 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Photo Credit: WaterAid/Prashanth Vishwanathan

properly incentivized for pro- in six Gram Panchayats of ter regulation, its enforcement ter guzzling techniques such Mr. Srivastava: There are
tection of catchments of water Kanpur and Fatehpur in Uttar and pricing in agriculture, in- as drip or sprinkler irrigation many best practices for both
bodies whose water is used by Pradesh last year. dustrial and domestic water and use solar water pumps rural and urban settings on
municipalities in towns. supply sector remains the key that save ground water. community led water recharg-
Which states/cities/ agenda for water sector re- ing measures in India. The
Do you think that districts are doing forms. We should first adopt Suggest a few measures work done by Anna Hazare
community has a major well in terms of a regulation where the ground that can be taken in Ralegaon Siddhi, Rajender
role to play in water decentralized water water abstraction is measured at the household Singh of Tarun Bharat Sangh
recharging? How? governance? for different purposes and level to ensure in Alwar district of Rajas-
Mr. Srivastava: The commu- Mr. Srivastava: The states some taxation (based on envi- water recharging. than, the ancient wisdom of
nities have major role to play that are doing well in decen- ronmental principals of more Mr. Srivastava: It should water conservation of Tanka
in water recharging by invest- tralized water governance are you use more you pay) should be made mandatory for each System in Rajasthan, the in-
ing in low cost artificial water Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, be levied by the government household in rural and urban genuity of revival of ponds
recharging structures at house- Madhya Pradesh, Himachal for the same. This will ensure areas with having roof area by Anupam Mishra, and res-
hold level and advocating for Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. the integration of policy of of more than 50 Sq. meters to toration of ponds and tanks
it in each of the commercial treating ground water as com- construct a roof top rain wa- in Bundelkhand area of Uttar
and institutional buildings Tube well irrigation is mon property resource and ter harvesting system in their Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
within our villages, cities and the biggest cause of our delink it with property rights premises for harvesting rain and in Tamil Nadu are few
towns. Rain Water Harvesting depleting water tables in India. The second step in water and recharging the same shining examples.
for both storage of water and but we cannot deny our this direction can be enabling locally whatever is surplus after The revival of Sasur Khade-
using it for ground water re- farmers access to water policies that enforce indus- augmenting household storage. ri River in Fatehpur district of
charge needs to be undertaken for irrigating crops. tries, municipal water sup- Uttar Pradesh, protecting lakes
by each citizen religiously us- Agriculture sector being pliers, farmers to return or Can you quote a few from encroachment in Ban-
ing the roof area or other area the largest groundwater recharge the same amount of examples of best galore, rain water harvesting
available at their household user, what alternatives water they draw for their use practices in both rural at city wide scale in Chennai
level. To trigger this aware- do you recommend for by investing in low cost and and urban settings are few examples of impact at
ness, WaterAid India started bringing down the rate monitorable artificial recharge on community led scale on community led and
a campaign on installation of at which groundwater is structures. The third step in water recharging government supported initia-
roof top Rain Water Harvest- extracted in irrigation. this direction is to incentivize measures to save tives for recharging of existing
ing Tanks and recharge pits Mr. Srivastava: Ground wa- the farmers that adopt low wa- existing water bodies? water bodies.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 63


The Water-Energy-Food Nexus

By Robert C. Brears

implement recommended wa- energy beet being a special Rather than viewing waste-
ter access strategies. hybrid form of sugar beet that water as just waste, solid ma-
Before small grants can be produces a large amount of gas terials are separated from the
provided to implement rec- in digesters. Crops for use are liquid and sent to DC Water’s
ommended water access strat- also grown on Severn Trent new state-of-the-art thermal
egies, a water audit will be land adjacent to the plant. In hydrolysis process and an-
conducted to analyze the gar- the past, contaminated mate- aerobic digesters. This equip-
den’s or farm’s water use, plot rials were added to the land, ment adds heat, pressure and
size, and the area’s average making it unsuitable for food helpful bacteria to the solids
annual rainfall. The completed production for 900 years. to remove harmful pathogens
audit will recommend ways To further meet the re- and reduce odor. The output
to increase water access and newable energy goal, Severn is Bloom, a biosolids product
affordability for the garden or Trent’s second food waste that can be used in any area,
farm. It will also provide soil plant at Stourbridge recent- from large farms to backyard
improvement and conserva- ly opened. The plant accepts gardens and lawns. Current-
tion recommendations, best food waste from a variety of ly, Fresh Bloom is on sale for
mulching practices, and water sources including food and USD 3.50 per cubic meter. The
budget estimates. Once the drinks manufacturers, food product has been dewatered
audit has been completed, KC processing companies, hospi- and contains around 30% sol-
Grow Small Grants can then tality and food service outlets, ids and can be used to increase
be disbursed to applicants to local authorities, schools, su- crop growth or even used on
implement their water audit permarkets, and retail stores. sporting fields.
recommendations including With a capacity of 48,500 tons The benefit of Bloom is that
installing rainwater and storm- of both packaged and unpack- it helps capture carbon and
water catchments systems, wa- aged food waste, the plant prevents it from being released
ter pumping systems, and drip generates energy output of into the atmosphere. Biosol-
irrigation systems. 2.4 MW, the equivalent to the ids application also recycles
amount of electricity required nutrients like phosphorous
Energy Crops and to power over 4,000 homes and nitrogen back into the
Food Waste Powering for a year. soil instead of releasing them
WITH RISING DEMAND for tem is resilient, the KC Grow: a Water Utility into the Potomac River and
water, energy, and food, lead- Water Access Program has The UK’s water utility Wastewater is not the Chesapeake Bay. Finally,
ing cities and water utilities been established to help Kan- Severn Trent is aiming to gen- Waste: DC Water’s to offset the costs to ratepay-
have created synergies be- sas City community groups erate 50% of its own energy by Bloom ers in providing water-related
tween the water-energy-food and farmers access water for 2020, up from 38% today. To DC Water has created Blue services, Bloom provides an
nexus sectors while reduc- their gardens and farms. In- reach this goal, the utility has Drop, a non-profit organiza- additional revenue stream en-
ing trade-offs in the devel- creased water access makes it developed one of the largest tion, to market products and abling DC Water to mitigate
opment of a green economy. easier to grow more food in energy crop plants in the UK services as well as provide the impacts of rising tariffs on
the city, increasing the amount as well as opened its second ratepayer relief from tariff in- its customers.
Water-Efficient of nutritious food available in food waste plant. creases due to rising operating
Urban Farms the community. The program, To reach its goal, Severn expenses, capital investments, Conclusions
Kansas City is cultivating a with a budget of USD 100,000, Trent has developed a new and declining water consump- From the mini-cases, wa-
locally sustainable food sys- sponsored by the City of Kan- crop digestion plant near Not- tion. A key program of Blue ter-efficient urban farms can
tem to ensure local food access sas City, and administered by tingham. At the plant, crop Drop is Bloom, which is DC contribute to inner-city food
for all, especially the needy, Kansas City Community Gar- materials are fed into anaero- Water’s brand name for its EPA security, the water utility of the
and ensure food is integrated dens, assists community gar- bic digesters. Inside, bacteria certified Exceptional Quality future will be carbon-neutral,
into the civic life of the com- dens and farms in Kansas City. are added and the mixture biosolids product. After water generate renewable energy
munity. A key aspect of the Urban gardeners and farm- is kept at 42°C. As the crops is used in homes and business- from multiple sources, and be
city’s sustainable food system ers turning vacant lots and break down, methane is re- es in the District of Columbia, at times a net exporter of that
is that it is democratic where lawns into productive growing leased for use in gas engines, and portions of adjacent coun- renewable energy, and water
people take ownership of the space can apply for funding from which the heat is used to ties in Virginia and Maryland, utilities can offer a variety of
local food system, as a whole from the program to assess keep the digesters or adjacent it is sent to DC Water’s Blue products including biosolids
and in their own lives, the the amount of water required sewage works at their efficient Plains Advanced Wastewater to provide rate relief.
environmental and personal to sustain the garden or farm, temperatures and make elec- Treatment Plant: A resource Robert Brears is the au-
health and well-being of local evaluate water access options, tricity which can be used on- recovery facility. On average, thor of Urban Water Security,
residents are prioritized, and connect the farm to local re- site or exported to the national Blue Plains treats nearly 300 Founder of Mitidaption, and
that the food system is resil- sources that best meet the gar- grid. A combination of maize, million gallons of wastewater Our Future Water.”
ient and adaptable. den or farm’s water needs, and wheat, rye, and energy beet is and can treat over 1 billion gal-
To ensure the local food sys- provide small grants to help used in the digesters, with the lons a day at peak flow. @Mitidaption

64 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Ground Level Reflections from High-Level

Panel Initiatives
By Amy Syvrud, IWC for the Australian Water Partnership (AWP)
Department of Foreign Affairs Guide. One challenge that cies for managing the Colo- values that depend on it. Aus-
and Trade (DFAT), and other was raised repeatedly was rado River, and have started tralia’s experience in this area
AWP partners including AR- around ensuring water for the to move from conflict to co- has recently been captured in
COWA, Global Change Advi- environment—specifically in operation, this was only af- a further contribution to the
sory, and HARC, have been regards to the Colorado River ter decades of disagreement, HLPW - A Guide to Managing
working with national govern- Delta. compromise, and negotiation. Water for the Environment -
ments facing challenges relat- Mexico has come a long Yet despite this cooperation, which I was also privileged
ing to water scarcity to apply way over the last century in further and continuous work to be involved in developing
WaterGuide through facilitat- attempting to overcome this is required in order to achieve in partnership with the Com-
AS AN INITIATIVE to sup- ed dialogue with Australian challenge. From the 1930s to desired outcomes, demanding monwealth Environmental
port the now-concluded water policy and management the 1980s, no regular base or careful planning, dedicated ac- Water Office. The guide re-
High-Level Panel on Water experts. Since its initial publi- pulse flows reached the Del- tion, and commitment. flects the six-element structure
(HLPW), ‘WaterGuide’ policy cation, WaterGuide has been ta in Mexico, resulting in the When discussing PHEBC of WaterGuide, transforming
dialogues were held with four used to structure policy dia- decline of many species and 2018-2035 with Mexican
countries to share Australian logues in Jordan, Senegal, and the collapse of fisheries, with stakeholders, we found that
expertise and experience in Mexico (all HLPW members) a subsequent decline in indig- there was little mention of the
water scarcity and drought and in Iran. enous populations and further allocation of water for the en-
management, discussing the As a native southern Califor- vironment and that this is not
most significant challenges nian with research experience a key objective of the plan. We
faced in each country. I per- in the Colorado River Basin also found that there is still a
sonally participated in the and Delta with The Nature highly ingrained culture of
Mexico-Australia WaterGuide Conservancy (and a deep ap- ‘úsalo o pierdelo’ (‘use it or lose
Dialogue. A recurring chal- preciation for Mexican food it’). It was stated that the over- and applying it in the context
lenge identified in Mexico and the language), I was able all objective of the plan is to be of determining and sustain-
and in the other participating to participate in the inaugural as efficient as possible, with ‘no ing the health of surface and
countries was the question of Mexico-Australia WaterGuide drop of freshwater going to the groundwater systems. I hope
how to effectively allocate and dialogue, which focused on ocean’. This raises questions that the practical guidance of-
manage water for the environ- the experience of water scarci- social and economic costs. about the ongoing survival fered in this Guide may assist
ment, providing useful context ty in Baja California. Over the last two decades, of the Delta region. If there’s our partners in Mexico and
for an additional contribution The WaterGuide dialogue Mexico and the United States no water going to the ocean, Iran, and other decision mak-
to the work of the HLPW - A in Mexico was held with rep- have engaged in several coop- then there’s no water going to ers around the world grappling
Guide to Managing Water for resentatives from the Baja erative policy efforts to restore the Delta either - which is go- with the inherent complexity
the Environment. California State Water Com- water for the environment in ing to ultimately compromise of managing water for the en-
The report WaterGuide: Set- mission (CEABC), the Nation- the Delta. The first was a man- not only productive efficiency vironment.
ting a path to improved water al Association of Water and aged pulse flow in 2014 from but all other economic, social With so much achieved
management and use under Sanitation Utilities of Mexico a large-volume water release and cultural values that are during the two years of the
scarcity was authored by Aith- (ANEAS), and the National from a US dam (Minute 319), dependent on a healthy water HLPW, I’m excited and eager
er and published by the Austra- Water Commission of Mexico returning water to areas of system. So, while Baja Cali- to see what we can accomplish
lian Water Partnership (AWP) (CONAGUA), among others, Mexico that had been without fornia has taken strides in the through the next 10 years of
in March 2017, with an updat- in Tijuana and Mexico City. it for 17 years. Then in 2017, right direction, they still have the UN International ‘Decade
ed version released in March Over the course of a week the two countries reached an a marathon ahead of them in of Water’ and subsequent ini-
2018. WaterGuide represents of activities, Australian and agreement on how they would this regard. tiatives - and I pledge to con-
an Australian contribution Mexican partners shared their make voluntary cutbacks Similar issues were ob- tinue to contribute to this work
to the work of the High-Level experiences in water scarcity during drought, committing served during our WaterGuide to the best of my ability in the
Panel on Water (HLPW), a pan- and drought management, the US to financially support- dialogue in Iran while visiting years to come.
el of 11 heads of state that was discussing the most signif- ing water efficiency projects in Lake Urmia, which has shrunk Amy Syvrud is an interna-
convened to accelerate prog- icant challenges that they Mexico in return for a one-time considerably due to under-reg- tional water policy expert. The
ress toward achieving SDG 6. face now and into the future. water exchange, and requiring ulated abstraction in the basin. Australian Water Partnership
It is a six-element organizing The dialogue focused on the both countries to provide wa- Both Mexico and Iran have ex- (AWP) is an Australian Gov-
framework for improving wa- drought-stricken region of ter and funding for habitat res- pressed a desire to learn from ernment development initia-
ter management and use in Baja California and concen- toration and scientific work in Australia’s experience in water tive enhancing the sustainable
response to scarcity, informed trated on assessing Baja Cal- the Delta for the next decade management, and particular- management of water across
by the Australian water man- ifornia’s Hydrological Plan (Minute 323). ly its experience in managing the Indo-Pacific.
agement experience. (PHEBC) 2018-2035, against While Mexico and the US water for the environment to
Aither, AWP, the Australian the six elements of Water- have gradually aligned poli- sustain system health and the @WaterPartnersAU

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 65


Water in the Bank

By Warwick Lorenz

wildlife, the birds, the kanga- sharing funding of these big provide a total of 134 million
roos, emus, goannas and even- projects 50%, they can’t get up. liters of water daily and be the
tually the sheep and cattle all An added problem is the largest in East Africa.
meet, by their thousands, their perceived issue of environ- 1.3 million people from the
dry and dusty and painful mental departments in State lower eastern region in Kenya
death. It is those emotions that governments being preoccu- will benefit!
I can never forget”. pied with staying in power, Meanwhile, the Australian
I can relate to Forrest’s pain and that means votes from the drought kicks in and it seems
as I have seen family members major population centers, the nobody is prepared to really
suffer dry-land farming in the 4 key capital cities in Australia. think about the long-term fu-
east side of Australia where 2 The cost of this paralysis is ture.
good years can be followed by being reflected every day in We even have some politi-
4 or even 5 bad years with the headlines as we move into an cians who proudly claim credit
result of what should be beau- even deeper drought situa- for bringing about Drought
tiful and productive farmland tion. Headlines like “Drought Community Programmes to
turning into dust bowls. Affected Producers Need Sup- stimulate drought ravaged
I took my campaign to port” tell us about well-mean- communities in rural Australia
drought-proof Australia to the ing government departments worth up to 35 million dollars
Deputy Prime Minister of the spending millions of dollars to but not a penny of it went in
country, Barnaby Joyce. Joyce compensate for the tragedy of drought prevention.
was not only Deputy Prime farmland being lost. Meanwhile, projects like the
Minister at the time (May We read about capital works New South Wales Clarence
2017) but was also Minister for investment programmes to Copeton Dam Scheme (see
Agriculture and Minister for help build and revitalize re- the map) project are ignored
water. Under his leadership, gions but don’t involve water! in spite of the massive change
AUSTRALIA IS MOVING even though he has built a 40 new dams were planned and We also read about pensions this would make to hundreds
into a serious drought which billion dollar iron ore empire. feasibility studies funded to being paid to farmers in the of thousands of hectares of
in some parts of the country “Everything I know starts with $60,000,000, 39 studies to ac- form of “Farm Household Al- currently unreliably produc-
is now in its fourth year. Aus- a dream and the dream I want cess the economic viability of lowances” for income support. tive land.
tralia is a strong agricultural to share with you is an Austra- water infrastructure projects. There is support relief from As one final shot on this
producer with over 3 million lia which does not fear lack of These include dams, pipelines, the council or government subject, it should be noted
square miles of territory, in- water”, he told a conference in and managed aquifer recharge rates, education support for that the Australian National
habited by on 24 million peo- Canberra. projects. The studies includ- children and even grand- University in Canberra recent-
ple. 60% of that population Forrest plans to harvest ed the feasibility of building standing over securing 3-year ly prepared a study in which
live in four cities and are large- 5,000 Gigaliters of water from a number of new dams in funding for mental health sup- they identified 22,000 poten-
ly disconnected to the inland, underground aquifers and riv- Queensland and increasing port services! Nobody wants tial sites across Australia for
or as Australians call it, the ers to drought-proof existing the size of Lake Argyle in West to seem to want to talk about pumped hydro energy storage.
outback! agricultural areas. The plan is Australia by raising the spill- taking any long-term action The maps showing locations of
While Australia’s National to open up thousands of hect- way. for the drought proofing of the potential store sites and a re-
Farmer’s Federation claims ares of land for new agricultur- The government commit- country. port on the findings are read-
to be targeting to build ag- al projects, something that is ted around $250,000,000 to Unfortunately, we have to ily available. At this stage that
ricultural production to 100 sorely needed in Australia! co-fund the construction of 5 contrast this with massive programme seems to be going
billion dollars within a rela- Andrew Forrest’s plan is infrastructure projects to se- investments being undertak- nowhere.
tively short period, their plans based on his childhood having cure new and affordable water en in other areas. We see the Australia is ready for a ma-
do not seem to involve either grown up on a cattle station in for regional economic devel- Three Gorges Dam in China jor leap forward but somebody
government, industry or even the Pilbara in North West Aus- opment including new and and the 20,000 other dams has to think about more than
the farmers themselves in any tralia. “I grew up in the bush expanded agriculture. These built in China in recent years three years out (our federal
kind of major improvement and the pastoral station in the commitments included the as being a great example of parliamentary term) and fund
of the programme to drought- Pilbara was in the north-west Rookwood Dam in New South what can be done. the work to be done. To quote
proof the country. isolated outback”, he said. “I Wales, Dungowan Dam, and a Ethiopia will continue the Andrew Forrest, “Everything I
Key advocates for that pro- saw the agony and I felt the number of other key projects construction of “Grand Ethi- know starts with a dream”.
gramme are high profile Aus- pain it caused my parents, valued at millions of dollars. opian Renaissance Dam” Water is life, water is wealth,
tralians like billionaire Twiggy such anguish as they bore per- The tragedy is that in Aus- (GERD) on the River Nile dams are banks!
Forrest, a major player in the sonal witness to the ravaging tralia it seems that the Federal despite Egypt’s disapproval.
international iron ore business effects of the drought whilst Government can have the best Meanwhile, Kenya is building About the Author
and a beef cattle farmer on a the vegetation around us wilt- of intentions but without the the Thwake Dam that will be Warwick Lorenz is the
large scale. Forrest is regard- ed”, he added. cooperation of State Govern- the largest single project in the Managing Director of Austra-
ed as being a bit of a dreamer “It was not until I saw the ments, normally involved in country and the region. It will lian Pump Industries.

66 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD


Small Water Enterprises: Providing Low-Cost Safe

Water Solution to Build Resilient Cities
By Poonam Sewak

resulting in increased costs able, safe drinking water.

from water-borne diseases and However, there is still the
a lack of access for the poor. need to bring Urban SWEs
Hence, to achieve the objec- into the picture in a larger
tive of safe water for resilient format. For local governments
cities, Small Water Enterprises to progress to implement-
(SWEs) need to be included in ing USWEs, there is a need
India’s city planning; a more to accelerate local action by
conducive policy and en- addressing supply gaps, stan-
abling environment and reg- dardizing approaches, mobi-
ulatory framework is needed, lizing financing, and forming
and the government and the key stakeholder coalitions.
private sector need enhanced This includes empowering
collaboration and partner- ULBs and setting up perfor-
ships for the advancement of mance standards that can
SWEs. provide the basis for the ULBs
Urban Small Water Enter- and other regulatory bodies to
prises (USWEs) can address measure and monitor USWEs.
the unmet need to provide Digital tools can support effi-
high-quality treated water, cient, systematic monitoring
complementing the govern- and evaluation efforts.
ment’s piped-water efforts. Making cities safe from
These USWEs offer the dual disaster is everybody’s busi-
advantage of providing re- ness. The mayors, urban local
liable, safe, and affordable bodies, and other government
drinking water 24/7, as well as entities are the key players, re-
generating livelihoods. sponsible for delivering essen-
Additionally, Urban SWEs tial services to their citizens
require a lower investment (water, shelter, health, educa-
than an alternative supple- tion, transportation, etc.) and
mental water supply, and also for lessening the risk to cities
reduce incidences of water- and making them resilient
borne disease, generate live- against the effects of climate
lihoods, and prevent reliance change, burgeoning popula-
on expensive plastic bottled tions, and safety issues.
THE NITI AAYOG Compos- in the 21st century, from the Safe drinking water supply is water, thereby addressing the However, in addition to na-
ite Water Management Index effects of increasing migrant prominent among the adver- scourge of plastic pollution. tional and local governments,
states, “54 percent of India’s populations to climate change, sities and challenges facing In- Including Small Water En- all institutions and citizens
groundwater wells are declin- inadequate infrastructure, and dia, and the issue is expected terprises (SWEs) in urban - including associations; in-
ing, and 21 major cities are ex- pandemics. The availability of to worsen. planning for the creation of ternational, regional, and civil
pected to run out of groundwa- safe drinking water is promi- In India, nearly 17 percent resilient cities expands the society organizations; donors;
ter as soon as 2020, affecting nent among them. Resilience of the urban population (65 options for government provi- the private sector; academia;
almost 100 million people”. is what enables cities to adapt million people) live in slums sion of safe water and can fa- and professional associations
While some claim the situ- and transform in the face of and more than 50 percent of cilitate direct investments and - have a role to play in reduc-
ation is not quite so serious, these challenges, helping them the 14 million urban poor fam- development in ways that will ing the risks that cities face.
such a strong statement from to prepare for both the expect- ilies lack access to safe piped support the Government of It will be through a collective
the leading government poli- ed and the unexpected. water supply. This gap in sup- India’s plan, and contribute to effort by all of these key stake-
cy think-tank cannot be taken In April 2018, 100 Resilient ply is often met by Urban Lo- urban growth and renewal. For holders that we will build re-
lightly as well; especially since Cities (100RC), pioneered by cal Bodies (ULBs) through the a capital investment of rough- silient cities.
it highlights that India is fac- the Rockefeller Foundation provision of community-level ly INR 4,000 crores (USD 592
ing the worst water crisis in its and the National Institute standpipes or tankers. How- million), about 15,000 USWEs About the Author
history with millions of lives of Urban Affairs (NIUA), an- ever, the quality of water from can provide 35 million people, Poonam Sewak is Vice
and livelihoods under threat. nounced a formal partnership these sources is usually poor, or roughly half of all urban President - Knowledge and
Cities face a growing range to expand collaborative resil- and water supply is often avail- slum dwellers in India, with Partnerships at Safe Water
of adversities and challenges ience-building efforts in India. able for only a few hours a day, sustainable access to afford- Network.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 67


Water, Life, and Health - Overcoming the

Challenge of Global Water Requirement
By Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari

such a scenario, where drink- of Wastewater

ing water can even be a catalyst The ‘Agenda: 2030’ of the
to wars, wastewater treatment, United Nations has defined
and wastewater management water as one of the Sustain-
are quintessential for the gov- able Development Goals and
ernments and global develop- promotes governments to es-
mental organizations. tablish wastewater treatment
Even over 70% of the hu- plants at a large scale to im-
man body comprises water, prove the water quality and
and that makes water an es- avail drinking water to people
sential life element. Changes facing severe water-related is-
in the minerals and elements sues. Water resources across
in the drinking water can lead the globe are getting increas-
to severe water-borne diseases ingly polluted due to the lack
ranging from diarrhea to den- of strict regulations on indus-
gue and cholera. Healthcare is tries for waste disposal. Indus-
a critical issue when it comes tries and factories disposing of
to water management. Na- industrial waste, heavy metals,
tions today are working at ex- dye, organic matter, bacteria,
tremities to fight water-borne and toxic material into water
diseases and facilitate treated resources are further leading
mineral water to their citizens to degradation. Getting rid of
for a healthy lifestyle. Water is the water-borne diseases and
at the core of sustainable de- availing mineral water is the
velopment goals defined by prime target of the policies
the UN, which aims to create and plans activated currently
LIFE IS NON-EXISTENT systems including the water industrial waste, biodegrada- an ecosystem where every hu- across the globe.
without water. In fact, the purification, mineralization tion, innumerable bacteria, man gets safe mineral water Effluent treatment of water
complete evolution process of of water, consumption regu- and lack of proper sewage for drinking and sanitation through wastewater treatment
planet earth, all living species lation, healthcare policy im- treatment. Not just this, a lot purposes. plant will not just solve the is-
- including Homo-sapiens - re- plementation, disease control of infections, bacteria, fungi, In addition to the burning sue of drinking water but will
volve around water. The devel- mechanisms, and water dis- and viruses are also adding to issues of drinking water re- also facilitate resources with
opment of the world, since the posal at prime focus in their the water resources, contami- sources, healthcare, and sani- better water quality to the
time immemorial, humanity action plans. nating the same and creating tation, wastewater treatment is world. Water is the major es-
has developed with water be- As the Chairman of the health hazards. Scientists and also a focus area for economies sential of life and water man-
ing one the prime resource of World Commission on Wa- innovators around the world across the world. As quoted agement will truly decide the
life. ter for the 21st Century has are churning the wheels of in the 2017 UN World Water future of humanity - free from
Today, with the man enter- marked, “More than one-half their minds to come up with Development Report, Waste- diseases, safe, healthy, and sus-
ing the age of digitization and of the world’s major rivers are sustainable wastewater treat- water: The Untapped Resource tainable living.
advanced technology, industri- being seriously depleted and ment and water purification - “Over 80% of the world’s
alism has taken over and natu- polluted, degrading and poi- systems. wastewater - and over 95% in About the Author
ral water resources are getting soning the surrounding eco- some least developed coun- Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari is the
consumed at ever-fast pace. systems, thus threatening the Drinking Water tries - is released to the envi- Chairman and Managing Di-
With an increase in pollution, a health and livelihood of peo- Purification: ronment without treatment.” rector of VBRI innovation and
number of water-borne diseas- ple who depend upon them Quenching the Thirst The need of the hour is to find technology group headquar-
es and impurities are posing a for irrigation, drinking and of Planet Earth a better wastewater manage- tered in Sweden. A non-res-
serious threat. The wastewater industrial water” - healthcare While water makes up about ment system that will not just ident Indian technocrat and
management and wastewater plans to prevent water-borne 71 percent of the earth’s sur- improve the water quality but entrepreneur, he is also the Di-
treatment have also posed a diseases and wastewater treat- face, only a tiny fraction of it also help in pollutant removal, rector at Institute of Advanced
great danger to humanity in ment is the first priority of the is drinkable. Not just drinking through the effluent treatment Materials - VBRI AB, Secretary
recent times. Government ma- economies today. The water water, fresh water is essential and help world walk towards General - International Associ-
chinery across the globe are quality is depleting by each for almost every other thing. better future. ation of Advanced Materials,
leaving no stone unturned to coming day because of a lot Consequently, many parts of and Chairman & Managing
optimize their water resources of reasons like the heavy met- the world are suffering from Wastewater Director of AAA Innotech Pvt.
and wastewater management als and dyes that constitute severe droughts recurrently. In Management: Recycling Ltd.

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 68


IFAT India 2018
October 15-17, Mumbai, India
SWWW ANALYSIS: The latest edition of IFAT in Mumbai saw a strong surge in the
number of participants - with 242 exhibitors (from 184 in 2017) and 7,449 visitors
- clearly making it the No. 1 Water & Wastewater Expo in India for the second
consecutive year. Other event organizers now face an even stiffer competition
with IFAT launching its Delhi edition (apart from Mumbai) for 2019. SWWW
predicts a ‘tumultuous year’ ahead for all water exhibitions in India - with various
expo formats now vying for the market share. Watch out for this space, for latest
updates and reviews of water events with a fact-based analysis.

As we concluded last year end-user industries as vis-

as well, the “Conference In a Nutshell: itors, International Pavil-
and its Forums” is an area ions, Pre-event road shows,
where IFAT India needs • E xhibitors: 242 Overall show quality
to improve further (better • Expo Area: 11,000 sqm • What Could Improve: Mu-
and more space, with wide • Visitors: 7,449 (as per or- nicipal participation, Con-
variety of speakers, and ganizer) ference, Pre-event online
quality delegates). • What Went Right: Pres- buzz
ence of big water industry • Watch Out For: Delhi edi-
majors as exhibitors, and tion, Buyer-Seller Forum
Bhupinder Singh, CEO
of the organizer Messe
Muenchen India, said: “242 that the IFAT India organiz- tal projects) offered a platform
exhibitors unveiled their ers had arranged. It was well for international technology
THE FOCUS OF IFAT India co-hosting IFAT India 2018 as latest solutions and techno- organized and scheduled as transfer and for establishing
2018 was on water, sewage, it is one of the most effective logical developments for the SWWW team noticed on all contacts to potential custom-
solid waste, and recycling. trade fairs in the industry for environmental technology 3 days of the event. Pravin ers. We would reserve our
The countries with the most environmental technologies. industry spread over 11,000 Singh, Marketing Manager, judgement on it till next year
exhibitors included Germany, This is one of the best ways to square meters of exhibition Andritz Technology Ltd was - to see how many innovations
USA, China, Korea and Swit- choose the latest technologies space. This healthy growth enthusiastic about it: “The are launched and presented
zerland. for our future needs.” rate of 40% has showcased In- Buyers Seller Forum is an ex- there.
The Municipal Corporation Claus Mertes, General dia’s potential with regards to ceptional platform to meet,
of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) Manager, DME (German As- environmental technologies.” interact and understand the
was co-host of this event for sociation for Desalination) This year, the “Buyer Seller potential customers. It creates The next editions of IFAT
the first time. expressed: “IFAT India was Forum” was introduced with a win-win situation for buyers India expo will be in
Rajeev Kuknur, Deputy an excellent opportunity to an aim to bring together tech- and sellers.” Mumbai from October 16-
Municipal Commissioner of get a deeper insight into the nology providers and buyers. The new “Innovation Pavil- 18, 2019; and New Delhi
MCGM said at the inaugural current developments in the The forum provided space for ion” at the show (joint booth from December 5-7, 2019.
session, “We are glad to be desalination market of India.” individual business meetings for international environmen-

SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD November 2018 69


Tokyo 2018 IWA World Water Congress &
September 15-21, Tokyo, Japan
The event closes with a renewed focus on interdisciplinary collaboration to address
global water challenges.

OUR WATER FUTURE is in ing water problems our world recognizes Wong’s pioneer- company Black & Veatch, and
our hands. Under the theme is facing”, stated Diane D’Ar- ing programme of work - the the Project Innovation Awards The Congress
“Shaping Our Water Future” ras, IWA President. urban water sensitive design with 18 winners in six catego- in Numbers
the 2018 IWA World Water ries, including the Kiran and The event in Tokyo has dou-
Congress & Exhibition gath- Pallavi Patel Grand Innovation bled the numbers from the
ered from 16 to 21 September Award, awarded to the team previous congress in Brisbane
2018 the leading international behind Cranfield University’s two years ago and counted on
water professionals together in Nano Membrane Toilet. its last day 9815 participants
Tokyo. This 2018 edition of the IWA World from 98 countries.
The IWA World Water Con-
Water Congress & Exhibition series, The Exhibition The congress programme in-
gress & Exhibition had the The exhibition brought to- cluded a total of 49 workshops,
presence and attendance of was host to nearly 10,000 water leaders gether 252 global exhibitors, 88 technical sessions and 352
Their Imperial Highnesses, proving again, the exhibition papers presented, 633 posters,
Crown Prince and Crown Prin- from governments, utilities, academia, to be a valuable networking 27 poster sessions with 462
cess of Japan, and members private companies, and international place in the congress, where presentations, 6 leadership
of the Japanese Government exhibitors and delegates ex- forums, 7 plenaries, 3 master
and the Tokyo Metropolitan organizations. This makes it the most changed solutions and innova- lectures, and 19 training and
Government, in the person of
Ms. Yuriko Koike, Governor
attended IWA Congress ever. tions to shape our water future.
The exhibition included
skill development sessions.
This sums up to more than 280
of Tokyo, who gave a keynote - Kala Vairavamoorthy, IWA Executive Director country pavilions with their hours of activities at the 2018
speech on the city’s bold ac- clustered approaches and edition of this event.
tions towards a sustainable IWA Awards approach. solutions from e.g. Japan,
urban water cycle. The IWA Awards were pre- At the Congress the fur- Denmark, Nordic area, Neth- The IWA World Water
“Again, the IWA World Wa- sented to the top leading water ther IWA award categories erlands, Belgium, China, Aus- Congress & Exhibition
ter Congress & Exhibition professionals and celebrated counted with Awards in the tralia, Chinese Taipei and an will return for its 12th edi-
has proved the importance of innovation and leadership in sections Women and Water African Pavilion with contribu- tion to take place in Co-
bringing the key stakeholders the sector, with Professor Tony - Akissa Bahri, Young leader- tions from many African coun- penhagen, Denmark, from
and leaders of the industry to- Wong receiving the IWA Glob- ship - Jacob Kwasi Amengor, tries and the African Water As- 18 to 23 October 2020.
gether to discuss on the press- al Water Award. The award Professional development– sociation (Af WA).

70 November 2018 SMART WATER & WASTE WORLD