APPENDIX E

(Section 7.2.2)
E.1 Method for Determining Effective Length of Columns in Frames
E.1.1 In the absence of a more exact analysis, the effective length of columns in framed
structures may be obtained by multiplying the actual length of the column between the
centres of laterally supporting members (beams) with the effective length factor K, calculated
by using the equations given below, provided the connection between beam and column is
rigid type.
a) Non-sway Frames (Braced Frame) (Section 4.1.2 a)
A frame is designated as non-sway frame if the relative displacement between the two
adjacent floors is restrained by bracings or shear walls. The effective length factor, K, of
column in non-sway frames is given by

K=

[1 + 0.145( β 1 + β 2 ) − 0.265β 1 β 2 ]
[ 2 − 0.364( β 1 + β 2 ) − 0.247 β 1 β 2 ]

b) Sway frames (Moment Resisting Frames) (Section 4.1.2 b)
The effective length factor, K, of column in sway frames is given by

1 − 0.2( β 1 + β 2 ) − 0.12 β 1 β 2 
K=

 1 − 0.8( β 1 + β 2 ) + 0.6 β 1 β 2 
where

β 1, β

2

are given, β =

∑K
∑K + ∑K

0.5

c

c

b

Kc, Kb = effective flexural stiffness of the columns and beams meeting at the joint at the
ends of the columns and rigidly connected at the joints, and those are calculated
by
K=C(I/L)
I = moment of inertia of the member about an axis perpendicular to the plan of the
frame
L = length of the member equal to centre to centre distance of the intersecting
member
C = connection factor as shown in Table E.1
TABLE E.1
Far end condition
Pinned
Rigidly connected to column

2.0(1-0.4n)

Fixed
Note:
where

n=

Connection Factor C
Braced frame
Unbraced frame
1.5(1-n)
1.5(1-n)
1.0(1-n)
1.0(1-0.2n)

P
Pe

Pe = elastic buckling load
P = applied load
181

0.67(1-0.4n)

E.2 Method for determining Effective Length for Stepped Columns (Section 7.2.2)
E.2.1 Single Stepped Columns – Effective length in the plane of steeping (bending about
axis z-z) for bottom and top parts for single stepped column shall be taken as given in Table
E.2
Note: The provisions of E.2.1 are applicable to intermediate columns as well with stepping on either side,
provided appropriate values of I1and I2 are taken

TABLE E.2 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF SINGLED STEPPED COLUMNS
(Appendix E.1.1)
Column
Sl.
Degree of End
Effective Length
Sketch
Parameters for
No.
Restraint
Coefficients
all Cases

k12 + k 11 (α − 1)
α
2

k1 =
a)

Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation at both ends

k2 =

where
k12 and k11 are to be taken
as per Table E.3.

b)

c)

d)

Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation at bottom
end, and top end
held against rotation
but not held in
position
Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation at bottom
end, and top end
neither held against
rotation nor held in

k1 =
k2 =

P2

k1
≤3
C1

k12 + k11 (α − 1)
α
2

Effectively held in
position at both ends
and restrained
against rotation at
bottom end only

2

2

k1
≤3
C1

where
k12 and k11 are to be taken
as per Table E.4

P1

I2

L2

I1

α=

L3
P1 + P2
P2

C1 =

L2
L1

I1

I 2α

i2
I
L
= 2 × 1
i1 L2 I1
k1 to be taken as per Effective length
of bottom part of
Table E.5
column in plane
k
k2 = 1 ≤ 3
of stepping =
C1
k1L1
Effective length
of bottom part of
column in plane
of stepping =
k1 to be taken as per
k2L2
Table E.6
k
k2 = 1 ≤ 3
C1

182

position

183

TABLE E. 3 COEFFICIENTS OF EFFECTIVE LENGTHS k12 AND k11 FOR COLUMNS WITH BOTH ENDS
EFFECTIVELY HELD IN POSITION AND RESTRAINED AGAINST ROTATION

(Table E.2)
COEFFICIENTS k12 AND k11 FOR L2/L1 EQUAL TO
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.67
2.20
1.72
1.48
1.23
1.23
1.00

3.03
2.40
1.92
1.67
1.39
1.39
1.10

3.44
2.60
2.11
1.82
1.53
1.53
1.20

3.85
2.86
2.28
1.96
1.66
1.66
1.30

4.34
3.18
2.45
2.12
1.79
1.79
1.40

4.77
3.41
2.64
2.20
1.92
1.92
1.50

1.57
1.33
1.09
0.94
0.88
0.83
0.73

1.67
1.45
1.23
1.09
1.01
0.94
0.80

1.74
1.55
1.33
1.20
1.10
1.04
0.88

1.78
1.62
1.41
1.28
1.19
1.12
0.93

1.82
1.68
1.48
1.35
1.26
1.19
1.01

1.86
1.71
1.54
1.41
1.32
1.25
1.05

P2

I2

P1

I1

L2

L1

P1+P2

I2/I1
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
1.0

0.74
0.67
0.64
0.62
0.60
0.59
0.55

0.94
0.76
0.70
0.68
0.66
0.65
0.60

1.38
1.00
0.79
0.74
0.71
0.70
0.65

1.60
1.20
0.93
0.85
0.77
0.77
0.70

1.87
1.42
1.07
0.95
0.82
0.82
0.75

0.05
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
1.0

0.65
0.64
0.62
0.60
0.58
0.57
0.55

0.67
0.65
0.64
0.63
0.63
0.61
0.58

0.71
0.65
0.65
0.64
0.63
0.63
0.60

0.85
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.64
0.64
0.61

1.01
0.78
0.66
0.66
0.64
0.64
0.62

Coefficient k12 (P1 = 0)
2.07 2.23 2.39 2.52
1.61 1.78 1.92 2.04
1.23 1.41 1.50 1.60
1.06 1.18 1.28 1.39
0.93 0.99 1.08 1.17
0.93 0.99 1.08 1.17
0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95
Coefficient k11 (P2 = 0)
1.17 1.31 1.41 1.50
0.92 1.05 1.15 1.25
0.73 0.83 0.92 1.01
0.67 0.73 0.81 0.89
0.66 0.68 0.75 0.82
0.65 0.68 0.72 0.77
0.63 0.65 0.67 0.70

184

Note: Intermediate value may be obtained by interpolation

TABLE E.4 COEFFICIENTS OF EFFECTIVE LENGTHS k12 AND k11 FOR COLUMNS WITH BOTH ENDS
EFFECTIVELY HELD IN POSITION AND RESTRAINED AGAINST ROTATION AT BOTTOM END ONLY

(Table E.2)
COEFFICIENTS k12 AND k11 FOR L2/L1 EQUAL TO
I2/I1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.05
0.1
0.3
0.5
1.0

0.97
0.83
0.78
0.78
0.78

1.66
1.21
0.90
0.86
0.85

2.10
1.57
1.09
0.99
0.92

2.43
1.95
1.27
1.10
0.99

2.72
2.14
1.44
1.22
1.06

0.05
0.1
0.3
0.5
1.0

0.67
0.67
0.67
0.67
0.67

0.67
0.67
0.67
0.67
0.67

0.82
0.73
0.67
0.67
0.67

1.16
0.93
0.71
0.69
0.68

1.35
1.11
0.80
0.73
0.71

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Coefficient k12 (P1 = 0)
2.92 3.08 3.24 3.48
2.33 2.46 2.60 2.76
1.60 1.74 1.86 1.98
1.35 1.47 1.57 1.67
1.13 1.20 1.27 1.34
Coefficient k11 (P2 = 0)
1.48 1.58 1.65 1.69
1.25 1.36 1.45 1.52
0.90 0.99 1.08 1.15
0.81 0.87 0.94 1.01
0.74 0.78 0.82 0.87

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

3.73
2.91
2.11
1.76
1.41

4.22
3.28
2.35
1.96
1.54

4.85
3.61
2.51
2.15
1.68

5.36
4.03
2.76
2.34
1.82

6.00
4.43
2.99
2.50
1.97

6.58
4.85
3.25
2.76
2.10

1.74
1.57
1.22
1.07
0.91

1.81
1.66
1.33
1.17
0.99

1.84
1.72
1.41
1.26
1.07

1.86
1.77
1.48
1.33
1.13

1.88
1.80
1.54
1.39
1.19

1.90
1.82
1.59
1.44
1.24

P2

P1

I2

L2

I1

L3

P1 +P2
P2

Note: Intermediate value may be obtained by interpolation
I2

185

I1

P1

L2

L3

TABLE E.5 COEFFICIENTS OF EFFECTIVE LENGTHS k1 FOR COLUMNS EFFECTIVELY HELD IN POSITION AND
RESTRAINED AGAINST ROTATION AT BOTTOM END AND TOP END HELD AGAINST ROTATION BUT NOT HELD IN
POSITION

(Table E.2)
COEFFICIENTS k1 FOR i2 / i1 EQUAL TO
C1
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

0.1
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
3.0

0.2
1.86
1.90
2.00
2.25
2.66
3.17
3.70

0.3
1.76
1.80
2.00
2.38
2.91
3.50
4.12

0.4
1.67
1.74
2.00
2.48
----------

0.5
1.60
1.69
2.00
-------------

0.6
1.55
1.65
2.00
-------------

0.7
1.50
1.61
----------------

0.8
1.46
1.58
----------------

0.9
1.43
1.55
----------------

1.0
1.40
1.53
----------------

P2

1.2
1.37
------------------

1.4
1.32
------------------

1.6
1.18
-------------------

1.8
1.10
-------------------

2.0
1.05
-------------------

I2

P1

L2

I1

L3

P2

NOTE – Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.

P 1 + P2

TABLE E .6 COEFFICIENTS OF EFFECTIVE LENGTHS k1 FOR COLUMNS WITH TOP ENDS FREE AND BOTTOM
P1 L
2
END EFFECTIVELY HELD IN POSITION AND RESTRAINED AGAINST ROTATION I 2
(Table E.2)
C1
COEFFICIENTS k1 FOR i2/i1 EQUAL TO
0

0.1
2.0

0.2
2.0

0.4
2.0

0.6
2.0

0.8
2.0

1.0
2.0

1.2
2.0

1.4
2.0

1.6
2.0

1.8
2.0

2.0
2.0

2.5
2.0

5.0
2.0

10
2.0

20
2.0

I1

L3

186
P 1 + P2

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

2.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0

2.14
2.73
3.77
4.90
6.08
7.25

2.24
3.13
4.35
5.67
7.00
----

2.36
3.44
4.86
----------

2.47
3.74
-------------

2.57
4.00
-------------

2.67
----------------

2.76
----------------

2.85
----------------

NOTE – Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation.

187

2.94
----------------

3.02
----------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

E.3 EFFECTIVE LENGTH FOR DOUBLE STEPPED COLUMNS
E.3.1 Effective lengths in the plane of steppings (bending about axis z-z) for bottom, middle
and top parts for a double stepped column shall be taken as follows:
P3
P
3

I3

I3
P2

L3

L3

L2

I2
P1

L1

I1

I3

L3

P

I’’av

L2+L3

P

L1 + L2

I’av

I1

L1

L1 + L2

I’av

y
z

z

(b)

(a)

(c)

(d)

y
Coefficient k1 for effective length of bottom part of double stepped column shall be taken from
the formula:
2

k1 =

(

)

t1k1 + t2 k2 + k3 × (1 + n2 ) ×
2

2

1 + t1 + t2

2

I1
I 'av

where
k1, k2, and k2 are taken from Table E.6,
P
P
L
t1 = 1 ,
t1 = 2 , n2 = 2
P3
P3
L1
I’av = Average Value of moment of inertia for the lower and middle parts
I1L1 + I 2 L2
=
L1 + L2
I’av = Average Value of moment of inertia for the middle and top parts
I 2 L2 + I 3 L3
=
L2 + L3
Value of coefficient k2 for middle part of column is given by formula
k
k2 = 1
C2
and coefficient k3 for the top part of the column is given by
k3 =

k1
≤3
C3

188

where

C2 =

L2
L1

I1 ( P2 + P3 )
L
, C3 = 3
L1
I 2 ( P1 + P2 + P3 )

I1 P3
I 3 ( P1 + P2 + P3 )

NOTE- The provisions of E.3.1 are applicable to intermediate columns as well with steppings on either side,
provided appropriate values of I1, I2 and I3 are taken.

TABLE E.7 VALUES OF k1, k2 AND k3

(Section E.3.1)
SL.
NO.

DEGREE OF
END
RESTRAINT

SKETCH

k1

k2

k3

a)

Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation at both
ends

k1 = k11
where k11 is
taken from
Table E.3

k2 = k11
where k11
is taken
from
Table E.3

k3 = k12
where k12 is
taken from
Table E.3

b)

Effectively held in
position at both
ends and
restrained against
rotation at bottom
end only

k1 = k11
where k11 is
taken from
Table E.4

k2 = k11
where k11
is taken
from
Table E.4

k3 = k12
where k12 is
taken from
Table E.4

Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation at bottom
end, and top end
held against
rotation but not
held in position

k1 = k1
where k1 is
taken from
Table E.5
with C1=0

c)

d)

Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation at bottom
end, and top end
neither held
against rotation
nor against
translation.

COLUMN
PARAMETERS
FOR ALL
CASES

P3
I3

P2

I2
k2 = k1
where k1 is
taken from
Table E.5
with C1=0

k3 = k1
where k1 is
taken from
Table E.5
with
C1 =

k1 = 2

k2 = 2

P1 L2

I1

I av
I3

k3 = k1
where k1 is
taken from
Table E.6
with
C1 =

189

L3
L1 + L2

L3
L1 + L2

L3

I av
I 31

L1

190

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