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y Faryal Amjad Khan y Zunaira Javaid y Sameen Fakhar y Hasham y Moez Mazhar
09-4680 09-46 09-46
Madam Raheela Tariq
Table of Contents
y Dedications y Acknowledgements y Abstract y About the topic y Methodology y Conclusion y Discussion y Graphs of the conclusion y References
We would like to dedicate this to our parents, teachers and especially to the students that suffered from the adverse affects of career uncertainty in their lives.
This research project would not have been possible without the help and support of many people. Specially, we acknowledge with deep appreciation the guidance, valuable suggestions and help of our respected teacher, Mrs. Raheela Tariq. We would like to thank all those undergraduate students who participated in our survey especially our group member, Faryal Amjad Khan, Zunaira Javaid, Hasham Tahir, Sameen Fakhar and Moez Mazhar. We give deep respect to these people because this survey would not have been possible without their assistance.
This investigation examined the relationship between different patterns of career choice development during later adolescence/early adulthood, career decision-making selfefficacy and adverse affects of wrong career selection on adults. As predicted, persons whose career choice development reflected a stable or multiple trial patterns reported significantly greater levels of career decision-making selfefficacy than did persons whose career choice development reflected a conventional or unstable pattern. Further, persons in the stable pattern group were significantly more likely to nominate professionals in their chosen fields as important career role models than were persons with conventional and unstable career patterns. The survey was conducted among males and females of the age ranging from 17- 21 to check whether they are suffering from uncertainty in their lives regarding their careers or not. A brief summary about the topic was also told to the samples after which their answers were statistically analyzed.
ABOUT THE TOPIC
Career uncertainty for the students of Pakistan
By career uncertainty we mean that students of today are not fully aware of the right choice if their career which in one or another way affects their future jobs. Sometimes it is dominated by parents, sometimes the society influences and diverts their selection of field which may have adverse affect on their health and creates mental distress for some of the students. In the end, we came up with some possible solutions to the problems of students which will help them to select the courses and field according to their interest. What leads to career uncertainty for the students? In our society career uncertainty is because of the many reasons, but we have focused on some more common reasons as following: o There are pressures from home which may include pressures from parents, financial conditions of the family and also from the society(Add things here) o Most of the students don¶t go for the intelligent behavior or do efforts to select their career. This may be because of inconsiderate attitude and pressures which lead to troublesome conditions in the future affecting them adversely(Add things here)
Psychological impacts on students
There are several psychological problems faced by the students, some of which are discussed below: It may lead to suicide, physical heath affected, affect our relationship with parents. (Add things here) Some of the prominent behavioral responses of people affecting their decision making procedures There are three types of behaviors shown by the people. They may be assertive, passive and aggressive which are discussed below. These behaviors have much affect on the selection of fields for the students. Assertiveness behavior It is the behavior in which people stand for themselves in interpersonally effective ways that exercise their personal rights while respecting the rights of others. Failure to be assertive may keep you from achieving your goals and may lower your self esteem. Passive behavior It is the behavior in which people are reluctant to state opinions, share feelings, or assume responsibility for their actions.
They may behave passively because they fear reprisal, are insecure about their knowledge, or for some other reason. Whatever their motivation, instead of attempting to influence others¶ behavior, they submit to other people¶s demands, even when doing so in inconvenient, against their best interest, or violates their rights. Aggressive behavior People behave aggressively when they forcefully lash out to achieve their goals with little regard for the situation or for the feelings, needs, or rights of others. Aggressiveness must not be confused with assertiveness. Unlike, assertive behavior, aggressive behavior is unethical. Aggressors attempt to achieve their goals without any regard for the needs, rights, or feelings of others. As a result, the people who receive aggressive messages are likely to feel hurt by them regardless of their relationship. Our analysis has shown that these behaviors play a vital role to select a certain field by a student. These behaviors are greatly influenced by society and company of people around a person which includes parents, school friends, teachers etc. How to go for a right type of field of interest
Selecting a career can be a long and complicated task. There is no one document, person or test that will give you all the information you need to make an informed choice. Listed below are some general principles to follow. In addition you need to bear in mind that:
y You will change and as a result, career aspirations will change over time. What makes you happy and excited today won¶t be the same as in 5 years time. Be prepared to reassess your career plans over time. y In the ever-changing environment of the 21st century; few careers will be available for life. It will be more important than ever before to be flexible and actively manage your career development (rather than letting things happen to you). Steps involved in selecting the career There are four steps to help students for selecting the right field based on your interest y Self Awareness y Opportunity Awareness y Implementation y Decision Making and Planning Step One ± Self Awareness The first and most important aspect of career planning is having a clear understanding of your-self, particularly in the area of your career related. y Interests y Skills, abilities and knowledge y Values y Personal style y Aspirations Each of these aspects of yourself is developed from all of your life
experiences, not only your academic life. Step Two ± Opportunity Awareness This may seem obvious but« you can only choose between the jobs you know about ± if you don¶t know about a job or industry you can¶t select it and you career options are narrower than they need to be. You need to research and know what choices are available, this includes information such as: y range of jobs, industries, career fields and sectors available y skills and tasks each job entails y education and training needed for you intended career y state of the labor market (now and predictions) Step Three ± Implementation Once you have a short list of careers you are interested in you need to be able to act on your interests. To do this you need to find out how to apply for each course or job. Find out about the: y application forms (on line or paper) y closing dates for each application y selection criteria Step Four ± Decision Making and Planning After progressing through steps one to three, you will know career related information about yourself, what is available and how to gain access into each of the careers. The next step is to decide on a career goal. What steps need to be completed over the next five years to make your career goal happen? This will help you a lot to go for the right choice of your life.
How can one develop his/her career skills? Developing career skills is quite a broad topic to cover in one question! y But the simple answer to this question is that there are lots of things you can do to develop your career, and most of these are gradual experiences that you learn on the job. y One should try to get a mentor who can help him to improve and guide them through how to perform in a better way. y This is an important tip that many people underestimate - having someone to discuss your career with in confidence on a regular basis can have a really beneficial and positive affect and really help you with your career. y Attend courses that you can and always be willing to learn. In this way you will always be improving your career skills. Psychological tests to go for the right type of career Some of the tests are given below which will help students to go for the field in which they fit in. sometimes students themselves don¶t know that which field suits them and are in one or another way confused in their choice.
Intelligence, therefore, is a measure of a potential, not a measure
of what you¶ve learned (as in an achievement test), and so it is supposed to be independent of culture. The challenge is to design a test that can actually be culture-free; most intelligence tests fail in this area to some extent for one reason or another. In this instrument, psychologist used the ratio of mental age to chronological age. This ratio²or quotient²concept led to the use of the term IQ (Intelligence Quotient) Neuropsychological tests Neuropsychological tests attempt to measure deficits in cognitive functioning (i.e., your ability to think, speak, reason, etc.) that may result from some sort of brain damage, such as a stroke or a brain injury. Occupational tests Occupational tests attempt to match your interests with the interests of persons in known careers. The logic here is that if the things that interest you in life match up with, say, the things that interest most school teachers, then you might make a good school teacher yourself. Personality test
Personality tests attempt to measure your basic personality style and are most used in research or forensic settings to help with clinical diagnoses. Two of the most well-known personality tests are The Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI), or the revised MMPI-2, composed of several hundred ³yes or no´
questions The Rorschach (the ³inkblot test´), composed of several cards of inkblots²you simply give a description of the images and feelings you experience in looking at the blots. Specific clinical tests attempt to measure specific clinical matters, such as your current level of anxiety or depression.
The topic chosen to conduct the survey was why there is career uncertainty for the students in Pakistan . The main aim of this survey was to check the reason behind this career uncertainty, why it is created among the students and it s affects on the students current and future life.
OBJECTIVITY OF THE SURVEY
It was to check the positive and negative affects on the male and female students due to either the psychological impacts or wrong choice of career.
Yes, career uncertainty does affect students, creates problems in their current lives as well as in their future.
No, career uncertainty
does affect students, creates problems in their current lives as well as in their future.
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS
The self made questionnaires as data collection were administered. The questionnaire was based on fixed ended questions and the entire questions were drafted in such a way as to find the answer to the question that whether career uncertainty affects students, creates problems in their current lives as well as in their future.
Male and female students between the ages of 17 to 21 from the different universities in the city of Lahore.
Questions were administered to the sample which were fixed ended and than they were given the description of the topic. The data was analyzed statistically.
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