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Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer

Laboratory Exercise 2



1-1C What is the difference between the classical and the statistical approaches to thermodynamics?

Answer: Classical thermodynamics was developed before atoms were fully understood. It needs only
three parameters pressure, volume and temperature to understand properties of any matter (these
are state functions). It is the macroscopic approach, in which a study is based on the system rather
than individual particles. Statistical thermodynamics includes study of its constituent atoms and their
distribution among various energy states to understand the properties of matter. The microscopic
approach to the study of thermodynamics, in which a study is based upon the behavior of the
particles individually

1-2C Why does a bicyclist pick up a speed on a downhill road even when he is not pedaling? Does
this violate the conservation of energy principle?

Answer: Going downhill road, the potential energy of the bicyclist is converted to kinetic energy, and
thus the bicyclist picks up speed. There is no creation of energy, and thus no violation of the
of energy principle.

1–3C An office worker claims that a cup of cold coffee on his table warmed up to 80°C by picking up
energy from the
surrounding air, which is at 25°C. Is there any truth to his claim? Does this process violate any
thermodynamic laws?

Answer: There’s no truth to his claim. It violates the second law of thermodynamics. The second law
of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time

1-4C A person claims that even drinking water causes him to gain weight. Is there any truth to his

Answer: It is a temporary weight, and does not have a calories.

1–5C What is the difference between pound-mass and pound-force?

Answer: Pound-mass lbm is the mass unit in English system whereas pound-force lbf is the
forceunit. One pound-force is the force required to accelerate a mass of 32.174 lbm by 1 ft/s 2. In
other words, the weight of a 1-lbmmass at sea level is 1lbf.

1–6C What is the net force acting on a car cruising at a constant velocity of 70 km/h (a) on a level
road and (b) on an
uphill road?
Answer: There is no acceleration, thus the net force is zero in both cases.

1–7 A 3-kg plastic tank that has a volume of 0.2 m3 is filled with liquid water. Assuming the density of
water is 1000
kg/m , determine the weight of the combined system.

Given: mtank=3-kg; v= 0.2 m3; ρ=1000kg/m3

Required: Weight
mw= ρV= (1000 kg/m3)(0.2m3)=200kg
mtotal=mw + mtank= 200 + 3 =203 kg
W= mg
= (203 kg)(9.81 m/s2) (1 N/1 kg.m/s2)
Answer: =1991 N

1-9 At 45°latitude, the gravitational acceleration as a function of elevation z above sea level is given
by g= a-bz, where a=9.807 m/s2 and b=3.32 ×10-6 s-2. Determine the height above sea level where
the weight of an object will decrease by 1 percent.
Given: a=9.807 m/s2 Solution:
b=3.32 ×10-6 s-2 W= mg= m(9.807-3.32 × 10-6z)
45°latitude Hence: W=0.99Ws= 0.99mgs= 0.99(m)(9.807
Required: height Substitute:
=0.99(9.81) = (9.81-3.32 × 10-6z)
z= 29,539 m

1-10E A 150- lbm astronaut took his bathroom scale( a spring scale) and a beam scale ( compares
masses) to the moon where the local gravity is g= 5.48 ft/s 2. Determine how much he will weigh (a)
on the spring scale and (b) on the beam scale.
Given: g= 5.48 ft/s2; 150- lbm
Required: Weight (a) on spring scale and (b) beam scale
(a) W=mg
=150-lbm(5.48 ft/s2)(1lbf/32.2 lbm.ft/s2)
W=25.5 lbf
(b) A beam scale compares masses and thus is not affected by the variations
in gravitational acceleration.
The beam scale will read what it reads on earth. Therefore:

1–11 The acceleration of high-speed aircraft is sometimes expressed in g’s (in multiples of the
standard acceleration of gravity). Determine the upward force, in N, that a 90-kg man would
experience in an aircraft whose acceleration is 6 g’s.

Required: acceleration of an aircraft is given in g’s. The net upward force

Solution: From the Newton's second law,
=90 kg(6 × 9.81 m/s2)(1 N/1 kg.m/s2)
=5297 N
1–12 A 5-kg rock is thrown upward with a force of 150 N at a location where the local gravitational
acceleration is 9.79 m/s2. Determine the acceleration of the rock, in m/s2.

Given: 5 kg: 150 N; g= 9.79 m/s2

Required: g
W=mg Newton’s Second Law
= (5kg) (9.79 m/s2) (1 N/1 kg.m/s2) a= F/m
= 48.95 N = 101.05 N/5 kg (1 kg.m/s2/1 N)
Net Force =20.2 m/s2
=101.05 N

1–13 The value of the gravitational acceleration g decreases with elevation from 9.807 m/s2 at sea
level to 9.767 m/s2 an altitude of 13,000 m, where large passenger planes cruise. Determine the
percent reduction in the weight of an airplane cruising at 13,000 m relative to its weight at sea level.

Given: g =9.807 m/s2atsea level and 9.767 m/s2at an altitude of 13,000 m.

Required: % reduction in weight

% Reduction in weight= % Reduction in g =(Δg/g)×100= [(9.807-9.767)/9.807]×100=0.41%

Therefore, the airplane and the people in it will weight 0.41% less at 13, 000 m altitude.
Weight loss at cruising altitudes is negligible.

1–36 A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 35 kPa at a location where the atmospheric
pressure is 92 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the chamber.
Given: Pvac= 35 kPa; Patm= 92 kPa
Required: Pabs
=92kPa-35 kPa
=57 kPa

1-37E A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 50 psi at a location where the barometric reading is
29.1 inHg. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank. ᵨHg=848.4 lbm/ft3

Answer: Pabs=P(gage)+ᵨhg

=50lb/in2(acc.) + (0.49098lbm/in3 (29.1in)(acc.)

=50 lb/in2 (acc) + 14.287518 lbm/in2

1-38 A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 500kPa at a location where the atmospheric
pressure is 94kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank.

Answer: Pabs=P(atm)+P(gage)



1-39 The barometer of a mountain hiker reads 930 m bars at the beginning of a hiking trip and
780mBars at the end. Neglecting the effect of altitude on local gravitational acceleration, determine
the vertical distance climbed. Assume an average air density of 1.20 kg/m3 ant take g= 9.7 m/s2.

Answer: (930mBars/1000) (100kPa/1bar) =93

= (780mBars/1000) (100kPa/1bar) =73kPa

15kPa=1.2(9.7) (h)


1-40 The basic barometer can be used to measure the height of a building. If the barometric readings
at the top and the bottom of a building are 730 and 755mmHg, respectively determine the height of
the building. Assume an average air density of 1.18kg/m2.

Answer: 100658.412Pa – 97325.52Pa=1.18 (9.81) h


1-41 Determine the pressure exerted on the surface of a diver at 30 m below the free surface of the
sea. Assume a barometric pressure of 101 kPa and a specific gravity of 1.03 for seawater.

Answer: P=Pbarometric+ (ᵨhg)

=101(103 + ((1.03 (1000) 30 (9.81)


1-42E Determine the pressure exerted on the surface of a submarine cruising 300ft below the free
surface of the sea. Assume that the barometric pressure is 14.7 psia and the specific gravity of sea
water is 1.03.

Answer: P=Patm +ᵨhg


1-43 A gas contained in a vertical, frictionless piston cylinder device. The piston has a mass of 4kg
and cross sectional area of 35 cm^2. A compressed spring above the piston exerts a force of 60 N on
the piston. If the TMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS 95 KpA , determine the pressure inside the cylinder.

Answer: Pgas=Patm+ (W + F(spring)/A

=95kPa+(((3.2kg*9.81m/s^2)+150 N )/35*10^-4 m^2)


1-44 Both a gage and a manometer are attached to a gas tank to measure its pressure. If the reading
on the pressure gage is 80kPa, determine the distance between the two fluid levels of the manometer
if the fluid is (a) mercury (ᵨ=13600kg/m3) or (b) water (ᵨ=1000kg/m3)

Answer (a) mercury (b) water

P=ᵨhg P=ᵨhg

H=P/hᵨ =80(103/(1000)(9.81)

=80(103/(13600)(9.81) =8.15m


1-45 A manometer containing oil (ᵨ=850 kg/m3) is attached to a tank filled with air. If the oil level
difference between the two columns is 45 cm and the atmospheric pressure is 98 kPa, determine the
absolute pressure of the air in the tank.

Answer: Pabs=Pabs+ ᵨhg

=98kPa + (850) (0.45) (9.81)


1-46 A mercury manometer (ᵨ=13600 kg/m3) is connected to an air duct to measure the pressure
inside. The difference in the manometer levels is 15mm and the atmospheric pressure is 100kPa.

a). determine if the pressure in the duct is above or below the atmospheric pressure.

b). determine the absolute pressure in the duct.

Answer= (a) P=ᵨhg (b) P=ᵨhg

= (13600kg/m3 (0.015m) (9.81m/s2) =100) (103 + 2001.29Pa)

=200129Pa =102001.29Pa

1-47C What is zeroth law in thermodynamics?
Answer: The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if both
have the same temperature reading, even if they are not in contact.

1-48C What are the ordinary and absolute temperature scales in the SI and English system?
Answer: They are Celsius (°C) and Kelvin (K) in the SI, and Fahrenheit (°F) and Rankine (R) in the
English system.

1-49C Consider an alcohol and a mercury thermometer that read exactly 0°C at the ice point and
100°C at the steam point. The distance between the two points is divided into100 equal parts in both
thermometers. Do you think these thermometers will give exactly the same reading at a temperature
of, say, 60°C? Explain.
Answer: Probably, but not necessarily. The operation of these two thermometers is based on the
thermal expansion of a fluid. If the thermal expansion coefficients of both fluids vary linearly with
temperature, then both fluids will expand at the same rate with temperature, and both thermometers
will always give identical readings. Otherwise, the two readings may deviate.

1-50C The deep body temperature of a healthy person is 37°C. What is it in kelvins?
Answer: Temperature is given in °C.It is to be expressed in K. Analysis The Kelvin scale is related to
Celsius scale by T(K]= T(°C)+ 273.
Thus, T (K] = 37°C+ 273 = 310 K


1-77 Balloons are often filled helium gas because its weight only about one-seventh of what air
weight under identical conditions. The bouyancy force which can be express as Fb=(density of
air)(g)(volume of balloons), with push the balloon upward. If the balloon has a diameter of 10m and
carries two people. 70 kg each, determine the acceleration of the balloon when it is first released,
Assume the density of air is 1.16 kg/m3, and neglect the weight of the ropes and the cage.

Answer: ᵨHe =1/7(ᵨair) V(balloon)=(4/3)(∏r) Fb=1.16(9.81)(904.8)

=1/7(1.16) = (4/6) ∏ (6) =10296.26 N

=0.166kg/m3 = 904.8m3

MHe=ᵨHe (v) m (total) = m (He) +m (people) W=mg

=0.166(904.8 ) =150.196+ (2) (85) =320.196(9.81)

=150.196kg =320.196kg =3141.130N

F (net) =W-Fb F (net) =m (total) (a)

=10296.26 – 3141.130 a=F/m (total)

=7155.129 N =7155.129 N/320.196


1-78 Determine the maximum amount of load, kg, the balloon can carry.
Given:r= 5 m
V =4 pi R3/ 3 = 523.6 m3
m= ρh x V = 86.77 kg
The upthrust F = V x g ( ρa - ρh ) = 523.6 x9.8 x 1.16 x ( 1 - 1 / 7 ) = 5101.88 N
Net upward force = F' = F - mg = F - 140 x 9.8 = 3729.8 N
F ' = m' a
m' = m + 140 = 86.77 + 140 = 226.77 kg
a = F' / m' = 3729.8 / 226.77 = 16.45 m /s2
The net upward force is just balanced by the down ward force due to the weight of pay load and the
helium in it.
m= F / g = 3729.88 / 9.8 = 380.6 kg
m= 380.6 - weight of helium = 380.6 - 86.77
Answer= 293.8 kg

1-79 The basic barometer can be used As an altitude measuring device in airplanes. The ground
control reports a barometric reading of 753 mmHg while the pilot’s reading is 690mmHg. Estimate the
altitude the altitude of the plane from ground level if the average air density is 1.20 kg/m3 and g =

Answer: given) 753mmHg=100391.76Pa



100391.76-91992.456Pa =1.20(9.81)(h)



1-80 The lower half of a 10 m high cylindrical container is filled with water (ᵨ=1000kg/m2) and the
upper half with oil that has a specific gravity of 0.85. Determine the pressure difference between the
top and bottom of the cylinder.

Answer: P=Pa + Pb

= (ᵨhg) a + (ᵨhg) b

= (1000) (9.81(5) + ((0.85) (1000) (9.81) (5)

=90742.5 Pa

1-81 A vertical, frictionless piston cylinder devise contains a gas at 500kPa. The atmospheric
pressure outside is 100Kpa, and the piston are is 30cm2. Determine the mass of the piston. Assume
standard gravitational acceleration.

Answer: Given) P (gas) =500kPa

P (atm) =100kPa

A=3(10-3 m2 = P (gas) =P (atm.) + mg/A

m= ((P (gas)-P (atm.)) (A))/g

= ((500kPa-100kPa) (3(10-3)/9.81

= 122.324159m
1-82 A pressure cooker cooks a lot faster than an ordinary pan by maintaining a higher pressure and
temperature inside. The lid of a pressure cooker is well sealed, and steam can escape only through
an opening in the middle of the lid. A separate piece of certain mass, the petcock, sits on top of this
opening and prevents steam from escaping until the pressure force overcomes the weight of the
petcock. The periodic escape of the steam in this manner prevents any potentially dangerous
pressure build up and keeps the pressure inside at a constant value.

Determine the mass of the petcock of a pressure cooker whose operation pressure is 100 kPa
gage and has an opening cross sectional area of 4 mm2. Assume an atmospheric pressure of 101
kPa, and draw the free body diagram of the petcock

Answer: P=Patm + mg/A

100kPa= (101kPa) + m (9.81))/4(10-6)

m= ((100) (103) – 101(102)4(106)/9.81


1-83 A glass tube is attached to a water pipe as shown in 1-83. If the water pressure at the bottom of
the tube is 115 kPa and the local atmospheric pressure is 92kPa, determine how high the water will
rise in the tube, in m. Assume g = 9.8 m/s2 at that location and take the density of water to be 1000

Answer: P=P(atm) + ᵨhg

h=(115kPa-92kPa)/1000kg/m3 (9.8m/s2)


1-84 The average atmospheric pressure on earth is approximated as a function of altitude by the
relation Patm = 101.325 (1 - 0.02256z)5.256 where Patm is the atmospheric pressure and z is the altitude
in km (I km = 1000 m) with z = 0 at sea level. Determine the approximate atmospheric pressure at
Atlanta ( z = 306m), Denver (z = 1610 m), Mexico City (z =2309 m), and the top of Mount Everest (z =
8848 m).

a. Atlanta: 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256𝑧)5.256

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256(306𝑚 𝑥 1𝑘𝑚⁄1000𝑚))5.256
= 97.70 Pa
b. Denver: 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256𝑧)5.256
𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256(1,610 𝑚))5.256

= 83.4188 Pa

c. Mexico City: 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256𝑧)5.256

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256(2,390𝑚))5.256

= 75.7177 Pa
d. Mount Everest: 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256𝑧)5.256
𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256(8,848𝑚))5.256
= 31.4389 Pa

1-85 the weight of bodies may change somewhat from one location to another as a result of the
variation of the gravitational acceleration g with elevation. Accounting for this variation using the
relation in prob. 1-9, determine the weight of an 80-kg person at sea level (z =0), in Denver (z =
1610), and top of the Mount Everest (z= 8848).

 1-9 : g= a-bz ;a=9.807 𝑚⁄𝑠 2 ;b=3.32x10−6 𝑠 −2 ; 𝑧 = 0

W=mg=m(9.807 𝑚⁄𝑠 2 -3.32x10−6 𝑠 −2 𝑧)

a. Denver:


=m(9.807 𝑚⁄𝑠 2 - 3.32x10−6 𝑠 −2 𝑧)

= 80 kg(9.807 𝑚⁄𝑠 2 -3.32x10−6 𝑠 −2 (1,610𝑚))

= 784.56 N

a. Mount Everest:


= m(9.807 𝑚⁄𝑠 2 -3.32x10−6 𝑠 −2 𝑧)

= 80 kg(9.807 𝑚⁄𝑠 2 -3.32x10−6 𝑠 −2 (8,848𝑚))

= 782.21 N