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TECHNOLOGY

Laboratory Exercise 2

THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY

1-1C What is the difference between the classical and the statistical approaches to thermodynamics?

Answer: Classical thermodynamics was developed before atoms were fully understood. It needs only

three parameters pressure, volume and temperature to understand properties of any matter (these

are state functions). It is the macroscopic approach, in which a study is based on the system rather

than individual particles. Statistical thermodynamics includes study of its constituent atoms and their

distribution among various energy states to understand the properties of matter. The microscopic

approach to the study of thermodynamics, in which a study is based upon the behavior of the

particles individually

1-2C Why does a bicyclist pick up a speed on a downhill road even when he is not pedaling? Does

this violate the conservation of energy principle?

Answer: Going downhill road, the potential energy of the bicyclist is converted to kinetic energy, and

thus the bicyclist picks up speed. There is no creation of energy, and thus no violation of the

conservation

of energy principle.

1–3C An office worker claims that a cup of cold coffee on his table warmed up to 80°C by picking up

energy from the

surrounding air, which is at 25°C. Is there any truth to his claim? Does this process violate any

thermodynamic laws?

Answer: There’s no truth to his claim. It violates the second law of thermodynamics. The second law

of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time

1-4C A person claims that even drinking water causes him to gain weight. Is there any truth to his

claim?

Answer: Pound-mass lbm is the mass unit in English system whereas pound-force lbf is the

forceunit. One pound-force is the force required to accelerate a mass of 32.174 lbm by 1 ft/s 2. In

other words, the weight of a 1-lbmmass at sea level is 1lbf.

1–6C What is the net force acting on a car cruising at a constant velocity of 70 km/h (a) on a level

road and (b) on an

uphill road?

Answer: There is no acceleration, thus the net force is zero in both cases.

1–7 A 3-kg plastic tank that has a volume of 0.2 m3 is filled with liquid water. Assuming the density of

water is 1000

3

kg/m , determine the weight of the combined system.

Required: Weight

Solution:

mw= ρV= (1000 kg/m3)(0.2m3)=200kg

mtotal=mw + mtank= 200 + 3 =203 kg

Thus:

W= mg

= (203 kg)(9.81 m/s2) (1 N/1 kg.m/s2)

Answer: =1991 N

1-9 At 45°latitude, the gravitational acceleration as a function of elevation z above sea level is given

by g= a-bz, where a=9.807 m/s2 and b=3.32 ×10-6 s-2. Determine the height above sea level where

the weight of an object will decrease by 1 percent.

Given: a=9.807 m/s2 Solution:

b=3.32 ×10-6 s-2 W= mg= m(9.807-3.32 × 10-6z)

45°latitude Hence: W=0.99Ws= 0.99mgs= 0.99(m)(9.807

Required: height Substitute:

=0.99(9.81) = (9.81-3.32 × 10-6z)

z= 29,539 m

1-10E A 150- lbm astronaut took his bathroom scale( a spring scale) and a beam scale ( compares

masses) to the moon where the local gravity is g= 5.48 ft/s 2. Determine how much he will weigh (a)

on the spring scale and (b) on the beam scale.

Given: g= 5.48 ft/s2; 150- lbm

Required: Weight (a) on spring scale and (b) beam scale

Solution:

(a) W=mg

=150-lbm(5.48 ft/s2)(1lbf/32.2 lbm.ft/s2)

W=25.5 lbf

(b) A beam scale compares masses and thus is not affected by the variations

in gravitational acceleration.

The beam scale will read what it reads on earth. Therefore:

W=150lbf

1–11 The acceleration of high-speed aircraft is sometimes expressed in g’s (in multiples of the

standard acceleration of gravity). Determine the upward force, in N, that a 90-kg man would

experience in an aircraft whose acceleration is 6 g’s.

Solution: From the Newton's second law,

F=ma

=m(6g)

=90 kg(6 × 9.81 m/s2)(1 N/1 kg.m/s2)

=5297 N

1–12 A 5-kg rock is thrown upward with a force of 150 N at a location where the local gravitational

acceleration is 9.79 m/s2. Determine the acceleration of the rock, in m/s2.

Required: g

Solution:

W=mg Newton’s Second Law

= (5kg) (9.79 m/s2) (1 N/1 kg.m/s2) a= F/m

= 48.95 N = 101.05 N/5 kg (1 kg.m/s2/1 N)

Net Force =20.2 m/s2

Fnet=Fup-Fdown

=150-48.95

=101.05 N

1–13 The value of the gravitational acceleration g decreases with elevation from 9.807 m/s2 at sea

level to 9.767 m/s2 an altitude of 13,000 m, where large passenger planes cruise. Determine the

percent reduction in the weight of an airplane cruising at 13,000 m relative to its weight at sea level.

Required: % reduction in weight

Solution:

Therefore, the airplane and the people in it will weight 0.41% less at 13, 000 m altitude.

Weight loss at cruising altitudes is negligible.

PRESSURE

1–36 A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 35 kPa at a location where the atmospheric

pressure is 92 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the chamber.

Given: Pvac= 35 kPa; Patm= 92 kPa

Required: Pabs

Solution:

Pabs=Patm-Pvac

=92kPa-35 kPa

=57 kPa

1-37E A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 50 psi at a location where the barometric reading is

29.1 inHg. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank. ᵨHg=848.4 lbm/ft3

Answer: Pabs=P(gage)+ᵨhg

=64.287518psia

1-38 A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 500kPa at a location where the atmospheric

pressure is 94kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank.

Answer: Pabs=P(atm)+P(gage)

=94+500kPa

=594kPa

1-39 The barometer of a mountain hiker reads 930 m bars at the beginning of a hiking trip and

780mBars at the end. Neglecting the effect of altitude on local gravitational acceleration, determine

the vertical distance climbed. Assume an average air density of 1.20 kg/m3 ant take g= 9.7 m/s2.

15kPa=1.2(9.7) (h)

h=1288.66m

1-40 The basic barometer can be used to measure the height of a building. If the barometric readings

at the top and the bottom of a building are 730 and 755mmHg, respectively determine the height of

the building. Assume an average air density of 1.18kg/m2.

h=287.73m

1-41 Determine the pressure exerted on the surface of a diver at 30 m below the free surface of the

sea. Assume a barometric pressure of 101 kPa and a specific gravity of 1.03 for seawater.

=404129Pa

1-42E Determine the pressure exerted on the surface of a submarine cruising 300ft below the free

surface of the sea. Assume that the barometric pressure is 14.7 psia and the specific gravity of sea

water is 1.03.

=92.8psia

1-43 A gas contained in a vertical, frictionless piston cylinder device. The piston has a mass of 4kg

and cross sectional area of 35 cm^2. A compressed spring above the piston exerts a force of 60 N on

the piston. If the TMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS 95 KpA , determine the pressure inside the cylinder.

=147kPa

1-44 Both a gage and a manometer are attached to a gas tank to measure its pressure. If the reading

on the pressure gage is 80kPa, determine the distance between the two fluid levels of the manometer

if the fluid is (a) mercury (ᵨ=13600kg/m3) or (b) water (ᵨ=1000kg/m3)

P=ᵨhg P=ᵨhg

H=P/hᵨ =80(103/(1000)(9.81)

=80(103/(13600)(9.81) =8.15m

=0.59963m

1-45 A manometer containing oil (ᵨ=850 kg/m3) is attached to a tank filled with air. If the oil level

difference between the two columns is 45 cm and the atmospheric pressure is 98 kPa, determine the

absolute pressure of the air in the tank.

=101.75kPa

1-46 A mercury manometer (ᵨ=13600 kg/m3) is connected to an air duct to measure the pressure

inside. The difference in the manometer levels is 15mm and the atmospheric pressure is 100kPa.

a). determine if the pressure in the duct is above or below the atmospheric pressure.

=200129Pa =102001.29Pa

TEMPERATURE

1-47C What is zeroth law in thermodynamics?

Answer: The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if both

have the same temperature reading, even if they are not in contact.

1-48C What are the ordinary and absolute temperature scales in the SI and English system?

Answer: They are Celsius (°C) and Kelvin (K) in the SI, and Fahrenheit (°F) and Rankine (R) in the

English system.

1-49C Consider an alcohol and a mercury thermometer that read exactly 0°C at the ice point and

100°C at the steam point. The distance between the two points is divided into100 equal parts in both

thermometers. Do you think these thermometers will give exactly the same reading at a temperature

of, say, 60°C? Explain.

Answer: Probably, but not necessarily. The operation of these two thermometers is based on the

thermal expansion of a fluid. If the thermal expansion coefficients of both fluids vary linearly with

temperature, then both fluids will expand at the same rate with temperature, and both thermometers

will always give identical readings. Otherwise, the two readings may deviate.

1-50C The deep body temperature of a healthy person is 37°C. What is it in kelvins?

Answer: Temperature is given in °C.It is to be expressed in K. Analysis The Kelvin scale is related to

Celsius scale by T(K]= T(°C)+ 273.

Thus, T (K] = 37°C+ 273 = 310 K

REVIEW PROBLEMS

1-77 Balloons are often filled helium gas because its weight only about one-seventh of what air

weight under identical conditions. The bouyancy force which can be express as Fb=(density of

air)(g)(volume of balloons), with push the balloon upward. If the balloon has a diameter of 10m and

carries two people. 70 kg each, determine the acceleration of the balloon when it is first released,

Assume the density of air is 1.16 kg/m3, and neglect the weight of the ropes and the cage.

=0.166kg/m3 = 904.8m3

=22.346m/s2

1-78 Determine the maximum amount of load, kg, the balloon can carry.

Given:r= 5 m

V =4 pi R3/ 3 = 523.6 m3

m= ρh x V = 86.77 kg

The upthrust F = V x g ( ρa - ρh ) = 523.6 x9.8 x 1.16 x ( 1 - 1 / 7 ) = 5101.88 N

Net upward force = F' = F - mg = F - 140 x 9.8 = 3729.8 N

F ' = m' a

m' = m + 140 = 86.77 + 140 = 226.77 kg

a = F' / m' = 3729.8 / 226.77 = 16.45 m /s2

The net upward force is just balanced by the down ward force due to the weight of pay load and the

helium in it.

F=mg

m= F / g = 3729.88 / 9.8 = 380.6 kg

m= 380.6 - weight of helium = 380.6 - 86.77

Answer= 293.8 kg

1-79 The basic barometer can be used As an altitude measuring device in airplanes. The ground

control reports a barometric reading of 753 mmHg while the pilot’s reading is 690mmHg. Estimate the

altitude the altitude of the plane from ground level if the average air density is 1.20 kg/m3 and g =

9.81m/s2.

690mmHg=91992.456Pa

P=ᵨhg

100391.76-91992.456Pa =1.20(9.81)(h)

h=8399.294/1.20(9.8)

=714.2257m

1-80 The lower half of a 10 m high cylindrical container is filled with water (ᵨ=1000kg/m2) and the

upper half with oil that has a specific gravity of 0.85. Determine the pressure difference between the

top and bottom of the cylinder.

Answer: P=Pa + Pb

= (ᵨhg) a + (ᵨhg) b

=90742.5 Pa

1-81 A vertical, frictionless piston cylinder devise contains a gas at 500kPa. The atmospheric

pressure outside is 100Kpa, and the piston are is 30cm2. Determine the mass of the piston. Assume

standard gravitational acceleration.

P (atm) =100kPa

= ((500kPa-100kPa) (3(10-3)/9.81

= 122.324159m

1-82 A pressure cooker cooks a lot faster than an ordinary pan by maintaining a higher pressure and

temperature inside. The lid of a pressure cooker is well sealed, and steam can escape only through

an opening in the middle of the lid. A separate piece of certain mass, the petcock, sits on top of this

opening and prevents steam from escaping until the pressure force overcomes the weight of the

petcock. The periodic escape of the steam in this manner prevents any potentially dangerous

pressure build up and keeps the pressure inside at a constant value.

Determine the mass of the petcock of a pressure cooker whose operation pressure is 100 kPa

gage and has an opening cross sectional area of 4 mm2. Assume an atmospheric pressure of 101

kPa, and draw the free body diagram of the petcock

=0.40775kg

1-83 A glass tube is attached to a water pipe as shown in 1-83. If the water pressure at the bottom of

the tube is 115 kPa and the local atmospheric pressure is 92kPa, determine how high the water will

rise in the tube, in m. Assume g = 9.8 m/s2 at that location and take the density of water to be 1000

kg/m3.

h=(115kPa-92kPa)/1000kg/m3 (9.8m/s2)

=2.3469

1-84 The average atmospheric pressure on earth is approximated as a function of altitude by the

relation Patm = 101.325 (1 - 0.02256z)5.256 where Patm is the atmospheric pressure and z is the altitude

in km (I km = 1000 m) with z = 0 at sea level. Determine the approximate atmospheric pressure at

Atlanta ( z = 306m), Denver (z = 1610 m), Mexico City (z =2309 m), and the top of Mount Everest (z =

8848 m).

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256(306𝑚 𝑥 1𝑘𝑚⁄1000𝑚))5.256

= 97.70 Pa

b. Denver: 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256𝑧)5.256

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256(1,610 𝑚))5.256

= 83.4188 Pa

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256(2,390𝑚))5.256

= 75.7177 Pa

d. Mount Everest: 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256𝑧)5.256

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.325(1 − 0.02256(8,848𝑚))5.256

= 31.4389 Pa

1-85 the weight of bodies may change somewhat from one location to another as a result of the

variation of the gravitational acceleration g with elevation. Accounting for this variation using the

relation in prob. 1-9, determine the weight of an 80-kg person at sea level (z =0), in Denver (z =

1610), and top of the Mount Everest (z= 8848).

a. Denver:

W=mg

= 784.56 N

a. Mount Everest:

W=mg

= 782.21 N

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