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Change of state

Substances can change state, usually when they are heated or cooled. For example, liquid water
turns into steam when it is heated enough, and it turns into ice when it is cooled enough.

The closeness, arrangement and motion of the particles in a substance change when it changes
state. Simple diagrams of particles in a solid, liquid and a gas are shown like this:

Gaining energy

The table summarises what happens to the particles in a substance when it gains energy, and it
melts or boils (ie changes state):

Melting Evaporating or boiling

Description Solid to liquid Liquid to gas

Closeness of particles Stay close together Become much further apart

Arrangement of particles Regular to random Stay random

Motion of particles Start to move around each other Become able to move quickly in all directions
Evaporation happens below the boiling point of a liquid. When the liquid reaches its boiling
point, evaporation happens very quickly and the liquid boils.

How substances change state

Losing energy

The table summarises what happens to the particles in a substance when it loses energy, and it
freezes or condenses (ie changes state):

Condensing Freezing

Description Gas to liquid Liquid to solid

Closeness of
Become much closer together Stay close together
particles

Arrangement of
Stay random Random to regular
particles

Stop moving quickly in all directions, and can only Stop moving around each other, and
Motion of particles
move around each other only vibrate on the spot

Conservation of mass

The particles in a substance stay the same when it changes state - only their closeness,
arrangement or motion change. This means that the mass of the substance stays the same. For
example, 10 g of water boils to form 10 g of steam, or freezes to form 10 g of ice. This is
called conservation of mass.
melt
/melt/
verb
gerund or present participle: melting
1. 1.
make or become liquefied by heat.
"place under the broiler until the cheese has melted"
synonyms: thaw, liquefy, defrost, soften, dissolve, deliquesce
"the snow was beginning to melt"
o
o
2. 2.
make or become more tender or loving.
"she was so beautiful that I melted"
synonyms: soften, disarm, touch, affect, move
"his smile melted her heart"
freez·ing

/ˈfrēziNG/
adjective
1. 1.
below 32°F (0°C).
"strong winds and freezing temperatures"
synonyms: bitter, bitterly cold, icy, chill, frosty, glacial, wintry, subzero, hypothermic; More
o
o
noun
1. 1.
the freezing point of water.
"the temperature was well above freezing"
EVAPORATION

noun
1. the process of turning from liquid into vapor.
"snow cover prevents evaporation of water from the soil"
o the process of something abstract ceasing to exist.
"thousands of employees witnessed the rapid evaporation of their retirement plans
con·den·sa·tion

känˌdenˈsāSH(ə)n/
noun
1. 1.
water that collects as droplets on a cold surface when humid air is in contact with it.
synonyms: moisture, water droplets, steam
"windows misty with condensation"
2. 2.
the conversion of a vapor or gas to a liquid.
synonyms: precipitation, liquefaction, deliquescence
"the condensation of the vapor"