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UIUC ECE 462 Exam 1 Solution

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1. Circuits

a) bubble pushing NOR-NOR circuit:

b) (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)

5

c) Number of Boolean functions is 22 = 232

2. Functions

a) Yes. We know that no product term is a subset of another. Consequently, no product

term can absorb another. Therefore no literals can be removed from any product term,

making all product terms prime.

b) No. We know that the sum of products is unate. Consequently no product terms

can be united. Therefore none of the product terms in the expression can be

reduced further.

c) Every product term is prime (i). Every product term is essential (ii). Therefore the

sum of products expression is both minimal and complete.

d) When x_i increases, F(x) does not decrease. This means that this function is

monotonically increasing, i.e. it is a unate function wrt x_i. This is true for every x_i

in the function. Hence, F(x) is a unate function.

a) i) ITE(F’, G, F), ii) ITE(F, G, 1)

b) DeMorgan’s Lawn

ITE(F’, G’, H’)’

= (F’H’ + FG’)’

= (F’H’)’(FG’)’

= (F + H)(F’ + G)

= FF’ + FG + HF’ + HG

= FG + F’H

= ITE(F, G, H)

c) Consider f1 and f2. If f1 and f2 do not have isomorphic BDDs, it is possible that they

do have

isomorphic ROBDDs. However, symmetric functions will always have isomorphic

BDDs and ROBDDs. In

the general (non-symmetric) case, it is not sufficient to check for isomorphic BDDs

when determining if two functions are equivalent.two functions are equivalent.

4. Quine-McCluskey algorithm

a) PI table

We remove dominating columns because they represent a constraint on prime

implicants to choose that is looser than that of the dominated column. Thus, they are

redundant and we can remove them. In the single output case, we are allowed to

remove dominated row if it had a literal (AND connection) cost that was not less than

the dominating row. However, in the multiple output minimization, the connection cost

of a row depends on OR and AND connections, so it is not as easily measured. Because

of this, we cannot allow row dominance.

c) Algorithm: minimal covering algorithm, Row column dominance.

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8

T1 X X X

T2 X X X

T3 X X X X

T4 X X X

T5 X X X

T6 X X X

Remove dominating columns: F2, F3, F4

F1 F5 F6 F7 F8

T1 X X

T2 X

T3 X X

T4 X X

T5 X X

T6 X

Remove dominated rows: T2, T6

F1 F5 F6 F7 F8

T1 X X

T3 X X

T4 X X

T5 X X

Remove dominating columns F1, F8

F5 F6 F7

T1 X

T3 X

T4 X

T5 X

Therefore: minimum test set is: {T1, T3, T5} or {T3, T4, T5}

a) To prove that f’x= (fx)’

f = x.fx + x’fx’

f’ = (x.fx + x’fx’)’

= (x.fx)’ + (x’.fx’)’

= (x’+(fx)’). (x+(fx’)’)

= x.(fx)’ + x’.(fx’)’ + (fx)’.(fx’)’

= x.(fx)’ + x’.(fx’)’

(fx)’ and and (fx’)’ are cofactors of the complement of f. But they are also equal to the

complement of the positive cofactor fx and negative cofactor (fx)’ of f respectively.

Hence proved.

b) X.fx + X’.fx’. This is an implementation of the Shannon decomposition function.

c)

i. df/dg = f(a,b,c,g=1) XOR f(a,b,c,g=0)

= (a’+b’+0)(c+1) XOR (a’+b’+1)(c+0)

= (a+b) XOR c

= a’c’+b’c’+abc

ii. A and C are true. df/dx=0 implies that the Boolean difference of the function wrt x

is 0, so the function stays the same irrespective of a change in x. df/dx = 1 implies

that the function changes only with x, i.e. it is totally dependent on x. d(f.g)/dx =

(f.g)x XOR (f.g)x’= f.(gx XOR x’)= f.(dg/dx). This also shows that the function f does

not change wrt x.

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