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Heat Treatment

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Carry out Heat Treatment

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Temperature (C degree)

1050
Solution annealed

Upper critical point


910 Phase
Annealing change to
Normalizing austenite
Quench Hardening

Lower critical point


723
680 Tempering

650 PWHT = Stress Relief No Phase


Post Hydrogen Release change
Preheating
Stress Release

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Temperature (C degree)
04 main factors affect to heat treatment
1. Heating rate
1050 Solution annealed 2. Soak temperature
3. Soak time
4. Cooling rate
Upper critical point
910

723 Lower critical point Temperature (C degree)

680 Soak temperature


650 600
Controlled
Heating Soak Cooling
time heating and
rate rate cooling rate
300

Solution Tempering
Air cool
annealed Quenching Normalizing Annealing

Time Time
PWHT = Stress Relief

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Quenching Brittle {Martensite}
Hardness Coarse grain
High %C

More increase strength Low heat input Low temp. Decrease toughness

Fine grain/ Refinement


Normalizing Toughness
Pearlite + ferrite/Bainite
Increase strength

Annealling Ductile Soft {Ferrite+Pearlite}


Low %C Large grain

Decrease strength High heat input High temp. Decrease toughness


Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector
Temperature (C degree)

Austenite
Austenite
910 Austenite +
Fe3C

Temperature (C degree)
Ferrite +
Austenite Annealing
Ferrite

723

500
Ferrite + Pearlite Pearlite + Fe3C Martensite Bainite Ferrite + Pearlite

0.02 0.8 2.14 %C Time

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector
Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector
Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector
Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector
Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector
Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector
Preheating
Preheating

Heat Input

Carbon
equivalent

Combine
mat. thick

Hydro
content

increase
decrease

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector
Question 1:

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Answer 1:

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Question 2:

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Answer 2:

Ho Minh Thanh – Senior welding inspector


Question 3:

Pre-heat for steel will increase if:

a. The material thickness reduces.


b. Faster welding speed.
c. The use of larger welding electrode.
d. A reduction in carbon content in the parent metal.
Answer 3:

Pre-heat for steel will increase if:

a. The material thickness reduces.


b. Faster welding speed.
c. The use of larger welding electrode.
d. A reduction in carbon content in the parent metal.
Question 4:

Typical temperatures used for normalising a C-Mn steel plate are:

a. 600-650oC.
b. 1000-1100oC.
c. 700-800oC.
d. 880-920oC.
Answer 4:

Typical temperatures used for normalising a C-Mn steel plate are:

a. 600-650oC.
b. 1000-1100oC.
c. 700-800oC.
d. 880-920oC.
Question 5:

The maximum hardness in the HAZ of a steel will increase if:

a. Heat input is increased.


b. CEV is increased.
c. Joint thickness is decrease.
d. Basic electrodes are used.
Answer 5:

The maximum hardness in the HAZ of a steel will increase if:

a. Heat input is increased.


b. CEV is increased.
c. Joint thickness is decrease.
d. Basic electrodes are used.
Question 6:
Normalising:

a. Fast cooling from the austenite region when applied to steels.


b. Is slowly cooled from the austenite region to approximately 680oC and
then cooled down in air.
c. Is slowly cooled down in air from below the lower critical limit.
d. None of the above.
Answer 6:
Normalising:

a. Fast cooling from the austenite region when applied to steels.


b. Is slowly cooled from the austenite region to approximately 680oC and
then cooled down in air.
c. Is slowly cooled down in air from below the lower critical limit.
d. None of the above.
Question 7:

Preheat temperature:

a. May be increased by an increase in travel speed.


b. May be increased by a reduction in material thickness.
c. May be increase by an increase in electrode diameter.
d. None of the above.
Answer 7:

Preheat temperature:

a. May be increased by an increase in travel speed.


b. May be increased by a reduction in material thickness.
c. May be increase by an increase in electrode diameter.
d. None of the above.
Question 8:

Which of the following is applicable to the heat treatment process of


normalising on carbon-manganese steel.

a. It is always carried out below the lower critical limit.


b. It is carry out to ensure the material has maximum tensiles strength.
c. It is carried out to ensure the material is of maximum ductility and
malleability in preparation for extensive cold working operations.
Answer 8:

Which of the following is applicable to the heat treatment process of


normalizing on carbon-manganese steel.

a. It is always carried out below the lower critical limit.


b. It is carry out to ensure the material has maximum tensile strength.
c. It is carried out to ensure the material is of maximum ductility and
malleability in preparation for extensive cold working operations.
Question 9:

Which of the following heat treatments for carbon manganese steel


weldments will result in the greatest improvement in toughness.

a. Annealing.
b. Stress relief.
c. Normalizing.
d. Quenching.
Answer 9:

Which of the following heat treatments for carbon manganese steel


weldments will result in the greatest improvement in toughness.

a. Annealing.
b. Stress relief.
c. Normalizing.
d. Quenching.
Question 10:
If “very high” heat inputs have been used, which PWHT would you expect
to be used to improve the main mechanical property which have been
reduced in a carbon manganese steel:

a. Anneal after welding.


b. Stress relieve after welding.
c. Temper after welding.
d. Normalize after welding.
Answer 10:
If “very high” heat inputs have been used, which PWHT would you expect
to be used to improve the main mechanical property which have been
reduced in a carbon manganese steel:

a. Anneal after welding.


b. Stress relieve after welding.
c. Temper after welding.
d. Normalize after welding.
Question 11:

Stress relieving is not helpful in which of the following case?

a. Improve resistance to stress corrosion cracking.


b. Improve dimensional stability after machining.
c. Lower the peak residual stress.
d. Softening the steel.
Answer 11:

Stress relieving is not helpful in which of the following case?

a. Improve resistance to stress corrosion cracking.


b. Improve dimensional stability after machining.
c. Lower the peak residual stress.
d. Softening the steel.
Question 12:

An Electro Slag weld requires what heat treatment to improve the grain strucure?

a. Annealing.
b. Stress relieving.
c. Normalising.
d. Quench and tempering.
Answer 12:

An Electroslag weld requires what heat treatment to improve the grain structure?

a. Annealing.
b. Stress relieving.
c. Normalising.
d. Quench and tempering.
Question 13:

What are the possible results of having a heat input too low?

a. An increase in hardness, lower yield strength and lack of fusion.


b. A reduction in toughness, hydrogen entrapment and an increase in hardness.
c. Entrapped hydrogen, an increase in hardness and lack of fusion
d. Entrapped hydrogen, a reduction in carbon content and lack of fusion.
Answer 13:

What are the possible results of having a heat input to low?

a. An increase in hardness, lower yield strength and lack of fusion.


b. A reduction in toughness, hydrogen entrapment and an increase in hardness.
c. Entrapped hydrogen, an increase in hardness and lack of fusion
d. Entrapped hydrogen, a reduction in carbon content and lack of fusion.
Question 14:

The possible effects of having a travel speed too fast:

a. Low toughness, slag inclusions and cap undercut.


b. High hardness, slag inclusions and a narrow thin weld bead.
c. High hardness, excessive deposition and cold laps.
d. Low toughness, poor fusion and slag inclusions.
Answer 14:

The possible effects of having a travel speed too fast:

a. Low toughness, slag inclusions and cap undercut.


b. High hardness, slag inclusions and a narrow thin weld bead.
c. High hardness, excessive deposition and cold laps.
d. Low toughness, poor fusion and slag inclusions.
Question 15:

Pre heat prior to the welding of a carbon steel butt weld:

a. Must always be carried out.


b. Is always carried out using a gas flame.
c. Need not be carried out if post weld heat treatment is to follow.
d. None of the above.
Answer 15:

Pre heat prior to the welding of a carbon steel butt weld:

a. Must always be carried out.


b. Is always carried out using a gas flame.
c. Need not be carried out if post weld heat treatment is to follow.
d. None of the above.
Question 16:

Which of the following are considerations for the selection of a preheat


temperature:

a. Carbon equivalent, joint design, welding process type and plate material quality.
b. All Joints over 25 mm thick, hydrogen levels, welding process, carbon equivalent.
c. Arc energy, material thickness, hydrogen scale and carbon equivalent.
d. All of the above are considerations for the selection of a preheat temperature.
Answer 16:

Which of the following are considerations for the selection of a preheat


temperature:

a. Carbon equivalent, joint design, welding process type and plate material quality.
b. All Joints over 25 mm thick, hydrogen levels, welding process, carbon equivalent.
c. Arc energy, material thickness, hydrogen scale and carbon equivalent.
d. All of the above are considerations for the selection of a preheat temperature.
Question 17:

Welds made with high heat inputs show a reduction in one of the following
properties?

a. Ductility.
b. Toughness.
c. Elongation.
d. Penetration.
Answer 17:

Welds made with high heat inputs show a reduction in one of the following
properties?

a. Ductility.
b. Toughness.
c. Elongation.
d. Penetration.
Question 18:

The HAZ associated with a fusion weld:

a. Can not be avoided.


b. Usually has the highest tensile strength.
c. Is usually martensitic.
d. Both a and b.
Answer 18:

The HAZ associated with a fusion weld:

a. Can not be avoided.


b. Usually has the highest tensile strength.
c. Is usually martensitic.
d. Both a and b.
Question 19:

In a martensitic grain structure what would you expect to increase?

a. Ductility.
b. Hardness.
c. Toughness.
d. All of the above.
Answer 19:

In a martensitic grain structure what would you expect to increase?

a. Ductility.
b. Hardness.
c. Toughness.
d. All of the above.
Question 20:

Which of the following heat treatments on steel cools down in air from the
austenite region?

a. Normalizing.
b. Annealing.
c. Tempering.
d. Stress relieving.
Answer 20:

Which of the following heat treatments on steel cools down in air from the
austenite region?

a. Normalizing.
b. Annealing.
c. Tempering.
d. Stress relieving.
Question 21:
Which of the following will most likely require the preheat temperature to be
increased?

a. An Increase in travel speed.


b. A reduction in material thickness.
c. An increase in electrode diameter.
d. None of the above.
Answer 21:
Which of the following will most likely require the preheat temperature to be
increased?

a. An Increase in travel speed.


b. A reduction in material thickness.
c. An increase in electrode diameter.
d. None of the above.
Question 22:

Which of the following applies to the heat treatment process of tempering?

a. It is always carried out at a temperature above upper critical limit.


b. It is carried out to increase the strength and toughness of weldments.
c. Tempering is generally carried out before quench hardening.
d. None of the above.
Answer 22:

Which of the following applies to the heat treatment process of tempering?

a. It is always carried out at a temperature above upper critical limit.


b. It is carried out to increase the strength and toughness of weldments.
c. Tempering is generally carried out before quench hardening.
d. None of the above.
Question 23:

What is the effect of tempering after quenching?

a. Toughness and strength are increased.


b. Toughness and strength are reduced.
c. Toughness reduced and strength increased.
d. Toughness increased and strength reduced.
e. Toughness increased and hardness increased.
Answer 23:

What is the effect of tempering after quenching?

a. Toughness and strength are increased.


b. Toughness and strength are reduced.
c. Toughness reduced and strength increased.
d. Toughness increased and strength reduced.
e. Toughness increased and hardness increased.
Question 24:

The toughness and yield strength of steel is reduced by:

a. Reducing the grain size.


b. Increasing the heat input.
c. Reducing the heat input.
d. Both a and b.
Answer 24:

The toughness and yield strength of steel is reduced by:

a. Reducing the grain size.


b. Increasing the heat input.
c. Reducing the heat input.
d. Both a and b.
Question 25:

What is the possible effect of having the heat input too low during welding?

a. Low toughness, entrapped hydrogen and low hardness.


b. High hardness, lack of fusion and entrapped hydrogen.
c. Entrapped hydrogen, low toughness and high ductility.
d. Lack of fusion, low toughness and a reduction in ductility.
Answer 25:

What is the possible effect of having the heat input too low during welding?

a. Low toughness, entrapped hydrogen and low hardness.


b. High hardness, lack of fusion and entrapped hydrogen.
c. Entrapped hydrogen, low toughness and high ductility.
d. Lack of fusion, low toughness and a reduction in ductility.
Question 26:

Which of the following is applicable for the HAZ on a C/Mn steel weld if the heat
input increases:

a. Both hardness and width is increased.


b. Hardness decreases, width increases.
c. Both hardness and width decreases.
d. Hardness increases, width decreases.
Answer 26:

Which of the following is applicable for the HAZ on a C/Mn steel weld if the heat
input increases:

a. Both hardness and width is increased.


b. Hardness decreases, width increases.
c. Both hardness and width decreases.
d. Hardness increases, width decreases.
Question 27:

What is the effect of full annealing compared to normalizing?

a. A reduction in grain size.


b. An increase in grain size.
c. An increase in toughness.
d. The grain size will not be affected.
Answer 27:

What is the effect of full annealing compared to normalizing?

a. A reduction in grain size.


b. An increase in grain size.
c. An increase in toughness.
d. The grain size will not be affected.
Question 28:
Which of the following is applicable to the heat treatment process of normalising
carbon-manganese steel?

a. It is always carried out below the lower critical limit.


b. It is carried out to ensure the material has maximum tensile strength.
c. It is carried out to ensure the material is of maximum ductility and malleability in
preparation for extensive cold working operations.
d. It is carried out at approximately 910oC for the purpose of grain refinement.
Answer 28:
Which of the following is applicable to the heat treatment process of normalising
carbon-manganese steel?

a. It is always carried out below the lower critical limit.


b. It is carried out to ensure the material has maximum tensile strength.
c. It is carried out to ensure the material is of maximum ductility and malleability in
preparation for extensive cold working operations.
d. It is carried out at approximately 910oC for the purpose of grain refinement.
Question 29:

The purpose of normalising steel:

a. To modify the grain structure by making it more uniform in order to improve


mechanical properties.
b. To soften a material for extensive machining.
c. To reduce fracture toughness.
d. To reduce ductility.
Answer 29:

The purpose of normalising steel:

a. To modify the grain structure by making it more uniform in order to improve


mechanical properties.
b. To soften a material for extensive machining.
c. To reduce fracture toughness.
d. To reduce ductility.
Question 30:

A large grain size, in the HAZ of a C-Mn steel weld joint, may have…

a. low ductility
b. low toughness
c. high toughness
d. high tensile strength
Answer 30:

A large grain size, in the HAZ of a C-Mn steel weld joint, may have…

a. low ductility
b. low toughness
c. high toughness
d. high tensile strength
Question 31:

Typical temperature used for solution annealed a stainless steel plate are …

a. 600 - 650oC
b. 1000 - 1100oC
c. 700 - 800oC
d. 880 - 920oC
Answer 31:

Typical temperature used for solution annealed a stainless steel plate are …

a. 600 - 650oC
b. 1000 - 1100oC
c. 700 - 800oC
d. 880 - 920oC
Question 32:

During PWHT of a complex fabrication, it is heated to the soak temperature at a


much higher rate than specified by the procedure. This may …
Temperature (C degree)

a. cause excessive oxidation


b. not allow sufficient time to relieve stresses 600
Soak temperature

c. introduce excessive compressive stresses Heating Soak


time
Cooling
Controlled
heating and
rate rate
d. cause distortion 300
cooling rate

Air cool

Time
PWHT = Stress Relief
Answer 32:

During PWHT of a complex fabrication, it is heated to the soak temperature at a


much higher rate than specified by the procedure. This may …
Temperature (C degree)

a. cause excessive oxidation


b. not allow sufficient time to relieve stresses 600
Soak temperature

c. introduce excessive compressive stresses Heating Soak


time
Cooling
Controlled
heating and
rate rate
d. cause distortion 300
cooling rate

Air cool

Time
PWHT = Stress Relief
Question 33:

The 03 main factors to be considered and monitored during conducting any heat
treatment process are ..

a. Material thickness, method of applying heat and temperature.


b. Heat rate, Temperature and Soaking time, Cooling rate.
c. Material thickness, soaking time and temperature.
d. None of the above.
Answer 33:

The 03 main factors to be considered and monitored during conducting any heat
treatment process are ..

a. Material thickness, method of applying heat and temperature.


b. Heat rate, Temperature and Soaking time, Cooling rate.
c. Material thickness, soaking time and temperature.
d. None of the above.