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ktsp

Finney in Richards and Renandya (2002: 70) defines curriculum as a specification of


the content and the ordering of what is to be taught. It refers to all aspects of the
planning, implementation and evaluation of an educational program, particularly the
why, how and how well together with the what of the teaching-learning process. A.V.
Kelly (1989) in Richards and Renandya (2002: 70) states that curriculum is the overall
rationale for the educational programme of an institution which includes the intentions of
the planners, the procedures adopted for the implementation of those intentions, the
actual experiences of the pupils resulting from the teachers’ direct attempt to carry out
their or the planner’s imtentions, and the learning that occurs as a product within the
organization in which the curricuum is applied. Richards and Rogers (2000) adds that a
curriculum must consist of approach, design, and procedures. Approach provides the
basic theory of language and language learning; design gives us the objective, syllabus,
learning activities, role of teacher, learner, and materials; while procedures reflects
classroom techniques, practices, and behaviour when the method is used. Curriculum
that has a central role in the education world was changed 9 times, that was in 1947, 1952,
1964, 1968, 1975, 1984, 1994, 2004, and 2006. From those changes, I’m limiting to discuss
about the current curriculum, the curriculum of 2006 KTSP (KurikulumTingkat Satuan
Pendidikan).

KTSP
Since 2006 to 2013, Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) or School-
based curriculum has been issued by Indonesia National Education Department. Based
on Permen No 22/ 2006, BSNP develops the content stadard which covers the scope of
each subject matter and competency levels to achieve the standard of graduate
competence in certain educational levels. The content stadard includes the basic
framework, the curriculum structure, competency standard (SK) and basic competency
(KD) of each subject matter in each semester of each educatioal level.

1. Definition of KTSP
According to the education regulation number 20 year 2003 about National Education System,
Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan KTSP is
defined as an operational curriculum arranged and applied by each education unit. Furthermore,
Badhowi 2004 stated that KTSP is as an operational curriculum
that is arranged, applied by the school and adapted to the characteristics, the conditions and the
potency of regency had by the region, school and the pupils. Based on the definition above, KTSP
can be defined as the operational
curriculum of the competency-based curriculum that is arranged and applied by each educational unit,
which is suited and adapted to the characteristics of school,
region and socials and pupils.

Based on the guidelines of KTSP issued by BSNP on 2006, KTSP is developed


based on the following principles:
1) focusing on the learners’ and learners’ circumstances’ potentials, development,
needs, and interest in which learners have central position to develop their competence
in order to be faithful, intelligent, intellectual, creative, independent, and responsible
indivivuals. It implies that the learning activities must be learner-centered;
2) diverse and integrated in which the curriculum takes the diversity of learners’
characters, local condition, and educational levels into account. Learners are
encouraged to appreciate religion, cultural, economic and social status, and gender
differences. The curriculum covers required subject matters, local contents, and
interpersonal skills which are conducted in integrated way in meaningful interconnection
and sustainability among the three elements;
3) Awareness towards science, technology, and art development in which the content of
the curriculum gives learners learning experience to keep up with and make use of the
science, technology, and art development;
4) Relevant to learners’ life needs in which the development of curriculum involves the
stakeholders to guarantee the education’s relevance towards the life of society,
business world, and world of work. Thus, it should accomodate interpersonal,
intellectual, social, academic, and vocational skills;
5) Lifelong learning in which the curriculum must be oriented to the learners’
development, acculturation, empowerment process that last for the whole life.
Therefore, the curriculum must reflect the interconnection among the elements of
formal, non-formal, and informal education by considering the always-progressing life
demand.
KTSP sees English as a means of communication both oral and written. To
communicate means to comprehend and to transform information, to understand and
express mind and feeling, and to improve one’s repertoire of knowledge, technology,
and culture. Such communication competence means discourse competence, that is,
the ability to comprehend or to produce written and oral texts through the four language
skills namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These four skills are used to
perceive and create discourse in social life. Thus, English subject is directed to improve
those skills in order to produce the graduates who are capable of communicating and
making discourse in English at certain literacy levels.

The literacy levels according to Wells (1987) in the standard of content of English
issued by KTSP in 2006 cover performative, functional, informational, and epistemic
levels. In performative level, learners are expected to be able to read, write, listen, and
speak in the target language. In functional level, learners are expected to be able to use
the target language to fulfill their daily needs such as to read newspaper, manuals, or
direction. In informational level, learners are expected to be able to access information
using the target language. In epistemic level, learners are expected to be able to convey
knowledge in the target language.
The target of English learning in Junior High School (SMP/MTs) is that learners are able
to achieve functional level, in which they communicate both oral and written to solve
daily life problems. Meanwhile, Senior High School (SMA/MA) students are expected to
achieve informational level, because they are prepared for taking higher education.
Epistemic level is considered too demanding for Senior High School students because
in Indonesia, English functions as a foreign language.

The objective of English subject in Senior High Schools is to provide learners with the
following abilities:
1) to develop their communicative competence both oral and written to achieve
informational literacy level,
2) to possess awareness towards the nature and importance of English in enhancing
the nation’s competitiveness within a global community, and
3) to improve learners’ understanding towards the interconnection between language
and culture.

Characteristic of ktsp:

According to Ahiri 2007: 6, KTSP is the development model of the Competency Based Curriculum that
has some characteristics:
a. It is oriented to the learner outcomes and its effects.
b. It is based on competency standard and basic competency that is spelt out
into content standard
c. It is based on the graduation competency standard.
d. It is concerned more on the diversity of curriculum model e. It develops the whole and overall
competencies
f. It applies complete learning
g. using special terms such as Standar Kompetensi (Standard of Competence) refers to a minimum
statement covering knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values which are reflected in the way of thinking
and acting after students learned and finished one of the four language skills (listening, speaking,
reading, and writing); Kompetensi Dasar (Basic Competence) refers to a minimum statement covering
knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values which are reflected in the way of thinking and acting after
students learned and finished one of the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing);
Indikator (Achievement Indicators) refers to a specific basic competence that can be taken as a standard
to assess the attainment of a learning process; Materi Pokok (Core Materials) refers to materials or
lessons that students have to learn in a learning process. (Hartoyo:2011)

The scope of English subject in Senior High School covers:


1) discourse competence, that is, the ability to comprehend and produce oral and
written texts through the four skills of language comprising listening, speaking, reading,
and writing in integrated way to achieve informational literacy level;
2) the competence to comprehend and produce various short functional texts,
monologues, and essays representing the text types of procedure, descriptive, recount,
narrative, report, news item, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, spoof,
explanation, discussion, review, and piblic speaking. The grading and order of the
learning materials are represented in the use of vocabulary, grammar, and rethorical
steps; and
3) the supporting competence covering linguistic competence (using grammar,
vocabulary, pronunciation, and punctuation), sociocultural competence (using
expressions and functions appropriately in various communication contexts), strategic
competence (overcoming problems which occur during the communication process
using various ways to sustain comunication, and discourse forming competence (using
instruments to form a discourse).

KTSP Components are as follows:

1. Vision and Mission of the Education Unit


In developing its vision, the principal must be able to utilize the forces
relevant to the school's internal activities. These forces can be divided
into two groups. First, the strength associated with what is happening
outside the school.

Second, the strengths associated with educational clients are social


background, financial aspirations, community resources and environmental
characteristics. The principal in developing his vision must be able to
select continuously on these power groups.

2. Educational Unit Level Curriculum Objectives


In the development of KTSP, the education unit hopes to be able to develop a
general improvement program that includes the objectives, targets and targets
to be achieved for short and long term programs.

The aim of basic education is to lay the foundation for intelligence,


knowledge, personality, and noble character of each skill to live
independently and take further education.

3. Compile an Educational Calendar


Educational calendar is the time management of students' learning activities
for one school year. The educational calendar includes the beginning of the
school year, effective weeks of learning, effective learning time and
holidays.
Every beginning of the school year, after / madrasah compile an educational
calendar to organize the time of learning activities during a school year
which includes the beginning of the school year, effective weeks of learning,
effective learning time and holidays.

The setting of study time in school / madrasah refers to the Content


Standards and is adapted to regional needs, characteristics of schools /
madrasahs, the needs of students and the community, as well as provisions
from the government / local government.

4. KTSP Load Structure


The content structure of the KTSP includes subjects, local content, self-
development activities, learning load management, class upgrading, majors and
graduation, life skills education, education based on local and global
excellence.

5. Syllabus
The syllabus is a learning plan for a particular subject or subject that
includes competency, competency standards. basic, subject matter / learning,
indicators, assessment, time allocation, and learning resources / materials /
tools.

The syllabus is a description of the basic competencies and competencies into


the subject matter / learning. learning activities and indicators of
achievement of competencies for assessment.

6. Learning Implementation Plans (RPP)


RPP is a plan that describes the procedures and organization of learning to
achieve one basic competency specified in the Content Standards and described
in the syllabus.

B. The Implementation of KTSP

The implementation of curriculum is the actualization of written curriculum in the learning form
which consists of program development, learning implementation, and the evaluation.

Kusnandar (2007) states that the implementation of KTSP is a process of applying the idea,
concept, and policy of the curriculum in the learning activity so the students can master some
competencies.

This suggests that the implementation of KTSP is a process which needs some of teacher’s roles
in the teaching and learning process. The teacher is not only responsible for teaching in the
classroom but also able to manage the class administration. He is supposed to develop the annual
program, the semester program, the daily program, the remedial program, etc.

C.the implementation of KTSP or School-Based Curriculum in junior high school

Hartoyo (2011) in his hand out stated that English Language Teaching in junior high school is
aimed at enabling students to reach functional level in a sense that they can communicate in
spoken and written way to solve daily problems.

He further explains that the purposes of English language teaching in junior high school are: 1)
developing communicative competence in spoken and written language to reach functional
literacy; 2) generating awareness about the nature and importance of English to improve nation’s
competitiveness in global society; and 3) developing students’ understanding about the
relationship between language and culture.

The scopes of English language teaching in junior high school are: 1) discourse competence or
ability to understand and/or produce spoken text and/or written text which is integrated
comprehensively in four skills, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing to reach
functional literacy level; 2) the ability to understand and create various short functional texts,
monologues as well as essay in a form of procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative, and report.
Variations in teaching materials are found in the use of certain vocabulary, grammar, and
rhetoric devices; 3) supporting competencies included are: linguistic competence (ability to use
grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and writing arrangement), socio-cultural competence
(ability to use speech and language act appropriately in various context of communication),
strategic competence (ability to overcome problems in communication to ensure the process of
communication), and discourse competence (ability to use discourse instruments).

The Curriculum 2013 and the Changing

Different from the Curriculum 2006 or Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP), the
curriculum 2013 is the revision of the curriculum 2006,. So, it is still the operational curriculum
made and done by each unit of education (KTSP;2007:1). Curriculum 2013 is arranged and
developed by seeing the potential students, the developing of era, and the students’ needs. And
the important thing is curriculum 2013 offer some models of teaching. Trhee models are
suggested by the curriculum 2013, but not only three models, the government also gives special
approach that is called scientific approach, (Pemendikbud 81A: 2013). In the assessment teachers
must use the authentic assessment. It will be helpful for teachers so that they do not use false
assessment since in curriculum 2013, they will also assess the affective aspect. The former
curriculum does not give the way how to assess the affective, but the curriculum 2013 has been
existed the way how to assess it.

Curriculum 2013 was implemented in the school year 2013/2014 on specific schools
(limited). Curriculum 2013 was officially launched on July 15, 2013 in ministry of Education
and Culture. While, in Ministry of Religion it was begun in July 2014. Something new would
have differences with the old curriculum. Basically the curriculum in 2013 is similar with
curriculum 2006. However, it has differences with Curriculum 2006 or Kurikulum Tingkat
Satuan Pendidikan ( KTSP). Here is the some differences between curriculum 2013 and
curriculum 2006:

CURRICULUM 2013

SBC
1.Scouts be ekstrakuler which is mandatory for all students .

Scouting is an extra that is not mandatory .


2.The selection of majors starting from class X ( SMA / MA ) .

The selection of majors starting XI .


3.The number of class hours per week more and the number of subjects less than SBC

The number of hours of lessons a little more and the number of subjects more than the
Curriculum 2013
4.For Guidance and Counseling ( BK ) prioritize the development potential of the students .

Guidance and Counseling ( BK ) more on the students .


5.ICT ( Information and Communication Technology ) is no longer a subject , but rather as a
learning medium .

ICT ( Information and Communication Technology ) is a subject in school .


6.Assessment of students using the assessment of attitudes, skills , and knowledge in an
integrated manner .

aspect of knowledge is the most important part in the assessment process .

C. Characteristics of 2013 Curriculum


The 2013 curriculum has characteristics including:
1. Contents or content of curriculum, namely competencies expressed in the
form of Core Competencies (KI) of education and class units, further detailed
in the Basic Competencies (KD) of subjects.
2. Core Competence (KI) is a categorical description of competence in aspects
of attitudes, knowledge, and skills (cognitive and psychomotor) that students
must learn for a level of school, class and subjects.
3. Basic Competency (KD) is a competency learned by students for a theme for
SD / MI, and for subjects in certain classes for SMP / MTS, SMA / MA, SMK /
MAK.
4. Core Competencies and Basic Competencies at the level of secondary
education are prioritized in the realm of attitude while at the level of
secondary education are balanced between attitudes and intellectual abilities
(high cognitive abilities).
5. Core Competence becomes the organizing elements of Basic Competence,
namely all KD and learning process developed to achieve competencies in Core
Competencies.
6. Basic Competencies developed based on the principle of accumulative
reinforcement (reinforced) and enrich (enriched) between subjects and levels
of education (horizontal and vertical organizations) bound by core
competencies.
7. The syllabus was developed as a learning design for one theme (SD). In the
syllabus, all KDs are listed for themes or subjects in the class.
8. Learning Implementation Plans are developed from each KD for those
subjects and classes.