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Brian McLaughlin, P.E. Los Angeles, CA
Understand the California Building Standards Commission code development process. Learn about significant changes in the 2010 California Building Code. Review the basis for certain code changes. Discuss possible impacts on building design.
Each project and jurisdiction is unique. Approaches discussed here may or may not be appropriate for your project. National model codes and standards are discussed. Code provisions may differ locally.
California Building Standards Commission Development/Adoption Process
Code Development Process
Egress width calculations is now the same for Sprinklered and Nonsprinklered buildings.
• 0.3 inch/person for stairs • 0.2 inch/person for corridors
• Stairways: 0.2 inch/occupant • Doors, ramps, corridors : 0.15 inch/occupant
• Stairways: 0.3 inch/occupant • Doors, ramps, corridors : 0.2 inch/occupant
Key Changes: Egress Width Factors Increase
Areas of Refuge not required in sprinklered buildings CBC 1007.3 Exception 3
Areas of Refuge required Two per stairway Exception for less than 200 occupants
Key Changes: Areas of Refuge
General: Maximum 20 feet
• Group B, E, F, M, I-3, R-1,2,2.1 and 4, S and U occupancies can be up to 50 feet in sprinklered buildings
General: Maximum 20 feet.
• B, F, some I-3 can be 50 feet in sprinklered buildings
Key Changes: Dead Ends, New Exceptions
All fire barrier joint protection systems to be tested in accordance with ASTM E2307, “Standard Test Method for Determining Fire Resistance of Perimeter Fire Barrier Systems Using Intermediate Scale Multi-story Test Apparatus.”
• This removes the option of using more traditional methods to seal the opening between curtain walls and the slab edge. Where assemblies do not strictly comply with a tested assembly, an engineering review can be performed to evaluate the expected performance. These engineering judgments are subject to the approval of the AHJ.
713.4 Exterior Curtain Wall/Floor Intersection
• Where fire resistance rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies are required, voids created at the exterior curtain wall were required to be sealed with an approved material in accordance with ASTM E119 or with ASTM E2307.
Key Changes: Curtain Wall/Floor Intersection
Remoteness of exit stairs Fire service elevator Fire command center Smoke removal Emergency radio coverage Luminous exit path marking Additional Exit Stair Occupant Evacuation Elevator Strength of enclosures Strength of fire proofing Sprinklers and water supply
High-rise buildings exit stair separation
• Separated by either a distance equal to one-fourth of the maximum overall diagonal dimension or by 30 feet, whichever is larger.
Two Exits or Exit Access Doorways
• Exit doors or exit access doorways shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served for sprinklered buildings. • Applies to all buildings.
High-Rise: Remoteness of Stair Enclosures
Minimum size of fire command center increased to 200 ft2 with a minimum dimension of 10 ft.
Minimum size of 96 ft2 with a minimum room dimension of at least 8 feet.
High-Rise: Fire Command Center Size
All high rise buildings will be required to be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation for smoke removal. Options:
• Operable windows at a rate of 40 ft2 per 50 linear feet of perimeter, • Mechanical ventilation at a rate of 4 air changes per hour. • Glazed opening for ventilation may be fixed if it can be cleared by firefighters • Exception for Group R-1 (Hotels) allowing each sleeping unit to have 2 ft2 of venting. • Any other approved designs. Smokeproof exit enclosures are required for buildings under Sections 403 or 405.
High Rise Buildings
• No previous requirements for smoke removal. • Smokeproof exit enclosures are required for buildings under Sections 403 or 405.
High-Rise: Smoke Removal
Requirements for approved radio coverage within new and existing buildings (not only high-rise) are added. Details are in Fire Code
• May require the incorporation of repeater systems within buildings for compliance. • Exceptions are provided that allow the authorities to accept wired systems on a case by case basis.
Fire Department Communications System
• Two-way fire department communications system required. • An exception permitted the use of fire department radio systems where approved by the fire department.
High-Rise: Emergency Responder Radios
Photoluminescent or self-luminous exit path markings are now required to identify the egress paths in exit enclosures and exit passageways in new high rise buildings of Group A, B, E, I, M and R-1.
No previous requirement
High-Rise: Luminous Exit Path Markings
In high rise buildings with occupied floors 120+ feet:
• Fire service access elevator needs to open into a fire-rated vestibule that also provides access to an exit enclosure. • Hoistway illumination required • Standby power
• In high rise buildings, a single elevator was required to serve all floors. • Phase II “recall” (fire fighter control) • Standby power
Be sure to confirm with AHJ
High-Rise: Fire Service Elevator for Buildings with Floors 120 feet above grade
A minimum size of 150 ft2 with a minimum dimension of 8 feet is required for lobbies that fire service elevators open into.
Elevator car must accommodate an ambulance stretcher.
High-Rise: Fire Service Elevator Lobby
The same as the 2006, PLUS Buildings greater than 420 ft are required to have an additional redundant stair.
• Not to be used to accommodate any occupant load. • Response to the WTC disaster. • “Evacuation elevators” are allowed in lieu of extra exit stair. • R-2s (apartments/co-ops/condos) exempted.
Minimum Number of Exits
• 1-500 occupants: 2 exits. • 501-1,000 occupants: 3 exits. • 1000+ occupants: 4 exits.
420+ feet: Additional Exit Stairway
Provisions for design and use of evacuation elevators have been added. Permitted for all high-rise buildings. For buildings over 420 feet, evacuation elevators are allowed to substitute for the added redundant stair. Be sure to confirm with AHJ
Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walks
• Elevators are not permitted to be used as a component of the required means of egress.
420+ feet: Occupant Evacuation Elevators
Requirements for structural integrity of exit enclosures and elevator hoistways in buildings greater than 420 feet, and also high rise buildings in category III or IV.
No previous requirement
420+ feet: Structural Integrity of Enclosures
Buildings > 420 feet: The minimum bond strength for sprayed fire-resistive materials: 1,000 psf. Buildings <420 feet: 430 psf.
No previous requirements
420+ feet: Spray on Fire Proofing
Buildings >420 feet are required to have alternating floors supplied by different sprinkler and standpipe risers.
• Response to WTC disaster.
No previous requirement. Adjacent floors were permitted to be served by the same riser.
420+ feet: Sprinkler System Design
Elevator hoistway pressurization requirements revised:
• The minimum and maximum have been changed to 0.10 and 0.25 inches of water column respectively. • Engineering report required to support results.
Hoistway Pressurization Alternative
• Min. 0.04 – max. 0.06 inches of water column positive pressure
Elevator Hoistway Pressurization: (Alternative to Lobbies)
The maximum number of stories has been reduced
• Group B, M, S-1, S-2 in Type IIB and IIIB construction: maximum 3, 2, 2 and 3 stories respectively
Table 503 – Allowable Height and Building Areas
• Group B, M, S-1, S-2 in Type IIB and IIIB construction: maximum 4, 4, 3 and 4 stories respectively.
Maximum Number of Stories
The IBC has been modified to require that bracing members essential to the vertical stability of the primary structural frame under gravity loading are to be considered part of the primary structural frame whether or not the bracing member carries gravity loads.
Structural frame considered to be the columns, girders, beams, trusses, and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and bracing members designed to carry gravity loads.
Primary Structural Frame – Clarification
The requirement is clarified:
• Atrium travel distance limitations are only applicable to travel distance within the atrium space and not applicable to travel distance in spaces that may be open to the atrium but that don’t require travel through the atrium to exit.
• “In other than the lowest level of the atrium, where the required means of egress is through the atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet.”
Travel Distance through Atria – Clarification
The code language and table has been revised to clarify issue.
2007 CBC Section 1019.2: Buildings with one exit
Maximum occupants (or dwelling units) per floor and travel distance (TD)
First Story or Basement First Story or Basement First Story or Basement First Story or Basement Second Story Second /Third Stories
A, B, E, F, M, U
49 occupants and 75 feet TD
3 occupants and 25 feet TD
H-4, H-5, I, R
10 occupants and 75 feet TD
29 occupants and 100 feet TD
B, F, M, S R-2/R-2 with Spr.
29 occupants and 75 feet TD 4 dwelling units and 50 feet TD
Single Exit Buildings – Clarification
A code change to clarify the code intent regarding the treatment of spaces that are allowed to be open to the atrium.
• Exception 3: …are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.
Enclosure of atriums
• Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier • Exception 3: Adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not be required to be separated from the atrium where such spaces are included in the design of the smoke control system.
Atrium Smoke Control – Clarification
2010 CBC – Subtle Changes
Table was simplified, some change of verbiage
• Exterior wall openings and exterior wall fire-resistance rating tables were coordinated
Exterior Wall Openings – Clarification
© International Code Council
Fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions:
• Must be effectively and permanently identified with signs or stenciling. • Must be located in accessible concealed floor, floor-ceiling or attic spaces. • Must be repeated at intervals not exceeding 30 feet. • Include lettering not less than 0.5 inch in height. • Exception:
- Walls in Group R-2 occupancies that do not have a removable decorative ceiling allowing access to the concealed space.
Marking of Fire- and Smoke-Resistive Walls
Group R-2 and R-3 Changes
• If sprinklered, a maximum occupant load of 20 can be served by one means of egress.
Miscellaneous Egress Changes
Stage Proscenium Curtains
• Fire curtains per NFPA 80 OR water curtains OR a smoke control system.
Special Occupancy Changes
• The allowable occupancies within the podium of mixed construction type buildings permitted under Section 509 were expanded to allow residential uses. • Special height increases for Group R-1 occupancies
- Type IIA: 9 stories and 100 ft when having a fire separation distance of 50 ft, exits are separated by two-hour fire wall, and first floor assembly = 1.5 hours - Type IIA: 6 stories and 75 ft when first floor = 3 hours and floor is subdivided into 3,000 sf compartments by 2-hour fire walls
• Important Clarification: Multiple buildings are permitted above a parking garage.
Special Occupancy Changes
Open Mall Buildings
• The special conditions and allowances available for covered mall buildings are now also applicable to similar facilities that do not have a roof over the common pedestrian circulation area.
Special Occupancy Changes
Ambulatory Health Care Facilities
• New provisions for Group B facilities where individuals are rendered incapable of selfpreservation.
• An allowance for the use of delayed egress devices in I-2 occupancies, where necessary for patients. • Increased fire-resistance rating for occupancy separations.
• A code change was approved to clarify the code intent regarding multi-level housing units in I-3 detention occupancies.
Miscellaneous Health Care and Institutional Changes
The maximum allowable area for an unsprinklered E Occupancy (schools) was reduced from 20,000 sf to 12,000 sf An exception was added to the requirements for M Occupancies (mercantile) that requires sprinklers regardless of building area when the use is for display and sale of upholstered furniture. The sprinkler exception for areas used exclusively for participant sports with 50+ ft roof and smoke protection has been removed from the codes.
Miscellaneous Sprinkler Changes
The 2010 California Building Code includes several significant changes from the 2007 edition. Several changes are related directly to the changes between the 2006 and 2009 IBC and were in response to the 9/11 disaster with focus on high-rise buildings. Many of these changes may have significant impacts on building design.
Thank You for Your Time! QUESTIONS?
Brian McLaughlin, P.E. Senior Engineer email@example.com Arup North America Ltd. 12777 W. Jefferson Boulevard, Suite 100 Los Angeles, California 90066 T: 310.578.4400 www.arup.com