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Management is a crucial part in any project.

Handling multiple projects at one time has
become a norm in the working industry in today’s modern globalisation. A project is a
temporary endeavour to accomplish a need or desire (Kanda, 2011). Besides having
professional ethics, the company’s project manager as well as the project team should have
knowledge on project management. The main knowledge needed by each and every person
in the team is by knowing the project management cycle processes. Every project has its
beginning, middle period where the project is at its climax and an ending to either the whole
project is successful or otherwise. The project life cycle processes have defined processes
which are sequential. There are five processes which applies to almost all project situations
whether you are managing one single project or balancing multiple projects at a time. As
elaborated by Westland (2006), these five processes are initiating process, planning
process, executing process, monitoring and controlling process and lastly the closing
process (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).

The first process in project management is the initiating process which is the starting of the
project. This process is where the project team begins to plan the project carefully to
achieve the identified objectives on time and on date. This is the part where the project is
defined and established. The development of a detailed schedule and budget begins when
the project team has enough information. This process starts off with the assignment of the
project manager where studies are carried out to find a recommended solution to identify
whether each option identified in the study relates to the project objectives. The initiating
process ends with the approval of the project manager to move onto the detailed planning

The second step is the planning process. It provides the regulations for gathering all the
layers of informations required to fill in the paperwork and the landscape of the whole
projects. During this process, the project managers organize and analyze the whole
constraints and criteria needed in order to make sure the construction runs smoothly. The
first thing to do is to define the scope and objectives of the project to ensure that the
progress be always on track. This is important because it reflect and maintain the
stakeholders’ confidence and clients’ trust. The project manager determine the fundamental
principal objectives in any project which are time, cost, quality and safety or well-known
with the abbreviation of TCQS. It is a must to prepare a time setting that are achievable
and reasonable. Assessing expenses precisely is an expertise that leads to practical
experiences. The cost is determined by the stakeholder that is the project manager with
help of quantity surveyor. Meanwhile, the budget is considered by the clients. The next
fundamental objective of a project is quality. The quality of the materials used in the
construction must be priorities because it affects the safety of the project and the users. The
factors such as risk, cost performance baseline, organizational and environmental factors
give impacts to the quality of projects. Clearly the objective is to guarantee the most
noteworthy conceivable quality. Surveying the points of interest to secure quality all
through every venture stage may include re-altering system objectives and methodology.
Hence, precise danger administration methodology can spare cash and time over the length
of any venture. (University Alliance, 2015).

The third step of project management in Civil Engineering projects is executing process.
The main target of this process is to gather the team as to complete the work proficiently
and successfully so that the project keeps focused as to the target and beforehand settled
upon objectives. Groups are set up to finish work as indicated by partner details. Any ranges
of danger or concern are alleviated and the changes are stated. It is essential that the main
contractor have a reasonable arrangement of objectives and a sensible timetable from the
earliest starting point. Before the project manager jumps into a brief summary, it is vital to
check the booking and staging subtle elements to make certain that related errands, for
example, acquiring grants, can be achievable from a good quality of time management.
Managing a project team is a part of the executing process. Being tuned into groups as
instructed to finish their work makes productive cooperative energy between divisions
inside of a project. Group pioneers who listen to representative concerns and react properly
can specifically affect the achievement of the whole venture. Creating some changes for
improvement when needed along the way can bring in a strong end result. Therefore, it is
important to include the executing process in any project management as it affects the
whole progress of the projects (Amiryar, 2012).
The following step in the process of project management in Civil Engineering projects is
monitoring and controlling. In monitoring and controlling, it entails with collecting,
measuring, distributing performance information and assessing measurement and trends
for process improvement for monitoring, while for controlling, it is to determine corrective
and preventive action or preplanning and following up actions to resolve performance issue
which to align with the expected project performance (Freeman-Bell & Balkwill, 1996).
Therefore, it is crucial to set out the standards and objectives of monitoring and controlling
which these standards must be realistic. This step should be continuous due to analyze the
work performance measurements, it also can be change requests by the clients, approval
changes with project management plan updates or the project document updates. Thus, in
this step, report and records and regular follow up meeting are some of necessary tools of
monitoring and controlling. Besides, Mazda (1998) mentions that there are also come with
several indispensable steps in monitoring and controlling. Firstly, list the basic standards
for performance during the planning and organizing steps. Secondly, set out key
measurements criteria and next, measure the actual performance against these criteria. Next
in order is to compare these previous steps for analyzing the impact. Last but not least, fix
up or make adjustment if inadequate.

The last step in progressing of the projects is rectification or corrective action. This step is
to carry out what is underdeveloped with actual proposed management plan which
variances are identified, considerate more of the variances and their implications, pick out
all the various options of remedial work which the options must be congruence with project
objectives. Rectification or corrective actions are must be included with changing in
methods, procedures, organization structure, resources and much more. Thus, it may
change the overall management plan. This step is carried out to show the ability of
organization or consultant to react to variances and taking actions to affect the future
outcomes of any project (Tom & Paul, 2013).
Freeman-Bell, G. & Balkwill, J. (1996). Management in engineering: principles and
practice. Salisbury, UK: Prentice Hall.
Mazda, F. (1998). Engineering management. Essex, UK: Addison-Wesley Longman Ltd.
Mumaugh, D. (2013) Lecture Notes, Project Management Morse, L.C. and Babcock,D.L.
(2007)Managing Engineering and Technology (4th Ed) Prentice Hall, New Jersey
Westland, J. (2006). The Project Management Life Cycle . USA: Kogan Page Limited
Kanda, A. (2011). Project Management- A life Cycle Approach . New Delhi: Asoke K
Tom, A. F, & Paul, S. (2013). Project monitoring and control using primavera.
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering, and Technology,
2(3). Retrieved from
Villanova University, U. A. (n.d.). Project Management. Retrieved from
Amiryar, H. (2012). Project Management Life Cycle. Retrieved November 26, 2015,
Appendix 1


5)Closing of

and Controlling

Figure 1. Five phases of project management process