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Computer Fundamentals
and Photoshop
I B. Sc Computer Science / I B.Com Computer Applications

Ch. Anil Kumar

Lecturer in Computer Science
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Published by VRL Publishers

First Release August, 2016

No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, prototyping, recording, or otherwise or stored in a database or retrieval system without
the prior written permission of the publishers. The program listed (if any) may be entered, stored
and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication

The book comes into existence due to my observation of lack of support material of

undergraduate students. It is published with the belief that it will help the I Year BCOM /

BSC students to the maximum extent.

Lecturer in Computer Science
V.S.R. Govt. Degree & P.G. College
Movva, Krishna District

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UNIT – 1 1
Chapter – 1 : Introduction to Computers 1
Definition of Computer 1
Characteristics and Limitations of Computers 1
Block diagram of a Computer 2
Types of Computers based size and functionality 3
Uses of Computers 4
Generations of Computers 5
History of Computers 7
Chapter – 2 : Number Systems 8

Binary number system 8

Octal number system 10
Hexadecimal number system 10
UNIT – 2

Chapter – 3 : Input and Output Devices 13

Types of Input devices 13
Types of output devices 18
Chapter – 4 : Types of Software 22

Software and hardware 22

Classification of software 22
Types of system software 23
Types of application software 23
Commercial software 24
Open source software 24
Domain software 24
Free ware software 24
Chapter – 5 : Memories 25

Types of Primary memory 25

Types of Secondary memory 25
Cache memory 28
Chapter – 6 : Windows basics 29

Features of Windows Operating system 29

Desktop 29
Icons on the Desktop 29
Start menu 31
UNIT – 3 33

Chapter – 7 : Introduction to Adobe Photoshop 33

Creating a document in Photoshop 33
Saving a document in Photoshop 33
Explanation of parts of Photoshop Application window 33
Menu bar 34
Tool bar 37

Screen modes 40
Reverting changes 41
Closing document in Photoshop 41

UNIT – 4 42
Chapter – 8 : Images 42
Opening an image 42
Saving files in different modes 42
Image size and resolution 43
Editing an image 45
Colour modes 45
Zooming and panning image 45
Rulers 47
Grids and guides 47
Cropping an image 48
Changing the background of an image 49
Making selections 51

Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
UNIT - 1
Chapter – 1: Introduction to Computers
Q1. Define a Computer?
Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes
these data under the control of set of instructions and gives the result and saves output for the future use.
The basic components of a modern digital computer are: Input Device, Output Device, Central
Processor Unit (CPU), mass storage device and memory.

accepts data Input

processes data Processing
produces output Output
stores results Storage

Q2. Give the characteristics and limitations of a computer?

Characteristics of a Computer:
 Speed: As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that
we take hours to complete. You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions of
instructions and even more per second. Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in terms
-6 -9
of microsecond 10 and nanosecond 10 . From this you can imagine how fast your computer
performs work.

 Accuracy: Computer always gives accurate results. The accuracy of Computer does not go down
when they are used continuously for hours together. It always gives accurate results.

 Diligence: A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, etc. It can work for hours
without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a computer will
perform every calculation with the same accuracy.

 Versatility: It means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use
your computer to prepare payroll slips. Next moment you may use it for inventory management
or to prepare electric bills.

 No IQ: Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the
user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what
you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can.

 Storage: The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You
can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be kept outside your
computer and can be carried to other computers.

 Automation: Computers are quite capable of functioning automatically, once the process is given
to the computer. They do not require any instruction from the operator at any stage of the
process. Computers can be programmed to perform a series of complex tasks involving multiple
programs. Computers will execute the programs in the correct sequence, provided they are
programmed correctly.

Limitations of a Computer System:

 Computers can‘t think: Computers cannot think and they can‘t do any job unless they are first
programmed with specific instructions for same. They work as per stored instructions. Algorithms

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA are designed by humans to make a computer
perform a special task. This is also called artificial intelligence.

 Computers can‘t decide: Computers are incapable of decision making as they do not possess the
essential elements necessary to take a decision i.e. knowledge, information, wisdom, intelligence and
the ability to judge.

 Computers can‘t express their Ideas: In any type of research ideas plays a vital role. In this context,
computers can‘t express their ideas.

 Computers can‘t implement: Though computers are helpful in storage of data and can contain the
contents of encyclopaedias even, but only humans can decide and implement the policies.

Q3. Draw the Block diagram of a Computer? Explain its parts in detail?
A computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated
problems quickly and accurately. A computer performs basically five major computer operations or
functions irrespective of their size and make. These are
1) It accepts data or instructions by way of input,
2) It stores data,
3) It can process data as required by the user,
4) It gives results in the form of output, and
5) It controls all operations inside a computer.

 Input Unit: This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system. Therefore,
the input unit takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for processing with the help
of some input devices like Keyboard, mouse, trackball, etc.

 Output Unit: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information.
The examples of Output devices are Monitor, speaker, printer, etc.

 Central Processing Unit: The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central
processing unit. You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system.
 Arithmetic & Logic Unit: After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary
storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic
Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit
when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing
or getting stored.
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

Control Unit: The next component of computer is the Control Unit, which acts like the
supervisor. Control Unit is responsible for coordinating various operations. It coordinates the
activities of computer‘s peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output.

 Storage: The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as storage. A personal
Computer has two types of memories they are Primary memory and secondary memory. Primary
memory is temporary memory and main memory of the computer, primary memory includes RAM
and ROM. The secondary memory is permanent memory it includes Hard disk, floppy disk, etc.

Q4. Explain the types of computers?

Computers are classified according to their functionality and size.
 Based on Functionality: According to functionality computer can be divided in to three types:
Analog, Digital, Hybrid

Analog Computer: ―An analog computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously-
changeable aspects of physical fact such as electrical, mechanical to model the problem being
solved. The examples of Analog computers are Thermometer, analog clock, speedometer, etc.

Digital Computer: A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities
represented as digits, usually in the binary number system of ―0‖ and ―1‖. Examples are:
IBM PC, Apple Macintosh, Calculators, Digital watches, etc.

Hybrid Computers: A computer that processes both analog and digital data. Examples are:
Hybrid computer is the computer used in hospitals to measure the heartbeat of the patient,
Devices used in petrol pump.

 Based on Size:

Super Computer: Supercomputers are one of the fastest computers currently available.
Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require
extremely large amount of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting,
scientific simulations, graphics, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of
geological data.

 Main frame Computer: Mainframe is very large in size and is an expensive computer capable
of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously. Mainframe executes many
programs concurrently and supports much simultaneous execution of programs.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

 Mini Computer: A midsized computer, in size and power, In general, a minicomputer is a

multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously. Mini
computers have operating systems with multitasking and network capabilities enabling them to
serve more than one user.

 Micro Computer: Micro computers is a digital computer whose processing unit consists of one
or more microprocessors, one or more input / output units and sufficient memory to execute
instructions. They are used in schools, homes, office etc. Some popular micro computer is IBM
system, etc.

Q5. What are the uses Computers?

Computers are used in so many fields in our daily life. From Engineers to Doctors, Students,
Teachers, and Government Organization they all use computers to perform specific tasks, for
entertainment or just to finish office work. Computers have made our life easier.
 Business: A computer has high speed of calculation, diligence, accuracy, reliability, or versatility
which made it an integrated part in all business organisations. Computer is used in business
organisations for:


Sales analysis

Managing employees database

 Banking: Today banking is almost totally dependent on computer. Banks provide following

Banks provide online accounting facility, which includes current balances, deposits, overdrafts,

interest charges, shares, and trustee records.
ATM machines are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks

 Insurance: Insurance companies are keeping all records up-to-date with the help of computers.
The insurance companies, finance houses and stock broking firms are widely using computers
for their concerns. Insurance companies are maintaining a database of all clients with

procedure to continue with policies

next due installment of a policy

maturity date

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Education: The computer has provided a lot of facilities in the education system.

The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education)
which involves control, delivery, and evaluation of learning.

The computer education is rapidly increasing the graph of number of computer students.

 Marketing: In marketing, uses of computer are following:

Advertising - With computers, advertising professionals create art and graphics, write and revise
copy, and print and disseminate ads with the goal of selling more products.

At Home Shopping - Home shopping has been made possible through use of
computerised catalogues that provide access to product information and permit direct entry
of orders to be filled by the customers.
 Health Care: Computers have become important part in hospitals, labs, and dispensaries. The
computers are being used in hospitals to keep the record of patients and medicines. It is also
used in scanning and diagnosing different diseases. ECG, EEG, Ultrasounds and CT Scans etc.,
are also done by computerised machines. Some major fields of health care in which computers

used are:
Diagnostic System - Computers are used to collect data and identify cause of illness.

Patient Monitoring System - These are used to check patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac
Arrest, ECG etc.

 Engineering Design: Computers are widely used in engineering purpose. One of major areas is
CAD (Computer aided design). That provides creation and modification of images. Some fields

Structural Engineering - Requires stress and strain analysis for design of Ships, Buildings,
Budgets, and Airplanes etc.

Architectural Engineering - Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining
a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings.

 Military: Computers are largely used in defence. Modern tanks, missiles, weapons etc. Military
also employs computerised control systems. Some military areas where a computer has been
used are:

Missile Control

Military Communication

 Communication: Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech that is

received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is meant for. Some
main areas in this category are:




 Government: Computers play an important role in government. Some major fields in this
category are:


Male/Female ratio

Computerization of voters lists

Q6. Explain the generations of Computers?

Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer was being used. There are
totally five computer generations known till date. Each generation has been discussed in detail along
with their time period and characteristics. Following are the main five generations of computers:

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 First Generation (1946-1959):
The period of first generation was 1946-1959. The computers of first generation used
vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for Central Processing Unit.
These tubes, like electric bulbs, produced a lot of heat, were very expensive and could be
afforded only by very large organisations. Punched cards, paper tape, and magnetic tape were
used as input and output devices. The computers in this generation used machine code as
programming language.

 Second Generation (1959-1965):

The period of second generation was 1959-1965. In this generation transistors were used that
were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first
generation machines made of vacuum tubes. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as
primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. In this
generation assembly language and high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL
was used.

 Third Generation (1965-1971):

The period of third generation was 1965-1971. The computers of third generation used
integrated circuits (IC's) in place of transistors. A single IC has many transistors, resistors and
capacitors along with the associated circuitry. The IC was invented by Jack Kilby. This
development made computers smaller in size, reliable and efficient. In this generation remote
processing, time-sharing, multi-programming operating system were used. High-level languages
(FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68 etc.) were used during this

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Fourth Generation (1971-1980):
The period of fourth generation was 1971-1980. The computers of fourth generation used
Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and
other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have
microcomputers of fourth generation. Fourth generation computers became more powerful,
compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution.
In this generation time sharing, real time, networks, distributed operating system were used. All
the high-level languages like C, C++, etc., were used in this generation.

 Fifth Generation (1980 to till date):

The period of fifth generation is 1980 till date. In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology
became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of
microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components. This generation is based on
parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. AI is an emerging branch
in computer science, which interprets means and method of making computers think like human
beings. All the high-level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net etc., are used in this generation.

Q7. Explain the history of a computer?

 Computer history starts with the development of a device ABACUS by Chinese around 3000 BC.
This device was used for counting.
 English Mathematician Edmund Gunter develops a slide rule. This machine can perform
arithmetic operation. It was widely used in Europe in 16 century.
 The mechanical adding machine was invented by a 19 year old French boy named Blaise Pascal.
This machine could perform addition and subtraction.
 Blaise Pascal machine was further improved by Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz a German
mathematician to perform multiplication and division.
 It was in the year 1823; a famous English man Charles Babbage designed a mechanical
computing machine to do some mathematical calculations.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Chapter – 2: Number Systems
Binary is the simplest kind of number system that uses only two digits of 0 and 1. By using these
digits computational problems can be solved by machines because in digital electronics a transistor is used in
two states. Those two states can be represented by 0 and 1. That is why this number system is the most
preferred in modern computer engineer, networking and communication specialists, and other professionals.

Q8. Explain Binary number system?

We know the operation of decimal number system; the same concept can be applied to binary
numbers, octal numbers, and hexadecimal numbers. So before discussing other number systems, let us
first take a look at how we form a number in the decimal number system.
Suppose we have a decimal number 123, what do you call this number? How did you get its value?
The answer is that we first arrange individual digits into columns and then multiply each digit with the
value of its position.
Hundreds(102) tens (101) ones (100)
Decimal 1 2 3
= 1X100 + 2X10 + 3X1
= 100+20+3
= 123
The same concept is applicable to the binary number system, the only difference being that wherever
10 is used, and it is replaced by 2.

 Converting a binary number into decimal form: In a binary number, all the columns are powers
of 2
2 1 0
Four‘s column(2 ) two‘s column(2 ) one‘s column(2 )
For example covert the 1101 into a decimal number
3 2 1 0
=1X2 + 1X2 + 0X2 + 1X2
=1X8 + 1X4 + 0X2 + 1X1
=8 + 4 + 0 + 1

 Converting a decimal number into binary form: To convert a decimal number into its binary
equivalent, simply divide the decimal number by 2 and then write down the remainder, repeat
this process until the number cannot be divided by 2 anymore.
For example the decimal number 13 is converted to binary as
follows: 2 | 13 | R
2| 6|1
2| 3|0
2| 1|1
| 0|1
The binary form of decimal number 13 is 01101

 Adding two binary numbers: Adding binary numbers is not only simple but also similar to the
addition of decimal numbers. While performing binary addition, start by adding the bits in one
column at a time, from right to left as we do in the case of adding decimal numbers. However,
to perform binary addition, one must remember the rules of addition.
Rules of binary addition:
0+0=0 0+1=1 1+0=1

1+1=0 (and carry 1 to the next more significant bit)

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
For example add (0001010, 0100100)
+ 0100100

 Subtracting two binary numbers: Like addition of two binary numbers, the subtraction of
binary number is same but here we follow the rules of binary subtraction:
Rules of binary subtraction:
0-1=1, and borrow 1 from the next more significant bit
For example subtract (1011, 1001)
- 1001

 Subtracting two binary numbers by using two‘s complement: Subtraction of two binary by
using two‘s complement is easy. Here there are two steps involved, they are:
Step 1: calculate the two‘s complement of subtrahend
Step 2: add it to the subtrahend For
example subtract (1011, 1001)
The one‘s complement of 1001 is 0110
The two‘s complement of 0110 is 0110+1=0111
Add 0111 to 1011
+ 0111
1 0010
Now discard the carry from the last bit, hence the result is 0010

 Multiplying two binary numbers: Binary numbers are multiplied in the same manner as we
multiply two decimal numbers. Rules for multiply two binary numbers are:
For example multiply the binary numbers 1011, 11 as:
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Q9. Explain octal number system?
The octal number system is the base 8 number system which uses digits 0-7. This number
system was used extensively in early mainframe computer systems, but has become less popular in
comparison with binary and hexadecimal number systems.
Octal decimals operate in the same manner in which decimal and binary numbers operate. In
the octal number systems, each column is a power of 8.
Fourth digit Third digit Second digit First digit
3 2 1 0
Decimal 10 10 10 10
3 2 1 0
Binary 2 2 2 2
3 2 1 0
Octal 8 8 8 8

 Converting an octal number into decimal form: In order to convert an octal number into its
decimal form, multiply that place holder value (power of 8) with the digit, and then adds all the
For example convert the octal number (123)8:
2 1 0
=1X8 + 2X8 + 3X8
=1X64 + 2X8 + 3X1
=64 + 16 + 3 =83

 Converting an decimal number into octal form: To convert a decimal number into its octal
equivalent, simply divide the decimal number by 8 and then write down the remainder, repeat
this process until it cannot be divided by 8 anymore. For example convert the (786) 10 into octal
8 | 786 | R
8 | 98 | 2
8 | 12 | 2
8|1 |4
|0 |1
The decimal number of (786)10 is (1422)8

 Converting an octal number into binary form: To convert an octal number into its binary
equivalent, replace each octal digit with its binary equivalent. For example (63) 8 can be
converted into its binary equivalent using the following steps:
Step 1: convert binary equivalent of 6 which is equal to 110
Step 2: convert binary equivalent of 3 which is equal to 011
Step 3: merge the two values, therefore (63)8 = (110011)2

 Converting a binary number into octal form: To convert a binary number into its octal
equivalent, divide the binary number into two groups of bits, where each group consists of
exactly three bits (except the last). Convert each group into its equivalent octal number.
Combine these individual octal numbers to get final result. For example convert 1101100 into
its octal form
Step 1: divide the number into groups of 3 bits : 1 101 100
Step 2: convert each group of binary into its equivalent : 1 5 4
Step 3: merge the octal values to get the final result : 8

Q10. Explain Hexadecimal number system?

The hexadecimal number system is the base 16 number system. It uses sixteen distinct symbols-the
symbols 0-9 represent values zero to nine and A,B,C,D,E,F, (or a-f) represent values 10-15. The main
problem with the binary number system is that, for larger values, binary numbers quickly become too

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA unwieldy. The hexadecimal number system
overcomes this problem, as easy to convert from hexadecimal to binary and vice versa.

 Converting a hexadecimal number into decimal form: To convert a hexadecimal number to

decimal, multiply the values in each position by its hex weight and add each value. For
example, let us convert 312B into its equivalent decimal value.
= 3 1 2 B
= 3 2 1 0
3 X16 + 1X16 + 2X16 + BX16
3X 4096 + 1X256 + 2X16 + 12X1
12288 + 256 + 32 + 12

 Converting a decimal number into hexadecimal form: To convert a decimal number into its
hexadecimal equivalent simply divide the decimal number by 16 and then write down the
remainder, repeat this process until it cannot be divided by 16 anymore.
Let us convert decimal number 1239 into its hex equivalent.
16 | 1239 | R
16 | 77 | 7
16 | 4 | D
| 0 |4
Now write the result starting from the last remainder obtained. Therefore, (1239)10 is (4D7)16

 Converting a hexadecimal number into binary form: Converting a hexadecimal number into
binary form is easy by simply break number into 4-bit groups beginning with the last
significant bit, and substitutes the corresponding four bits in binary for each hexadecimal digit
in the number.
For example convert ABCD into its binary equivalent.
1010 1011 1100 1101
Therefore the binary value of the given hexadecimal number is:
 Converting a binary number into hexadecimal form: Converting a binary number into
hexadecimal form is the reverse process of converting hexadecimal number into binary
number. Take the binary number and separate the 4-bit group and convert the each group into
its decimal value, and merge the all values.

0001 1011 1001 0110

1 12 9 6.
1 B 9 6
Therefore the hexadecimal value of the binary number is: 1B96

 Converting a hexadecimal number into octal form: To convert a hexadecimal number into its
octal form equivalent, first convert the hexadecimal into its binary equivalent. Then, convert
the binary number into its equivalent octal number:
For example to convert (A1E)16 into octal form, perform the following
steps: Step 1: convert the given number into its binary form:
A 1 E =1010
0001 1110
Step 2: divide the above binary number into 3-bit groups, and convert each group bits into its
equivalent octal number, therefore

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
101 000 011 110
=5 0 3 6
(A1E)16 = (5036)8

 Converting a octal number into hexadecimal form: To convert an octal number into its
equivalent hexadecimal number, first convert the octal number into its binary equivalent and
then convert the binary number into its hexadecimal form.
For example, the steps to be performed to convert (567)8 into its hexadecimal equivalent are
as follows:
Step 1: convert the each digit in the hexadecimal number into binary value:
5 6 7
101 110 111
Step 2: divide the binary number into 4-bit groups and then convert the binary values into its
hexadecimal equivalent, therefore:
0001 0111 0111
1 7 7

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
UNIT - 2
Chapter – 3: Input and Output Devices
Q11. Explain the types of input devices?
An input device is any hardware device that sends data to a computer, allowing you to interact with
and control the computer. The most commonly used input devices on a computer are the keyboard and
mouse. However, there are dozens of other devices that can also be used to input data into the computer.
Below is a list of computer input devices that can be used with a computer or a computing device.

 Keyboard
 Mouse
 Joy Stick
 Light pen
 Track Ball
 Scanner
 Graphic Tablet
 Microphone
 Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR)
 Optical Character Reader(OCR)
 Bar Code Reader
 Optical Mark Reader(OMR)

 Keyboard:
Keyboard is the most common and very popular input device which helps in inputting data to
the computer. The layout of the keyboard is like that of traditional typewriter, although there are
some additional keys provided for performing additional functions. The keys on the keyboard are as

S. No Keys Description
1 Typing Keys These keys include the letter keys (A-Z) and digit keys (0-9) which
generally give same layout as that of typewriters.
2 Numeric Keypad It is used to enter numeric data or cursor movement.
The twelve function keys are present on the keyboard which is
3 Function Keys arranged in a row at the top of the keyboard. Each function key has
unique meaning and is used for some specific purpose.
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
These keys provide cursor and screen control. It includes four
4 Control keys directional arrow keys. Control keys also include Home, End, Insert,
Delete, Page Up, Page Down, Control(Ctrl), Alternate(Alt),
5 Special Purpose Keyboard also contains some special purpose keys such as Enter,
Keys Shift, Caps Lock, Num Lock, Space bar, Tab, and Print Screen.

 Pointing Device:

Mouse: Mouse is most popular pointing device. It is a very famous cursor-control device
having a small palm size box with a round ball at its base which senses the movement of
mouse and sends corresponding signals to CPU when the mouse buttons are pressed.
Generally it has two buttons called left and right button and a wheel is present
between the buttons. Mouse can be used to control the position of cursor on screen, but it
cannot be used to enter text into the computer.

 Light Pen: Light pen is a pointing device which is similar to a pen. It is used to select a
displayed menu item or draw pictures on the monitor screen. It consists of a photocell and an
optical system placed in a small tube. When the tip of a light pen is moved over the monitor
screen and pen button is pressed, its photocell sensing element detects the screen location
and sends the corresponding signal to the CPU.

 Track Ball: A trackball is a pointing device that is used to control the position of the cursor on the
screen. It is usually used in notebook computers.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Touchpad: A touchpad is a small, flat, rectangular stationary pointing device with a sensitive
surface of square inches. The user has to slide his or her fingertips across the surface of the
pad to point to a specific object on the screen. The surface translates the motion and position
of the user‘s fingers to a relative position on the screen. Touch pads are widely used in
laptops, and are in built on the laptop keyboards.

 Handheld input devices:

 Joystick: Joystick is also a pointing device which is used to move cursor position on a
monitor screen. It is a stick having a spherical ball at its both lower and upper ends. The
lower spherical ball moves in a socket. The joystick can be moved in all four directions. The
function of joystick is similar to that of a mouse. It is mainly used in Computer Aided
Designing (CAD) and playing computer games.

 Touch Screen: A touch screen is a display screen that can identify the occurrence and position of
a touch inside the display region. The user can touch the screen either by using a finger or a
stylus. The touch screen facilitates the users to interact with what is displayed on the screen in a
straightforward manner, rather than in an indirect way by using a mouse or a touchpad. Such
touch screen displays are available on computers, laptops, PDAs, and mobile phones.

 Optical Input Devices:

Optical devices, also known as data-scanning devices, use light as a source of input for
detecting or recognizing different objects such as characters, marks, codes, and images. The optical
device converts these objects into digital data and sends it to the computer for further processing.
Some optical devices that are discussed in this section include barcode readers, image scanners,
optical character recognition (OCR) devices, optical mark readers (OMR), and magnetic ink
character recognition (MICR) devices.
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Barcode Scanner: A barcode reader is a handheld input device that is used to capture and read
information stored in a bar code. It consists of a scanner, a decoder, and a cable used to
connect the reader to a computer. The function of the barcode reader is to capture and
translate the bar code into numerals and/or alphabets. It is connected to a computer for further
processing of the captured information.

 Image Scanner: A scanner is a device that captures images, printed text, and handwriting,
from different sources such as photographic prints, posters, and magazines and converts them
into digital images for editing and display on computers. Scanners come in handheld, feed-in,
and flat bed types, and for scanning either colour images, black-and-white images, or both.

 MICR Scanner: Magnetic ink character reader (MICR) is used to verify the legitimacy of
paper documents, especially bank checks. It consists of magnetic ink printed characters that
can be recognized by high-speed magnetic recognition devices. The printed characters
provide important information for processing to the receiving party

 OMR Scanner: Optical mark recognition (OMR) is the process of electronically extracting
data from marked fields, such as checkboxes and fill-in fields, on printed forms. The optical
mark reader, is fed with an OMR sheet that has pen or pencil marks in predefined positions to
indicate each selected response (such as answers for multiple-choice questions in an entrance

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OCR Scanner: Optical character recognition (OCR) is the process of converting printed
materials into text or word processing files that can be easily edited and stored. The steps

in OCR include:
Scanning the text character by character

Analyzing the scanned image to translate the character images into character codes

 Audio – visual input devices:

Today, all computers are multimedia-enabled , that is, computers not only allow one to read
or write text, but also enable the user to record songs, view animated movies, etc. Hence, in
addition to having a keyboard and a mouse, audio–video devices have become a necessity today.
 Audio input Devices: Audio devices are used to either capture or create sound. They enable
computers to accept music, speech, or sound effects for recording and/or editing.
Microphones and CD players are examples of two widely used audio input devices. A
microphone feeds audio input to the computer.

 Video Input Devices: Video input devices are used to capture video from the outside world
into the computer. Here, the term video means moving picture along with sound. Digital
camera and web camera are popular examples of video input devices.

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Q12. Explain the types of Output devices?
Any device that gives information from a computer can be called an output device. Monitors and
speakers are two widely used output devices. For example, monitors display characters as they are typed.
Similarly, speakers play a song instantly when the user selects one from a playlist. Other examples of
output devices include printers, plotters, and projectors.

 Soft copy output devices:

Soft copy output devices produce an electronic version of an output, for example, a file that is
stored on a hard disk, CD, or pen drive and is displayed on the computer screen. Features of a soft copy
output include the following:
• The output can be viewed only when the computer is on.
• The user can easily edit soft copy output.
• Soft copy cannot be used by people who do not have a computer.
• Searching for data in a soft copy is easy and fast.

Monitors: The monitor is a soft copy output device used to display video and graphics
information generated by the computer through the video card. Computer monitors are similar
to television screens but they display information at a much higher quality. Monitors come in
three variants—cathode ray tube (CRT), liquid crystal display (LCD), and plasma
 CRT Monitors: CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitors work by firing charged electrons at a
phosphorus film. When electrons hit the phosphor-coated screen, they glow, thereby
enabling the user to see the output. The size of CRT monitors is big and high power

 LCD Monitors: An LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) monitor is a thin, flat, electronic
visual display unit that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals, which do
not emit light directly. LCD screens are used in a wide range of applications ranging
from computer monitors, televisions, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays,
signage, etc.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Plasma Monitors: Plasma monitors are thin and fl at monitors widely used in televisions
and computers. The plasma display contains two glass plates that have hundreds of
thousands of tiny cells filled with xenon and neon gases.

 Projectors: A projector is a device that takes an image from a video source and projects it onto
a screen or another surface. These days, projectors are used for a wide range of applications,
varying from home theatre systems for projecting movies and television programmes onto a
screen much larger than even the biggest available television.

 Speakers: By using speakers, the user can enjoy music, movie, or a game, and the voice will be
spread through the entire room. With good quality speakers, the voice will also be audible even
to people sitting in another room or even to neighbours

 Hard copy output devices:

Hard copy output devices produce a physical form of output. For example, the content of a file
printed on paper is a form of hard copy output. The features of hard copy output include the following:
• A computer is not needed to see the output.
• Editing and incorporating the edits in the hard copy is difficult.
• Searching for data in a hard copy is a tiring and difficult job.
• Distribution of a hard copy is not only costly but slow as well.

Printers: A printer is a device that takes the text and graphics information obtained from a
computer and prints it on to a paper. Printers are available in the market in various sizes,
speeds, and costs. Usually, more expensive printers are used for higher-resolution colour
printing. Printers can be broadly classified into two groups: impact and non-impact printers

 Impact printers: These printers print characters by striking an inked ribbon against the
paper. Examples of impact printers include dot matrix printers, daisy wheel printers, and
most types of line printers.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Dot Matrix Printer: A dot matrix printer prints characters and images of all types as a pattern of
dots (hence the name). This printer has a print head that consists of pins representing the
character or image. The print head runs back and forth, or in an up-and-down motion on the
page and prints by striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like the print
mechanism of a typewriter. From 1970s to 1990s, dot matrix impact printers were the most
common type of printers used with PCs

 Daisy Wheel Printer: A daisy wheel printer uses an impact printing technology to generate high-
quality output comparable to typewriters, and is three times faster. However, today, daisy wheel
technology is found only in some electronic typewriters. The print head of a daisy wheel printer
is a circular wheel, about 3 inches in diameter with arms or spokes. The shape of the printer
wheel resembles the petals of a daisy flower, and hence its name. The characters are embossed
at the outer ends of the arms.

 Line Printer: A line printer is a high-speed impact printer in which one typed line is printed at a
time. The speed of a line printer usually varies from 600 to 1200 lines per minute, or
approximately 10–20 pages per minute. Because of their high speed, line printers are widely
used in data centres and in industrial environments. Band printer is a commonly used variant of
line printers.

Non-Impact Printers: These are much quieter than impact printers, as their printing heads
do not strike the paper. They offer better print quality, faster printing, and the ability to
create prints that contain sophisticated graphics. Non-impact printers use either solid or
liquid cartridge-based ink, which is sprayed, dripped, or electro-statically drawn onto the
page. The main types of non-impact printers are inkjet, laser, and thermal printers

 Inkjet Printer: Inkjet printers came in the market in the 1980s, but it was only in the 1990s that
their prices reduced enough to bring the technology to the high street. Inkjet printers have made
rapid technological advances in recent years. The colour inkjet printers have succeeded in making
colour printing an affordable option even for home users.

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 Laser printer: A laser printer is a non-impact printer that works at very high speeds and produces
high-quality text and graphics. It uses the technology used in photocopier machines. When a
document is sent to the printer, the following steps take place:

 Plotters:
A plotter is a printing device that is usually used to print vector graphics with high
print quality. They are widely used to draw maps, in scientific applications, and in CAD,
CAM, and computer aided engineering (CAE).

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Chapter – 4: Types of Software
Q13. What is software and hardware? Explain?
A computer system consists of two parts they are software and hardware.
 Hardware: This is constituted by the physical components of a computer
 Software: This is the programs inside the computer, which tells the hardware what to do and how
to do it.
Computer system

Computer hardware Computer software

System software Application software

If we compare a computer to a living being, then the hardware would be the body parts. Since
the computer hardware is a part of a machine, it can understand only two basic concepts: on and off,
called binary. Computer software was developed to use the binary to tell the computer hardware
what to do.
The computer hardware cannot think and make decisions on its own. Hence, it cannot be used
to analyse a given set of data and find a solution. The hardware needs software to instruct what has to
be done. A programme is a set of instructions arranged in a sequence to guide the computer to find a
solution for a given problem. The process of writing a program is called programming.
Computer programmers write a set of instructions using a specific programming language.
Such instructions are known as the source code. Another computer programme called compiler is
then used to transform the source code into a language that the computer can understand. The
following are some examples of computer software: computer games software, driver software,
educational software, media players and media development software, productivity software,
operating systems, etc.

Q14. Explain the classification of computer software?

Computer software can be broadly classified into two groups: application software and system
 Application software: It is designed to solve a particular programme for users. Examples of
application software include spreadsheets, database programmes, desktop publishing systems,
program development software, games software, etc.

 System software: This environment provides new functions that are not available at the hardware
level and performs tasks related to executing the application program. System software
represents programs that allow the hardware to run properly.

System software Application software

It is a collection of programs that enable the It is a collection of programs written for a
user to interact with the hardware components specific purpose.
It controls and manages hardware It use the services of hardware components
with the help of system software
It is machine dependent It is machine independent
It directly interact with the hardware It indirectly interact with the hardware
Writing system software is complicated task. Writing application software is easy.
Example: compiler, operating system, etc. Example: MS word, Paint, etc.
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Q15. Explain the types of System software?
System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and
maintain a platform for running the application software.
User 1 User 2 User n

Application software

System software

Computer hardware

 Computer BIOS and device drivers: The computer basic input / output system (BIOS) and
device drivers provide the basic functionality to operate and control the hardware connected to
or built into the computer.
When the computer starts the first function that the BIOS performs the identify system
devices such as the video display, keyboard, mouse, hard disk, CD/DVD driver, and other
hardware. This process is also known as booting.

 Operating system: The primary goal of an operating system is to make the computer system
continent and efficient use. The operating system offers generic services to support user
applications. An operating system ensures that the system resources are utilized efficiently.

 Utility software: Utility software is used to analyse, configure, optimize, and maintain the
computer system.

Disk defragmenter – detects computer files whose contents are broken on the hard disk and move
fragments to one location in order to increase efficiency.

Disk cleaners – they are used to locate files that are either not required for computer operation, the
users to decide what to delete when their disk is full.

Disk partitions – are used to divide an individual drive into multiple logical drives.

Backup – utilities are used to make a copy of the information stored on a disk.

Antivirus utilities – are used to scan a computer for viruses.

 Compiler, interpreter:

Compiler – it is a translator used to translate a source code written by the user by using
programming language in high level language into machine understandable format. Compiler
converts the entire source code at a time to machine language.

Interpreter – it is a translator used to translate a source code written by the use by using
programming language in high level langue into machine understandable format. Interpreter
converts the source code line by line to machine language.

Q16. Explain the types of Application software?

Application software is a type of computer software that employs the capabilities of computer
directly to perform a user – defined task. Typical examples of application softwares are: Microsoft
office package, graphics software, multimedia software, database management software, etc.
 Microsoft office package: Microsoft office introduced by Microsoft in 1989 is a suite of
interrelated applications for the Microsoft windows. Microsoft office contains the following:

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Microsoft word – it is word processor software that enables the users to create, edit, print
and save document for future use. The main feature of Microsoft word is we can create
documents, operate with margins, formatting paragraphs, change data size, colour, font
type and style, insert the page numbers, check and correct spelling and grammar
mistakes, working with tables, edit options like cut, copy and paste, delete, insert
pictures, using macros and mail merge, etc.

Microsoft Excel – it is a spread sheet software application, the data is stored in rows,
columns or cells. The main features of excel is using auto fill, auto format, function
wizard, chart wizard, macro, formatting text, auditing formulas, data filter, etc.

Microsoft power point – it is presentation software, used to create multimedia presentations and
slide shows.

Microsoft access – it is a database application used to store data, by using the data we can
prepare reports, pages, forms, etc.
 Graphics software: Graphics software or image editing software is a program that allows users to
create and edit digital images. Example of such softwares includes Adobe photo shop, paint
shop, Microsoft paint, etc.

Paint programs – these programs enable the users to create freehand drawings. The images are
stored as bit maps and can easily be edited as and when required.

Adobe photo shop – it is image editing software that allows the user to edit the digital images,
change backgrounds, correct blur in images, resize the images, etc.
 Multimedia software: Multimedia means different types of media. Nowadays multimedia is
widely applied in areas such as advertisements, entertainment, engineering, business, etc.
 Database management software: Database management software or DBMS is a collection of
programs that helps users to store, edit, and extract data from a database. Today different types
of DBMS, such as Microsoft access, IBM DB2, Oracle SQL, etc.

Q17. Explain commercial software?

Commercial software is any software or program that is designed and developed for licensing
or sale to end users or that serves a commercial purpose. Commercial software was once considered
to be proprietary software, but now a number of free and open-source software applications are
licensed or sold to end users. Microsoft products such as the Windows Operating System and MS
Office are some of the most well-known examples of commercial software.

Q18. Explain Open source software?

Open source refers to a program or software in which the source code is available to the
general public for use and/or modification from its original design free of charge. The examples of
open source software are: Apache HTTP server, Blender, Open Office, etc.

Q19. Explain Domain software?

Programs that are un-copyrighted because their authors intended to share them with everyone
else are in the public domain. The UNIX community has developed a number of such programs over
the years. Programs in the public domain can be used without restriction as components of other

Q20. Explain Freeware software?

Freeware is programming that is offered at no cost and is a common class of small
applications available for downloading and use in most operating systems. Because it may be
copyrighted, you may or may not be able to reuse it in programming you are developing. The least
restrictive "no-cost" programs are un-copyrighted programs that are in the public domain.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Chapter – 5: Memories
Q21. What is Primary Memory? Explain its types?
Primary memory or main memory or internal memory is the only type of memory that is
directly accessed by the CU. The CPU continuously reeds instructions stored in the primary memory
and execute them. Any data that has to be operated by the CPU is also stored there.
Primary memory is divided into two memories they are – Read only memory (ROM),
Random Access memory (RAM).
 Radom Access Memory (RAM):
RAM is a volatile memory within the computer that is typically used to store data
temporarily. RAM is considered random access because any memory cell can be directly
accessed if its address is known when the RAM gets full; the computer system operates at a slow
In the year 2000, a personal computer had only 128MB of RAM, but today PCs have 1-2 GB
of RAM. There are two types of RAM – static RAM and dynamic RAM.

Static RAM – this type of RAM that holds data without an external refresh as long as it is powered.
SRAM is occupies more space ad most expensive and is faster, more reliable.

Dynamic RAM – this is the most common type of memory used in personal computers,
workstations and servers today. A DRAM chip contains millions of tiny memory cells. Each
cell is made up of transistor and capacitor and can contain one bit of information. To store a
bit of information in a DRAM chip, a tiny amount of power is put into a cell to charge the

 Read only Memory (ROM):

ROM refers to computer memory chips containing permanent data. Unlike ROM is non-
volatile; that is the data is retained in it even after the computer is turned off.

Most computers contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programs such as the
basic input/output system (BIOS), which is used to boot up the computer when it is turned on.

Q22. What is secondary memory? Explain its types?

Secondary memory is also known as external memory or auxiliary memory in that it is not
directly accessible by the CPU. The secondary storage devices hold data even when the computer is
switched off. An example of such devices is hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic tape, CD, DVD, pen
drives, memory cards, etc.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Magnetic tape:
Magnetic tapes are storage devices capable of backing up and retaining large volumes of
data. A magnetic tape is a thin strip of plastic coated with magnetic recording material. Magnetic
tapes are available in the form of cassettes, reels and cartridges.
A magnetic tape drive is used to read and write data on magnetic tape. A magnetic tape is
compact in size, light in weight and can be used to transfer data from one computer to another.

 Floppy disk:
Floppy disks are data storage devices that consist of a thin magnetic storage medium encased
in a square plastic shell. The storage capacity of the floppy disk is very limited, and its cost is
cheap, they are much slower than other data storage devices.
Floppy disks were widely used from the mid 1970s till 2000s to distribute software, transfer
of data, however today their use has become limited.

The mechanism of floppy disk involves two motors, while one motor in the drive rotates the
disk at a speed, the second motor moves the magnetic R/W head to read or write the data on the
magnetic plate. The memory capacity of the 3.5 inch floppy disk is 1.44 MB

 Hard disk:
The hard disk is a part of the computer that stores all the programs and files, so if the drive is
damaged for some reason, all the data stored on the computer is lost.
A hard disk is basically a set of disks, stacked together, that has data recorded
electromagnetically on tracks. Hard disks are also called as magnetic disks; at present 1 Terra
byte hard disks are available.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA Magnetic disks enable random access of data;
can be used as a shared device in a multi-user
environment. The cost of the magnetic disk is very low, and its data transfer rate is much higher
than magnetic tapes.

 Optical Disk:
Optical storage refers to storing data on an optical readable medium that can be read using a
beam of laser light focused on a spinning disk. The most popular optical storage devices are CD,
DVD, etc.

CD-ROM:- Compact disk read only memory, is a type of optical disk that uses laser
technology to read and write data onto the disk. Once the information is stored on the disk is
permanent and cannot be altered.

CD-R:- Compact disk recordable is a blank disk that can be used to store information. The
user can write the data onto the disk until the maximum disk capacity is fill after that we
cannot write data.

CD-RW:- Compact disk rewritable is a new generation of erasable optical disk. The user can write
and overwrite data on the CD-RW disk multiple times.

DVD-ROM:- Digital video disk or digital versatile disk is an extremely high capacity optical
disk with storage capacity ranging from 4.7 GB to 17 GB. DVDs are widely used to store
large data bases, movies, music, softwares, etc.

 USB flash drives:

USB flash drives are removable and rewritable and are physically much smaller drives,
weighting less than 30g. A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board carrying the circuit
elements and a USB connector that can be carried in a pocket or on a key chain.

They can be easily used to transfer data from one computer to another. Flash drives have
higher data capacity than any other removable media. In 2010, the storage capacity of the USB
flash drives was as large as 256 GB.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Memory cards:
A memory cards is a small device that can be store digital files. They are easily portable from
one place to another. Today different types of memory cards are available in the market. They
 Secure dig memory card (SD)
 Mini SD card
 Micro SD card
 Memory stick
 Multimedia card (MMC)
Memory card enables the users to add or delete files multiple times.

Q23. What is Cache Memory?

Cache memory is an intermediate form of storage between the ultra-fast registers and the
RAM. The CPU uses cache memory to store instructions and data that are repeatedly required to
execute programs, thereby improving the overall system speed and increasing the performance of
When a program is being executed and the CPU wants to read data or instructions, the CPU
first checks whether the data or instructions is available in the cache memory. If it is not present
there, then the CPU reeds the data or instructions from the main memory, when the same piece of
data or instruction is needed again, the CPU reeds it from the cache memory instead of the main

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Chapter – 6: Windows Basics
Q24. Give the features of Windows Operating system?
1. WINDOWS provides user – friendly environment.
2. It is a capable of multitasking of graphical programs and character based systems.
3. Program manager can be used to switch easily between multiple programs.
4. Built – In accessories such as word pad and paint.
5. A powerful help facility is provided which will enable a user to sort out its problems in comfortable
6. Searching for a specific file is very easily.

Q25. What is desktop? Explain?

When a computer is switched on, booting process will start, after the completion of booting
process you can saw a screen is called desktop. Desktop is the first screen when computer is turned
on. Desktop has icons, mouse pointer, and taskbar.

 Taskbar: The rectangular bar that runs horizontally across the bottom of the screen is called
taskbar. It provides access to all programs, it include start button, time, etc. You can also switch
one program to another program here by using the task bar. Task bar also has quick launch it
allows you to open frequently used programs quickly.
 Icons: Icons are small graphical images that can represent computer programs, fields, folders. To
activate the icon you double click on it with the left mouse button. The standard icons in
windows operating system include My Computer, My Documents, Internet Explorer, Recycle
Bin, etc.
 Mouse Pointer: it is a small graphical image where you can move this by using mouse, and
select whatever you want on the desktop.

Q26. Explain the different Icons available on the Windows Desktop?

Computer desktop contains many icons. Icon is a small graphical image that belongs to
shortcut for a folder or program. By selecting the icon you can open the corresponding folder or
program. In windows operating system the following are the basic icons. They are My Computer,
My Documents, Recycle Bin, Internet Explorer, etc.

 My Computer: This is a standard icon and is very useful; it contains all the resources available in
your computer. Generally it consists of hard disk drives, removable storage devices, network drives,
and user documents and shared documents folder of your computer. To open My Computer window
then double-click My Computer icon on the desktop or go to start button and then select My
Computer option or press keyboard short cut keys ―Window Button + W‖ then the
My Computer Window will appear.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

 My Documents: The default location where to create all types of documents, workbooks,
images, presentations, databases, image files, folder in windows environment is My Documents
folder. My Documents folder contains My Pictures, My Videos, My Music, and all types of files
created by the user. To open My Documents double-click My Documents icon on the desktop or
go to start button and then select My Documents option then the My Documents folder will

 Recycle Bin: The files removed by the user in the computer will go to this Recycle bin. Do you
want to remove the files permanently from the computer then select ―delete‖ option in the
recycle bin. If you want to get back files from recycle bin to the original location where the file is
actually deleted, then select ―restore‖ option from the recycle bin.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Internet Explorer: Internet Explorer is the default browser application provided by the
Microsoft Corporation in the windows operating system. Browser is application program or
software it can be used to view web sites or web pages on the internet and also it allows the user
to create web pages. You can open Internet Explorer by double-clicking Internet explorer icon on
the desktop or press Internet explorer option in the start button.

Q27. Explain Start menu?

The start button is the single most commonly used feature in windows. This button is the primary
thing of starting programs from the desktop. Using the start button you can start programs, open
documents, etc.

 All Programs: This section of the start menu holds all of the program groups and programs
installed on your machine.

 My Recent Documents: The documents section contains the last few documents you worked
on. By clicking on a document name, the document will be opened in the program that was
used to create it.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Help and Support: This program can also be accessed by pressing F1. See the help section for
more information.

 Run: Run can be used to start a program on your hard drive.

 Search: To search a drive, multiple drives or your entire system for a file of folder.

 Control panel: Control panel contains options for different software or hardware settings. The
windows XP operating system contains the following options: Appearance and themes, printer
and other hardware, network and internet connections, user accounts, add or remove
programs, date, time, languages, and regional options, sounds, speech, and audio devices, etc.

 Log Off: Use this feature if you want to log off your system and allow someone else to log on
without running through a complete shutdown of the system

 Turn off Computer: The turn off menu will allow you to turn the computer off or reboot your
system as you choose.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
UNIT - 3
Chapter – 7: Introduction to Adobe Photoshop
Q28. How do you create a document in Photoshop?
 Go to file menu and select new option.
 ―New‖ Dialog box will appear.

 In the above dialog box enter the name of the document.

 Select the document size at preset sizes combo box.
 Select colour mode (RGB color / CMYK color, etc) if required.
 Press ―OK‖ push button.
 A new document will be created.

Q29. Give the steps for saving a document in Photoshop?

 Go to file menu and select save option.
 It will display ―Save As‖ dialog box.

 In the save as dialog box first select the location where the document will be save in your
 Type the name of the file name.
 Choose format for your image such as JPEG / TIFF / Photoshop, etc.
 After using required options in the dialog box press ―SAVE‖ push button.
 Photoshop file will be saved.

Q30. Draw a neat sketch of Photoshop application window? Explain its parts in detail?
 Title Bar: Title bar always displays the name of the program that you are currently working, so
title bar contains ―Adobe Photoshop‖.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Menu Bar: Menu bar is a horizontal bar; it contains file, edit, image, layer, select, filter, view,
window, and help menus. All options for working with the Photoshop are available in the menus.

Title bar Menu bar Options bar Tool bar Current Document

 Options bar: Every tool in Photoshop Elements has options that you can change; options bar
contains the options for your currently using tool in the toolbar.

 Tool bar: Tool bar is a vertical bar; it has so many tools that enable us to design an efficient
image. Tool bar contains the following tools, they are: marquee tool, move tool, lasso tool,
magic wand tool, crop tool, slice tool, healing brush tool, brush tool, clone stamp tool, history
brush tool, eraser tool, gradient tool, blur tool, dodge tool, path selection tool, horizontal type
tool, Pen tool, rectangle tool, notes tool, eye dropper tool, hand tool, zoom tool, set foreground
and background tool, etc.

 Current document: which document you are currently working is called as current document.

 Panes: Panes are also vital features that relay all kinds of information like tool options, layer
selection, history, display location information, and text style, among others. Here is a list of
panes you are most likely to encounter when you start using Photoshop: Palettes, Layers, etc.
Q31. Explain menu bar in Photoshop?
Menu bar in the Photoshop contains the following menus: File, Edit, Image, Layer, Select,
Filter, View, Window, and Help.
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

 File Menu:
Option Purpose
New This option is used to create a new Photoshop document or file with PSD
Open This command is used to open a required image file in Photoshop
Close This option is used to close an open document in Photoshop.
Save This option is used to save any document created or modified on Photoshop in
any required format.
Save As If you want to save an image file two or more than two times with two or more
than two different names or formats you can use the option named Save As.
Revert This option is used to remove all the changes made in any image by the use of
Page Setup This command is used to set the Size, Source and Orientation for the page.
Print This command is used to print any selected file in as much copies as we need.
Exit This command is used to close opened Photoshop window.
 Edit Menu

Option Purpose
Undo This command is used to delete the impact of the most recently applied command
on the Photoshop document.
Step This Command is used to undo or remove the impacts of the two or more than
backward two recently applied commands from the Photoshop document one by one.
Step This command is used to apply back the removed impacts of the two or more
forward than two commands on Photoshop document.
Cut Through this command we can transfer any selected image or a selected part of
an image temporarily from the canvas to computer‘s memory (Clip Board).
Through this command we can create a copy of a selected image or the selected
Copy part of an image temporarily into computer‘s memory in an area that is called
Clip Board.
Paste This command is used to drop and display images that we have saved in the
Clipboard by applying Cut, Copy commands.
Clear In Adobe Photoshop 7.0 the command named Clear is used to delete the selected
part of the layer that is currently selected in the layer palette.
Check Through this command you can correct the spelling mistakes made accidentally
spelling in the text, typed on the Photoshop document.
Find and If you have used any specific word many times in the text typed on Photoshop
document and you want to replace that word with some other word in an instant,
replace text
you can use the option named Find and Replace Text given in the Edit Menu.
Fill This command is used to fill any desired solid color or predefined pattern inside
the selected layer with desired level of Opacity.
This option is used to create outline around the selected area. Through this option
Stroke you can not only create outline around the selected area, but you can set the
Width, Color, Location, Blending Mode and Opacity for that outline.
Free Through this command you can easily re-size any selected layer and rotate it in
transform any direction.
This command is used to make Photoshop run faster by deleting unnecessary or
Purge corrupt files holding the record of previously applied commands on Photoshop
document from the computer's memory.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Image Menu:
Option Purpose
Mode The first item on the Image menu is Mode. This is what you use to change the
color mode and appearance on the entire image.
You can see that the adjust option on the Image menu gives you a lot of different
Adjust tools for adjusting your image. The most basic types of adjustments you can
make with Photoshop involve colors and brightness.
Image size Another common basic feature of Photoshop that lives on the Image menu is
image size. You use this function to resize an image
Canvas size Canvas Size is similar to Image Size, but changes to an image's canvas size can
provide you with more working area for your image
The Crop function in the image menu is fairly straightforward. Make a selection,
crop go to Image and select crop, and then everything outside your selection
disappears. The image size reflects the change.
 Layer Menu:

Option Purpose
New To create a new layer
Duplicate Creates the duplicate layer
Delete For deleting selected layer
Layer To know the properties of current layer like name, color, etc.
Layer style For applying stroke, shadow like styles to the current layer
New fill For applying solid color, gradient and pattern options
 Select Menu:
Option Purpose
All This command selects everything on the current layer.
Deselect Use this command to get rid of the marching ants around a selection
Reselect If you didn‘t mean to deselect a selection, use this command to get the selection
Modify This option lets you tweak the edge of your current selection by expanding or
shrinking it, feathering it, grabbing just its border, or smoothing it.
Grew This command finds and grabs pixels that match the colors around the area
you‘ve selected.
Like the Grow command, this option finds all the pixels in your image that match
Similar the selected area‘s colors, but it finds similar-coloured pixels anywhere in your
Transform This command lets you resize the currently selected area with the handles of a
bounding box

Filter Menu:
Option Purpose
Liquefy This filter lets you push, pull, and move pixels in all sorts of ways
Blur These filters change the focus in all or part of an image
Artistic This category includes filters that make your images look like a painting or
Brush The filters in this category make your image look like it was painted, penciled, or
strokes spray painted, among other effects;
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Distort These filters create geometric patterns based on your image, including ripple,
twirl, and zigzag effects
Noise This category includes filters that can help smooth areas of your image that don‘t
blend well, fix dust and scratches in photos, and remove graininess
Sharpen You can use filters in this category to make blurry or out-of-focus images appear
more clear
View Menu:

Option Purpose
Proof setup Use the items in this submenu to create a proof
Proof This option turns soft proofing on or off
Pixel aspect This item lets you change the shape of your image‘s pixels for specific projects.
Zoom in This command works like a magnifying glass, increasing your image‘s
magnification level
Zoom out This command decreases your image‘s magnification level
Fit on This option resizes the current image and the window it‘s in to fill your monitor‘s
screen screen
Print size This item changes the size of your image to show how big or small it will be
when you print it.
Screen This submenu lets you choose how you want to view your images.
Rulers This command shows or hides the horizontal and vertical rulers that run along the
document window‘s left and top edges
 Window Menu:
Use this menu to change what you see in Photoshop; it lets you arrange your open
documents, view or hide panels, and so on. Here we have options that the parts of Photoshop
application window likes, Tools, options, Navigator, color, history and layers, etc are to hide or

 Help Menu:
If you don‘t know how to do something in Photoshop, you may find the answer in this menu.
It includes a link to Adobe‘s online help system, several tutorials, and options for activating and
deactivating your copy of Photoshop. You need an active Internet connection to use almost
every item in this menu

Q32. Explain Tool box in Photoshop?

The toolbox contains selection tools, painting and editing tools, foreground and background
color selection boxes, and viewing tools.
Rectangular Marquee Tool (M):
Use this tool to make selections on your image, in a rectangular shape. This changes the area of
your image that is affected by other tools or actions to be within the defined shape. Holding the
[Shift] key while dragging your selection, restricts the shape to a perfect square. Holding the
[Alt] key while dragging sets the centre of the rectangle to where your cursor started.
Move Tool (V):

Use this tool to, well, move things. Usually you use it to move a Layer around after it has been
placed. Hold the [Shift] key to limit the movements to vertical/horizontal.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

Polygon Lasso Tool (L):

Use this to draw selections in whatever shape you would like. To close the selection, either
click on the beginning point, or just double-click. When holding the [Ctrl] key, you‘ll see the
cursor change, and the next time you click, it will close your selection.

Magic Wand Tool (W):

Use this to select a color range. It will select the block of color, or transparency, based on
wherever you click. In the Options Bar at the top, you can change the Tolerance to make your
selections more/less precise.

Crop Tool (C):

The Crop Tool works similarly to the Rectangular Marquee tool (see above if you have no
short-term memory). The difference is when you press the [Enter/Return] key; it crops your
image to the size of the box. Any information that was on the outside of the box is now gone.
Not permanently, you can still undo.

Slice Tool (K):

This is used mostly for building websites, or splitting up one image into smaller ones when
saving out. It‘s kind of an advanced tool, and since you‘re in here for the basics, we‘ll kind of
skip over it.

Healing Brush Tool (J):

You can use this tool to repair scratches and specs and stuff like that on images. It works like
the Brush tool. You choose your cursor size, then holding the [Alt] key, you select a nice/clean
area of your image. Let go of the [Alt] key and paint over the bad area. It basically copies the
info from the first area to the second, in the form of the Brush tool.
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

Brush Tool (B):

It paints one your image, in whatever color you have selected, and whatever size you have
selected. There are a lot of options for it, but this is basic, so you don‘t get to learn them.

Clone Stamp Tool (S):

This is very similar to the Healing Brush Tool. You use it the exact same way, except this tool
doesn‘t blend at the end. It‘s a direct copy of the information from the first selected area to the

History Brush Tool (H):

This tool works just like the Brush Tool except the information that it paints with is from the
original state of your image. The History Brush tool paints with the information from whatever
History state is selected.

Eraser Tool (E):

This is the anti-Brush tool. It works like an eraser and erases whatever information wherever
you click and drag it. If you‘re on a Layer, it will erase the information transparent. If you are
on the background layer, it erases with whatever secondary color you have selected.

Gradient Tool (G):

You can use this to make a gradation of colors. Gradation doesn‘t appear to be a word, but it
makes sense anyway. It creates a blending of your foreground color and background color
when you click and drag it. Like a gradient.

Blur Tool (R):

The Blur tool is cool. It makes things blurry. Click and drag to make things blurry. The more
you click and drag, the blurrier things get.

Dodge Tool (O):

This tool isn‘t as crappy as the car brand. It‘s actually used to lighten whatever area you use it
on. As long as it is not absolute black. Absolute black won‘t lighten.

Path Selection Tool (A):

You use this tool when working with paths. Since this is all about the basics, I won‘t go into
details. It‘s related to the Pen Tool though.

Horizontal Type Tool (T):

It makes type. You can click a single point, and start typing right away. There are a lot of
options for the Type Tool. Just play around, it‘s fairly straight-forward.

Pen Tool (P):

It‘s for creating paths, in which you would use the Path Selection Tool to select the path. You
use the tool by clicking to add a point. If you click and drag, it will change the shape of your
path, allowing you to bend and shape the path for accurate selections and such.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Rectangle Tool (U):

By default it draws a Shape Layer in the form of a rectangle. It fills the rectangle with
whatever foreground color you have selected. It‘s pretty complicated; don‘t hurt yourself with
this one.

Notes Tool (N):

Like post-it notes, but digital. You can use this tool to add small little note boxes to your image.
These are useful if you‘re very forgetful or if you‘re sharing your Photoshop file with someone

Eyedropper Tool (I):

This tool works by changing your foreground color to whatever color you click on. Holding the
[Alt] key will change your background color.

Hand Tool (T):

It‘s for moving your entire image within a window. So if you‘re zoomed in and your image
area is larger than the window, you can use the Hand Tool to navigate around your image. Just
click and drag. You can get to this tool at any time when using any other tool by pressing and
holding the [Spacebar].

Zoom Tool (Z):

It allows you to zoom into your image. Hold the [Alt] key to zoom out. Holding the [Shift] key
will zoom all of the windows you have open at the same time. Double-click on the Zoom Tool
in the palette to go back to 100% view.

Background colour:
These are your color boxes. Foreground (in the front) and Background (in the back). Click on
either one to bring up the color select dialog box.

Q33. Explain Screen modes in Adobe photoshop?

To Change to
Do This This Screen What‘s Happening
Press Shift+Tab. Hide all panels. All the panels in your working space — except for the Tools panel —
vanish. When you need to access them again, press Shift+Tab again.
Hide all panels All the panels (including the Tools panel) and the Options bar vanish,
leaving you with a clean workspace showing only the Menu bar,
Press the Tab key. and the Options
Application bar, and any open documents (on the Mac, the Application bar
may not display).
Select the Screen Full Screen Only the active document window is visible, along with the panels, Menu
Mode button in the mode with bar, Application bar, and Options bar. The document window is
Tools panel. Menu bar. maximized, and the other documents are hidden.
Select the Screen Full Screen
Mode button in the View the image alone with all other components hidden.
Tools panel.
Select the Screen Standard Screen The default Photoshop screen appears, displaying all menus and panels.
Mode button in the mode.
Tools panel.
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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Q34. How to reverting files in Photoshop?
The word revert means to return to something earlier or to go back. While changing an image in the
Photoshop, do you want to cancel the previous step and get the image into the previous state then you can
use revert option in the file menu.
Follow the below steps to know how to use revert option:
 Open an image

 Make changes in the original image.

 To revert (kept the image in the previous state), then click revert option in the file menu.
 You can see that the last action you have used on the image will be reverted.
 You can use revert option until you reached the image in original stage.

Q35. How to close files in Photoshop?

To close the Photoshop document, follow the below steps:
 To go file menu and select ‗close‘ option.
 It displays the following dialog box.

 The above dialog box means photoshop don‘t lets you close the photoshop file until saving the
changes made by you.
 If you want to close the document with changes made by you then press ‗yes‘ push button.
 If you want to close the document without changes made by you then press ‗no‘ push button.
 To close this dialog box then press ‗cancel‘ button.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
UNIT - 4
Chapter – 8: Images
Q36. How to open an image?
To open an image in the Adobe Photoshop then follow these steps:
 Go to file menu and select open option.
 It will display ‗open‘ dialog box.

 In this dialog box go to the folder or directory by using look in combo box, to locate image for
 Select the desired image to open and press ‗open‘ push button.
 The selected image will be opened in the Photoshop application window.

Q37. Explain file saving modes in Photoshop?

Photoshop Elements can save images in several file formats, depending on how you plan to
use them. If you are working with web images, the Save for Web command provides many options for
optimizing images. To convert several images to the same file format, or the same size and resolution,
use the Process Multiple Files command. Like you may save images in .jpeg, .tiff, .png, etc. formats.
To change file-saving options, then follow these steps:
 Go to file menu and select save option.
 It will display ‗Save As‘ dialog box.

 To save the file in different format other than Photoshop (.psd), then click
‗format combo box‘
 Here you can see different types of image formats available to save the
 Select the desired format to save the image.

Ch. Anil Kumar 42

Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA File formats: Photoshop Elements can save
images in the following file formats:

BMP (bitmap image): A standard Windows image format. You can specify either Windows or OS/2
format or a bit depth for the image.

GIF ("Graphics Interchange Format): Commonly used to display graphics and small
animations in web pages. GIF is a compressed format designed to minimize file size and
transfer time.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group): Used to save photographs, JPEG format retains all color
information in an image. JPEG is a standard format for displaying images over the web.

PSD (Photoshop Document): The standard Photoshop Elements format for images. You
should generally use this format for edited images to save your work and preserve all your
image data and layers in a single page file.

Photoshop PDF (Portable Document Format): A cross-platform and cross-application file
format. PDF files accurately display and preserve fonts, page layouts, and both vector and
bitmap graphics.

TIFF (Tagged-Image File Format): Used to exchange files between applications and computer
platforms. TIFF is a flexible bitmap image format supported by most paint,
image-editing, and page-layout applications. Most desktop scanners can produce TIFF files.
In addition, Photoshop Elements can open files in several other older formats: Pixel Paint, Portable
Bit Map, SGI RGB, Soft Image, Wave front RLA, and Electric Image.

Q38. Explain about image size and its resolution?

Managing file size is important when working with digital images, if you don‘t keep track of
your file sizes you may end up with very large images, and this will undoubtedly cause problems
somewhere down the line, large files eat up disk space quickly, crash printers, slow down web
browsers, etc. so it is better to set a correct image size based on our requirement, it is possible to
keep our file sizes as low in Photoshop.
To check physical dimensions of an image, then go to ‗image‘ menu and select ‗image size‘,
it will display the following dialog box:

Notice that there are two sections to this window.

The upper section allows you to adjust the number of pixels used for the image. This is how much
data is available in the image. Imagine an image of a face with only 10 pixels of information per row
and column, you probably would be able to tell that it is a face, but it would be unrecognizable.

The lower section of this window allows you to adjust the print size. This is how you adjust the
physical size of the image. You can print out the 10X10 image. Changing the print size does not
adjust the amount of information, and therefore the size of the file.

The resolution is the pixels/inch. This ratio relates image size to print size. ‗72dpi‘ is the default resolution
used for online graphics, 150-300 dpi is used for printing.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Q39. Explain various options for editing an image?
There are so many options available in the edit menu for editing an image. To edit an image it
is compulsory to select image or part of image, after that only editing an image is possible. Some
most used options for editing image is explained below:
 Cut: By using this option, the selected image or part of image is copied into clipboard and the same will
be removed at the original place. Go to edit menu and select cut option.

Original image selecting part of image using cut option

 Copy: By using this option, the selected image or part of image is copied into clipboard without removing
anything. Go to edit menu and select copy option.

Original image selecting part of image using copy option

 Paste: This option is used to place the image or part of image in the clipboard by using cut or copy
options. Go to edit menu and select paste option.

Original image image after using paste option

 Clear: By using this option the selected image or part of image will be removed at the original place. Go
to edit menu and select clear option.

Original image image after using clear option

 Revert: explained in question number 34

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Q40. Explain about colour modes in Adobe Photoshop?
The color mode or image mode determines how colors combine based on the number of
channels in a color model. Different color modes result in different levels of color detail and file size.
For instance, use CMYK color mode for images in a full-color print brochure, and use RGB color
mode for images in web or e-mail to reduce file size while maintaining color integrity. The most
commonly used colour modes are explained below:

Photoshop RGB Color mode uses the RGB model, assigning an intensity value to each pixel. In
8-bits-per-channel images, the intensity values range from 0 (black) to 255 (white) for each of
the RGB (red, green, blue) components in a color image. For example, a bright red color has an
R value of 246, a G value of 20, and a B value of 50. When the values of all three components
are equal, the result is a shade of neutral gray. When the values of all components are 255, the

result is pure white; when the values are 0, pure black.
In the CMYK mode, each pixel is assigned a percentage value for each of the process inks. The
lightest (highlight) colors are assigned small percentages of process ink colors; the darker
(shadow) colors higher percentages. For example, a bright red might contain 2% cyan, 93%
magenta, 90% yellow, and 0% black. In CMYK images, pure white is generated when all four

components have values of 0%.
Index mode:
Indexed Color mode produces 8-bit image files with up to 256 colors. When converting to
indexed color, Photoshop builds a color lookup table (CLUT), which stores and indexes the
colors in the image. If a color in the original image does not appear in the table, the program

chooses the closest one or uses dithering to simulate the color using available colors.
Gray scale mode:
Gray scale mode uses different shades of gray in an image. In 8-bit images, there can be up to
256 shades of gray. Every pixel of a gray scale image has a brightness value ranging from 0
(black) to 255 (white). In 16-and 32-bit images, the number of shades in an image is much
greater than in 8-bit images. Gray scale values can also be measured as percentages of black ink

coverage (0% is equal to white, 100% to black)
Bitmap mode:
Bitmap mode uses one of two color values (black or white) to represent the pixels in an image.
Images in Bitmap mode are called bitmapped 1-bit images because they have a bit depth of 1.

Q41. Explain zooming and panning image in Adobe Photoshop?

Zooming Image:
 To zoom an image, click zoom tool at the tool box.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

In the options bar, you can see zoom in and zoom out icons.

Click the zoom in icon.

Select the area which you want to zoom in the picture.

 After that you can saw your selected part of the image is looks big.

 Panning Image:
When you're zoomed in on an image, you'll often want to drag the image around inside the
document window to check out other areas of the image at the same zoom level. This is
commonly known as "panning", and we can pan images around inside the document window
using the Hand Tool which you'll find next to the Zoom Tool in the Tools palette.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

Q42. Explain Rulers?

Rulers help you position images or elements exactly. When visible, rulers appear along the
top and left side of the active window. Markers in the ruler display the pointer‘s position when you
move it. Changing the ruler origin (the (0, 0) mark on the top and left rulers) lets you measure from a
specific point on the image. To show or hide rulers, choose View > Rulers.

Q43. Explain Guides and grids?

 Guide:
Guides and the grid help you position images or elements precisely. Guides appear as
nonprinting lines that float over the image. You can move and remove guides. You can also lock
them so that you don‘t move them by accident.

To use guides, go to view menu and select rulers option

Rulers will appear in your image.

To set horizontal ruler, then move your mouse pointer to horizontal ruler.

Click the mouse left button and control button on the horizontal ruler.

Drag your mouse.

A horizontal guide will appear.

For vertical guide move your mouse pointer to vertical ruler.

Click the mouse left button and control button on the vertical ruler.

Drag your mouse.

A vertical guide will appear.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
 Grid:
The grid is useful for laying out elements symmetrically. The grid appears by default as
nonprinting lines but can also be displayed as dots. To use grids, go to view menu and select
show option, a sub menu will appears, in the sub menu select grid option, grids will automatically
appears in your image.

Q44. How to crop an image?

To remove unnecessary area in the image by keeping part of image you want is done by using crop
tool. To crop an image, follow these steps:
 Open an image that you want to crop

Select crop tool in the tool bar.

Select the area in the image that you want to crop by using mouse.

The selected area only displayed in the document and the remaining area will be removed.

To apply these selected press enter key in the keyboard.

Your image was cropped and displayed as below.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
Q45. How to change background of an image?
1. Open the image in Adobe Photoshop using open dialog box
2. Now right click on lasso tool and click on magnetic lasso tool.

3. Then move the tool on the person‘s body outline.

4. Right click and click on layer via copy

5. On the layer menu click on new then layer or press Shift+Ctrl+N.

7. Now open the new background image in Photoshop.

8. Now ―select all‖ the image by pressing Ctrl+A and copy using Ctrl+C.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA

9. Now paste it on the original image using Ctrl+P.

10. Now delete the layer named ―Background‖

11. Change the order of the two layers Layer 1 and layer 2.

12. Now change the size of layer 2 using Ctrl+T.

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Computer fundamentals & Photoshop I B.Sc CS / B.Com CA
13. You are done as shown in figure.

Q47. Making selections?

Selecting the part of an image is done by using marquee tool in the tool bar.

Select rectangular marquee tool, and then click mouse right button.

You will find different versions of marquee tools.

The different versions of marquee tools are: Rectangular marquee tool, elliptical marquee tool, single row

marquee tool, single column marquee tool
Select the desired tool, example rectangular marquee tool

Click mouse left button in the document

Drag the mouse in required direction by holding mouse left button.

Release the mouse pointer.

You was selected the image or part of the image as seen below

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