Image encryption

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Image encryption

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engappai

neural networks

Nooshin Bigdeli, Yousef Farid n, Karim Afshar

EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Daneshgah Blv., Qazvin, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: This paper presents a novel image encryption/decryption algorithm based on chaotic neural network

Received 9 March 2011 (CNN). The employed CNN is comprised of two 3-neuron layers called chaotic neuron layer (CNL) and

Received in revised form permutation neuron layer (PNL). The values of three RGB (Red, Green and Blue) color components of

10 November 2011

image constitute inputs of the CNN and three encoded streams are the network outputs. CNL is a

Accepted 6 January 2012

Available online 9 February 2012

chaotic layer where, three well-known chaotic systems i.e. Chua, Lorenz and Lü systems participate in

generating weights and biases matrices of this layer corresponding to each pixel RGB features. Besides,

Keywords: a chaotic tent map is employed as the activation function of this layer, and makes the relationship

Secure communication between the plain image and cipher image nonlinear. The output of CNL, i.e. the diffused information, is

Cipher-image

the input of PNL, where three-dimensional permutation is applied to the diffused information. The

Chaotic neuron layer (CNL)

overall process is repeated several times to make the encryption process more robust and complex. A

Permutation neuron layer (PNL)

Tent map 160-bit-long authentication code has been used to generate the initial conditions and the parameters of

the CNL and PNL. Some security analysis are given to demonstrate that the key space of the new

algorithm is large enough to make brute-force attacks infeasible and simulations have been carried out

with detailed numerical analysis, demonstrating the high security of the new image encryption scheme.

& 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

encryption methods are proposed which are based on using

In the recent years, secure private communication methods chaotic systems in this era (Wei et al., 2006; Joshi et al., 2009;

have aroused the interest of many researchers all over the world. Tong and Cui, 2008; Tong and Cui, 2009; Wong et al., 2008). For

The most general architecture for image encryption is the the special properties such as parameters and initial-value sensi-

permutation–diffusion architecture. There are two iterative stages tivity, ergodicity and quasi-randomness, chaos is used in data

in this kind of image cryptosystems (Chen et al., 2004). The protection, widely (Lian, 2009).

permutation stage changes the position of image pixels but does Due to their good properties such as high nonlinearity, para-

not alter their values. In the diffusion stage, the pixel values are meter sensitivity and learning ability, neural networks have been

modiﬁed sequentially so that a tiny change in one pixel is spread widely used as the other choice for information protection, such

out to almost all pixels in the whole image. The whole as data encryption, data authentication and intrusion detection

permutation–diffusion round repeats for a number of times so (Lian, 2009; Chan and Cheng, 2001; Xiao et al., 2005). Neural

as to achieve a satisfactory level of security. For this architecture, networks’ confusion and diffusion properties have been used to

generation of secret keys and control parameter are essential design encryption algorithms, such as the stream ciphers (Chan

issues in increasing security and complexity of the algorithm. and Cheng, 2001; Karras and Zorkadis, 2003) or the block ciphers

A good encryption algorithm should be sensitive to the cipher (Lain et al., 2004; Lian, 2009).

keys, and the key space should be large enough to make brute- As a combination of neural networks and chaos, a chaotic

force attacks infeasible. In order to achieve such type of security, neural network (CNN), has both the characteristic of neural

employing chaotic systems in generating the secret keys and network and chaos. Especially it has more complex dynamic

parameters has become one of the most important topics in behavior and so, it is expected to have better performance as

an image encryption tool. Therefore, such combinations have

been employed in some researches as more efﬁcient methods

n

Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ 98 281 8371155.

for information protection and information encryption (Lian,

E-mail addresses: bigdeli@ikiu.ac.ir (N. Bigdeli), yousef.farid@ikiu.ac.ir, 2009). As an instance, in (Lian et al., 2006) a three-layer neural

y.farid.e.control@gmail.com (Y. Farid), afshar@ikiu.ac.ir (K. Afshar). network has been used to construct a hash function. The three

0952-1976/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engappai.2012.01.007

754 N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765

neuron-layers are used to realize data confusion, diffusion and attractors for a Chua system with a1 ¼10, b1 ¼100/7 are shown

compression. And the multi-block hash mode is presented to in Fig. 1(a)–(c).

support the plaintext with variable length. Socek and Culibrk B. Lorenz system: The dynamics of chaotic Lorenz system may

(Socek and Culibrk, 2005) analyzed a clipped Hopﬁeld neural be represented by the following equations (Li and Yin, 2009):

network-based encryption system for digital images and videos, x_ 2 ¼ a2 ðy2 x2 Þ

and pointed how to ensure the security of stream through y_ 2 ¼ x2 z2 y2 þ c2 x2

improving some scheme, such as randomness properties of the

z_ 2 ¼ x2 y2 b2 z2 ð2Þ

generated key-stream. In (Lian, 2009), a CNN structure is pro-

posed for block cipher in which the employed chaotic activation where a2, b2, and c2 are its constant parameters. With a2 ¼10,

function in the so-called chaotic neuron layer realizes data b2 ¼8/3, c2 ¼ 28, system has chaotic behavior (Li and Yin, 2009)

diffusion and a linear neuron layer realizes data confusion. This which has been illustrated in Fig. 1(d)–(f) via the projection of

structure implies good computing security, but due to constant system attractors of its state space trajectories.

weight and bias matrices, it seems vulnerable to attacks. C. Lü system: The chaotic Lü system model can be described as

In this paper, the idea in (Lian, 2009) has been generalized to (Lü et al., 2002):

achieve a novel block cipher based on CNN. These cryptosystem is x_ 3 ¼ a3 ðy3 x3 Þ

based on a 3-input 3-output neural network structure that y_ 3 ¼ x3 z3 þc3 x3

comprised of two 3-neuron layers called chaotic neuron layer z_ 3 ¼ x3 y3 b3 z3 ð3Þ

(CNL) and permutation neuron layer (PNL). The values of three

RGB (Red, Green and Blue) color components of image constitute where a3,b3, c3 are parameters. With a3 ¼36,b3 ¼3, c3 ¼20,

inputs of the CNN and three encoded streams are the network system has chaotic behavior (Lü et al., 2002). Trajectories of

outputs. The weights and biases matrices of CNL are generated by the state variables of this chaotic system are also shown in

three well-known chaotic systems i.e. Chua, Lorenz and Lü Fig. 1(g)–(i).

systems. Besides, a chaotic tent map is employed as the activation

function of this layer. The output of CNL, i.e. the diffused

information, is the input of PNL. In PNL a linear permutation in 2.2. The tent map and its properties

conjunction with a 2-dimentional nonlinear shufﬂing are applied

to the data to obtain three-dimensional permutation. The overall The discrete chaotic tent map is a 1-D piecewise-linear map

process is repeated several times to make the encryption process deﬁned by the following equation (Masuda and Aihara, 2002):

more robust and complex. Simulations show that the suggested ( S

image encryption scheme has the advantage of large key space ax , 1 r x ra

f Tent ða,xÞ ¼ S ð4aÞ

and high security. Sa ðSxÞ þ1, a oxrS

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, a

short background about the employed chaotic systems and where a(aA[1,S]) is an integer determined by user, and, bxc and

chaotic function and their behavior is presented. The proposed dxe denotes ﬂoor and ceiling of x, respectively. Generally, S is

encryption and decryption methods are described in Section 3 selected according to the plaintext. For an 8-bit image, S¼256 is

and the performance security analysis results of the proposed intuitive. The discrete tent map is a one-to-one mapping. In order

algorithm is brought in Section 4. In Section 5 the paper is to illustrate the impact of tent map on a time series, a 16 16

concluded. block of Lena image is selected and arranged in the form of time

series and then applied as the input to the tent map system. The

resulting time series is shown in Fig. 2. As seen, the output of the

2. Preliminary Materials tent map system has chaotic behavior, while the input of this

system has a quasi-periodic behavior.

As stated earlier, in order to implement the chaotic neural The inverse of above-mentioned tent map is also deﬁned as

network for image encryption, some chaotic systems are used for (Masuda and Aihara, 2002):

8

> ay=S ay=S ¼ 1 and b a c 4 d Sa e or ay=S ay=S ¼ 0

ay=S ða=S1Þy

< ay=S if

1

f Tent ða,yÞ ¼ ð4bÞ

>

: ða=S1Þyþ S if ay=S ay=S ¼ 1 and b a c r d Sa e

ay=S ða=S1Þy

generating secret keys as well as neural network parameters. The 2.3. CAT map permutation algorithm

details of implementing this network will be described in Section

3. Beforehand, a short introduction to the employed chaotic In the permutation stage of image cryptosystems, three types

systems, the tent map and the Cat map permutation algorithm of two-dimensional chaotic maps are usually employed: the

will be presented in this section. Standard map, Cat map and generalized Baker map. Cat map is

the commonest map used in the literature. Suppose the size of the

2.1. The employed chaotic systems original grayscale image D is N N and the coordinates of the

pixel positions are SI ¼{(x,y)9x,y¼1,2,y,N}. Cat map is described

A. Chua system: The chaotic Chua system is modeled by the as (Xiao et al., 2009):

following equations (Botmart and Niamsup, 2007): ! ! " # !

x^ x 1 p x

x_ 1 ¼ a1 ðy1 f ðx1 ÞÞ ¼Q modðNÞ ¼ modðNÞ ð5Þ

y^ y q pq þ 1 y

y_ 1 ¼ x1 y1 þz1

z_ 1 ¼ b1 y1 ð1Þ

where, p and q are positive integers which are called Cat map

3

where a1, b1 are constant parameters and f ðx1 Þ ¼ 2x1 x1 =7. control parameters and the (x,y) and ðx^ , y^ Þ are the original and the

With a1 ¼10, and b1 ¼100/7 system has chaotic behavior new positions, respectively. Since detðQ Þ ¼ 1, the map is area-

(Botmart and Niamsup, 2007). The projection of chaotic preserving.

N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765 755

Fig. 1. The projections of chaotic attractors for: (a)–(c) Chua system, (d)–(f) Lorenz system, and (g)–(i) Lu system.

3. The proposed image encryption and decryption scheme and then enter to the activation function block which is a chaotic

tent map. The output of this layer is the diffused information

In this section, the step by step procedures and the properties which is the input of the PNL. In this layer, the permutation is

of the proposed image encryption scheme as well as its decryp- done in two steps. In the ﬁrst step, a linear permutation is applied

tion process will be described. to the secret data. The permutation matrix is generated by the

chaotic key generator block. The permuted strings are then

3.1. Encryption algorithm nonlinearly shufﬂed via 2-dimensional Cat map permutation

algorithm (Section 2.3). This procedure is repeated several times

The ﬂowchart of the proposed encryption process is shown in (R times) to achieve higher security and more complexity. In more

Fig. 3(a). As it is seen in this ﬁgure, three distinct blocks comprise details, the encryption process may be summarized in the

the encryption system: a chaotic key generator block, chaotic following steps:

neuron layer (CNL) and permutation neuron layer (PNL). Each of

the last two layers is 3-input 3-output and includes three Step 1: In the proposed algorithm, 160 bits authentication

neurons. The chaotic key generator block supports these layers code is used as secret keys. Therefore, the key space size is

by their corresponding weights and biases. The details of layer 2160. Select a sequence of 160 bits as the authentication code K,

interactions are illustrated in Fig. 3(b) and (c). In Fig. 3(b), the and then split them into ﬁve groups, that are further mapped

inputs of CNL are the RGB components of the input image. A into nine initial parameters x1(0),y1(0), z1(0), x2(0), y2(0), z2(0),

linear combination of the inputs are passed through two non- x3(0), y3(0) and z3(0). In Fig. 4 it is shown that how the secret

linear stages i.e. nonlinear normalization and bitxor operations keys are generated from the authentication code. Next, set R as

756 N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765

Fig. 2. (a) A sample input of the tent map system and (b) the corresponding output of the tent map system.

Fig. 3. (a) The ﬂowchart of encryption process, (b) Chaotic neuron layer, and (c) Permutation neuron layer.

Fig.4. The method of nine secretes keys generation from a 160 bits authentication code.

the number of iterations, and N0 as the complementary matrices in the following way:

secret keys. 2 3

x1 ðN0 þ iÞ x2 ðN0 þ iÞ x3 ðN0 þ iÞ

Step 2: Iterate three chaotic Chua, Lorenz and Lü systems using 6 y ðN þ iÞ y ðN þiÞ y ðN þiÞ 7

Runge–Kutta algorithm for N0 times to avoid the harmful

W dl,i ¼ 4 1 0 2 0 3 0 5 þ aI ð6Þ

effect of transitional procedure, thus x1(N0), y1(N0), z1(N0), z1 ðN0 þ iÞ z2 ðN0 þ iÞ z3 ðN0 þ iÞ

x2(N0), y2(N0), z2(N0), x3(N0), y3(N0) and z3(N0) are gotten. Call

r the iteration number. Set r ¼1. aðj,iÞ ¼ modð9xj ðN 0 þ iÞ9f loorðxj ðN 0 þ iÞÞÞ1014 ,255Þ þ 1, j ¼ 1,2,3

Step 3: Since the image D is a N N pixels image, for T

Al,i ¼ ½að1,iÞ,að2,iÞ,að3,iÞ

N0 þi,i¼(r 1) (N N)þ1,y,r (N N) iterate the three

chaotic systems, where i¼1, 2,y represents the ith iteration bðj,iÞ ¼ dec2biðmodð9yj ðN 0 þiÞ9Þf loorðyj ðN 0 þiÞÞÞ

of chaotic systems. For each iteration compute Wdl ,Bdl and Al 1014 ,255Þ þ 1, j ¼ 1,2,3

N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765 757

– XOR operation

Bdl,i ¼ ½bð1,iÞ,bð2,iÞ,bð3,iÞT ð7Þ

Y 4,k ¼ Y 31,k Bdl,i ð13Þ

where, Wdl,i is the weight matrix and Bdl,i and Al,i are the bias

matrices of CNL, mod(x,y) returns the remainder after division,

– Applying chaotic activation function

ﬂoor(x) rounds the elements of x to the nearest integers less

than or equal to x and dec2bi(x) converts decimal number x to Y 5,k ¼ f ðY 4,k ,Al,i Þ þY 32,k ð14Þ

a binary value. Besides, I is a 3 3 identity matrix, and the

parameter a prevent from occurrence the singularity problem

in W 1

dl,i matrix. The next matrix to be determined is Wcl. This where, the symbol in Eq. (13) represents the exclusive OR

matrix is the weight matrix of PNL and is employed for the operation bit-by-bit, and f( ) in Eq. (14) is the chaotic tent map as

linear shufﬂing of the three color components of the output of introduced in Eq. (4a).

CNN, i.e. in order to change the positions of the (R, G, B) Step 6: The output of the CNL is the 3 (N N) matrix Y5

components of the image. Therefore, it consists of 3 3 matrix

which is then permuted in two stages by PNL. At ﬁrst, each

with just one ‘1’ in each of its rows/columns. In order to column of Y5 i.e. Y5,k,k¼1,y,(N N) is linearly permuted as

determine Wcl, let us deﬁne:

Y 6,k ¼ gðW cl,i Y 5,k þ Bcl,i Þ ð15Þ

Di ¼ ½x1 ðN0 þ iÞ,y2 ðN 0 þiÞ,z3 ðN 0 þiÞ

w1,i ¼ argðmaxðDi ÞÞ

w2,i ¼ argðminðDi ÞÞ ð8aÞ Usually, the structure of the neural network layers (activation

functions of neurons, weight matrix and bias vector) are

where, by argðmaxðDi ÞÞ, we mean the index of the maximum regulated regarding the design purposes. Here, our purpose

value in the vector Di. Then the non–zero term of ﬁrst and is to change the positions of the red, blue and green compo-

second rows of matrix Wcl,k is determined as nents of the image using the neural structure, i.e. linear neuron

W cl,i ð1,w1,i Þ ¼ W cl,i ð2,w2,i Þ ¼ 1 ð8bÞ with proper weights, but and without biases. Therefore, it is

assumed that g(x)¼x, Bcl,i ¼ [0,0,0]T, and the calculation of

and, the non-zero term of the third row is determined such

weight matrix Wcl,i is as clariﬁed in step 3.

that it exists just one ‘1’ in each row/column of the matrix Wcl,k

Step 7: In this stage, the output of the linear permutation stage

( for example: [010;001;100] [R, G, B] ¼[G, B, R]). Then, the

are shufﬂed. For this purpose, each row of matrix Y6 is

control parameters of Eq. (5) are derived as (Wang et al., 2009)

arranged in a N N matrix and thus three output N N

pi ¼ f loor½modðz1 ðN0 þ iÞ 224 ,NÞ matrixes are provided. Then, each matrix is permuted in

qi ¼ f loor½modðmodðz1 ðN0 þ iÞ 248 ,224 Þ,NÞ ð9Þ two-dimensional by Cat map permutation algorithm of

Section 2.3. Considering the three nonlinearly permuted

matrices as three planes of encrypted image (red, green, blue),

Step 4: Suppose that the input image P is N N pixels. Then, the output encrypted image is derived, which is called Y7.

corresponding to each pixel k, there is a vector Xk of order Step 8: If the current round is not the ﬁnal round of encryption

three with the RGB components of the pixel as its entries (r oR), then set P¼ Y7. Set r ¼r þ1 and return to step 3.

Xk ¼[Rk,Gk,Bk]T,k¼1,y,(N N). Then the total color information Otherwise, set Pﬁnal ¼Y7 is the ﬁnal cipher-image and encryp-

of the image will be a 3 (N N) matrix X with columns tion process is completed.

Xk,k¼1,y,(N N). Compute the matrix X as the input of CNL.

Step 5: Considering Fig. 3, in order to generate the secret

information, several operations are applied to each column of

matrix X, i.e. Xk,k¼1,y,(N N) and i¼(r 1) (N N)þ 1,y, 3.2. Decryption algorithm

r (N N) as

In the decryption stage, the reverse of encryption process

Y 1,k ¼ W dl,i X k ð10Þ

should be performed. Therefore, the inverse of PNL and CNL

operations should be synthesized and applied to the encrypted

– Normalization (mapping the values of Y1,k into interval image, iteratively. The decryption process ﬂow chart has been

[1,255]): shown in Fig. 5. From this ﬁgure, the decryption process can be

Y 1,k -½1,255 summarized as

Y 1,k ! Y 2,k ¼ NðY 1,k Þ ð11Þ

where, NðxÞ ¼ q1 tanhðq2 xÞ þq3 , and q1,q2,q3 are constant Step 1: Considering the authentication code K, generate secret

parameters. keys of x1(0),y1(0), z1(0), x2(0), y2(0), z2(0), x3(0), y3(0) and

– Manipulation: z3(0). Having known R and N0, iterate the three chaotic Chua,

Lorenz and Lü systems (Eqs. (1) to (3)) for i¼1,y,N0 þR

Y 3,k ¼ f loorðY 2,k Þ þmodðY 2,k ,f loorðY 2,k ÞÞ ¼ Y 31,k þ Y 32,k ð12Þ

(N N). Set r ¼R. Set the input image H¼Pﬁnal.

758 N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765

1

Step 2: For N0 þi,i ¼(r 1) (N N)þ1,y,r (N N), compute H4,k ¼ f Tent ðAl,i ,H31,k Þ ð18Þ

the p, q, Wcl, Bcl, Al, Bdl and Wdl matrices using Eqs. (6)–(8).

H5,k ¼ H4,k Bdl,i ð19Þ

Step 3: For each plane of encrypted image, H, execute the

reverse action of nonlinear permutation employing Eq. (5). Call H6,k ¼ H5,k þ H32,k ð20Þ

it H1. Represent H1 in a 3 (N N) matrix form.

Step 4: Considering H1,k,k¼ 1,y,(N N) as the kth column of

matrix H1, and i¼ (r 1) (N N)þ1,y,r (N N), the inverse – De-normalization (inverse mapping of Eq. (11)):

of linear permutation is done as

½1,255-H7,k

H2,k ¼ W cl,i 1 ðg 1 ðH1,k ÞBcl,i Þ ð16Þ H6,k ! H7,k ¼ N 1 ðH6,k Þ ð21Þ

H8,k ¼ W 1

dl,i H 7,k ð22Þ

Step 5: The secret information is decodes as 1

– Manipulation: where, in Eq. (18), is the inverse of chaotic tent map as it

f Tent

is deﬁned in Eq. (4b), and N 1( ) in Eq. (21) is the inverse of

H3,k ¼ f loorðH2,k Þ þ modðH2,k ,f loorðH2,k ÞÞ ¼ H31,k þ H32,k ð17Þ normalization function in Eq. (11).

Fig. 6. Histogram analysis: (a, b, c, d) the plain of original ‘‘Lena’’ image and the corresponding histograms of red, green and blue channels of the plain image; (e, f, g, h) and

(i, j, k, l) the same plots but for the encrypted and decrypted images, respectively.

N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765 759

Step 6: Convert the 3 (N N) matrix of H8 to the N N pixel 4. Performance and security analysis

image with three color component. If r 41, set r ¼r 1, H¼ H8

and go to step 2. Otherwise, decryption process has been A good encryption procedure should be robust against all

completed and H8 is the decrypted image. kinds of cryptanalytic, statistical and brute-force attacks. Some

security analysis has been performed on the proposed image

encryption scheme.

Remark 1. In the proposed block-cipher, three components of

color image, i.e., R, G, B, comprises the input of the CNN. Thus,

with arranging the pixels of gray-level image in certain order as 4.1. Key space security

8

< R ¼ Pi ,

>

G ¼ P i1 , ð23Þ The security of key includes two aspects. One is the size of the

>

:B¼P , key space, which characterizes the capability of resisting brute-

i2

force attack. A short key means that the best encryption algorithm

The process of encrypting color image can be applied to the can be broken by exhaustive search (also known as brute-force

gray-level image similarly until the cipher image satisﬁes the attacks) in a reasonable amount of time, while the reverse is not

desired performance requirement. true. The other is the key non-recovery property. It must be

Fig. 7. Histogram analysis: (a, b, c, d) the plain of original ‘‘Baboon’’ image and the corresponding histograms of red, green and blue channels of the plain image; (e, f, g, h)

and (i, j, k, l) the same plots but for the encrypted and decrypted images, respectively.

760 N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765

computationally infeasible to recover the key. In our algorithm, a attacks, and that in 2050 this will be true for a 109-bit key. From

160 bits authentication code is used as secret keys. Moreover, the this, one might conclude that, a 128-bit key is sufﬁcient to keep

parameters R, N0, p, q could also be used as the secret keys. data conﬁdential for the next few decades. In (NIST Special

Therefore, an authentication code of at least 224 is feasible for the Publication 800-133, 2011), NIST, presumably based on similar

proposed algorithm. In order to examine if the selected key size is types of calculation, recommend a minimum of 128 bits of

enough, the suggestions in (Lian, 2009; Lenstra and Verheul, strength to keep data conﬁdential ‘‘beyond 2030’’. Thus, in order

2001; NIST Special Publication 800-133, 2011; Bennett et al., to insure the required level of security, an authentication code of

1997; Ferguson and Schneier, 2003) has been considered, here. In 160 bit which has been considered in the proposed method seems

(Lian, 2009), Lian suggested that the key space should be at least a proper choice. On the other hand, in (Bennett et al., 1997) it has

264 for a sufﬁcient security level against brute-force search been proved that a brute-force key search on a quantum compu-

attacks. The proposed cryptosystem has fulﬁlled this requirement. ter cannot be faster than roughly 2n/2 invocations of the under-

In (Lenstra and Verheul, 2001), Lenstra and Verheul took the data lying cryptographic algorithm, compared with roughly 2n in the

points from attacks on keys of various lengths and extrapolated classical case. Thus, in the presence of large quantum computers

them via Moore’s Law. They concluded that in 2030, it seems that an n-bit key can provide at least n/2 bits of security. This is one of

a 93-bit key size is sufﬁcient for security against the brute-force the reasons why AES supports a 256-bit key length (Ferguson and

Fig. 8. Histogram analysis: (a, b, c, d) the plain of original ‘‘Peppers’’ image and the corresponding histograms of red, green and blue channels of the plain image; (e, f, g, h)

and (i, j, k, l) the same plots but for the encrypted and decrypted images, respectively.

N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765 761

Schneier, 2003). Quantum brute force is easily defeated by encrypted by AES (Mollin, 2006), and the algorithm (Masuda and

doubling the key length, which has little extra computational Aihara, 2002) are still intelligible, some patterns in the encrypted

cost in ordinary use. This implies that at least a 218-bit key is image by the chaotic neural network in (Lian, 2009) are also

required to achieve 109-bit security rating against a quantum intelligible in Fig. 9(c), while the proposed algorithm encrypts the

computer up to about 2050. A conclusion can be drawn that the image into an unintelligible one (Fig. 9(d)).

key space of the proposed algorithm is large enough to resist the

brute-force attack, for the next few decades, even if quantum 4.3. Key sensitivity

computing is employed.

Additionally, compared with the proposed methods in (Yen In order to demonstrate the key sensitivity of our algorithm,

and Guo, 1999; Lian, 2009), this algorithm is of higher security several experiments have been done under the same condition but

against known-plaintext or selected-plain text attacks. In the with a small mismatch in secret keys. That is, in each case, a

algorithm proposed in (Yen and Guo, 1999), only weight matrices relative mismatch of order 10 14 exists in just one of the secret

are used as keys, which can be recovered by known-plain text or keys. Here, we only represent the variation of four parameters from

select-plain text attackers. In the proposed method, in addition to total keys. The secret keys of the different scenarios are chosen as

the weight matrices, the chaotic function f( ) and the parameters

R, N0, p, qcan be used as keys, which make attackers more difﬁcult

to recover these keys. Furthermore, the weight and bias matrices i. x1 ð0Þ ¼ 0:3 þ1e14 ¼ 0:30000000000001,

are constructed from three different chaotic maps and are x2 ð0Þ ¼ 1, x3 ð0Þ ¼ 1:75, z3 ð0Þ ¼ 2:75

different for each pixel in different iterations. Chaotic activation

functions and chaos-based 3-dimentional shufﬂing makes this

method more robust against variable attacks. Therefore, for ii. x1 ð0Þ ¼ 0:3, x2 ð0Þ ¼ 1 þ 1e14 ¼ 1:0000000000001,

successful decryption of the encrypted data, in addition the secret x3 ð0Þ ¼ 1:75,

keys, the above-mentioned parameters and functions as well as z3 ð0Þ ¼ 2:75

the decryption process must be known.

4.2. Histogram analysis x3 ð0Þ ¼ 1:75 þ 1e15 ¼ 1:750000000000001, z3 ð0Þ ¼ 2:75

density versus their color intensity level. To show the feasibility

iv. x1 ð0Þ ¼ 0:3, x2 ð0Þ ¼ 1, x3 ð0Þ ¼ 1:75,

of the proposed scheme, we employed the 256 256 ‘‘Lena’’,

z3 ð0Þ ¼ 2:75 þ 1e16 ¼ 2:750000000000001

‘‘Baboon’’ and ‘‘Peppers’’ color images as our plain color images.

Taking R¼2, the plain-images, cipher-images and the decrypted

images mid the underlying histograms of these images versus Fig. 10 shows the decryption result for Lena image for these four

their three main components (red, green and blue colors) have scenarios with r ¼1. For each case, the decrypted image as well as

been shown in Figs. 6–8. As it is illustrated, the histograms of the the corresponding histogram of H8 in Eq. (22) has been shown. As

cipher-image are fairly uniform, and have good statistical proper- it is seen, even with such a small mismatches in the secret keys,

ties resembling white noise. In this manner, no information could the decrypted image is absolutely different from the real plain-

be achieved from the encrypted image about the order of pixels in image. Besides, the histograms have negative values. This obser-

the original image and hence does not provide any clue to employ vation shows that just such a small mismatch in the secret keys

any statistical attack on the proposed image encryption procedure. results in incorrect decrypted pixels both in value and sign.

Similar situation has been observed for other images (not Especially, this behavior makes decryption impossible when r is

shown here). greater than one. This is that to this fact that the input of inverse

Additionally, the Lena ciphered image in the gray-level form of tent map (f 1 in Eq. (4b)) must be positive, and XOR operation

with the proposed algorithm is compared with the traditional with negative number is impossible. Therefore, negative values in

cipher AES (Mollin, 2006) and the algorithm only based on tent the ﬁrst round of decryption makes would block the decryption

map (Masuda and Aihara, 2002) as well as chaotic neural network procedure. This is, however, due to the high complexity and the

of (Lian, 2009). In the experiments, the image is encrypted by AES chaotic properties of the proposed algorithm. From this property,

(Mollin, 2006), the algorithm (Masuda and Aihara, 2002), chaotic it is seen that the proposed algorithm show very high robustness

neural network of (Lian, 2009) and the proposed algorithm, against just a small mismatch which implies a very high security

respectively. Seen from the results shown in Fig. 9, the images in data encryption.

Fig. 9. Comparison of image encryption results. (a) AES algorithm (Mollin, 2006), (b) the algorithm in (Masuda and Aihara, 2002), (c) chaotic neural network in (Lian, 2009)

and (d) proposed algorithm.

762 N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765

Fig. 10. The sensitivity analysis with respect to the secret key for relative mismatch of order 1e-14 (a) mismatch in x1(0), (b) mismatch in x2(0), (c) mismatch in x3(0) and

(d) mismatch in z3(0).

4.4. Correlation coefﬁcient analysis ﬁgure, it is observed that while two adjacent pixels in the original

are highly correlated, there is negligible correlation between the

As it is known, the correlation of between adjacent pixels in two adjacent pixels in the encrypted image. In the next stage, the

the original image is very high. An effective encryption algorithm correlation between two vertically adjacent pixels, two horizon-

should reduce the correlation between adjacent pixels. The tally adjacent pixels, two diagonally adjacent pixels, are also

following formula are used for calculation of the correlation computed for a batch of 5000 adjacent pairs of the original

coefﬁcient (rxy) as and ciphered images. The correlation coefﬁcients of proposed

NI cipher of Figs. 6(e), 7(e) and 8 (e) are compared with the

1 X traditional cipher AES (Zeghid et al., 2007), the algorithm

eðxÞ ¼ x

NI i ¼ 1 i (Rhouma et al.), and the algorithm in (Hongjun and Xingyuan,

1 X NI 2010), respectively, in Table 1. From Table 1, it is observed that

dðxÞ ¼ ðx eðxÞÞ2 the proposed image encryption have better performance in

NI i ¼ 1 i

comparison with other algorithms. Therefore, it can clearly be

NI

1 X seen that our algorithm can destroy the relativity effectively; the

covðx,yÞ ¼ ðx eðxÞÞðyi eðyÞÞ

NI i ¼ 1 i proposed image encryption algorithm has a strong ability to resist

covðx,yÞ statistical attack.

r xy ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð24Þ

dðxÞ dðyÞ

where x and y are the gray values of two adjacent pixels in the

image, covðx,yÞ is the covariance, d(x) is the variance and e(x) is 4.5. Information entropy analysis

the mean. For example, in Fig. 11, the correlations of both

vertically and horizontally adjacent pixels in Lena plain-image The information entropy is deﬁned to express the degree of

and ciphered image have been compared. From the graphs in this uncertainties in a system. For a message source m, the information

N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765 763

Fig. 11. Correlation of two adjacent pixels: (a) and (b) the distribution of two horizontally adjacent pixels in the plain and cipher images, respectively; (c) and (d) the

distribution of two vertically adjacent pixels in the plain and cipher images, respectively.

Table 1

Correlation coefﬁcients of the original image Lena and the cipher-images obtained by the proposed scheme and the three

comparable block ciphers.

Proposed algorithm

Lena 0.00122 0.00183 0.00119

Baboon 0.00141 0.00257 0.00096

Peppers 0.00085 0.00131 0.00192

Information entropies of the cipher-images obtained by the proposed scheme and

Nm

2X1 the two comparable block ciphers.

1

HðmÞ ¼ pðmi Þlog ð25Þ

i¼0

pðmi Þ Scheme R G B

where p(mi) represents the probability of occurrence of mi, and log Algorithm (Rhouma et al.) 7.9732 7.9750 7.9715

denotes the base 2 logarithm. For a random process, every symbol Algorithm (Hongjun and Xingyuan, 2010) 7.9851 7.9852 7.9832

has equal probability. Therefore, for example, for Nm ¼8, every

Proposed algorithm

symbol in m ¼ fm1 ,m2 ,. . .,m28 g has equal probability of Lena 7.9981 7.9962 7.9974

p(mi)¼2 8. Such a distribution results in the entropy H(m)¼8. Baboon 7.9967 7.9941 7.9985

Here, the performance of the proposed encryption/decryption Peppers 7.9975 7.9978 7.9933

method has been examined via analyzing the information entropy

of the ciphered image of Fig. 6(e). For the ciphered image, the

information entropy has been calculated for gray level value of the results show that the cipher-image is close to a random source and

pixels which is H(m)¼ 7.9951, while this value for the ciphered the proposed algorithm is secure against the entropy attack.

image with AES algorithm (Zeghid et al., 2007) is H(m)¼7.91.

Additionally, the information entropies of the three color compo- 4.6. Speed analysis

nents (R, G, B) of Figs. 6(e), 7(e) and 8 (e) are compared with the

algorithms (Rhouma et al.; Hongjun and Xingyuan, 2010) in Apart from the security considerations, some other issues on

Table 2. Our scheme leads to the highest entropy compared with image encryption are also important, such as the running speed

the other algorithms. They are very close to the ideal value 8. The for real-time image encryption/decryption. Here, the simulator

764 N. Bigdeli et al. / Engineering Applications of Artiﬁcial Intelligence 25 (2012) 753–765

Average encryption/decryption speed of the proposed method in comparison with encryption iterations is greater than one.

other methods.

Complexity: The proposed algorithm has remarkable com-

Scheme Encryption Decryption plexity and mixture characteristics. In the proposed algorithm,

speed speed the weight and bias matrices are constructed from three

different chaotic maps and are different for each pixel in

AES (Zeghid et al., 2007) 19.18 18.95 different iterations. Chaotic activation function and chaos-

Algorithm (Rhouma et al.) 7.67 7.46 based 3-dimensional shufﬂing makes this method more robust

Algorithm (Hongjun and Xingyuan, 9.69 9.56 against variable attacks. Therefore, for successful decryption of

2010) the encrypted data, in addition the secret keys, these functions

Proposed algorithm 12.06 11.85

and their parameters as well as the decryption process must

be known.

Performance analysis: Simulation results for both gray-level

and color images have been demonstrated to evaluate and

compare its performance with that of other block ciphers. The

for the proposed cryptosystem is implemented using Matlab results show that the proposed scheme leads to the highest

7.7.0. Performance was measured on a 1.60 GHz Pentium IV with security level in terms of the key space, key sensitivity,

512 Mbytes of RAM running Windows XP. To evaluate the run- correlation coefﬁcients, entropy and computational complex-

ning speed, the different images have been encrypted/decrypted ity of the cipher-images.

by the proposed cryptosystem ten times and the average time and Computational speed analysis: The computational speed

speed have been evaluated. Simulation results show that the analysis of the proposed method is representative of high

average encryption/decryption time is 54.1 ms for encryption and speed of encryption/decryption as well as reasonably low time

55.95 ms for decryption and the average encryption/decryption of computation.

speed is 12.06 MB/s for encryption and 11.85 MB/s for decryption.

In order to show the strength of the proposed method, the

encryption/decryption speed of the proposed method has been

compared with that of the AES algorithm (Zeghid et al., 2007) and References

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