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**Mathematical and algorithmic manipulation of discretized and
**

quantized or naturally digital signals in order to extract the most

relevant and pertinent information that is carried by the signal.

z What is a signal?

z What is a system?

z What is processing?

Applied Signal Processing - Lecture 1

Examples of signals:

Applied Signal Processing - Lecture 1

Characterization of signals:

z Continuous time signals vs. discrete time signals

e.g. Temperature in the building at any time

z Continuous valued signals vs. digital signals

**e.g. Amount of current drawn by a device; average exam grades
**

- Continuous time and continuous valued: Analog signal

- Continuous time and discrete valued: Quantized signal

- Discrete time and continuous valued: Sampled signal

- Discrete time and discrete values: Digital signal (CD audio)

z Real-valued signals vs. complex-valued signals

z Single channel vs. multi-channel signals

**e.g. Blood pressure signal – 128 channel EEG
**

z Deterministic vs. random signal

z One-dimensional vs. two-dimensional vs. multi-dimensional signals

Applied Signal Processing - Lecture 1

Applied Signal Processing - Lecture 1

Lecture 1 . The goal of signal processing is to extract the useful information from the signal . frequency.Every signal carries information. Applied Signal Processing .The part of the signal that is not useful is called noise. not all that information is typically of interest to the user. independent varables can be time. Noise is not necessarily noisy. ..Any physical quantity that is represented as a function of an independent variable is called a signal. However. Any part of the signal we are not interested in is by definition noise. space etc.

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

because z They are easy to generate z They are easy to work with. their mathematical properties are well known z Most importantly: all signals can be written as a sum of sinusoids.Lecture 1 .Sinusoids play a very important role in signal processing. In continuous time: Applied Signal Processing . through Fourier transforms (later).

0.} n indicates discrete time. the bold-face number is at t = 0..2.7.. -3.1. 1. in integer intervals.9.Lecture 1 . commonly referred to as a sequence..2.2. . 2. -0. where t is defined to take integer values only.A discrete-time signal.Discrete-time signals may also be written as a sequence of numbers inside braces: {x[n]} = {. is only defined at discrete time instances. 2... .. Applied Signal Processing .

1.-2.Discrete-time signals are often generated from continuous time signals by sampling. which can roughly be interpreted as quantizing the independent variable (time)..Lecture 1 .-1...0..2. S TS = Sampling interval/period fS = 1/TS = Sampling frequency Applied Signal Processing ... {x[n]} = x(nTS) = x ( t ) | t=nT n = ..

Applied Signal Processing .Lecture 1 .

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

Applied Signal Processing .Lecture 1 .

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

ZERO ORDER HOLD Applied Signal Processing .Lecture 1 .

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

Applied Signal Processing .Lecture 1 .

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

Applied Signal Processing .Lecture 1 .

Lecture 1 .Examples of filtering Applied Signal Processing .

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

Analysis of ECG Signals Applied Signal Processing .Lecture 1 .

Lecture 1 . Analysis of seismic waves: study the structure of the soil by analyzing seismic waves. Applied Signal Processing . Depending on the material in the soil the reflected waves have different frequencies (modes).g. volcanic eruptions) or man-made (explosions etc. wither natural (earthquakes. for exploration of oil.) Useful e.

Lecture 1 .travel time Seismic signals as a function of position Applied Signal Processing .

Dolby Noise Reduction Scheme A Compressor Applied Signal Processing .Lecture 1 .

Lecture 1 .Dolby Noise Reduction Scheme Applied Signal Processing .

Lecture 1 .Applied Signal Processing .

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.

.

.

Î¼n 1n 0 Î¼n 0 n< 0 .

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.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x[ n] =xev [ n] +xod [ n] x[ n] = xcs [ n] +xca [ n] .

∞ ∑ ( x [ n ]) 2 Ex = n= −∞ .

.

N −1 ∑ ( x [ n ]) 1 2 Px = N n= 0 .

.

.

bounded summable square summable .

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