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PSNA

& Technology
College of Engineering
Kothandaraman Nagar, Dindigul - 624 622. Tamilnadu.

Record Note Book


Reg.No

Certify that this is the bonafide record of work done by


Selvan/ Selvi ………………………………………………………… of the……………
Semester………………………………………………………………………….. Branch during
the year………………………. in the…………………………………………….
Laboratory.

Staff-in-charge Head of the Department

Submitted for the University Practical


Examination on… … … … … … … …20… ..

Internal Examiner External Examiner

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Page Marks
SI No Date Content Remarks
No Awarded

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INDEX
EX.N PAGE
DATE NAME OF THE EXPRIMENTS MARK SIGN
O NO
CAD LAB
1 Study Of Cad Using Solidworks

2 Draw the 2D profile in solid works sketcher mode

Draw the 3D profile of given drawing


3
Extrude, Cut Extrude, Revolve.
Draw the 3D profile of given drawing
4
Sweep, Draft, Loft.
5 Draw the 3D profile using Edit command

6 Draw the 3D profile in Assembly mode Ex. 1

7 Draw the 3D profile in Assembly mode Ex. 2


3D Modeling of Machine Elements like Flanged
8
Coupling, Screw Jack.
CAM LAB
9 Study of Cam

10 Study of NC part programming


11 NC Part Programming Examples
12 Write the program of given drawing using G Code
13 Make the Part using G01 and G90
14 Make the object of given figure Using NC code 90
Make the object of the given figure Using G90, G02
15
and G03 codes
Make the object of the given figure Using NC code
16 Using G74
Make the object of the given figure Using NC code
17 G72

EXERCISE: 1 DATE :
STUDY OF CAD USING SOLIDWORKS

TECHNOLOGY OF CAD:
CAD - Computer Aided Design

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CAD technology makes use of the computer to create drawings of parts and
assemblies on computer files, which can be further analyses and optimized.

REASONS FOR IMPLEMENTING CAD:

 To increase productivity of the designer


To improve the quality of design
To improve documentation
To create a database manufacturing

BENEFITS OF CAD

Productivity Improvement in Design:


CAD helps in increased productivity by reducing the time for developing conceptual
design,
analysis and drafting. It is also possible to reduce the manpower.
This depends on,
Complexity of the drawing.
Degrees of repetitiveness of features in parts.
Degree of symmetry in parts
Extensive use of defined shapes
Shorter Lead Time:
Using CAD systems a finite set of drawings and documentations can be prepared in
relatively
short time.
Flexibility in Design:
CAD offers the advantages of easy modification of design to accommodate
customer’s specific requirements.
Design Analysis:
The design analysis routines available in a CAD System help to optimize the
design
Fewer Design Errors:
Interactive CAD Systems have built in capability for avoiding errors in design,
drafting and documentation.

Standardization of Design and Drafting:

The single operating system in CAD provides a command basis for design,
analysis and drafting process. With interactive CAD, drawings are standardized.

Drawing More Understandable:

With the increase in the use of 3D views and solid modeling, it has become easier to
comprehend the features of the component readily. One does not have to reconstruct the
solid shape from 2D objects. Many software packages allow 3D view generation from a 2D
model.
Improved Procedures of Engineering Changes:

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Control and implementations of engineering changes can be significantly and
improves with CAD.
Original drawings and reports are available and easily accessible.
Revised Information can be retained and new drawings with changes can be created
without destroying previous features.

Introduction to 3D Modeling Using Solid Works

Solidworks is a 3-D modeling tool. Unlike other 3-D modeling tools, Solidworks is not fully
three dimensional. Other programs allow the user to easily draw in three dimensional
space. In Solidworks, one draws in a plane and then extrudes solids from the plane. Planes
are used to obtain position in three dimensional space. It is possible to draw in three
dimensional space using Solidworks, but is very difficult. Therefore the best method of
creating three dimensional objects is using planes.

File types
The Default tab contains templates based on the units and drafting standard you selected
when you installed Solid Works.

Solid Works file types include:


Part (.ipt)
Assembly (.iam)
Drawing (.idw)

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1.CREATING A NEW PART FILE
a. Go to File:New
b. Select Part
i. Solidworks files consist of parts and assemblies. Individual parts
ii. are made and combined together in an assembly
2.CHANGING UNITS
a. Go to Tools:Options
b. Click on Document Properties tab
c. Select Units from the tree on the l
3.CREATING A RECTANGLE
d. Click on Sketch
Sketches are drawings located on a plane
e. Click on Rectangle
f. Select Top Plane
g. Click and Drag to create the rectangle
h. Click the Return Button in top left corner

4.SIZING THE RECTANGLE


i. Select Sketch1
j. Right Click
k. Select Edit Sketch
Allows you to modify a sketch you have already drawn
l. Double Click the left side of the rectangle
A properties box appears where you can edit the starting and
iii. ending points, length, and angle of the line.
iv. Set the beginning point in the Y direction to -24
v. Set the ending point in the Y direction to 24
vi. Set the beginning point in the X direction to -24
e. Double Click the right side of the rectangle
vii. Set the beginning point in the X direction to 24

5.CREATING A SOLID
a. Click on Features
Features manipulate sketches and creates three dimensional solids
b. Click on Extruded Boss/Base
This creates a solid by extending a two dimensional sketch into
viii. three dimensions. The sketch can be extruded in either or both
ix. directions. It can also be extruded a specified distance or up to
x. another surface. The extrusion can also be tapered a specified
xi. number of degrees
c. Change the distance of D1 to 4.25
d. Click the direction arrow so that the normal vector is pointing in the
Negative Y direction
e. Click the check box

6.FILLETS
a. Click on Features:Fillet
b. Set fillet radius to .25
c. Select the four Top Edges
d. Click the check box

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7. HOLLOWING THE BOTTOM
a. Click the bottom plane of the solid
b. Draw a 45x45 Rectangle centered on the plane
c. Click on Features:Extruded Cut
i. Extruded Cut is similar to Extruded Boss/Base, but is the opposite.
It takes a two dimensional sketch and removes part of a solid in the
third dimension.
d. Change the distance of D1 to 3.5
e. Click the check box

8. SAVING
a. Click on File:Save
b. Name file

9. CREATING AN ASSEMBLY
a. Click on File:New:Assembly with units of Inches
b. Insert the Table Top Part
c. Click on Insert:Component:Existing Part/Assembly
d. Insert the Leg Part
e. Click on Insert:Mate
f. Select the Left Circle of the hole in the Leg and the Inside of one
of the Left Circles on the table
g. Click the check box
h. Repeat for the three other legs

10. FINISHED

Result:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

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EXERCISE: 2 DATE :

DRAW THE 2D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS

Aim:

To Create a 2D profile in sketcher mode of the given diagram by

using Solid Works.

TOOLS USED :

SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

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58

Ø 40
8 H o le s Ø 1 0
R 20
R 20

34
34
Ø 22

Ø 58 R 15
6 H o le s Ø 8 Ø 36

40 40

Fig: 1

36
R 32

4 H o le s Ø 1 0

R12 20
R15
R32
100

4
Ø 40

4 H o le s Ø 2 6
65

Fig: 2

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6 h o le s Ø 8
Ø 70
Ø 48
Ø36

R8 R 10
72

2 h o le s Ø 1 8 28
R18

82
30

R10

84

Fig: 3

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EXERCISE: 3 DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS

Aim:

To Create a 3D Part Modeling by Use of Extrude, Cut Extrude,

Revolve, in the given diagram by using Solid Works.

TOOLS USED :

SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

Thus the given components have been created, using Solid Works.

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

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Extrude, Cut Extrude
Extrude, Cut Extrude

Rib
Revolve

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EXERCISE: 4 DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS

Aim:

To Create a 3D Part Modeling by Use of Sweep, Draft, loft in the

given diagram by using Solid Works.

TOOLS USED :

SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

Thus the given components have been created, using Solid Works.

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

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Loft

DRAFT SWEEP

EXERCISE: 5
DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID


WORKS WITH EDIT COMMANDS

Aim:

To Create a 3D Part Modeling by

Use of Move, Pattern, Mirror, Fillet &

Chamfer Commands in the given diagram

by using Solid Works.

TOOLS USED :

SOLODWORKS

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PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

Thus the given components have been created, using Solid Works.

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

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RECTANGULAR PATTERN

CIRCULAR PATTERN

MIRROR

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EXERCISE: 6 DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS IN ASSEMBLY MODE

Aim:

To Create a Assembly from 3D Part Modeling Components in the

given diagram by using Solid Works.

TOOLS USED :

SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

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RESULT:

Thus the given Assembly have been created, using Solid Works.

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

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EXERCISE: 7 DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS IN ASSEMBLY MODE

Aim:

To Convert from 3D Solid Modeling to 2D Drawing and Create the

Different Views, Sections View, Isometric View and Dimensioning by using Solid

Works.

TOOLS USED :

SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

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To Create a documented drawing of a simple Assembly.

The skills you learn are:

• Creating basic drawings


• Placing views
• Cutting sections
• Using model dimensions
• Adding drawing dimensions
• Creating a parts list
• Adding balloons

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EXERCISE: 8 DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE OF MACHINE PARTS USING SOLID WORKS

Aim:

To Create a 3D Modeling of Machine Elements in Flange Coupling

& Screw Jack diagram by using Solid Works.

TOOLS USED :

SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

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Exercise No: 9 Date:

Study of CAM

COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING

Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) can be defined as the use of


computer systems to plan, manage, and control the operations of a
manufacturing plant through either director or indirect computer interface with
the plant’s production resources. As indicated by the definition, the
applications of computer aided manufacturing fall into two broad categories:
1. Computer monitoring and control. These are the direct applications in which
the computer is connected directly to the manufacturing process for the
purpose of monitoring or controlling process.
2. Manufacturing support application. These are the indirect applications in
which the computer is used support of the production operation in the plant,
but there is no direct interface between the computer and the manufacturing
process.
Basic components of an NC system:
An operational numerical control system consists of the following three
basic components:
1. Program of instructions
2. Controller unit, also called a machine control unit (MCU)
3. Machine tool or other controlled process.
The program of instructions serves as the input to he controller unit, which in
turn commands the machine tool or other process to be controlled. We will
discuss the three components in the sections below.

Program of instructions:
The program of instructions is the detailed step-by-step set of directions,
which tell the machine tool what to do. It is coded in numerical or symbolic
from on some type of input medium that can be interpreted by the controller
unit. The most common input medium today is 1-in-wide punched tape. Over
the years, other forms of input media have been used, including punched
cards, magnetic tape, and even 35-mm motion picture film.
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There are two other methods of input to the NC system, which should be
mentioned. The first is by manual entry of instructional data to the controller
unit. This method is called manual data input, abbreviated MDI, and is
appropriate only for relatively simple jobs where the other will not be
repeated. The second other method of input is by means of a direct link with a
computer. This is called direct numerical control, or DNC.

The program of instructions is prepared by someone called a part


programmer. The programmer’s job is to provide a set of detailed instructions
by which the sequence of processing steps is to be performed. For a
machining operation, the processing steps involve the movement between the
cutting tool and the work piece.

Controller unit:
The second basic component of the NC system is the controller unit. This
consists of the electronics and hardware that read and interpret the program
of instructions and convent it into mechanical actions of the machine tool. The
typical elements of a conventional NC controller unit include the taper reader,
a data buffer, signal output channels to the machine tool, feed back channels
from the machine tool, and the sequence control to coordinate the overall
operation of the foregoing elements. It should be noted that nearly all-modern
NC systems today are sold with a microcomputer as the controller unit. This
type of NC is called computer numerical control (CNC).
The tape reader is an electromechanical device for winding and reading the
punched tape containing the program of instructions the data contained on
the tape are read into the data buffer. The purpose of this device of this
device is to the store the input represents one complete step in the sequence
of processing elements.
The signal outputs are the observation to the servomotors and
other controls in the machine tool. Through these channels, the instructions
are sent to the machine tool machine tool from the controller unit. To make
certain that the instruction have been properly executed by the machine, feed
back data are sent back to he controller via feedback channels. The most
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important function of this return loop is to assure that table and work parts
have been properly located with respect to the tool.
Sequence controls coordinate the activities of the other elements of the
controller unit. The tape reader is actuated to read data into the buffer from
the tape, signals are sent to and from the machine tool, and so on. These
types of operations must be synchronized and this is function of the sequence
controls.
Machine tool or other controlled:
The third basic component of an NC system in machine tool or other
controlled process. It is the part of the NC system which performs useful
work. In the most common examples of an NC system, one designed to
perform machining operations, the machine tool consists of the worktable and
spindle as well as the motors and controls necessary to drive them. It is also
includes the cutting tools, work fixtures, and other auxiliary equipment need in
the machine operation,
NC machine range in complexity from simple tape-controlled drill presses
to highly sophisticated and versatile machining centers. The NC machining
centre was first introduced in the late 1950s. it is a multifunction machine
which incorporates several time saving features into is capable of performing
a verity of different operations, drilling tapping, reaming, Milling, and boring.
The tools are kept in a tool drum or other holding device. When the tape calls
a particular tool, the drum rotates to positions the tool for insertion into the
spindle. The automatic tool changer then grasps the tool and places it into
spindle chuck. The machine table can orient the job so that it can be
machined on several surfaces, as required. Finally, a fourth feature
possessed by some machining centres is the presence of two tables or
pallets on which the work piece can be fixtures. While the machining
sequence is being performed on one work part, the operator can be unloading
the previously completed piece, and loading the next one. This improves
machine tool utilisation because the machine not have to stand idle during
loading and unloading of the work parts.

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TYPES OF CNC MACHINES
1. Vertical Machining Centres
2. Horizontal machining centres
3. Machining centres with indexing heads
4. Multi-axis machining centres
5. Unmanned machining centres
6. Head changer machines
7. Plano millers
8. Milling machines
9. Drilling machines
10. Horizontal Axis Turning machines
11. Vertical axis Turning Machines
12. Surface grinders
13. Cylindrical grinders
14. Tool and cutter grinders
15. Fixed RAM Electro Discharge machines
16. Wire EDM
17. Punching and nibbing machines with plasma arc or laser beam
machining
18. Forming machine
 Pipe bending machines
 Sheets bending machines
 Stretch forming machines
 Flow forming machines
19. Gear cutting machines
 Gear hobbing machine
 Gear shaping machine
 Gear grinders
20. Coordinate measuring machines
21. Inspection systems
22. Welding systems
23. Packing equipment

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Exercise No: 10 Date:

NC PART PROGRAMMING

NC part programming is concerned with the planning and


documentation of the sequence of processing steps to be performed on a
Numerical Control machine. It is usually accomplished by a person whose title is
part programmer. The panning portion of part programming requires knowledge
of machining (or other processing technology for which the NC machine is
designed) as well as geometry and trigonometry. The sequence of processing
steps in NC involves a series of movements of the processing head with respect
to the machine table and work part.

The documentation portion of part programming involves the


input medium that is used to transmit the program of instructions to the NC
controller unit (the MCU). The most common input medium is used over the last
30 years is 1” –wide punched tape. Recently other ways of entering the program
to the MCU have been developed. The use of magnetic tape and floppy disks
has been growing in popularity since they represent more modern storage
technologies for numerical control. The advantage of these input media is their
much higher data density. For example, one floppy diskette is capable of storing
the equivalent of several thousand feet of punched tape.
In addition, techniques for transmitting the program directly
from a central computer to the individual machines in the factory have been
introduced. This form of program input is called direct numerical control (DNC)
NC WORDS
Following is a list of the different types of words used in the
formation of block. Not every NC machine uses all the words. Also, the manner in
which the words in a block are given in the order below:
SEQUENCE NUMBER (N-WORDS). This is used to identify the block
PREPARATORY WORK (G-WORDS)
This word is used to prepare the controller for instructions that are to
follow.

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For example, the word G02 is used to prepare the NC controller unit for
circular interpolation along an arc in the clockwise direction. The preparatory
word is needed so that the controller can correctly interpret the data that follow it
in the block. Come typical examples of G-words are given in the Table below.
Some Common G-Words
CODE PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS
G00 Used with countering systems to prepare for a point to point operation
G02 Linear interpolation in contouring systems
G03 Circular interpolation, clockwise

COORDINATES (X-, Y-, Z-, WORDS):


These give the coordinate positions of the tool. In a two-axis
system, only two of the words would be used. In a four –or-five-axis machine,
additional a-words, b-words would specify the angular positions.
FEED RATE:
This specifies the feed rate in a machining operation. Units are
mm/min or inch/min.
CUTTING SPEED:
This specifies the cutting speed of the process, the rate at which
the spindle rotates. Units are revaluations per minute. In a machining operation it
is usually desirable for the tool engineer to specify the speed in terms of the
relative speed of the tool and work. The units would be metre per minute. It is
there necessary for the part programmer to make the conversion from using the
machining process equations given.
TOOL SELECTION:
This word would only be needed for machines with a tool turret of
automatic tool changer. The t-word specifies which tool is to be used in the
operation. For example, T05 might be the designation of 6mm drill bit ion turret
position 5 on an NC turret drill.

MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTION:

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The m-word is used specify certain miscellaneous or auxiliary
functions which may be available on the machine tool. Of course, the machine
must posses the function that is being called. A partial but representative list of is
given below. The miscellaneous function is the last work in the block. To identify
the end of instruction, an end of block (EOB) symbol is punched on the tape.
Some typical M-Words:
CODE MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS
M03 Start spindle in clockwise direction
M04 Start spindle in counter clockwise direction
M05 Stop spindle
TAPE FORMATS:
The organization of words within blocks is called the tape format. Three
tape format seem to enjoy the most widespread use:
1. Word address format
2. Tab sequential format
3. Fixed block format
The tape for mat refers to the method of writing the words in a block of
instruction. Within each format there are variations because of differences in
machining processes, type of machine, features of the machine tool, and so
on.
WORD ADDRESS FORMAT:
In this format, a letter precedes each word and is used to identify the word
type and to address the data to a particular location in the controller unit. The
X-prefix identifies an X-coordinate word; an S-prefix identifies spindle speed
and so on. The standard sequence of words for two-axis NC system is
M-word
G-word
X-word
Y-word
F-word
S-word
T-word
EOB

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However, since the type of word is designed by the prefix letter, the words
can be presented in any sequence. Also, if a word remains unchanged from
the previous block or is not needed, it can be deleted from the block.
FUNCTION (G CODES)
G Codes are instruction describing machine tool movements.
G00 Fast Traverse
G01 Linear interpolation (cutting feed)
G02 Circular Interpolation (clockwise)
G03 Circular Interpolation (counter clockwise)
G04 Dwell
G20 Imperial (Input in Inches)
G21 Metric (input in mm)
G28 Go to Reference
G40 Cutter Compensation Cancel
G41 Cutter Compensation Right
G42 Cutter Compensation Left
G50 Coordinate Setting
G70 Finishing Cycle
G71 Stock Removal in Turing
G72 Multiple Facing
G73 Pattern Repeating
G74 Peck Drilling
G76 Multiple Thread
G81 Drilling Cycle
G90 Turning Cycle
G94 Facing Cycle
G96 Const. Surface
G97 Var. Surface
G98 Feed per Minute
G99 Feed Per Rev

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MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTION (M CODES)
M Codes are instructions describing miscellaneous functions like calling the tool,
spindle rotation, coolant on etc.,
M00 Program Stop
M01 Optional stop
M02 Program end
M03 Spindle On
M05 Spindle Stop
M06 Tool Change
M08 Coolant On
M09 Coolant Off
M10 Vice Open
M11 Vice Close
M13 Spindle Forward, Coolant on
M15 Spindle Reverse, Coolant on
M25 Quill Extend
M26 Quill Retract
M30 Programme End
M38 Door Open
M39 Door Close
M98 Subprogram call
M99 subprogram exit

G00 FAST TRAVERSE


A G00 causes linear motion to the given position at the maximum federate from
the current position.
Examples: G00 X0.0 Z0.0
G01 LINEAR
A G01 causes linear motion to the given position at the last specified federate
from the current position.
Examples: G01 X30.0 Z-1.0 F100.0
G01 X0.0

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G02 CLOCKWISE ARC
A G02 causes a clockwise arc to the specified position.
Examples: G01 X20 Z-10 F120
G03 X30 Z-15 R5.0
G02 X40 Z-20 I15

G03 COUNTER CLOCKWISE ARC


A G03 causes a counter clockwise arc to the specified position.
Examples: G01 X20 Z-10 F120
G03 X30 Z-15 R5
G02 x40 Z-20 K-5
G04 DWELL
A G04 causes the program to wait for a specified amount of time.
The time can be specified in seconds with he “X” or “U” prefix or in milliseconds
with the “P” prefix.
Examples: G04 X1.5
G04 U1.5
G04 P1500
G20 IMPERIAL
A G20 causes positions to be interpreted as being in imperial units. All the input
values are inches.
This can only be at the start of the main program.

G21 METRIC
A G21 causes positions to be interpreted as being in metric units (mm). This is
can only be at the start of the main program.

G28 GOTO REFERENCE POINT


A G28 causes a fast traverse to the specified position and then to the machine
datum.
Examples: G28 X34.0 Z5.0
G28 U0 W0
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G40 CANCEL COMPENSATION
A G40 Cancels tools nose radius compensation.

G41 COMPENSATE RIGHT


A G41 enables tool nose radius compensation to the right of the programmed
path.

G42 COMPENSATE LEFT


A G42 enables tool nose radius compensation to the left of the programmed
path.
G50 COORDINATE SETTING
G50 enables tool nose radius compensation to the left of the programmed path

G50 has 2 users.


A coordinate setting block has as “X”, “Z”, “U” or “W” upon it.
A maximum spindle speed block does not.

G70 FINISHING CYCLE


A G70 causes a range of blocks to be executed, then control passes to the block
after the G70. The “P” and “Q” values specify the “N” block numbers at the and
end of the profile.
Examples: G70 P10 Q20

G71 MULTIPLE TURING


A G71 causes the profile to be roughed out by turning. Control passes on to after
the last block of the profile. Two G71 blocks are needed to specify all the values.
Examples: G71 U2 R1.5
Specifies a depth of cut (radius) of 2 and an escape of 1.5.

G72 MULTIPLE FACING


A G72 causes the profiles to be roughed out by facing. Control passes on to after
the last block of the profile.

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Two G72 blocks are needed to specify all the values.
Examples: G72 W2. R1.5
Specifies a depth of cut specify the “N” block numbers at the start and end of the
profile.
G72 P10 Q20 U1.0 W1.0
The “U” and “Q” values specify the “N” block numbers at the start and end of the
profile.
The “U” and “W” specify the distance and direction of the finishing allowance on
the X and Z axis.

G74 END FACE PECK DRILLING


G74 is a Z axis pecking cycle.
Two blocks are required.
Examples: G74 R1.0
G74 Z-40 Q5000 R0.5 F100
Z – depth, Q – depth of cut in Z direction, F – Feed rate.
The “R” in the first block is the return amount.

G76 THREADING CYCLE


G76 is a multiple pass threading cycle. Two blocks are required.
Examples: G76 P031560 Q150 R0.5
G76 X17.96 Z-50 P1020 Q250 F1.5
The “P” value is: - 03 = No of Finishing passes
15 = Pull out angle
60 = Angle of thread
The “Q” is the minimum cutting depth times 1000, in this case 0.15mm.
The “R” is the finishing allowance, here its 0.15mm.
The 2nd block is identified by specifying a coordinate.
G76 X17.96 Z-50 R0.0 P1020 Q250 F1.5
The “X” and “Z” are the end of the thread. The “R” must be 0.
The “P” is the height of the thread times 1000, here its 1.02mm.
The “Q” is the height of the thread times 1000, in this case 0.25mm.
The “F” is the thread’s Lead, Not the federate, here it is 1.5mm.

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G81 DRILLING CYCLE
A G81 is a drilling cycle.
An explicitly specified G81 will
Linear to new position.
Fast traverse to start positions
A modally specified G81 differs in that it will first traverse to 1 mm short on the
last drilling position.
If only an X axis value is entered then grooving will be performed.
If only a Z axis value is entered then drilling will be performed.
Examples: G81 U-4.0
U-8.0
G81 Z-2.0
Z-4.0

G90 TURNING CYCLE


A G90 is the diameter cutting cycle
It is the equivalent of
• Rapid to X position
• Fred to Z position.
• Feed to start X position.
• Rapid to start Z position.

I an “R” value is specified tapering will be performed. The initial rapid move will
be to the X position plus the “R” value (Radius)

G92 THREADING CYCLE


G92 performs one threading pass.
The position specified is that of the end of the thread.
The “F” value specifies the pitch, Not the feed.
Examples: G92 U-0.25 W-20 F1.5

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G94 FACING CYCLE
A G94 is an end face cutting cycle.
It is the equivalent of
• Rapid to Z position.
• Feed to X position
• Feed to star Z position
• Rapid to start X positing.
If an “R” value is specified tapering will be performed. The initial rapid move will
be to the Z position pules “R” value.
Examples: G94 U-4 W-2.0 R8.0 F140
W3.0
W-4.0
G96 CONSTANT SURFACES SPEED
G96 Enables constant surface speed.
Examples: G96 S100
Sets the surfaces speed to 100 meters a minute.

G97 NORMAL SPINDLE


G97 cancels constants surface speed.
The spindle speed all not change the next “S” value is reached.
Example: G97
G98 FEED PER MINUTES
G98 stets the feed per minute mode. This is the default.
Example: G98

G99 FEED PER REVOLUTION


G99 sets the feed per revolution modes.

M00 Program Stop


A cycle operation is stopped after a block containing M00 executed.
Examples: M00

PAGE 38 OF 57
M01 Optional Stop
Cycle operations is stopped after a block containing M01 is executed. This code
is only effective when the optional stop switch on the machine control panel has
been pressed.
Examples: M01

M02 Program end


Stopes the spindle. Turns the coolant off. Terminates the CNC program.
Examples: M02
M03 Spindle Forward
Starts the spindle spinning forward at the last specified spindle rate.
Examples: M03 S1200

M04 Spindle Reverse


Starts the spindle spinning forward at the last specified rate.
Example: M04 S1200

M05 Stop Spindle


Stops the spindle without changing the spindle speed.
Example: M05.

M06 Tool change


The “T” prefix causes a tool change, it need not be paired with an M06”.
The left most digit of the “T” ignoring zeros selects the new tool.
Example: M06 TO200
And T20
And T2
All select tool 2.
M08 Coolant On
M08 turns the coolant on.
M09 Coolant Off

PAGE 39 OF 57
M09 turns the coolant on.
M10 Chuck Close
M10 opens the chuck.
M11 Chuck Close
M11 close the chuck.
M13 Spindle Forward, Coolant On
Sets spindle rotation forward and coolant on.
Example: M13 S1000.
M14 Spindle Reverse, Coolant On
Example: M14 S1000
M25 Quill Extend
Extends the quill (tailstock).
M26 Quill Retract
Retracts the quill (tailstock).
M30 Program End
Stops the spindle. Turns the coolant off. Terminates and resets the CNC
program.
Example: M30
M38 Door Open
Opens the door, waiting until the door is open.
M39 Door Close
Close the door, waiting until the door is closed.
M98 Subprogram call
M98 causes another program to be executed.
The “P” value specifies the program number and the number of times to execute
it.
The rightmost 4 digits are the program number.
The digits to the left are the number of repetitions.
There can be up to 999 repetitions, if the value is omitted it is called once.
Example: M98 P12 and M98 P10012 both execute cnc program 12
once.
M99 Subprogram Exit
Returns control to the program that called the current program.

PAGE 40 OF 57
If a “P” value is specified then execution begins from the block with the same “N”
number, otherwise it is from the block after the subprogram call.

If an M99 is specified in the main program then the execution is from the start of
the program.
Example: M99
Returns to the block following the call.
M99 P10
Returns to the block with “N” value 10.

Result:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

PAGE 41 OF 57
Exercise No: 11 Date:

NC PART PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES


Facing Operation: for 5 mm

5
30

65

[BILLET X30 Z65


G21
G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T0202
M03 S1000
G00 X30 Z1
G01 Z-1 F45
G01 X0
G01 Z1
G00 X30
G01 Z-2
G01 X0
G01 Z1
G00 X30
G01 Z-3
G01 X0
G01 Z1
G00 X30
G01 Z-4
G01 X0
G01 Z1

PAGE 42 OF 57
G00 X30
G01 Z-5
G01 X0
G01 Z1
G00 X30
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30
SIMPLE TURNING (USING G90)

25
30

30
65

[BILLET X30 Z60


G21
G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T0101
M03 S1000
G00 X30 Z1
G90 X29 Z-30
X28
X27
X26
X25
G00 Z1
G28 U0 W0
M05

PAGE 43 OF 57
STEP TURNING

25
20
30
30 15 15

[BILLET X30 Z60


G21
G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T0101
M03 S1000
G00 X30 Z1
G90 X29 Z-30 F35
X28
X27
X26
X25
G00 X25 Z1
G90 X24 Z-15 F35
X23
X22
X21
X20
G00 Z1
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

PAGE 44 OF 57
TAPER TURNING

30

20
30 25 25 5

[BILLET X30 Z60


G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T0101
M03 S1000
G00 X30 Z1
G90 X30 Z-30 R0.0 F30
X29 R0.5
X28 R1.0
X27 R1.5
X26 R2.0
X25 R2.5
X24 R3.0
X23 R3.5
X22 R4.0
X21 R4.5
X20 R5.0
G00 X30 Z-30
G90 X30 Z-55 R0.0 F30
X30 R-0.5
R-1.0
R-2.0
R-3.0
R-4.0
R-5.0
G28 U0 W0
M05 M30

PAGE 45 OF 57
CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION

R 14

R18
20
30

10
1 0 1 0 10 1 0 1 0

[BILLET X30 Z60


G21 G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T0101
M03 S1000
G00 X30 Z1
G90 X30 Z-10 F30
X29
X27
X25
X23
X22
X20
X18
X16
X14
X12
X10
G00 X10 Z-10
G02 X20 Z-20 R18 F30
G00 X30 Z-10
G90 X30 Z-30 F40
X28
X26
X24
PAGE 46 OF 57
X22
X20
G00 X20 Z-30
G03 X30 Z-40 R14 F30
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30
THREAD

M12
20

15 30

[BILLET X20 Z50


G21 G98
G28 U0W0
M06 T0101
M03 S1000
G90 X20 Z-40 F45
X19
X18
X17
X16
X14
X12
G00 X13 Z1
M06 T0404
M03 S700
G92 X12 Z-30 F2
X11.75
X11.5

PAGE 47 OF 57
X11.4
G00 X20 Z0
G28 U0W0
M05
M30
DRILLING

25
10
30
75

[BILLET X30 Z60


G21
G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T0101
M03 S1000
G00 X30 Z1
G90 X30 Z-35 F45
X28
X26
X25
G28 U0 W0
M06 T0202
G00 X0 Z1
G74 R2
G74 Z-25 Q500 F20
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

PAGE 48 OF 57
Exercise No: 12 Date:

Make the object as shown in figure Using G01


5

Ø 60

Procedure:

Result:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

PAGE 49 OF 57
Exercise No: 13 Date:

Make the object as shown in given figure Using codes G01 and G90

Ø 40

Ø 20
Ø 60

40 20 20

Procedure:

Result:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

PAGE 50 OF 57
Exercise No: 14 Date:

Make the object as shown in the following figure Using NC code G90

Ø 40

Ø 20
Ø 60

40 20 20

Procedure:

Result:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

PAGE 51 OF 57
Exercise No:15 Date:

Make the object as shown in the following figure Using G90, G02 and G03
codes

Ø 40
R10
Ø 20
R10

R15

Ø 60 40 20 25

Procedure:

Result:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

PAGE 52 OF 57
Exercise No: 16 Date:

Make the object as shown in the following figure Using NC code Using
G74

Ø 60

Ø 20
Ø 40
30

Procedure:

Result:

MARKS STAFF
SIGN

PAGE 53 OF 57
Exercise No: 17 Date:

Make the object as shown in the following figure Using NC code G72

Ø 40

M 12 x 2 P

Ø 60

30 20 30

Procedure:

Result:

PAGE 54 OF 57
TUTORIALS
NC PART PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES
LINEAR INTERPOLATION

70
70

[BILLET X100 Y100 Z20


G21 G94
G91
M06 T0101
G28 X0 Y0 Z0
M03 S1000
G90
G00 X15 Y15 Z5
G01 Z-2 F60
G01 X85 Y15
G01 X85 Y85
G01 X15
G01 Y15
G00 Z5
G91
G28 X0 Y0 Z0
M05
M30

PAGE 55 OF 57
CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION

15 30
R15

15
30

30
15

15
15 30 15

G21 G94
G91
G28 X0 Y0 Z0
M06 T0101
M03 S1000
G90
G00 X20 Y35 Z10
G01 Z-5 F60
G02 X35 Y20 R15
G01 X65 Y20
G02 X80 Y35 R15
G01 X80 Y65
G02 X65 Y80 R15
G01 X35 Y80
G03 X20 Y65 R15
G01 X20 Y35
G00 Z5
G91
G28 X0 Y0 Z0
M05
M30

PAGE 56 OF 57
Circular Interpolation

15
65
15
15 50 15

Circular Pocketing

R 10
30

Ø40
80

80

PAGE 57 OF 57