DBO – 3 This week, firstly we re-ordered a mixed-up reading lesson steps including pre-reading, while-reading and

post-reading, specified pre, while and postreading activities and talked about them. In a reading lesson, pre-reading activities are: 1. Introduce topic of new unit. Learners brainstorm examples from their own experience: collect on board. 2. Look at pictures related to the topic. Learners discuss pictures in pairs: predict topics article will mention. 3. Collect ideas about learners’ predictions on board. During the pre-reading stage, questions are asked, and predictions are made in order to set the purpose for reading, to attract learners’ attention, to let them understand the gist and to activate their prior knowledge by pictures or other visual materials. As teachers, we should ask students to examine together the title or pictures and then list on the board all the information that comes to their mind as students read the title or look at pictures. When we collect their ideas, we should respect them and their ideas. In this way, they feel comfortable, confident and valuable. While-reading activities are: 4. Reading activity: ‘T/F?’ Learners decide if statements about the main ideas in the text are True or False. 5. Give/ask for answers to ‘T/F?’. Clarify any problems. 6. Pairs. Learners do exercise ‘Understanding Reading Structure’: identifying topic sentence of each paragraph from article. 7. Collect answers to reading structure exercise. 8. Pairs. Learners do exercise ‘Guessing vocabulary’. Learners guess the meaning of key vocabulary from context, looking at example sentences from passage. Check learners understand. Once students have done their pre-reading, they are ready to begin reading. To read for information, students need to monitor their understanding. They may accomplish this by re-reading, making notes about concepts, answering questions, examining and guessing unfamiliar words from the context. At this stage, what we should do is to collect and check their answers, to give them some feedback and to make sure that they have understood. Post-reading activities are: 9. Group discussion. 10. Assign homework. Post-Reading activities like summarizing main ideas, drawing conclusions, applying the information to a new situation and role plays encourage students to reflect upon what they have read. We should foster our learners’ creativity and give them the opportunity to produce what they have covered. Language learning is more than a classroom experience, so we have to give assignments. We have to be consistent; if we give homework, we should always check it. Secondly, we mentioned some aims of warming-up activities in the class. In addition to the general aim of warming-up activities-to help learners learn better-, there are some specific aims: to create expectations about language, so that learners can understand better what is going to happen, to motivate learners, to prepare them for the lesson, to raise their interest, to involve them by asking for their ideas about a topic by making them feel valuable, to introduce them to the topic, to get them communicating about the topic, to focus them. Finally, we talked about some variables in instruction giving: 1. Clarity and simplicity of language: While giving instructions, firstly, we should be clear. We should adjust our language according to our learners’ level. If we don’t

give them clear explanations and if they don’t know the purpose, they have difficulties in understanding what they will do. 2. Voice quality: We should use some variations in our voice not to make our students feel sleepy or bore them. 3. Body language and gesture: As we mentioned before many times, we should use our body language effectively and make eye contact with our students. 4. Use of visual aids: We should use visual aids to make our speech more clear, effective and memorable. 5. Checking understanding: After giving instruction, we should check instructions. We should make sure that every person listens to us and understands us. 6. Using L1 or L2: 7. Your own teaching style. In addition to those, we should communicate with our students effectively. We should be slow and clear enough to make them understand us. If we are not on the same page, it will chaos in the class, which leads us to be stressful. We are also facilitators in the class, so we should help our students. When we ask questions, we should give them some time to think and make them be critical thinker. Lastly, we should monitor the class and then “That will be the day!”. Munise ÖZTÜRK

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