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paras-

taneja.blospo
t.in
By

Dr. B.C. PUNM IA


Formerly,
Professor and Head, Deptt. of Civil Engineeri ng, &
(VOLUME I) Dean, Faculty of Engineeri ng
M.B.M. Engineeri ng College,
Jodhpur

Er. ASHOK KUMAR JAIN Dr. ARUN KUMAR JAIN


Director, Assistant Professor
Arihant Consultan ts, M.B.M. Engineer ing College,
Jodhpur Jodhpur

SIXTEENTH EDITIO N

(Thoro ughly Revise d and Enlarg ed)

LAXMI PUBLICATIONS (P) LTD


BANGALORE e CHENNAI e COCHIN e GUWAHATI e HYDERABAD
JALANDHAR e KOLKAT A e LUCKNOW e MUMBAI e RANCHI e NEW DELHI
INDIA e USA • GHANA e KENYA

......_
SURVEYING-I
© 1965, 1984, 2005 B.C. PUNMIA
rI
© 1994, 2005 ASHOK KUMAR JAIN, ARUN KUMAR JAIN ;
\
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Typeset at : Arihant Consultants, Jodhpur.
First Edition: 1965, Second Edition : 1966, Third Edition
: 1972, Fourth Edition : 1976, Fifth Edition : 1978
Sixth Edition : 1980, Seventh Edition : 1981, Eighth Edition
: 1983, Ninth Edition : 1985, Tenth Edition : 1987
Eleventh Edition : 1988, Twelfth Edition : 1990, Reprint
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Reprint : 1995, 1996, Fourteenth Edition : 1997, Reprint
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I Preface
,.'

This volwne is one of the two which offer a comprehensive course in those parts
y used by
of theory and practice of Plane and Geodetic surveying that are most commonl
Degree.
civil engineers. and are required by the students taking examination in surveying for
in thirteen chapters the more common surveying
Diploma and A.M.I.E. The first volume covers
operations.
,
Each topic introduced is thoroughly describOd, the theory is rigorously developed
to illustrate its application. General
and. a ~rge DUIJ?ber of numerical examples are included
s~atements of important principles and methods are almost
invariably given by practical
to
illustrations. A large number of problems are available at the end of each chapter,
stage~
illustrate theory and practice and to enable the student to test his reading at differem
of his srudies.
Apan from illustrations of old and conventional instruments, emphasis has been placed
good deal
on new or improved instruments both for ordinary as well as precise work. A
ts with a thorough discussion of the geometrical
of space has been given to instrumental adjustmen
principles in each case.
Metric system of units has been used throughout the text, and, wherever possible,
since the
the various formulae used in texc have been derived in metric units. However,
ted in all the engineerin g
cha~ge\ over to metric system has still nor been fully implemen
system, hdxe ~!so beer: gi\'C!":
;;;~:~~Jtirr:~ i;~ •JUr conntiy, a fe·,~- examples in F.P.S.

to
I should lik.e to express my thanks to M/s. Vickers Instruments Ltd. (successors
Watci Ltd ..
M/s. Cooke, Troughton & Simm's), M/s. Wild Heerbrugg Ltd., M/s Hilger &
ns from
and M/s. W.F. Stanley & Co. Ltd. for permitting me to use certain illustratio
hs. My thanks are also due to various Universities
their catalogues or providing special photograp
for pennitting me to reproduce some of
and exami~g bodies of professional institution
the questions from their examination papers.
lnspite of every care taken to check. the numerical work. some errors may remain.
and I shall be obliged for any intimation of theses readers may discover.

B.C. PUNMIA
JODHPUR
1st July, 1965
Jl(

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION PREFACE TO THE NINTH EDITION


In this edition, the subject-matter has been revised thoroughly and the chapters have In the Ninth Edition. the subject-matter has been revised and updated.
been rearranged. Two new chapters on "Simple Circular Curves' and 'Trigonometrical Levelling
(plane)" have been added. Latest Indian Standards on 'Scales', 'Chains' and 'Levelling Staff JODHPUR B.C. PUNMIA
have been included. A two-colour plate on the folding type 4 m Levelling Staff, conforming 1st Nov., 1984
to IS 1779 : 1%1 has been given. In order to make the book more useful to the ~tudents
appearing at A.M.l.E. Examination in Elementary Surveying, questions from the examination PREFACE TO THE TENTH EDITION
papers of Section A. from May 1962 to Nov. 1970 have been given Appendix 2. Account
has been taken throughout of the suggestions offered by the many users of the book, and In the Tenth Edition, the book has been completely rewritten, and all the diagrams
grateful acknowledgement is made to them. Futther suggestions will be greatly appreciated. have been redrawn. Many new articles and diagrams/illustrations have been added. New
instruments, such as precise levels. precise theodolites, precise plane table equipment, automatic
levels. new types of compasses and clinometers etc. have been introduced. Two chapters
JODHPUR B.C. PUNMIA on 'Setting Out Works' and 'Special Instruments' bav~ been added at the end of the
1st Feb.. 1972 book. Knowledge about special instruments, such as site square , transit-level, Brunton's
universal pocket transit, mountain compass-transit, autom.nic le~~ls, etc. will be very much
useful to the field engineers. Account has been taken througho~t of the suggestions offered
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION
by the many users of the book, and grateful acknowledgement is made to them. Further
In this edition, the subjec1-matter has been revised and updated. An appendix on suggestions will be greatly appreciated.
'Measurement of Distance by Electronic Methods' has been added.
JODHPUR B.C. PUNMIA
JODHPUR lOth July, 1987 A.K. JAIN
B.C. PUNMIA
15-10-1973
PREFACE TO THE TWELFTH EDITION
PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDmON In the Twelfth Edition, the subject-matter has been revised and updated.

In the Fifth Edition. the suhiect-matter ha!< ~n thnrnnQ:hly rP:vic:.,-1 An Appenrli'~'


JOlJHPUR B.C. PUNMIA
on SI units bas been added. 30th March, 1990 A.K. JAIN

JODHPUR B.C. PUNMJA


PREFACE TO THE THIRTEENTH.EDITION
25-4-1978
In the Thirteenth Edition of the book, the subject mauer has been thoroughly revised
PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDmON and updated. Many new articles and solved examples have ·been added. The entire book
bas been typeset using laser printer. The authors are thankful to Shri Moo! singb Galtlot
In the Sixth Edition of the book, the subject-matter bas been thoroughly revised and
for the fine laser typesetting done by him.
updated.

JODHPUR B.C. PUNMIA


JODHPUR B.C. PUNMIA
2nd Jan., 1980 15th Aug. 1994 ASHOK K. JAJN
ARUN K. JAIN
fl!
- I:!
i SI X

!!
Contents
PREFACE TO TilE SIXTEENTH EDITION
In !he Sixteenth Edition, !he subject matter has been thoroughly revised, updated and CHAYI'ER I FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS
rearranged. In each chapter, many new articles have been added. ·Three new Chapters have I
1.1. SURV~YING : OBJECT
been added at !he end of !he book : Chapter 22 on 'Tacheomelric Surveying'. Chapter 1.2. PRIMARY DIVISIONS OF I
SURVEY
13 on 'Electronic Theodolites' and Chapter 24 on 'Electro-magnetic Disrance Measurement 1.3. CLASSIFiCATION 3
(EDM)'. All !he diagrams have been redrawn using computer graphics and !he book has 1.4. PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING 4

been computer type-set in bigger fonnat keeping in pace with the modern trend. Account 1.5. UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS s
1.6. PLANS AND MAPS 8
has been taken throughout of !he suggestions offered by many users of !he book and grateful
1.7. SCALES .8
acknowledgement is made to !hem. The authors are thankful to Shri M.S. Gahlot for !he
1.8. PLAIN SCALE 10
fine Laser type setting done by him. The Authors are also thankful Shri R.K. Gupta. II
1.9. DIAGONAL SCALE
Managing Director Laxmi Publications. for laking keen interest in publication of !he book 1.10. THE VERNIER 12
and bringing it out nicely and quickly. 1.11. MICROMETER MICROSCOPES 18
1.12 SCALE OF CHORDS 19
Jodhpur 1.13 ERROR DUE TO USE OF WRONG SCALE 20
B.C. PUNMIA
Mabaveer Jayanti 1.14. SHRUNK SCALE 21
ASHOK K. JAIN 1.15. 22
SURVEYING - CHARACI'ER OF WORK
lsi July, 2005 ARUN K. JAIN
CIIAYI'ER 2 ACCURACY AND ERRORS
2.1. GENERAL '1:1
2.2. SOURCES OF ERRORS '1:1
2.3. KINDS OF ERRORS 28
2.4. TIIEORY OF PROBABILITY 29
ACCURACY IN SURVEYING ERROR 3()
2..5. PERMISSmLE
2.6. ERRORS IN COMPUI'ED RESULTS 31
CHAPTER 3 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS
3.1. DIFFERENT METHODS 37
3.2. DIRECT MEASUREMENTS 37
3.3. INSTRUMENTS FOR CHAINING 38
RA..'IJG!t-;G OL-; S0RVEY U.NJ;.s 46
3.5. CIWNING 49
3.6. MEASUREMENT OF LENGfH WITH TilE HELP OF A TAPE so
3.7. ERROR DUE TO INCORRECI' CHAJN. so
3.8. CHAINING ON UNEVEN OR SLOPING GROUND S4
3.9. ERRORS IN CHAlNING S7
3.10. TAPE CORRECTIONS 60
3.11. DEGREE OF ACCURACY IN CHAINING 70
70
~~~
PRECISE UNEAR MEASUREMENTS
4 CHAIN SURVEYING
4.1. CHAIN TRIANGULATION 8S
4.2. SURVEY STATIONS ss
4.3. SURVEY LINES 8S

"'

.___
I
XIII
xn
G
8.3. CASE I ' BEARING. OR LENGTH, OR BEARIN 181
_;{4 LOCATING GROUND FEATURES : OFFSETS
87
92
AND LENGTH OF ONE SIDE OMIITED
G OF ANOTF.HR SIDE OMmE D
182
4.5. FIELD BOOK 8.4. CASE D : LENGTH OF ONE SIDE AND BEARIN 182
94 ED
4.6. FIELD WORK 8.l. CASE m ' LENGTHS OF TWO SIDES OMIIT 182
S 9S OMmE D
4.7. INSTRUMENTS FOR SEITING OUT RIGJIT ANGLE 8.6. CASE IV : BEARING OF TWO SIDES 183
98 SIDES ARE NOT ADJACENT
4.8. BASIC PROBLEMS IN CHAINING 8.7. CASE II, m, IV : WHEN THE AFFECTED
100
~. OBSTACLES IN CHAINING
4.10. CROSS STAFF SURVEY
lOS ~R 9 LEVELLING 19l
106 9.1. DEANIDONS -196
PLO'ITING A CHAIN SURVEY
/ 4.11.
5 THE COMPASS
_fl METHODS OF LEVELLING 197
VCH APTE R 9.3. LEVELLING INSTRUMENTS 201
109
5.1. INTRODUCfiON 9.4. LEVELLING STAFF 204
110
5.2. BEAIUNGS AND ANGLES 9.5. THE SURVEYING TELESCOPE 211
116
mE 'I'HEORY OF MAGNETIC COMPASS TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENTS OF' A LEVEL
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
THE PRISMATIC
THE SURVEYOR'S COMPASS
COMPASS
118
120
7 9.6.

9.8.
THEORY OF D!RECT LEVELLING (SPIRIT LEVEL
DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING
ING)
213
21l
216
124
S.6. WILD 83 PRECISION COMPASS 9.9. HAND SIGNALS DURING OBSERVATIONS 216
!25
5.1. MAGNETIC DECUNATION
127 '-)kf'( BOOKING AND REDUCING LEVELS 222
5.8. LOCAL ATTRACTION 9.11. BALANCING BACKSIGIITS AND FORESimiTS 226
133

/~R
SURVEY
ERRORS IN COMPASS ~ CURVATURE AND REFRAcriON 230
6 THE THEODOLITE 9.13. RECIPROCAL LEVELLING 233
137 AL SECfiONJNG)
6.1. GENERAL 9.14. PROALE LEVELLING (LONGITUDIN 23"?
THEODOLITE 137
6.2. THE ESSENTIALS OF THE TRANSIT 9.15. CROSS-SECTIONING 238
141
6.3. DEFINITIONS AND TERMS 9.16. LEVELLING PROBLEMS 240
142
6.4. TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENTS 9.17. ERRORS IN LEVELLING 243
S GENERAL PROCEDURE 144
MEASUREMENT OF HORlZONTAL ANGLE 9.18. DEGREE OF PRECISION 244
j {
6.l.
6.6. MEASUREMENT OF VERTICAL ANGLE S ISO
Ill
9.19. THE LEVEL TUBE 244
6.7. MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONS WITH THEOD
OLITE 9.20. SENSITIVENESS OF BUBBLE TIJBE 2"48
RElATIONS ISS
6.8. FUNDAMENTAL LINES AND DESIRED 9.21. BAROMETRIC LEVELLING 2l2
WORK ll6
SOURCES OF ERROR IN TI!EOD OLITE HYPSOMETRY

~
6.9.

CHAPTER 7 TRAVERSE SURVEYING 10 CONTOURING 257


, !!'l'TP0!"!U':'T!0!'J'
161
10.1. UE.i>it:RA.i.. '-"
161
7.2. CHAIN TRAVERSING 10.2. CONTOUR INTERVAL 2S9
METIIOD 162
7.3. CHAIN AND COMPASS TRAVERSING FREE OR LOOSE NEEDLE 10.3. CHARAcrERISTICS OF CONTOURS 260
162
7.4. TRAVERSING BY FAST NEEDLE METHOD 10.4. METHODS OF LOCATING CONTOURS 264
164
7.5. TRAVERSING BY DIRECT OBSERVATION OF
ANGLES IO.S. INTERPOLATION OF COtiTOURS 266
AND TAPE 16l
7.6. LOCATING DETAILS WITH TRANS IT 10.6. CONTOUR GRADIENT 267
167 MAPS
7.7. CHECKS IN CLOSED TRAVERSE _/ 10~7. USES OF CONTOUR
168
7.8. PLOTIING A TRAVERSE SURVEY \.QHAPTER 11 PLANE TABLE-SURVEYING 271
169
7.9. CONSECUTlVE CO-ORDINATES LATmJDE AND DEPARTURE GENERAL ACCESSORIES
171 11.1. 273
7.10. CLOSING ERROR 11.2. WORKING OPERATIONS 27S
172
7.11. BALANCING TilE TRAVERSE 11.3. PRECISE PLANE TABLE EQUIPMENT 27l
177
7.12. DEGREE OF ACCURACY IN TRAVERSING METHODS (SYSTEMS) OF PLANE TAD LING 276
CHAPTER
8.1.
8.2.
8 OMITIED MEASUREMENTS
CONSECUTIVE CO-ORDINATES : LATITUDE
OMITfED MEASUREMENTS
AND DEPARTURE 179
ISO
i 6
.

.
INTERSECTION (GRAPHIC TRIANGULATION)
TRAVERSING
RESECITON
m
278
~ ',
~'

11.8. THE THREE-POINT PROBLEM:- .


""' "'
279 CHAPI'ER 16 PERMANENT ADJUSTMENTS OF LEVELS
11.9 TWO POINT PROBLEM 285 16.1. INTRODUCriON 365
11.10. ERRORS IN PLANE TABLING 287 16.2. ADUSTMENTS OF DUMPY LEVEL 365
~ 11.11. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PLANE TABLING 289 372
16.3. ADJUSTMENT OF TILTING U:VEL
r/CIIAPI'E R 12 CALCULATION OF AREA 16.4. ADJUSTMENTS OF WYE LEVEL 373
12.1.
GENERAL 291 CHAPI'ER 17 PRECISE LEVELLING
12.2.
GENERAL METHODS OF DETERMINING AREAS
292 17.1. INTRODUCfiON 377
12.3. AREAS COMPIJTED BY SUB-OMSION IJ'IITO TRIANGLES
292 17.2. THE PRECISE LEVEL 377
~ AREAS FROM OFFSETS TO A BASE LINE : OFFSETS AT REGULAR INTERVALS
vz.5. OFFSETS AT IRREGUlAR INTERVALS
~ AREA BY DOUBLE MERIDIAN DISTANCES
292
2'11
17.3.
17.4.
WILD N-3 PRECISION LEVEL
THE COOKE S-550 PRECISE LEVEL
378
378
298 17.S. ENGINEER'S PRECISE LEVEL (FENNEL) 319
12.7. AREA BY CO-ORDINATES
302 17.6. FENNEL'S FINE PRECISION LEVEL 319
12.8. AREA COMPUTED FROM MAP MEASUREMENTS
304 17.7. PRECISE LEVELLING STAFF 380
_/ -~--9. AREA BY PLANIMETER 305 17.8. FIELD PROCEDURE FOR PRECISE LEVELLING 380
._,.£HAYfER 13 MEASUREMENT OF VOLUME 17.9. FlEW 381
NOTES
13.1 GENERAL 17.10. DAILY ADJUSTMENTS OF PRECISE LEVEL 382
315
~ MEASUREMENT FROM CROSS-SECTIONS
315 CHAPI'ER 18 PERMANENT ADJUSTMENTS OF THEODOLITE
$ THE PRISMOIDAL FORMULA
~THE
319 18.1. GENERAL 385
TRAPEZOIDAL FORMULA (AVERAGE END AREA METHOD) 321 18.2. ADJUSTMENT OF PlATE LEVEL 386
.\....J¥5. THE PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION
322 18.3. ADJUSTMENT OF LINE OF SIGHT 386
13.6. THE CURVATURE CORRECTION
322 18.4. ADJUSTMENT OF THE HORIZONTAL AXIS 388
.JYI'/ VOLUME FROM SPOT LEVELS 327 18.5. ADJUSTMENT OF ALTITUDE LEVEL AND VERTICAL INDEX FRAME 388
__!)<'8. VOLUME FROM CONTOUR PLAN
332 CIIAPI'ER 19 PRECISE THEODOLITES
CIIAPI'ER 14 MINOR INSTRUMENTS
19.1. INTRODUCTION 391
14.1. HAND LEVEL 337 19.2. WATIS MICROPTIC THEOOOLITE NO. 1. 392
14.2. ABNEY CLINOMETER (ABNEY LEVEL)
338 19.3. FENNEL'S PRECISE THEODOUTE 392
14.3. INDIAN PATIERN CLINOMETER (l'ANGENT CLINOMETER)
340 19.4. WILD T-2 THEODOLITE 393
14.4. BUREL HAND LEVEL
341 19.5. THE TAVISTOCK THEODOLITE 394
14.5. DE LISLE'S CLINOMETER
341 19.6. THE WIW T-3 PRECISION THEODOLITE 395
14.6. FOOT-RULE CLINOMETER
342 10"" THE WU .n T~ TJNJVF-~SAL 396
THEOOOUJ'f.
L'f.l. L.c.li...VI''I LT.I1f\1 IHJ\.CI=.K
343
14.8. FENNEL'S CLINOMETER CIIAPI'ER 20 SETIING OUT WORKS
343
14.9. THE PANTAGRAPH 20.1. INTRODUCTION 398
344
14.10. THE SEXTANT 20.2. CONTROLS FOR SETilNG OUT 398
345
CIIAPI'ER 15 20.3. HORIZONTAL CONTROL 398
TRIGONOMETRICAL LEVELLING
20.4. VERTICAL CONTROL 400
15.1. INTRODUCTION
349 20.5. SETIING OUT IN VERTICAL DIRECTION 400
15.2. BASE OF THE OBJECT ACCESSIBLf:
349 20.6. POSITIONING OF STRUCTURE 403
15.3. BASE OF THE OBJECT INACCESSIBLE : 'INSTRUMENT STATIONS IN
20.7. SETTING OUT FOUNDATION TRENCHES OF BUILDINGS 404
THE SAME VERTICAL PLANE AS THE ELEVATED OBJECT
352
15.4. BASE OF THE OBJECT INACCESSIBLE : INSTRUMENT STATIONS NOT CHAPI'ER 21 SPECIAL INSTRUMENTS
IN THE SAME VERTICAL PLANE AS 1HE ELEVATED OBJECT 21. 1. INTRODUCfiON 405
355
15.5. DETERMINATION OF HEIGHf OF AN ELEVATED OBJECT ABOVE THE 21.2. THE SITE SQUARE 405
GROUND WHEN ITS BASE AND TOP ARE VISIBLE BUT NOT ACCESSIBLE 21.3. AUTOMATIC OR AUTOSET LEVEL 406
359
15.6. DETERMINATION OF ELEVATION OF AN OBJECT FROM ANGLES OF 21.4. TRANSIT-LEVEL 408
ELEVATION FROM THREE INSTRUMENT STATIONS IN ONE LINE 21.5. SPECIAL COMPASSES 408
361
f
21.6. BRUNTON UNIVERSAL POCKET
MOUNTAIN COMPASS-TRANSIT
XVI

TRANSIT 409
410
I []]
~~ 22 TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING
411
~
22.1. GENERAL

Fundamental Defmitions and Concepts


22.2. INSTRUMENTS 411

22Jr DIFFERENT SYSTEMS


OF TACHEOMETRIC MEASUREMENT 412
PRINCIPLE OF ~ADIA METHOD 413
~: DISTANCE AND ELEVATION FORMULAE
FOR STAFF VERTICAL
416
INCLINED SIGIIT
FOR STAFF NORMAL
.J'-6. DISTANCE AND ELEVATION FORMULAE
417
1.1. SURVEYING: OBJECT
418 ons of poiniS on, above or
22.7. THE ANALLACfiC LENS
OD : Surveying is the an of detennining the relative positi measuremeniS of distance.
22.8. PRINCIPLE OF SUBTENSE (OR MOVABLE HAIR) METH direct or indirect
beneath the surface of the earth by means of
VERTICAL LI\SE OBSERVATIONS 431
includes the an of establishing poiniS by predetennined angular
~ direction and elevat ion. It also
HORIZONTAL BASE SUBTENSE MEASUREME
NTS 434
ying requires skill as well as the knowledge
22.10. HOLDING THE STAFF ~37 and linear measuremeniS. The application of surve
t, asttonomy.
OF READING TilE STAFF 438 of mathematics, physics, and to some exten
22.11. METHODS which is (i) to find the elevations
WORK 439 Levelling is a branch of surveying the object of
ed datum, and (ii) to eslablish poiniS at a
22.12. STADIA FIELD
dl3 . TANGENTIAL METHOD 442 of poiniS with respect to a given or assum
TilE
respect to a given or assumed darum. The
22.14. REDUCI10N OF STADIA NOTFS
446 given elevation or at different elevations with
to be designed while the second operation
22.15. SPECIAL INSTRUMENTS 449 first operation is required 10 enable the works
works. Levelling deals with measuremeniS
22.16. THE AliTO-REDUCfiON TACHE
OMETER (HAMMER-FENNEL) 452 is required in the setting out of all kinds of engineering
22.17. WILD'S RDS REDUCI10N TACHEOME.TER 453 in a vertical plane.
in many phases of engineering. The
22.18. THE EWING STADI-ALTIMETER
(WATI'S) 455 The knowledge of surveying is advanlageous
land surve ying. Practically, every engineering
22.19. ERRORS IN STADI A SURVEYING 455 earliest surveys were made in connection with
schem es, railroads and transmission lines, mines,
22.20. EFFECf OF ERRORS IN STADIA TACHE
OMETRY, DUE TO MANIPULATION project such as water supply and irrigation
e plans and estima1es are prepared. boundaries
AND SIGHTING. • 456 bridges and buildings etc. require surveys. Befor
site should be ascenained. After the plans
CHAPTER 23 ELECTRONIC THEODOLITES should be determined and the topography of the
the ground. As the work progresses, lines
23.1. INTRODUCTION 465 are made, the strucrures must be staked out on
WILD T-1000 'TIJEOMAT' 465 and grades must be given.
horizonlal, or else are subsequently
23.2.
WILD T-2000 THEOMAT 467 In surveying. all measurements of lengths are
y lS to pn::pan: plan ur map so
23.3.
oi a surve
',V!LD T :C•X S :!-I£0:\-~'.:· -tiu reduced to horizontal distances. The oojecr
ntal plane. A plan or map is the horiZontal'·
:?.-1
MENT (EDM) that it may represent the area on a horizo
CHAPrER 24 ELECTRO-MAGNETIC DISTANCE MEASURE distances of the points. Vertical di5tances
471 projection of an area and shows only horizonlal
24.1. INTRODUCTION r lines, hachures or some other methods.
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 471 between the points are, however, shown by comou
24.2. means of vertical seciions drawn separately.
24.3. MODULATION 415 Vertical distances are usually represented by
24.4. TYPES OF EDM INSTRUMENTS 476
1.2. PRIMARY DMSIONS OF SURVEY
478 the length of iiS polar axis _{12,713.800
24.5. THE GEODIMETER The earth is an oblate spheroid of revolutions,
479 equaiorial axis (12, 756.750 merresl. Thus,
24.6. THE TELLUROMETER
mettes) being somewhal less than that of its
WILD 'DISTOMATS' 481 by 42.95 kilometres. Relative to the diamerer
24.7. the polar axis is shorter than the equatorial axis
488 If we neglect the irregularities at' rhe earrh.
of the earth this is less than 0.34 percent.
24.8. TOTAL STATION
493 d surface, every element of which is normal
APPENDIX
531 the surface of the imaginary spheroid is a curve
INDEX
' SURVEYING
I FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS 3

lI
to the plumb line. The intersection of such
1.3. CLASSIFICATION
a surface with a plaue passing through the
Surveys may be classified under headings which define the uses or purpose of the
centre of the earth will form a line continuous
around the earth. The portion of such a resulting maps.
(A) CLASSIFICATION BASED UPON THE NATURE OF THE FIELD SURVEY
line is known as 'level line' and the circle
defined by the iD[ersection is known as 'great
circle'. Thus in Fig. 1.1, the distance be-
~ (1) Land Surveying
(1) TopofPYJPhical Surveys : This consists of horizontal and vertical location of certain
tween rwo points P and Q is the length \' points by linear and angular measurements and is made to determine the nanual feanues
0f the arc of the great circle passing through of a country such as rivers, streams, lakes, woods, hills, etc., and such artificial features
rbese poin£S 3nd is evidently somewhat more as roads, railways, canals, towns and villages.
than the chord intercepted by the arc. (it) Cud~tral Surveys : Cadastral surveys are made incident to the fixing of property
Consider three points P, Q and R lines, the calculation of land area, or the transfer of land property from one owner to
I Fig. I .I) and three level lines passing through another. They are also made to frx the boundaries of municipalities and of State and Federal
ti1ese points. The surface within the triangle jurisdictions.
PQR so formed is a curved surface and (iii) Cily Surveying : They are made in connection with the construction of streets.
rhP lin~!' fonning irs sides are arcs of great water supply systems, sewers and other works.
circles. The figure is a spherical triangle. (2) Marine or Hydrographic Survey. Marine or hydrographic survey deals with bndies
TI1e angles p, q and r of the spherical FIG. 1.1 of water for pwpose of navigation, water supply, harbour works or for the deiermination
uiangle are somewhat more than correspond- of mean sea level. The work consists in measurement of discharge of streams, making
ing angles p', q' and r' of the plane triangle. If the points are far away, the difference topographic survey of shores and banks, taking and locating soundings to determine the
will be considerable. If the points are nearer, the difference will be negligible. depth of water and observing the fluctuations of the otean tide.
As ro whether the surveyor must regard.Ahe eanh's surface as curved or may regard (3) Astronomical Survey. The astronomical survey offers the surveyor means of determining
it is as plane depends upon the character and magnitude of the survey, and upon the the absolute location of any point or the absolute location and direction of any line on
precision required. the surface of the earth. This consists in observations to the heavenly bndies such as the
Thus, primarily, surveying can be divided into two classes sun or any fixed star.
(I) Plane Surveying (2) deodetic Surveying. (B) CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE OBJECT OF SURVEY
Plllne surveying is that type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth (1) Engineering Survey. This is undertaken for the determination of quantities or to
;, considered as a plane and the spheroidal shape is neglected. All triangles formed by afford sufficient data for the designing of engineering . works such as roads and reservoirs,
survey lines are considered as plane triangles. The level line is considered as straight and or those connected with sewage disposal or water supply.
:1!1 plumb lines are considered parallel. fn everyd~y life we ar-:- ~"nc~rned with small portions (2) 1'-.:filiU:a.r.)' .S:ari1 ~J'. This is i.lStd for determining pubts of slrategic i!l1p'.Jrtance.
of earth's surface and the above assumptions seem to be reasonable in light of the fact
(3) Mine Survey. This is used for the exploring -mineral wealth.
that the length of an arc 12 kilometres long lying in the earth's surface is only I em
(4) Geological Survey. This is used for determining different strata in the earth's
greater than the subtended chord and further that the difference between the sum of the
•ngles in a plane triangle and the sum of those in a spherical triangle is only one second crust.
(5) Archaeological ·Survey. This is used for unearthing relics of antiquity.
for • triongle at the earth's surface having an area of 195 sq. km.
Geodetic surveying is that type of surveying in which the shape of the earth (C) CLASSIFICATIONBASED ON INSTRUMENTS USED
is taken into account All lines lying in the surface are curved lines and the triangles An alternative classification may be based upon the instruments or methods employed,
are spherical triangles. It, therefore, involves spherical trigonomeuy. All geodetic surveys the chief typeS being :
include work of larger magnitude and high degree of precision. The object of geodetic (1) Chain survey
survey is to determine the prfdse position on Ihe suiface of the earth, of a system of (2) Theodolite survey
widely distanr points which fonn corurol stations 10 which surveys of less precision may (3) Traverse survey
be referred. (4) Triangulatiqn survey
!5) Tacheo111etric survey
(6) Plane table· survey
r 4 SURVEYING
r- FUNDAMENTAL DEPINITIONS AND CONC
EPTS

to illustraie the principles of detenninin


g
;

fJ'i: and
(7)
(8)
Phorogrammetric survey
Aerial survey.
Figs. 1.2 (b). (c) and (d) can also be used
relative elevations of points. Considering
these diagrams to be in vertical plane
iple of ordin ary spirit levell ing.
. with PQ
A horizontal
! as horiwntal. Fig./,2 (b) represents the
princ
and methods of the above types. gh P and the vertical height of R is
measured
The book mainly deals with the principles line PQ is instrumentally estab lished throu
of trigo nome trical
2 (c) and (d) represent tile princ iples
1.4. PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING by taking staff reading. Similarly, Fig. 1.
are
the various methods of plane surveying levelling.
The fundamental principles upon which the follow ing two aspec1s :
based are of very simple nature and
can be stated under (2) Working from whole to part
from two points of reference whether plane or geodetic, is to work from
Location of a point by measurement The second ruling principle of surveying, S and to
(1)
sUIVeyed should be located by measurem
ent esrablish first a system of control poinl
The relative positions of the points to be . whole to part. It is very essential to then be established by less precise
alrea dy been fixed control points can
from at least two points of reference,
the positions of which have fix them with higher precision. Minor s by running
on the ground. The distance PQ can
be meas ured located using these minor control point
Let P and Q be the refer<ltl(;e points methods and the details can then be accum ulation of
the sheet to some ing in this way is to prevent the
accurately and the relative 'positions
of P and Q can be plotred on minor traverses etc. The idea of work d expan d to greater
relative positions r errors which. otherwise. woul
scale. The points P and Q will thus serve
as reference points for fixing the errors and to control and loCalise mino work unco ntrollable at the
of the follow ing direct followed, tl1us making the
of other points. Any other point, such
as R, can be located lly ony magnitudes if the reverse process is
J
methods (Fig. 1.2) · end.
! 1.5. UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS
p p p F p l used in plane surveying:
There are four kinds of measurements
lI I. Horiwntal distance 2.
4.
Vertical distance
Vertical angle.
A Sf- T-A I A
'
,~R
r. )A 3. Horizontal angle, and
of Weights and Measures Act (India),

I
ards
Linear measures. According to the Stand
90•

b v j 1956 the unit of measurement of distance


of metric units in India, feet, tenths
is metres and centimetres. Prior to the intro
and hundredths of a foot were used. Table
while
1.1
Tabl
duction

es
gives
1.2
a 6 a' a a I the basic linear measures, both in metr
ic as well as in Britis h system,
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) i
. r,
and 1.3 give the conversion factors .
LENG TH
\ 'ABLE
---- BASIC
-·- ----
- 1.1 - UNIT -- ---
-- ---S OF -- --

AG. L2. LOCATION OF A POINT.


gmg
~ British Units
Metric Ullits
ured and point R can be plotted by swm 1
(a) Distances PR and QR can be meas very much "1 10 millimetres = I centimetre
same scale to which PQ has
the two arcs to the in.t?
been plotted. The principle is
·t I
12 inches = I fool
J..;-::;;:;,:l:~
I
used in r.hain sur,ev leel = I yaro i IV .A.:iiiiOii~(l,;;:,

ed on the reference line PQ and lengt


hs PS ' ;
I metre
(b) A perpendicular RS can be dropp ] 10 decimetres =
This princ iple ;! rod. pole or perch
then be plotted using set square. ! yards = I I
and SR are measured. The point R can '
is used for defining details. ~
4 poles = 1 chain (66 fee!) !w
I
metres = I decametre
d l
(c) The distance QR and the angle
PQR can be measured and point R is plotte I 10 decametres = I hectometre
is used in trave rsing . I furlong
nometrically. This principle 10 chains =
either by means of a protractor or trigo RPQ and ! 10 hecwmetres = 1 kilometre
and QR are not measured but angle mile
(If) In this method, the distances PR "k 8 furlongs = I
ce PQ,
angle-mea suring instrumenL Knowing the distan i ! 1852 meues = I nautical mile (lntemationa\)
angle RQP are measured with an ion of triangle, PQR. ' This >;.. 100 links = I chain
of a protractor or by solut I
. point R is plotted either by means method is used for ·very · e:uen sive = 66fee i I
on and the
principle is very much used in rn"angulali 6 feel = I fathom I
w"ork .. I
acting
ured and point R is plotted either by protr cable length I
(e) Angle RQP and distance PR are meas principle, used 120 fathoms = I

an angle and swinging anr arc from P or pJoned trigonometrically. This I nautical miie
I
utility. 6080 feet =
in lTaversing , is of mino
6
SURVEYING FUND~AL DEFINJ"i10NS AND CONCEPTS 7
TABLE I.Z CONVERSION FACTORS
(Mnres, yards, feet and irrch2s) TABLE 1.6 CONVERSION FACTORS
(Ares, Acres and sq. yords)
Metns Y<Uds Feet IncMs
I Ares Acres Sq. yards
1.0936 3.2808 39.3701
0.9144 I I 0.0247 119.6 I
3 36

I'
0.3048 0.3333 I 40.469 I 4840
12
O.OZS4 0.0278 0.0833 I I 0.0084 0.00021 I

TABLE 1.3 CONVERSION FACTORS


(/(jfomerres, NauJical miles and Miles) I sq. mile = 640 acres= 258.999 hectares
Kilometres Nautiud miles
.
Miles I I acre
are
= 10 sq. chains
= I00 sq. metres
I 0.539% 0.6214 I Basic units of volume. The units of measurements of volumes are cubic decimetre.c:.
1.852
1.6093
I
0.869
1.1508
I I I and cubic metres. Table I. 7 gives the basic units of measurement of volumes holh in
metric as well as British units. Tables 1.8 and 1.9 give !he conversion factors.
TABLE 1.7 BASIC UNITS OF VOLUME
Basic units of area. The units of measurements of area are sq. metres, sq. decimetres, f
hectares and sq. kilometres. Table 1.4 gives the units of area bolh in metric as well as
l
British Unils Metric Units -1
British sysiems. Tables 1.5 and i.6 gives !he conversion factors. ~ 1728 cu. inches== cu. foot 1000 cu. millimwes cu. centime1res
-~
TABLE 1.4 BASIC UNITS OF AEEA
l 27 cu. 'feet cu. yards 1000 cu. cemimettes cu. <lecimenes
BriJWJ Unils
t44 sq. inches
Metric U11ils
1000 cu. decimelres cu. melres :
l
= I sq. f001 100 sq. millimerres = sq. cenrimeue
9 sq. feet = I sq. Yard TABLE 1.8 CONVERSION FACTORS
100 sq. centimetres=- sq. decimerre (Ql. metres. Ql. y<Uds and Imp. galloiU)
30} sq. yards = I sq. rod, pole or perch 100 sq. decimeues = sq. merre Cu. metres Cu. yards Gallons (Imp.) I
40 sq. rods = I rood 100 sq. metres are or I sq.
decametre
I
0.7645
1.308
I
219.969
168.178 l
4 roods = 1 acre 100 ares hectare or 0.00455 0.00595 I '
i
1 ~q hcctc:o.J<:l<~ •
640 acr.s = 1 sq. mile 100 hectares = I sq. kilometre TABLE 1.9. CONVERSION FACTORS
484 sq. yards
to sq. chains
= I sq. chain

= I acre
l Cu. metres
(Oibic merres, Acre feet, Imp. Galloru and Kilolitres)

Acrejeet Ga/lom (lmp.J Kilolitres

Sq."'""'
TABLE 1.5 CONVERSION FACTORS
(Sq. metres. Sq. y<Uds. Sq. feet and Sq. inches)

Sq. y<Uds Sq. feet Sq. i11ches


i
!
j
1233.48
0.00455
I 0.000811

0.00000369
219.969
271327

I
0.99997
1233.45
0.00455
I 1.196 10.7639 1550 I' 1.000028 0.000811
-----·
219.976 I
0.8361
0.0929
I
0.111 I
9
I
1296
144
I Basic units of angular measure. An angle is the difference in directions of two
intersecting lines. The radiml is the unit of plane angle. The radian is !he angle between
0.00065 0.00077 0.0069 two radii of a circle which cuts-off on the circumference of an arc equal in length to
I
I
the radius. There are lhree popular syslemS of angular measurements:
. .
f 9

r
EP'TS
FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND CONC
SURVEYING
given engineer's

I
R.F.) can be very easily found for a
I 8
representative fraction (abbreviated as
.
I em = 50 m
(a) Sexagesi111f1] System scale. For example, if the scale is
1 circumference = 360• (degrees of arc) 1 I
R.F. ""' ",7o-'--,o~"' = 5000.
I degree =60' (minutes of arc)
f also known as numerical scales.
1 minute = 60" (seconds of arc) The above two types of scales are a graphical
ng the scale is to draw on the plan
(b) Centesi111111 System
circumference = 400 8 (grads)
~ (3) An alternative way of representi
scale. A graph~cal scale is a line sub-divide
d into plan distance corre spon ding to convenient

units of length on the ground. s may


= 100' (centigrades) I after a few years, the nwnerical scale
grad If rhe plan or map is to be used hical scale
or paper shrinks. However, if a grap
(c)
centigrad·
Hours System
= 100cc (centi-centigrads)
l not ·giVe ~ccurare results if the sheer
is al~o .drawn, it will shrink proportio
Thai is why. scales are always draw
nately and the distances can be
n on all survey maps.
foun d accurately.

1 circumference = 24h (hours). !


~
Choice of Scale of a Map
hour = 60m (minutes of time) ' maps are those in which the nwnber
of metres
The most common scales for ordinary ry cons idera tion in
= 60' (seconds of time). J multiple of ten. The prelimina
minute and :'· represented by one centimetre is some be put, and (2) the extent
in United States, ·Great Britain, India to which the map will
The sexagesimal system is widely used and most choosing the scale are : (I) the use rules shou ld be follo wed
lete tables are available in this syste
m following two general
other parts of the World. More comp to facility in of territory to be represented. The nce from the
rding to this syste m. How ever, due enou gh so that in plotting or in scaling dista
surveying instruments are graduated acco Europe. The 1. Choose a scale large 0.25 mm.
sima1 system is gaining more favour in finished map. it will not be necessary
to read the scale close r than
computation and interpolation, the cente ation . eatio n of the smallest
nomy and navig istent with a clear delin
hours system is mostly used in astro 2. Choose as small a scale as is cons used in vario us surveys.
the common scales gene rally
1.6. PLANS AND MAPS derails to be plotted . Table 1.10 gives
or
to some scale, of the features on, near TABLE 1.10
A plan· is the graphical representation, ontal plane whic h is represente d R.F.
cted on a horiz
below the surface of the earth as proje the sutface of the Type or purpose of I Stale

by plane of the paper on which


the plan is drawn. However, since surve
plan or map is plane , no part of the surface can 1
earth is curved and the paper of the g, the areas involved (a} Topographic Survey
10 m or less
'ffiYS or less
distortion. In plane surveyin em =
be represented on such maps· without 1. Building sites It
henc e map is constructed 1 1
be regarded as plane and soo.rto lOCOO
are small, the earth's surface may distortion . 2. Town plaMing schemes. I 1 em = 50 m to lOOm
urable
by orthographic projection without meas d a plan reservoirs etc.
1
<;J¥ w2im )
1

The representation is called a map if the scale is small while it is calle :. ____ !.'- •'-· -~ . C:l'l ~- '(" 'ltYI ~

msta nces ana atrec nons are ; 1 I


II r.he scaae 1s targe. on
a pian, generaiiy, oruy horizomai d by contour
i
= 0.25 km to 2.5 km 25000' w EOOOO
the vertical dista nces are also repre sente 4. Small scale topographic maps I I em
shown. On a topographic map, however, 1 1
500 to 5000
lines. bachures or other systems. (bJ Catkistral maps II em = 5m to 0.5 km
1
1
1.7. SCALES = 5 km to 160 km 500000 to 16000000
scale. fcJ Geograplu·cal maps ! I em
therefore, plans are made to some
The area that is surveyed is vast and, ding distance
nce on the plan bears with correspon 1 t
Scale is. the fixed ratio thai every dista ods : fdJ U:mgiwdinnl seaio11s 10i50 to 20000
d by· the following meth = 10m to 200 m
on the ground. Scale can be represente ground.
I. Horizontal scale
I em I 1
some whole number of metres on the
t 100 to 200
(1) One em on the plan represents scale. 2. Venical scale em = 1m to 2 m
of scale is called engineer's ' 1
such as 1 em = 10 m etc. This type length
;
sents some number of same units of (e) 0os.J-.5ection.s I 1
(2) One unit of length on the plan repre ding ground I em = lmt o2m 100 ID 200
<Both horizomal and vertical 1
ratio of map distance to the correspon
on the ground, such as 1 ~, etc. This ion. The
scales equal)
urement and is called represemative fract
distance is independent of units of meas
10 FUNDAMI!i'ITAL DEFINmONS AND CONCEPTS 11
SURVEYING

Types of Scales 1.9. DIAGONAL SCALE


Scales may be classified as follows On a diagoual scale. it is possible to measure lhree dimensions such as metres. de<!imetres
I.
3.
Plain· scale
Vernier scale
2.
4.
Diagonal scale
Scale of cbords.
1I and centimetres; units, tenlhs and hundredlhs; yards, feet and inches etc. A short Jenglh
is divided into a number of parts by using lhe principle of similar
triangles in which like sides are proportioual. For example let a
1.8. PLAIN SCALE ! sbort Jenglh PQ be divided into 10 parts (Fig. 1.4). At Q draw
"
A plain scale is one on which it is possible to measure two dimensions only, such a line QR perpendicular to PQ and of any convenient Ienglh.
as units and lengths, metres and decimetres, miles and furlongs, etc. Divide it into ten equal parts. Join lhe diagonal PR. From each
Example 1.1. ConstrucJ a pillin scale 1 em to 3 metres and slww on it 47 metres. of lhe divisions, I, 2, 3 etc., draw lines parallel to PQ to cut lhe 4
C<lnstructWn : diagonal in corresponding points I, 2, 3 etc., lhus dividing lhe diagonal 5J----j 5
ij into I 0 equal parts. 6t..---.16

if;1~~~~:~ l~~~(~;;rr-r T·r·r--r··r-1 ' I


vision imo 10 equal parts, each 10 •0 10
•• 20
•• 30
•• 40
•• 50
-
i Thus.
1-1 represents .!.. PQ
10
2-2 represents 1. PQ P t~~I
9
8
9
a
reading I metre. Place zero SCale 1cm=3m • 10
FIG. 1.4
of the_ scale between lhe sub-
divided parts and lhe undivided
FIG. 1.3 PLAIN SCALE. 9-9 represents fo
PQ etc.
part and mark lhe scale as shown in Fig. 1.3. To take 47 metres, place one leg of Example 1.2 ConstruCI a diagonal scale 1 cm=3 metres to read metres and decimetres
lhe divider at 40 and lhe olher at 7, ·as shown in Fig. 1.3. and show on thal 33.3 metres.
Indian Standard on plain scales Construction :
IS : 1491-1959 has recommended six different plain scales in metric units used by Take 20 em Jenglh and divide it into 6 equal pans, each pan representing 10 metres.
engineers, architects and sorveyors. The scale designations along wilh lheir R.F. are given Sub-divide lhe first left band part into 10 divisions, each representing I metre. At the
in the table below: left of lhe first sub-division erect a perpendicular of any suitable .lenglh (say 5 em) and
divide it into 10 equal parts and draw lhrough lhese parts lines parallel to lhe scale. Sub-divide
DesiRrUJtlon I S<ok R.F.
lhe top parallel line into ten divisions (each representing 1 metre) and join lhese diagonally
1. Full size I
A I T to lhe corresponding sub-divisions on lhe first parallel line as shown in Fig. 1.5 wbere
I a distance of 33.3 metres has been marked.
2. SO em to a metre 2
3. 40 em to a metre I 1.0
B
- n 0.9

' ' 4. 20 em 10 a metre


5
I
j
0.8
0.7
0.6
S. 10 em to a metre I
l 0.5

~~~~:••m !rln~
c Tii 0.4
I 0.3
6. 5 em to a metre 0.2

I
20 0.1
7. 2 em to a metre I 0.0
D 51i
I ·l
8. 1 em to a metre
TOO ~ Scale1cm=3m
9. S mm to a metre I l
E 200 l FIG. 1.5 DIAGONAL SCALE.

F
10. 2 mm to a metre

11. I mm to a metre
I
500
I
I Indian_ Standard on diagonal scales
IS : 1562-1962 recommends four diagonal scales A, B. C and D. as sbown in lhe
TiiOO
12. O.S nun w a metre I table below :
----- - - ~QQ9 --
~~ 13
I2. SURVEYING FUNDAMENTAL DEFINmONS AND CONCEPTS

Let s = Value of one smallest division on main scale


De~ignation R.F. Graduated ltng!h
v =.Value of one smallest division ·on the vernier.
A I ISO em
T ! n = Number of divisions on the vernier.
I.
100iXXl
I II Since a length of (n - I) divisions of main scale is equal
to n divisions of vernier,
100 c~ l we have
8
2.
5<XXXJ
I
I ! nv = (n- 1) s
3. 2500)
I
I .
i V=
n-
( -.-
1) S
I !
I ~ n- 1 s
!.
100Xil' Least count= s- v = s- -n- s =-.
c

I
n
I 2.
I
51iXii'f I
50 om
Thus, the least count (L.C.) can be found by dividing the value of one main scale
I I
3. division by the total number of divisions on the vernier.
23000
;
I ,:;
'I
100iXXl
150 em
I II v OJ II v 01
"tll" I
D I ,,,d!!!l l!!!l!!!l
'11,,·"'' "'II'13 t "'I(
I
2.
8liD I
I
I ("I'2 II IIIII
s
II II II
12
I
3.
I
4li'ii' I .~
1 0 14.
(a) (b)
1.10. THE VERNIER
'
!
_-.-;:
The vernier, invented in 1631 by Pierre Vernier, is a device for measuring the fracrional FIG. 1.6 DIRECT VERNIER READING TO 0.01.
part of one of the smallest divisions of a graduated scale. It usually consists of a small Fig. 1.6(a} shows a direct vernier in which 9 parts of the main scale divisions coincide
auxiliary scale which slides along side the main scale. The principle of vernier is based with 10 parts of the vernier. The total number of the divisions on the vernier are 10
on the fact that the eye can perceive wilhow strain and with considerable precision when and the value of one main scale division is 0.1. The least count of the vernier is lherefore,
two graduations coincide to jonn one continuous straight line. The vernier carries an index
mark which forms the zero of the vernier. ~·~ = 0.01. The reading on the vernier [Fig. 1.6(b)) is 12.56.
If the graduations of the rp.ain scaJe are numbered in one direction only. the vernier Fig. 1.7 (a) shows a double vernier (direct type) in which the main scale is figured
used is called a single vernier, extending in one direction. If the graduations of the main in both the directions and the vernier also extends to both the sides of the index mark.
scale are numbered in both the directions, the vernier used is called double vernier, extending
in both the directions, having its index mark in the middle.
The division.~t C'f the vernier are either j~1st a little smal!f':- r-r :- litt!r 12rgcr th:m L... :. c ; ~l.·

the divisions of the main scale. The finen~ss of reading or least count of the vernier II, I , I 1" 11
J, , I I II I ' I I I

is equal to the difference between the smallest division on the main scale and smallest
~~I \'i'i'i'Uii~l \'iII liill''''''f
division on the vernier. 1 70 80 90 (30 6U
(b)
IU\

Whether single or double, a vernier can primarily be divided imo the following two •i (a)
classes : l
(a) Direct Vernier ~i FIG. !. 7. DOUBLE VERNIER (DIRECI).
~,

(b) Retrograde Vernier. ' The 10 spaces on. either half of the Vernier are equivalent to '9 scale divisions and hence
(a) Direct Vernier
A direct vernier is the one which extends or increases in the same direction as
that of the main scale and in which the smallest division on the vernier is shoner than
the smallest division on the main scale. It is so consrrucred that (n - 1) divisions of the
main scale are equal in length of n divisions of the vernier.
l
1
least count is ~ = ~
figures on the
1
main
=0.1. The· left-hand vernier is used in conjunction with the upper
scale (those sloping to the left) and the right-hand vernier is used
in conjunction with the lower figures on the scale (those sloping to the rigbt). Thus, in
Fig. 1.7 (b), the reading on the left vernier is 40.6 and on the rigbi vernier is 59.4.

l
1
15
14 SURVEYIN9 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINmONS AND CONCEPTS

(b) Retrograde Vernier


A retrograde vernier is the one which extends or increases in opposite direction as
thal of the main scale and in which rhe smallest division of the vernier is longer than
r I I I, I II ,I I ,I , ,I IfI II I II III II I II I'1 ,
160
10
30

5
0

0
30

5 10
60J

1
the smallest division on the main scale. It is so · constructed that (n + 1) divisions of the
(•)
main scale are equal in length of n divisions of the vernier.
Thus. we have. for Ibis case
n+ 1
I r 30 o 30 ~
nv=(n+ l)s : or v=--s
n
I I I I I I I ~ I I I
\Ill 11111111 111 ljl II
I
I I'' IJ
I
I lfr!j

The least count


(n+t]
=v-s=l-. - s-s=ns I 15 10 5
(b)
0 5 10

which is the same as before. I


Fig. 1.8 (a) illustrates a retrograde vernier in which 11 pans of the main scale
divisions coincide with 10 divisions of the vernier. The value of one smallest division on
the main scale is 0.1 and lb~ number of division on the vernier are. 10. Therefore, the
least' counr is = ~-~ = 0.01. The reading on the vernier [Fig.I.8 (b)] is 13.34.
I ;

~
~I ) I
10
l60
I
I I I I
I I
30
I
I ))) l '
5
I
I
0

(<)
I
0
.j.
I ) I
I
I
5
I
I I I 1
30
I .I

10
I
rr' ' r--'{
601
Jl.
j
15

\
lo ' IOj- I"~"II ,II""!OJ j•
FIG. 1.9 EXTENDED VERNIER .

, r+••••••• .. 1
··!····~~~~~; 111111111!' ·r )'1111111' n r 1111111"1
14 13 n
..:'
~
;
i
The reading on the vernier illustrated in Fig. 1.9(b) -is 3' 20' and that in Fig. 1.9(c)
is 2°40'.
In the case of astronomical sextant, the vernier generally provided is of extended
(•) w ~ type having 60 spaces equal to 119 spaces of the main scale, each of 10'. the least count
l
FIG. 1.8 RETROGRADE VERNIER. ' being ~ minutes or 10 seconds.
SPECIAL FORMS OF VERNIERS i
~
The Double Folded Vernier. The double folded vernier is employed where the length
• of the corresponding double vernier would be so great as to make it impracticable. This
The Extended Vernier. It may happen that the divisions on the main scale are very
' type of vernier is sometimes used in compasses having the zero in Ihe middle of the
close and it would then be difficult, if the vernier were of normal length, to judge the
~ length. The full length of vernier is employed for reading angles in either direction. The
exact graduation where coincidence occurred. In this case. an extended vernier may be -~
used. vernier is read 'from the index towards either of the extreme divisions and then from the
He-r'=' r?_ '7 _ !) ri!Yl"'k-."1s :~-:: i.L ..
.. .:. ~..: ..u..: .:.:'-[ual 'o ;1 lhvisruns on [fie vernier. ''
~
other extreme division in !hE" s::f!ie direction w the centre.
so that Fig. 1.10 shows double folded vernier in which 10 divisions of vernier are equal
nv = (2n- 1) s -l to 9! divisions of the main scale '<or 20 vernier divisions= 19 main scale divisions). The
l
2n-l 1 1\ "l least count of the vernier is !!qual to !._ = __!_ degrees = 3'. For motion w the right. the
Of V=--S=I 2--jS '
i
n 20 ·
n ~ n, i
The difference between two main scale spaces and one vernier space = 2s - v :~
2n- l s --~
30
= 2s - - s = - = least count. -~
n n
The extended vernier is, therefore. equivalent to a simple direct vernier to which

only every second graduation is engraved. The extended vernier is regularly employed in
We asuonomical sextant. Fig. 1. 9 shows an extended vernier. lr has 6 spaces on the vernier f (•) (b)

equal to 11 spaces of the main scale each of 1o . The least count is therefore = f,. degree = 10'. J
~ FIG. 1.10 DOUBLE-FOLDED VERNIER.
~
~~
j
1
I 16
SURVEYING FUNDAMENTAL DEFINmONS AND CONCEPTS ii
vernier is read from 0 to 30 at the right extremity and then from
30 at the left extremity Solution
to 60 (or zero) at the centre. Similarly, for motion to the left,
the vernier is read from
0 to 30 at the left extremity and then from 30 at the right extremit 30
= 30' • L .C. = 30" = 60
y to the 60 (or zero) Leasi Count=:!. ; S - minutes
at the centre. The reading on the vernier illustrated in Fig. 1.10 n
(b) is 112' 18' to the
right and 247' 42' to the left.
Verniers to Circular Scales
I
~
..
30 30
60=• or n =60.
Fifty-nine such primary divisions should be taken for the length

I
of the vernier scale
The above examples of verniers were for linear scales. Verniers are also and then divided into 60 ·parts for a direct vernier.
extensively
used to circular scales in a variety of surveying instruments such as Example 1.4 Design a vernier for a theodolite circle divided imo degrees
theodolites, sextants, and one-tlzirJ
clinometers etc. Fig. 1.11 (a), (b) shows two typical arrangements of degrees to read to 20 ".
double direct verniers.
In Fig. 1.11 (a), the scale is graduated to 30' and the value of n
= 30 on the vernier. " Solution.
Hence. least count =sin= 30' 130 = 1'.
I s
L.C.=; ; s=3=2 0'; L.C. = 20" = ~ minutes
1'
i
~ 20 20
I,' -oo=• or
divisions should be
II= 60
Fifty-nine taken for the length of the vernier scale and divide-d
~ into 60 parts for a direct vernier.
Example 1.5. The value of che smallest division of circle of a repeating cheodolite
10 ..... is 10'. Design a suitable vernier to read up to flY'.
(A) Graduated to 30°: Reading to 1'
Solution
L.C.= ~; s = 10' ; L.C. = 10" = !~ minutes
10 10
.. 60=• or n = 60
Taite 59 such primary divisions from the main scale and divide it into 60 pans.
Example 1.6. The circle of a theodolite is divided inro degrees and 114 of a degree.
Design a suitable decimal vernier to read up to 0.005°.
(B) Graduated to 20' : Reading to 30" Solution
s
L.C. =-; s = ~' ; L.C. = 0.005'
FIG. 1.11. VERNIERS TO CIRCULAR SCALES. n
m ~1g. 1.11 (b), the scale is graduated to 20 minutes, and the number of I I·
vernier 0.005 =-.-
divisions are 40 . 4 n
Hence, least count~ sin= 20' 140 = 0.5' = 30". l or n= I
=50
Thus, in Fig. 1.11 (~), the clockwise angle reading (inner row) is 342' 30\
and counter clockwise angle reading (outer row) is 17' 0' + 26' = 17'
+ 05' = 342' 35'
26'. Similarly. in Fig.
I for the vernier.
4 X 0.005
Take 49 such primary divisions from lb.e main scale and divide
it into 50 parts
1.11 (b), the clockwise angle reading (inner row) is 49' 40' + 10'30"
counter, clockwise angle (outer row) is 130' 00'+ 9' 30" = 130' 09' 30".
= 49' 50' 30" and the 1l Example 1.7 Design an extended vernier for an Abney level to to
read up to JO •.
In both the cases. The main circle is divided into degrees.

I
1he vernier is always read in rhe same direction as the scale.
Examples on Design of Verniers Solution
Example 1.3. Design a vernier for a theodolite circle divided inro L.C.=!. .; s=l 0 L.C. = 10'
degrees and half n
;

degrees to read up to 30". j


10 I
=; or n=6
1
~
60

.;
1
...

I
'

·····
20 SURVEYING FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS
"

E .

'
3. Measuremem of an angle with 1.14. SHRUNK SCALE
the scale of chords If a graphical scale is not drawn on the plan and the sheet on which the plan
I
I. Let the angle EAD be measured. F. is drawn shrinks due to variations in the atmospheric conditions, it becomes essential to
On the line AD. measur~ AB = chord of ,.
r
.~
find the shrunk scale of the plan. Let the original scale (i.e. I em= x m) or its R.F.
60~ from the scale of chords. be known (stated on the sheet). The distance between any two known points on the
2. With A as cenrre and AB as plan can be measured with the help of the stated scale (i.e. I em = x m) and this length
radius. draw :m ·arc to cur line AE in can be compared with the acrual distance between the two points. The shrinkage ratio
F. or shrinkage factor is then equal io the ratio of the shrunk length to the actual length.
3. With the help of dividers take • B D
The shrunk scale is then given by
the chord distance BF and measure it on A "Shrunk scale = shri11kage factor x origilli11 scale."
scale of chords to get the value of the FIG. Ll6 MEASUREMENT OF AN ANGLE For example, if the shrinkage factor is equal to :~ and if the original scale is
angle ij, WITII TilE SCALE OF CHORDS ..
1 , the shrunk scale will have a R.F = :~ x ; = ~ (i.e. I em= 16m).
1.13 ERROR DUE TO USE OF WRONG SCALE 15 00 1 00 16
If the! length of a line existing on a plan or a map is determined by means of Example 1.9. The area of the plan of an old survey plolled to a scale of /0 metres
m~suremem with a wrong scale. the length so obtained will be incorrect. The []Jle or w 1 em measures now as 100.2 sq. em as found by a planimeter. I11e plan is found
corn!ci lt!ngrh of the line is given by the relation. to have sllru11k so that a line originally 10 em long now measures 9. 7 em only. Find
R . F . of wrong scale (i) the shrunk scale, (ii) true area of the survey.
Correct length = if x measured length.
R . F . o correct scale Solution
Similarly. if the area of a map or plan is calculated with the help of using a wrong (t) Present length of 9.7 em is equivalent to 10 em original length.
scale. rhe correct area is given by
.' R. F. of wrong scale V
, Shrinkage factor = ~·~ = 0.97
~
Correct area = ! al 1 x calculated area.
\R. F. ofcorrectsc e 1 .I I I
True scale R.F. - x -
Example 1.8. A surveyor measured the distance between rwo points 011 the plan drawn J. 10 100 1000
ro a scale of I em = .JO m and tile result was 468 m. Later, however, he discovered that I I
hi! used a scale of 1 em = 20m. Find the true distance between the points. R.F. of shrunk scale= 0.97 x = .
1000 1030 93
Solution (it) Present length of 9.7 em is equivalent to 10 em original length.
Measured length =468 m Present area of 100.2 sq. em is equivalent to

R.F. of wrong scale used


t t ·l
l ;.?
' '0 '
J x 100.2 sq. em= 106.49 sq. em= original area on plan.
'20 X 100 = 2000 '

R.F. of correct scale


40 X 100 4000
II Scale of plan is I em = 10 m
Area of the survey = 106.49 (10)' = 10649 sq. m.
Example 1.10. A rectangular plot of land measures 20 em x 30 em on a village

' I /2000 '! x 468 = 936 m.


~i map drawn to a scale of 100 m to 1 em. Calculate its area in l1ectares. If the plo!
is re-drawn on a topo sheet ro a scale of 1 km to 1 em. what will be its area on
Correct length
=ll/4000} ' :·~

I
the. topo sheel ? Also determille tlze R.F. of the scale of tile villa!{e map as well as
AltemaJive Solution on the topo sheet.
Map distance between two points measured with a scale of 1 em to 20 m = ~~ = 23.4 em
Solution
(i) Village map :
Acrual scale of the plan is I em = 40 m 1 em on map= 100 m on the ground
:. True distance between the poinrs = 23.4 x 40 = 936 m
I em' on map= (100) 2 m2 on the ground.
!8 SURVEYING r FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS
,.
Take eleven spaces of the main scale and divide it into 6 spaces uJ ·the vernier. is to. increast; t~ precision of centering over graduations.
l.ll. MICROMETER MICROSCOPES 1.12 SCALE OF CHORDS
Generally, verniers are used when the finest reading to be taken is riot less than A scale of chords is used to measure an angle or to set-off an angle, and is marked
20'' or in some:: exceptional cases up to 10". The micrometer microscope is a device which either on a recmngular protractor or on an ordinary box wood scale.

lI
enables a measurement ro be taken to a srilJ finer degree of accuracy. Micromerer microscopes · 1. Construction or a chord scale
generally provided in geodetic theodolites can read to 1" and estimate to 0.2" or 0.1 ". I. Draw a quadrant ABC. making AB
The micrometer microscope consists of a small low-powered microscope with an object l = BC. Prolong AB to D. making AD = AC.
glass, an eye-piece and diaphragm which is capable of delicately controlled movemem at 2. Divide arc AC in nine equal parts,
right angles to the longitudinal axis of the tube. Fig. 1.12 shows a typical micrometer each part representing 10'. ''

l
and one tbnn of the field of view in taking a reading is shown in Fig. 1.13. The circle
3. With A as the centre, describe arc ''
'-J . \
in Fig. .1.13 is divided into lO miri.utes divisions. The micrometer has an objective Jens
close to lhe circle graduations. It fonns an enlarged image of the circle near the micrometer
from each of the divisions, cutting ABD
into points marked 10' , 20' , ... 90'.
'
'
'
''
'
'
'
''
' .' .
eye-piece, which further enlarges the image. One pair of wires mounted on a movable ' ' '
''
frame is also in the image plane. The frame and the wires can be moved left and right
i
4. Sub-divide each of these parts, if
required, by first subdividing each division .' '
'' '
''
'
'•
'
' . '
by a micrometer screw drum. One complete revolution of the gradu.:ted drum moves the
vertical wires across o1:1e division or 10' of lhe circle . The graduated drum is divided
s~
of arc AC, and then draw arcs with A as
' '
B
'
'
__D_'
imo 10 large divisions (each of I') and each of the large divisions into 6 small ones
·.;; centre. as in step 3.
ao• so· so· 1o• so· 90"
of I 0" each. Fractional parts of a revolution of the drum, corresponding to fractional parts ~ 5. Complete the scale as shown in
10" 20" 40"

of a division on the horizontal circle, may be read on the graduated drum against an ~ Fig. 1.14. II should be noted that the arc
~ througll the 6ff' division will always pass
index mark fined to the side. r: through the point 8 (since the chord of FIG. !.14. CONSTRUCTION OF A CHORD SCALE.
The approximate reading is determined from the position of the specially marked V-notch. -~'
60' is always equal to radius AB). The

I
In the illustration of Fig. 1.13 (a), the circle reading is between 32' 20' and 32' 30' and
distance from A to any mark on the scale is eqnal to the chord of the angle of thar
the double wire index is on the notch. Tum the drum until the nearest division seems
mark. For example, the distance between A to 40' mark on the scale is eqnal to the
ro be midway between the rwo vertical hairs and note the reading on the graduated drum,
as shown in Fig. 1.13 (b) where the reading is 6' 10". The complete reading is ~; chord of 40'.
n the scale of chords. (Fig. 1.15)
32' 26' 10". The object of using two closely spaced parallel wires instead of a single wire ;~ 2. Construction of angles 30' and 80' with
) I. Draw a line AD, and on that
1 ~
mark AB. = chord of 60' from the scale
/
,--, 1. ObJective ·~
of chords.

·-+
,, 2.t., i';.,;c.;,
3. Drum
'·'/ ''<1//.////_~ :.- '/,;.~ '//..
~: ) 2. With A as centre and AB as
4. Index radius, draw an arc.
1.11
:"·1
;.·:~·~~:;?-.
j 3. With B as centre and radius
·'l equal to chord of 30' (i.e. distance from
o• to 30' on the scale of chords) draw
(a)
J
~
an arc to cut the previous arc in E.

~~~b!.klM.,~!J,'J.J"'~'-+
. '~ Join AE. Then L EAB = 30' .
t 'Y,-.;'///h'P', :j 4. Siniilarly, with B as centre and eo·
lmnmml•
I2
3 .32 radius equal to chord of so· (i.e .• distance
t
2
from o· to so· on the scale of chords) B D
Plan draw an arc to em previous arc in F.
Join A and F. Then LFAB= SO'.

I
FIG. 1.13 FIG. !.15. CONSTRUCTION OF AN ANGLE WITH
FIG. 1.12. MICROMETER
MICROSCOPE. TilE SCALE OF CHORDS.

1
!
22 SURVEYlNG I FUNDAMENTAL DEANmONS AND CONCEPTS 23

Field notes. Field nmes are written records of field work made at the time work
The plo1 measures 20 em ~ 30 em i.e. 600 em2 on lhe map.
is done. It is obvious that, no matter how carc:fully the field measurements are made.
Area of plol = 600 x 104 = 6 x 106 m' =600 hectares. the survey as. a whole may be valueless if some of those measurements are not recorded
(il) Topo sheet or if any ambiguiry exists as to lhe meaning of lhe records. The competency of the surveyor's
1 km
2
is represemed by 1 em' or (1000 x 1000) m' is represemed by I em' planning and his knowledge of the work are reflected in the field record more than in
any other element of surveying. The field notes should be legiSie. concise and comprehensive.
. . 6 x 10 m is represented by . ~~-
6 2 1
. A-- x 6 x 106 -= 6 cm2 written in clear. plain letters and figures. Following are some general imponant rules .for
note-keepers :
1 I. Record directly in lhe field book as observations are made.
(iii) R.F. of lhe scale of village map
100 X 100 = J0000 2. Use a sharp 2H or 3H pencil. Never use soft pencil or ink.
3. Follow a consistem simple sryle of writing.
I

I
R.F. of lhe scale of topo sheer 4. Use a liberal number of carefully executed sketches.
1 X 1000 X !00 = 100000
5. Make the nares for each day's work on the survey complete with a title of the
1.15. SURVEYING - CHARACTER OF WORK survey, dare,. weather conditions, personnel of the crew, and list of equipmem used.
The work of a surveyor may be divided inlo lhree distincl pans ! 6. Never erase. If a mistake is made, rule one line through the incorrect value
1. Field work
2. Office work i
i
and record the correction above the mistake.
7. Sign lhe notes daily.
3. Care and adjusbnenl of lhe instrumenrs. !I The field notes may be divided into three parts :
1. FlEW WORK s
··'j
1. Numerical values. These include lhe records of all measurements such as lengths
The field work consisrs of lhe measuremem of angles and dis1ances and lhe keeping of lines and offsets, sraff readings (or levels) and angles or directions. All significant figures
of a record of whal has been done in lhe form of field notes. Some of lhe operations ~ should be recorded. If a lenglh is measured 10 lhe nearest 0.01 m. it should be so recorded:

I for example, 342.30 m and not 342.3 m. Record angles as os• 06' 20". using a1 leaSI
which a surveyor has IO do in !he field work are as follows :
1. Esrablishing srations and bench marks as points of reference and lhus 10 esrablish two digits for each pan of the angle.
a system of horizontal and vertical· control. 2. Sketches. Sketches are made as records of outlines, relative locations and topographic
~
2. Measuring dislance along lhe angles between lhe survey lines. features. Sketches are almost never made to scale. If measurements are put directly on
~
3. Locating derails of lhe survey wilh respecl lo lhe srations and lines between srations. f the skerches. make it clear where they belong. Always make a skerch when it will help
derails sucb as ·boundary lines, streeiS, roads, buildings, streams, bridges and olher narural l to settle beyond question any doubt which otherwise might arise in the interpretation of
or anificial features of the area surveyed. J nares. Make sketches large, open and clear.
4. Giving lines and elevations (or setting our lines and esrablishing grades) for a ~ 3. Explanatory notes. The object of the explanatory notes is to make clear rha!
greal vanety of construction work such as that for buildings boundaries, roads, culverts. which is not perfectly evident from numerals and skerches. and to record such information
bridges. sewers and waler supply schemes. concerning important features of the ground covered and the work done as might be of
5. Derermining elevalions (or heighiS) of some existing points or esrablishing points ;1 possible use later.
at given elevations. I 2. OmCE WORK
6. Surveying comours of land areas (topographic surveying) in which the field work The office work of a surveyor consist of
involve both horizonral and vertical control. .\I 1. Drafting

j
7. Carrying out miscellaneous operations, such as 2. Computing
ti) Esrablishing parallel lines and perpendiculars 3. Designing
(iz) Taking measurements m inacessible points. The drafting mainly consists of preparations of lhe plans and secrions (or plouing
(iir) Surveying paSI lhe obsracles. and carrying on a grea1 variery of similar field measurements to some scale) and to prepare topographic maps. The computing is of two
work thar is based on geometric or trigonometric principles. kinds : (!) !hat done for purposes of plotting, and (it) that done for determining area>

I
8. Making observations on the sun or a star to determine the meridian. latirude or and volumes. The surveyor may also be called upon to do some design work specially
longirude. or to deterntine lhe local time. in the case of route surveying.

1
-,
I' I
l.j
24 SURVEYING FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPI'S

3. CARE AND ADJUSTMENTS OF INSTRUMENTS 10. In the case of a compass, do not let the compass needle swing needlessly. When
The practice of surveying requires experience in handling the equipment used in field not in use, it should be lifted off the pivot. Take every precaution to guard the point
and office work, a familiarity with the care and adjustment of the surveying instruments. and to keep it straight and sharp.·
and an understanding of their limitations. Many surveying insttuments such as level, theodolite,
compass etc. are very delicate and must be -handled with great care since there are ml11ly
pans of an instrument which if once impaired cannot be restored PROBLEMS
10 their original efficiency. I
I
Before an insnumem is taken out of the box. relative position of various parts should
be carefully noted so that the instrument can be replaced in the box without undue strain I. Explain the following terms
on any of the parts. The beginner is advised to make a rough sketch showing the position {l) Representative fraction.
of the insttument in the box. Following precautions must be taken : (i1) Scale of plan.
(iii) Graphical scale.
I. While taking out the instrument from the box, do not lift it by the telescope 2. Give the designation and representative fraction of the following scales
or with hands under the horizontal circle plate. It should be lifted by placing the hands (i) A line 135 meues long represented by 22.5 em on plan.
under the levelling base or the foot plate. (i1) A plan 400 sq. metres in area represented by 4 sq. em on plan.
2. While carrying an instrument ftom one place to the other, it should be carried 3. Explain, with neat sketch, the construction of a plain scale. Construct a plain scale l em = 6 m
on the shoulder, sening all clamps tightly to prevent needless wear. yet loose enough so and show 26 metres on it.
that if the parts are bumped they will yield. If the head room available is less. such 1 4. Explain, with neat sketch. the construction of a diagonal scale. Construct a diagonal scale
as carrying it through doors etc.. it should be carried in the arms. If the distance is
long, it is better to put it in box and then carried. I! I em = 5 m and show 18.70 metres on it.
5. Discuss in brief the principles of surveying.
3. When the telescope is not in use, keep the cap over the lens. Do not rub lenses ! 6. Differentiate clearly between plane and geodetic surveying.
--~
with silk or muslin. Avoid rubbing them altogether ; use a brush for removing dust.
7. What is a vernier ? Explain the principle on which it is based.
4. Do not set an instrument on smooth floor without proper precautions. Otherwise

l
the tripod legs are lilcely to open out and.· to let the instrument fall. If the instrument 8. Differentiate between :
has been set up on a pavement or other sn;ooth surface, the tripod legs should be inserted (a) Direct vernier and Retrograde vernier.
(b) Double vernier and Extended vernier.
in the joints or cracks. The tripod legs should be spread well apart. 9. The circle of a theOdolite is graduated to read to 10 minutes. Design a suitable vernier
5. Keep the hands off the vertical circle and other exposed graduations to avoid to read to 10" .
ramishing. Do not expose au insaument needlessly to dust, or to dampness, or to the £

l
10. A limb of an instrument is divided to 15 minutes. Design a suitable vernier to read
bright rays of the sun. A Water proof cover should be used to protect it.
to 20 'ieCOnds.
6. To protect an instrument from the effects of salt water, when used near tile sea
11. Explain the principles used in the cowtruction of vernier.
coast, a fine film of watch oil rubbed over the exposed parts will often prevent the appearance
of oxide. To remove such oxide-spots as well as pm:sible, apply some watch-oil and allow Construct l! vemier to read to 30 seconds ro be used with a scale graduated to 20 minutes.
n to remain tor a tew hours, then rub dry with a soft piece of linen. To preserve the 12. The arc of a sextant is divided to 10 minutes. If 119 of these divisions are taken for
the length of the vernier, into bow many divisions must the vernier be divided in order to read
outer appearance of an instrtunent, never use anything for dusting except a fine camel's
hair brush. To remove water and dust spots, first use the camel's hair brush. and then :) to (a) 5 seconds. and (b) 10 seconds ?
rub-off with fine watch oil and wipe dry : to let the oil remain would tend to accumulate 13. Show how to consuuct the following verniers
dust on the instrument.
7. Do not leave the insrrument unguarded when set on a road. street. foot-path or
,I
'll
(I) To read to 10" on a limb divi~ to 10 minutes.
(i1) To read to 20" on a limb divided to 15 minutes
in pasture. or in high wind.
8. De not force any screw or any part to move against strain. If they do not
~_1 14. (a) Explain the function of a vernier.
turn easily, the parts should be cleaned and lubricated.
9. The steel tape should be wiped clean and dry after using with the help of a
j (b) Consr:ruct a vernier reading 114.25 rom on a main scale divided to 2.5 nun.
(c) A theodolite is fitted with a vernier in which 30 vernier divisions are equal to
dry cloth and then with a slightly oily one. Do not allow automobiles or other vehicles B w· 30' on main scale divided to 30 minutes. Is the vernier direct or retrograde. and what is its
least count ?
to run over a tape. Do not pull on a tape when there is kink in it, or jerk it unnecessarily.
26

2.
9.
10
(1)
n=60
n:::4S
6m[olcm ; ~;
ANSWERS

(il) 10 m to 1 em ; "Wk
SURVEYING

m
11.
12
n=40
(a) 11 = 120 (direct vernier)
Accuracy and Errors
(b) 11 = 60 (exlended vernier)
13. (i) 11=60 (i~ 11=45
14. (c) Direct ; 1 minute.

2.J.. GENERAL
In dealing with measurements. it is important to distinguish between accuracy
and
,,
used in the instrumen ts, the methods and
precision. Precision is the degree of perfection
the observations. Accuracy is the degree of perfection obtained.
Accuracy depends on (1) Precise instruments, (2) Precise methods and (3) Good
planning.
the work, save time and provide economy . The
The use of precise instruments simplify
or try to reduce the effect of all types of errors. Good
use of precise methods eliminate
includes proper choice and arrangem ents of survey control and the proper
planning. which
the possibility
choice of instruments and methods for each operation, saves time and reduces
-of errors.
measured
The difference between a measurement and the true value of the quantity
the value of the
is the true e"or of the measurement. and is never known since true
of a surveyor is to secure measurem ents
quantity is never known. However. the important function
of error prescribed by the nature and purpose
.' · which are correct within a certain limit
of a particular survey.
A discrepancy is the difference between two measured values of the same quantity;
if e~h of
it is nor an error. A discrepancy may be small, yet the error may be great
ents contains an error that may be large. It does not reveal the magnirude
the two measurem
of systematic errors.
2.2. SOURCES OF ERRORS

-,.
'f··
~--~'~.
; ..
Errors may arise from three sources :
(1) Instrumental. Error may arise due to imperfection or faulty adjustment of the
instrument with which measurement is being taken. For example, a tape may
or an angle measuring instrument may be out of adjustment. Such errors
be too long
are known as
'

1
instrumental errors.
sight in
; _: (2) PersonaL Error may also arise due to want of perfection of human
an error may be there
. Observing and of touch in manipulating instruments. For example.
the circle of a theodolite . Such errors
''
in taking the level reading or reading an angle on
are known as personal errors.
il; (3) Natural. Error may also be due to variations in narural phenomena
such as
and magnetic declination. If they are not
temperarure. humidity, gravity, wind, refraction
(27l

¥1

...._ .·
i!~'-
T'l
'.

r
29
28 SURVEYING .o..CCURACY AND ERRORS

properly observed while taking measurements, the results will be Incorrect For example, 2.4. THEORY OF PROBABILITY

I
a mpe may be 20 metres at 20'C but its length will change if the field temperature is Investigations of observatioru of various types show that accidental errors follow a
differenr. definite law, the law of probability. Tbis law defines the occurrence of errors and can
2.3. KINDS OF ERRORS be expressed in the form of equation which is used to compute the ptobable value or

Ordinary errors met with in all classes of survey work may be classified as : !r the probable precision of a quantity. The most imponanr features of accident!l (or compensating)
errors which usually occur. are :
(a) Mistakes ! (z) Small errors tend to be more frequent than the large ones; that is. they are
(b) Systematic errors (Cumulative errors) ~ more probable.
(c) Accidental errors (Compensating errors). 'r (ii) Positive and negative errors of the same size happen with equal frequency ;
that is they are equally probable.

I
(a} Mistakes. Mistakes are errors which arise from inattention, inexperience, carelessness
and poor_ judgment or confusion in the mind of the observer. If a mislake is undelected, (iii) Large errors occur infrequently and are improbable.
it produces a serious effect upon the final result. Hence, every value to be recorded in Probability Curve. The theory of probability describes these featutes by saying that
the field must be checked by some independent field observation. the relative frequencies of errors of different extents can be represented by a curve as
,~

I in Fig. 2.1 . This curve, called the curve of error or probability curve. forms the basis
{b) Systematic Errors (Cumulative Errors). A systematic error or cumulative error
is an error that, under the same conditions, will always be of the same size and sign. ''fr' for the mathematical derivation of theory of errors.
Principle of L<ast Square. According to the principle of least square, the most probable
A systematic error always follows some definite mathematical or physical law. and a cOrrection •t
can be determined and applied. Such errors are of constam character and are regarded . value of an observed quantity available from a given set of observations is the one for
as positive or negative according as they make the result too gr;at or too small. Their ~ whicll the sum of the squares of errors (residuals) is a minimum.
effect is, therefore, cumulative. For example. if a tape is P ern shan and if it is stretched. Most Probable Value. The most probable value of a quantity is the one wbich
;;
N times. the total error in the measurement of the length will be P.N em. l: has more chances of being correct than has 401
>'
any other. 17re most probable error is defined •
If undetected, systematic errors are very serious. Therefore : (1) all surveying equipment
'' as that quantity which when added to and subtracted •
must be designed and used so that whenever possible systematic errors will be automatically
eliminated. (2) All systematic errors that cannot be surely eliminated by this means must
I from. rlre most probable value fixes the limits •
~ 310
• P.
! within which it is an even clzance the true value 0 0 1/
..•
be evaluated and their relationship to the conditions that cause them must be determined. ~ •
"2'
For example, in ordinary levelling, the levelling instrument must first be adjusted so that ~ of the measured quantity must lie. ~ I\
the line of sight is as nearly horizontal as possible when bubble is centered. Also, the The probable error of a single observation ~
10
I/ •
horizontal lengths for back-sight and fore-sight from each instnunent position should be kept is calculated from the equation. v •
1'\.
'\-...
as nearly equal as possible. In precise levelling, every day the actual error of the instrument ,,--;:;,- 0 :.-1 •
' +0.2 +0.4 .
must be determined by careful peg test, the length of each sight is measured by stadia E.=
.
± 0.6745 'J ::='-;-
11- 1
... (2.1) -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0
and a ;.;0n·;,;;;riur, iV i.i.it lc.Suhs is applied. Size of error
The probable error of the mean of a number
(c) Accidental Errors (Compensating Errors). Accidental errors or compensaJing errors
are those which remain after mistakes and systematic errors have been eliminared and are :j of observations of the same quantity is calculated
from the equation :
FIG. 2.t PROBABILITY CURVE.

caused by a combination of reasons beyond the ability of the observer to control. They
rend sOmetimes in one direction and sometimes in the other. i.e. they are equally likely .~ l:v 2 E, ... (2.2)
Em= ± 0.6745 ._;
n (n- I) = vr.
to make the apparent result too large or too small. An accidental error of a single determination
is the difference between (1) the true value of the quantity, and (2) a determination that
iS free from mistakes and systematic errors. Accidental errors represent the limit of precision
I1 where
n
Es = Probable error of single observation
v = Difference between any single observation and the mean of the series
in the determination of a value. They obey rile laws of clzance 011d therefore, must be

I
/zandled according to the mathematical laws of probability. Em = Probable error of the mean
As srated above, accidemal errors are of a compensative nature and tend to baJance n = Nwnber of observations in the series.
out in the final results. For example, an error of 2 em in the tape may flucruare on
.' Example 2.1. ln carrying a line of levels across a river. tlze following eight readings
either side of the amount by reason of small variations in the pull to which it is subjected. were taken with a level under identical conditions : 2.322, 2.346, 2.352. 2.306. 2.312.
2.300, 2.306, 2.326 metres.
11
I
30. 31
SURVEYING ACCURACY A.."'D ERRORS

l
Calculate (I) the probable error of single observation, (il) probable error of t!Je mean.
Solution.
The computations are arranged in the tabular form :
~-~odrrading--

~
1
' ~
' - - - - -- .,/ ---~

I
I~
p
'
As a rule, the field measurements should be consistent, thus dic1ating the number
of significant figores in desired or computed quantities. The accuracy of angular and linear
values shoJild be compalible. For small angles, arc= chord= R 9" 1206265, where 9 is expressed
in seconds of arc. Thus for !" of arc, the subtended value is I mm ar 206.265 m while
for I' of arc, the subtended value is I mm at 3.438 m or I em at 34.38 m. In other
words, the angular values _measured to I" require dislances to be measured to 1 rom.
2.322 I O.llOt '
I 0.000001 '. while the angular values measured [O 1' require dis[ances to be measured to 1 em .
2.346 i 0.025 !' 0.000625 Accumulation of Errors: In the accwnulation of errors of known sign, the summation
2.352 I 0.031 I 0.000961
is algebraic while the swnmation of random errors of ± values can only be compmed

I ' ' by the root mean square v~a::,lu~e....:..:- - - - - -


I

2.306 0.015 0.000225
2.312 0.009 0.000081
-J±
er = e12 ± el ± e32 ± ......·. ± ei ... (2.3)
2.300
I 0.021 0.000441 I
~
2:6. ERRORS IN COMPUTED RESULTS
The errors in .computed results arise from (1) errors in mea.iured or derived data.
2.306 I O.oi5 0.000225
2.326 0.005 0.000025 ;'
;
or (il) errors in trigonometrical or logrithmcial values used. During common arithmetical -
process (i.e. addition, sub[racrion, mulriplication, division etc), the resultant values are frequently
I~
Mean : 2.321 I !:v2 = 0.002584 given false accuracies as illustrated below.
From equation (!), , . . - - - -
' (a) Addition.
0 ·~ 0~~84 Let s = x + y, where x and y are measured quantities.
£, = ± 0.6745 ...j = ± 0.01295 metre
Then s + os = (x + &x) + (y + oy)
E, 0.01295 ··. where 5s may be + or - .
and E., = Tn = ±~ = ± 0.00458 metre.
Considering probable errors of indefinite values,
2.5. ACCURACY IN SURVEYING : PERMISSffiLE ERROR s ± es = (.r ± e.t) + (y ± ey) or s ± es = (x + y) ± 1 e} + e/
~
... (2.4)
The pemJissible error is the maximum allo'Yable limit that a measurement may vary Probable Error ± es = i/ e} + e/
from the Ulle value, or from a value previously adopted as correct. The value of lhe Subtraction.
~ (b)
permissible error in any given case depends upon the scale, the purpose of the survey. t.
t1 Let S=X-y
the insuuments available. class of work etc. The surveyor may be handicapped by rough
country, roo shan a time, too small a party. poor instruments. bad wearher and many· s + os = (x - v) + (ox + ov)
ot.her unfavourable conditions. The limit of error, therefore. cannot be given once for all. The maximum error= os = (ox + oy)
Examples of the permissible error for various classes of work have been mentioned throughout
this book. However, the best surveyor is not he who is extremely accurate in all his
..~ Considering probable errors of indefinite value. s -± e s = (.r - y) ± { e} + e_v!
wuJk., but lie )vhq does it just accurately enough for the purpose without waste of time
·I ... (2.5)
±es = Ve} + e/
or money: A swveyor should m~e the precision of each step in the field work corresponding
to the importance of that step.
'
·~ Probable error
which is the same as in addition.
Significant ,FigUres in Measurement J (c) Multiplication
In surveying, an indica[ion of accuracy attained is shown by number of significant ¥" Lets=x.y
figores. Each such quantity, expresse<) in n number of digits in which n - I are the digits

I
OSx=Y. ox and os,. =X. oy
of definite value while the last digit .is the least accurate digit which can be estimated The maximum error os=yox+xoy
and is subject to error. For example, a quantity 423.65 has five significant figures. with
Considenng probable errors of indefinite values,
four certain and the last digit 5, uncertain. The error in the last digit may. in this case,
be a maximum value of 0.005 or a probable value of ± 0.0025 ... (2.6 a)
es=Ye.x+xey
"</ ' ' ' '

1~.
!"I!
! 32 Sl'RVEYING r ACCURACY AND ERRORS

probable limits of the quantity


33

or .e, = xy Y(e ,!x)' + (e y ly)' ".(2.6 b) Hence the most probable error = ±0.00251 and most
um limits of quantity ase 10.52is and
(s) are 10.5195 and 10.5145. Similasly the maxim
and error ratio '!!. = ..fce,lx)' + (eyly)' .... (2.6) 10.5115.
s of the sum of two quantities
(d) Division From the above, it is cleas that the quantity s, consisting
that the second decimal place is the
may be expressed either as 10.52 or as 10.51, and
X
quantity (s) may be quoted. Hence it is concluded
Let S=-
y most probable limit to which the derived
that the accuracy of the suin must not exceed the
least accurate figure used.
Bx Bs, x By
&s.r = - and =
Example 2.3. A quantity s is given by
y y' s = 5.367 - 4.88
The maximum error Bs= Bx+x
. By and maximum limits of
Find the most probable error, and the most probable limits
.y y'
the quantity.
Considering probable errors of indefinite values, Solution.
le errors will be± 0.0025 .
The maximum errors will be 0.0005 and 0.005 and probab
e, = '!/(~)' + ( 7J' ... (2.7 a)
.. s +lis= (x- y) ±(Bx + liy) = (5.367 - 4.88) ± (0.005 + 0.0005)
2
=0.487 ± 0.0055 =0.4925 or 0.4815
or e =-x~(e\
1
(e)'
2)+1. ..!. ".(2. 7 b)
y X \ y
Also s ±e, = (x- y) ± ..J e} + e}= (5.367 - 4.88) ± Y(0.00025)' + (0.0025)>

and error ratio : ~


= ..f(e,f x)' + (ey/y)' ".(2. 7) = 0.4925 ± 0.00251 = 0.4950 or 0.4900
s
which is the same as for multiplication. Hence the most probable error= ± 0.00251
(e) Powers.
Let s =X'
'J
.i
Most probable limits of s = 0.4950 and 0.4900 and maximum
Here again, the quantity s can only be 0.48 or 0.49,
is the most probable limit to which a derived quamity (s)
limits of s = 0.4925 .and 0.4815.
and the second decimal place
can be given. Hence the accuracy
Bs = n x"-'Bx figure used.
. . Error ratio
Bs nBx
S X
... (2.8)
j of a subtraction must not exceed the least accurate
Example 2.4. A derived quantity s is given by produc
t of two measured quamities,

Example 2.2. A quanJity s is equal to the sum of two measured quantities x and I as under :
S= 2.86 X 8.34
y given by i Fit.J Joi: :r.w.in~m r.;rror and ll!DSI probable error
in rhe derived quanrf~·
s = 'l.dd + 5.037
Solution
probable limits of the
Find the most probable error, the maximum limits and most be 0.005 and 0.005, while
quantity s. J The maximum errors in the individual measurements will
the most probable errors will be ± 0.0025 and± 0.0025 respectively.

-;J~-­
Solution.
Now max. error lis= y Bx + x By= (8.34 x 0.005) + (2.86 x 0.005)
0.0005 and the probable errors
The maximum errors (Bx and By) will be 0.005 and =0.0417 + 0.0143 = 0.056 ~ 0.06
will be ± 0.0025 and± 0.00025.
The most probable error r'i"-s_ __
s +lis= (x + y)± (Bx +By)= (4.88 + 5.637) ± (0.005 + 0.0005) 5
~(-~ )' + ( 7)' = (2.86 x 8.34) ~( OZ0~~5 )'+ (!!8~~~ )'
..
= 10.517 ± 0.0055 ... (!) e, =X y
= 10.5225 and 10.5115
2
= (4.88+5.637)± Y(0.0025) +(0.00025)
2 = ± 0.02
Also s ±e, = (x + y) ±..J :1 + e,' ='x X y = 2.86 8.34 = 23.85
Now S X
= 10.517 ± 0.00251 ... (2)
= 10.5195 and 10.5145
rI 34 I ACCURACY AND BRRORS
J5
I SURVEYING
I

Hence the most probable limits are thus 23.87 alld 23.83, alld by rounding off prOCO$S. Eumple. 1.7 'lire long and shan sides of a rectangle measure 8. 28 m and 4. 36
value may be given as 23.85, i.e. to the same accuracy as the least accurate figUre m, wilh erron of :1:5 ml/1. Express the area to correct number qf significant figures.
used. Solution
2
Example 2.5 A derived quanJity s is given 1Jy A= 8.28 x 4.36 = 36.1008 m
23.9 Maximum error in individual measurements = 0.005 m
s =8.34
0,00, . I d 0.005 I
Find the maximum error and most probable error in the qudHiity. :. Error ra tlos are : ~ 8Ts • 'i6So an = 4_36 ~ 872

BA = 36.1008 ( : + ; 2 ) ~ ± 0.06 m
Solulion
The maximum error Ss is given by 1 50 8
Bs=fu:+x.By Hence area has limits of 36.16 and 36.04 m' alld the answer can be quoted as
y y' 36,10 m' correct to iwo significant figures compatible with the field measurements.
where Bx and By (maximum errors in illdividual measurements) are 0.05 alld 0.005 Example 2,8 A .rectangle has sides approximately 380 metres and 260 metres. If
respectively rhe area ino be dettl'llllneil to the neatest /0 m' whol wiU be maximum error permined in
Bs = 0.05 + 23.9 x 0.005 ,. 0.006 + 0.0017 = 0.0077 each line and tiJ wi!Dt accuracy should the lines be measured. Assume equal precision r01io
8.34 2
(8.34) for each length ..
The probable errors in individual measurements are ± 0.025 and ± 0.0025. Hence the Solution.
probable error in the derived uanti is A = 380 • 260= 98800 m'

(~!!.)' +(~)' =~..Ji(o,02S


__ ,.-
e,=! )+(0.0025 )'. SA= 10m'
y X y 8.34 23.9 8.34 M H) I fu: By
=-+-
= ± 0.003
'A = 98800 = 9880 X y
a.=~
~~
But
Now s = 23 ·9 = 2.8657 ~ 2.866 X y
8.34
fu: By 2fu: I .
Hence the most probable limits of s are 2.869 and 2.863. For practical putpeses, ~+-=-=-
xyx9880
adopting rounding off, the value may be given as 2.87.
fu: I I
Example 2.6 A derived quantity s is given 1Jy -=2x9880 19760
X
s = (4.86) 2 "
:.··.1:

Find rhe ·mtrr;mum wr!ra• of c'·-··-;.•· -_--::-:d ;r:,_..,.s! p,-,_>Z;c.;!;; .J.I.:.;;; t'
"J
.. ,. ' '
~-' ......
' Hence precision ratio of each line ~ 19~60
Solution
s = (4.86)2= 23.6196
Now maximum error in the individual measurement is 0.005 and. probable error in
measurement ·is 0.0025.
iI :. Max. 'error in 380 m length=

Max. error in 260 m length=


1 !~~- 0.0192 m
~~~0 - 0.0131 m
Now, maximum error Ss is given by
os = n t•-• Bx = 2(4.86)2' 1 x 0.005
t If the number of significant figures in area is 5 ( i.e. nearest to 10m' ). each
line must be measured to atleast 5 significant figures, i.e. 380.00 m and 260.00 m.
= 0.0486
The most probable value of error is
PROBLEMS
e, = n x"''e, = 2(4.86)2' 1 x 0.0025 = ± 0.0243.
The most probable limits of s are thus 23.6~39 and 23~5953. and rounding these l. Explain the folloWing tellllS :
off, we get s, practically·, equal to 23.62. (/) Accuracy (ii)' Precision (iii) Discrepancy (iv) True error.
rr f
I
36

2. Distinguish clearly between cumulative and compensating errors.


3. Discuss in brief lhe differem sources of errors in surveying.
4. What are the characteriSlic features of accidental error ? Explain how will you
probable error in a qu.a.mity measured several (imes in lhe field.
SURVEYING

find out me
m
5. An angle has been measured under clifferent field conditions, with results
28° 24' 20" 28° 24' 00"
as follows :
Linear Measurements
28° 24' 40" 28° 23' 40"
28° 24' 40" 28° 24' 20"
28° 25' {)()" 28° 24' 40"
28° 24' 20" 28° 25' 20" 3.1. DIFFERENT METHODS
relative merit
Find (I) the probable error of single observation (il) probable error of the mean. There are various methods of making linear measurements and their
ANSWERS depends upon the degree of precision required.
They can .be mainly divided into three heads :
5. (i) 19".34 (il) 6".11..
1. Direct measurements.
2. Measurements by optical means.
3. Electro-magnetic methods.
In the case of direct measurements, distances are actually measured on the ground
:,.-1
with help of a chain or a rape
or any other instrument. In the optical methods, observations
uy
are mken through a telescope and calculations are done for the distances, such as in tacheome
methods, distances are measured with instrumen ts
or trian&U:Iation. · In the electro-magnetic
reflection and subsequent reception of either radio waves, light
that rely on propagation,
Jf.c waves or infrared waves. 1
tric
For measurement of distances by optical means, refer chapter 22 on Tacheome
chapter 24
Surveying'. For measurement of distances by electro-magnetic methods, refer
on 'Electro-magnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)'.
3.2. DIRECT MEASUREMENTS
The various methods of measuring the distances directly are as follows
1. Pacing·
2. Measurement with passometer
..
:J_··· 3. Measurement with pedometer
~ ·' 4. Measurement by odometer and speedometer

iI
5. Chaining .
ry
(1) Pacing. Measurements of distances by pacing is chiefly confined to the prelimina
·
•• ~ swveys and explorations where a surveyor is called upon to make a rough survey
as quickly
other means.
as p<\ssible. It may also be used to roughly check the distances measured by
of a line.
The method consists in counting the number of paces between the two points
of the pace.
The length of the line can then be computed by knowing the ·average length
with the nature of the ground,
The length of the pace varies with the individual, and also
speed of pacing. A length· of pace more nearly that
the slope of the country and the
(37)
3'1
" SURVEYING UNBAR MEASUREMENTS

of one's natural step is preferable. The length of one'1 natlmll alql may be detennined the length of the chain is measured from the outside of one handle to the ou<Side of
by walldng on fairly level ground over various lines of known length&:· One can soon the other handle.
learn to pace distances along level, unobstructed ground with a degree of ·accuracy equivalent
Following are various types of chains in common use :
apprmtimately to I in 100. However, pacing over rough ground or on slopes may be (if) Gunter's chain or Surveyor's chain
difficult .. (1). Mellie chains
(ii!) Engineer's chain (iv) Revenue chain
{2) Passometer. Passometer is an instrument shaped like a watch and is carried
in pocket or attached to one leg. The mechanism of the instroment is operated by motion (v) St<:el band or band chain.
of the body and it automatically registers the number of paces, thus avoiding the monotony ~letric d)alns. After the introduction of metric units in India. the metric chains are
and strain of counting the paces, by the surveyor. The number of paces registered by widely used. Metric chains are generally available in lengths of 5. !0, 20 and 30 merres.
the passometer can then be multiplied by the average length .of the pace to get the distance. IS : 1492-1970 covers !be requirements of metric surveying chains. Figs. 3.2 and 3.3 show
5 m and 10m chains r!l'pectively, while Figs. 3.4 and 3.5 show the 20 m and 30 m
(3) Pedometer. Pedometer is a device similar to the passometer except that, adjusted
to the length of the pace of the person carrying it, it registers the total distance covered chains respectively.· Fig. 3.6 shows the details of a metric chain.
by any number of paces. .
(4) Odometer and Speedometer. The odometer is an instrument for registering the 1: 5m±3mm 'I
number of revolutions of a wheel. The well-known speedometer works on this principle. · 1m ·:-4--1 m__,..}t--1 m--+l+---1 m--.:

~++++~
The odometer is fitted to a wheel which is rolled along the lirie whose length is required.
The number of revolutions registered by the odometer can then be multiplied by the circumference 1
!
of the wheel to get the distance. Since the instrumeDI registers the length of the ·surface
acrually passed over, its readings obtained on undulatlpg ground are Inaccurate. If the route •
1 fiG. ).Z. 5-METRE CHAIN
is smooth, the speedometer of an automobile can be used to meas.ure· the 'distailce approximately. •-"tt
I<--~.-1m 1m~1m~1m-.
'

I
(5) Chaining. Chaining is a renn which is u5ed to denote measuring distance either 1
I I I ..:I ~
,,

~+++~1m>/
with the help of a chain or a tape and is the most accurate method of making direct
measurements. For work of ordinary ptecision, a chain can be used, but for higher precision
a tape or special bar can be used. The distances determined by chaining form the basis

~ ~)l>,
of all surveying. No matter how accurately angles may be measured, the survey can
be no more precise than the chaining. w
''
~c ~ TTT -~---.,;m
3.3. INSTRUMENTS FOR CHAJNING !1
The various instruments used for the detennination of the length of line by chaining
are as follows
Chain :.;;: w.p;.: ~- Arrows
t ... ...

'
i· i
'
i
'
.I
'·.

IIll 1 m--Jo.+-1 m---++-1 ml

j
3. Pegs 1m
4. Ranging rods
5. Offset rods 6. Plasterer's lath& and whites FIG. 3.3. !o-METRE CHAm
7. Plumb bob.
I. CHAIN i To enable the reading of fractions of a chain without much difficulty, tallies are
fixed at ev~ry metre length for chains of 5 m and 10 m length& (see Fig. 3.2 and 3.3)
Chains are fanned of straight links of gal-
vanised mild steel wire bent into rings at the ~ and at every five-melle length for chains of 20 m and 30 m lengths (see Figs. 3.4 and
3.5). In the case of 20 m and 30 m chains, small brass rings are provided at every
ends and joined each other by three small circular
or oval wire rings. These rings offer flexibility 3 metre length, exeep{ where ~llies are attached. The shapes of tallies for chains of 5 m
and 10 m length& for different positions are shown in Fig. 3.7. To facilitate holding of
to the chain. The ends of the chain are provided arrows in position with the handle of ihe chain, a groove is cut on Ute outside surface
whh brass handle at each end with swivel joint,
of the handle, as shown in Fig. 3.6. The tallies used for marking distances in the metric
so that the chain can be htrned without twisting. cha4J,s are marked with the letters 'm · in the order to distingui~h theqt from non~melfic
The length of a link is the distance between chains. The length· of chain, 5 m, 10 m, 20 m or 30 m as the case may be. are engraved
the centres of two consecutive middle rings, while FIG. 3.t CHAIN AND ARROWS.

J.
et·
~··II
' l
40 SURVEYING
r LINEAR MEASUREMENTS
41

Gunter's Chain or Surveyor's Chain


1: 5m 20m:!::.-5m I I 5m :1 A Gunter's chain or surveyor's chain is 66 ft. long and consisiS of 100 links. each
1m •' : : : link being 0.6 ft. or 7.92 inches long. The leng1h of 66 ft. was originally adopted for
[>o--ooo- 1 1 i ~ convenience in land measurement since 10 square chains are equal to I acre. Also. when

Bmsn'9JTTT
every meter length
linear measuremeniS are required in furlongs and miles, it is more convenient since 10
Gunter's chains = I furlong i!Dd 80 Gunter's chains = I mile.
Engineer's Chain
FIG. 3.4. 20-METRE CHAIN The engineer's chain is 100 ft. long and consisiS of 100 links, each link being I
ft. long. At every I0 links, brass tags are fastened, with notches on the tags indicating
3 8 the number of 10 link segmeniS between the tag and end of the chain. The distances
):
1m
5m
Jd
,,. sm ::'s .:.:.._5.,___5m"
: I : : 1
Sm :1 measured are recorded in feet and decimals.
[)o-ooo. iii i ·[~ Revenue ,Chain
2i6
Bmssringa/TTTTT . The. revenue chain is. 33 ft. long and consisiS of 16 links, each link being
long. The chain is mainly used for measuring fields in cadastral survey.
ft.

I
every meter length
Steel band or band chain (Fig. 3.8)
FIG. 3. S. 30-MIITRE CHAIN

1+---t"'S:,... 200 ' 200

58~::
:+--- 93 ± 1---+:
74 ± 1-+:
'' :' I 161±11----+
''!

I
: : :)ing Link, snlill 4 ;:
i75 l :A" I :

·-h~
1 _
Collar
EnQrava length
Eye bolt Ring 4! i
of the chain (oval shaped)

FIG. 3.6. DETAILS OF A METRIC CHAIN f flG. 3.8 STEEL BAND.


un both the hantiles to indicate the length and also to distinguish the chains from non-metric
chains. J The steel band consisiS of a long !lalTOW strip of blue steel, of uniform width of
t 12 to 16 mm and thickness of 0.3 to 0.6 mm. Metric steel bands are available in lengths
of 20 or 30 m. It is divided by brass studs at every 20 em and numbered at every
metre. The first and last links (20 em leng1h) are subdivided into em and mm. Alternatively •
in the place of putting brass studs, a steel band may have graduations etched as metres.
decimetres and centimetres on one side and 0.2 m links on the other. For convenience
in handling and carrying, steel bands are almost invariably Wound on special steel crosses
or metal reels from which they can be easily unrolled.
For accurate work, the steel band should always be used in preference to the chain,
16..l 4-soo-\ fso~ fso';} 22 but it should only be placed in the hands of careful chainmen. A steel band is lighter
For 1 metre For2 metres For 3 metres For4 metres For5 metres than the chain and is easier to handle. It is practically unalterable in length, and is not
and 9 metres and 8 metres and 7 metres and 6 metres liable to kinks when in use. liS chief disadvantage is that it is easily broken and difficult
FIG. 3.7. SHAPES OF TALUES FOR 5 m AND 10 m CHAINS. to repair in the field.
II
I '
42

Testing and Adjusting CbaiD


SURVEYING LINEAR MEASUREMENTS

Cloth or linen Tape. Clolb tapes of closely woven linen, 12 to 15 mm wide varnished
43

~~
!!

During continuous use, the length of a chain to resist moisrure, are light and flexible and may be used for taking comparatively rough
gets alrered. Its length is shortened chiefly due to and subsidiary measurements such as offsets. A cloth tape is commonly available in lengths
the bending of links. Its length is elongaled eilber of lO metres, 20 metres, 25 metres and 30 metres, and in 33 ft., 50 ft., 66 ft. and
due to stretching of the links and joints and opening ~// 100 ft. The end of the tape is provided with small brass ring whose length is included
t/ftfl/11 in the total length of lbe tape. A cloth tape is rarely used for making accurate measurements,
out of the small rings, or due to wear of wearing · r::
~
1
surface. For accurate work, it is necessary to rest ~ because of the following ieasons : (1) it is easily affected by moisture or dampness and
the length of the chain from time to time and make thus shrinks ; (il) its length gets altered by stretching ; (iii) it is likely to twist and
adjustments in the length. FIG. 3.9 FIELD TESTING OF CHAIN. tsngle ; (iv) it is not strong. Before winding up the tape in the case. it should be cleaned
A chain may either be tesled with reference to a standard. chain or with reference and dried.
to a steel tape. Sometimes, it is conveniem to have a P.mianent resr gauge established
and the chain tesled by com- ·
r 20 Cf11 X 20 Cl11 Q;ased StOne&

'fu:~ ~30m
paring with the test gauge from
time to time. In field, where
no permanent test gauge exists,
mo [!]10m

a test gauge is established by +--10m +------


10m 10m ---+1
driving two pegs the requisire
distance apart, and inserting nails FlO. 3.10 PllRMANBNT TEST GAUGE.
into their tops to mJ!fk exact poinla, as showtl in Fig. ~.9. FiJ. 3:10 shows a pennanent
;J Fi&3.11 McuUcT•pc Fig:UlSlHIT•pt
PE.
test gauge, made of messed stones 20 em x 20 em.
Metallic Tape. A metallic tape is made of varnished strip of wate!]lroof linen interwoven
The overall length of a chain, when measured at 8 kg pull and checked against
with small brass, copper or bro1120 wires and does not stretch as easily as a cloth tape.
a sreel tape standardized at 20'C, shall be within the following limits :
Since metallic tapes are light and flexible and are not easily broken, !hey are particularly
20 metre chain : ± 5 min and 30 metre chain : ± 8 mm useful in cross-sectioning and in some methods of topography where small errors in length
In addition to Ibis, every metre length of the chain shall !Je accurare to within 2 mm. of the tape are of no consequence. Metallic tapes are made in lengths of 2, 5, 10, 20,
On testing, if a chain is found to be long, it can adjusled by 30 and 50 metres. In the case of tapes of 10, 20, 30 and 50 m lengths a metal ring
(1) closing the joints of . the rings if opened out is attached to the outer ends and fastened to it by a metal strip of the same width as
(il) reshaping the elongaled rings the tape. This metal strip protects the tape, and at the same time inspector's stamp can
{iii) removing one or inore SMall circular rings be pm on it. In addition to the brass ring, the outer ends of these tapes are reinforced
(iv) replacing worn out rings by a strip of leather or suitable plastic material of the same width as the tape, for a
~ ·, ·) ldjusri.!lg ~:.; !~ ~l u.... .;;u.~. ~.
length of atleast 20 em. Tapes of 10, 20 , -30 and 50 metre lengths are supplied in
If, on the other band, a chain is found to be short, it can be adjusted by a metal or leather case fitted with a winding device (Fig. 3.ll).
(!) straigbrening the links Steel Tape. Steel tapes vary in quality and accuracy
(i1) flattening the 'circular rings of graduation, but even a poor steel tape is generally
(iii) replacing one or more small circular rings by bigger ones superior to a cloth or metallic tape for most of lbe linear
(iv) inserting additional circular rings measurements that are made in surveying. A steel tape
(v) adjusting the links at the end. consists of a light strip of width 6 to lO mm and is
However, in both the cases, adjustment must be done symmetrically so that the position more accurately graduated. Steel tapes are available in
of the cenrral peg does not alter. lengths of I, 2, 10, 20, 30 and 50 metres. The tapes
2. TAPES of 10, 20, 30 and 50 metre lengths, are provided with
Tapes are used for more ~ccurate measurements and are classed according to the a brass ring at the outer end, fastened to it by a meml
strip of the swne width as the tape. The length of the
material of which they are made, such as follows:
(!) clolb or linen tape (il) metallic tape
tape includes the metal ring. It is wound in a well-sewn ~
leather case or a corrosion resisting metal case, having
(iii) steel tape and (iv) invar tape. FIG. 3.13. STEEL TAPE ON REEL

'2;.
,, ,.

[
.

'·'I
44
SURVEYTNG

a suitable winding device (Fig. 3.12). Tapes of longer length (i.e., more than 30) m are
r LINEAR MEASUREMENTS ·~
I H2.5or3 cm
wound on metal reel (Fig. 3.13).
A steel tape is a delicate insnumem and is very Jight, and therefore, cannot withsrand LJ~or3cm
rough usage. The tape should be wiped clean and dry after using, .and should be oiled
with a little mineral oil, so that it does not get rusted.
Invar Tape. Invar tapes are used mainly for linear measuremenrs of a very high
degree of precision, such as measurements of base lines. The invar tape is made of alloy
of nickel (36%) and steel, and has very low coefficient of thermal expansion-seldom more
than about one-tenth of that of steel, and often very much less. The coefficient of thennal 4mm
expansion varies a good deal with individual bands but an average value of 0.0000005 dia. wire
black
per I • F may be taken. The other great advantage of invar is that bands and wires made enamelled
of invar enable base lines to be measured very much more rapidly and conveniently. Invar 15cm
tapes and bands are more expensive, much softer and are more easily deformed than steel
400mm±5
tapes. Another great disadvantage of invar tape is that it is subjected to creep due to

l
which it undergoes a small increase in length as time goes on. Its coefficient of thermal
expansion also goes on changing. It is therefore, very essential ro derennine irs l~ngth
and coefficient of expansion from time to time. fnvar tapes are nonnally 6 rnm widf: and
are available in lengths of 20, 30 and 100 m.
The difficulty with invar tapes is that they are easily bent and damaged. They must,
therefore, be kept on reels of large diameter, as shown in· Fig. 3.14.
i
FIG. 3.t5. An-OW. FIG. 3.16. WOODEN PEG.

4. PEGS
Wooden pegs are used to mark the positions of the stations or terminal points of
a survey line. They are made of stout timber, generally 2.5 em or 3 em square and
15 em long, tapered at the end. They are driven in the ground
with the help of a wooden hammer and kept about 4 em
projecting above the surface.
S. RANGING RODS
Ranging rods have a length of either 2 m or 3 m,
ilie 2 meuc le;ugili being more eommon. They are shod at

~b ,J.~
the bottOm with a heavy iron point, and are painted in alternative
•.. ..
bands of either black and white or red and white or black,
red and white in succession, each band being 20 em deep Black or Red
FlG. 3.14. INVAR TAPE ON REEL so that on occasion the rod can be used for rough measurement Bands ~
'L. of short lengths. Ranging rods are used to range some intermediate
3. ARROWS points in the survey tine. They are circular or octagonal in White Bands
Arrows or marking pins are made of stout sreel wire. and genera1ly. 10 arrows
are supplied with a chain. An arrow is inserted into the ground after every chain length
cross-section of 3 em nominal diameter, made of well-seasoned,
straight grained timber. The rods are almost invisible at a
"'-..I
"i;~
measured on the ground. Arrows are made of good quality hardened and tempered steel f distance of about 200 metres; hence when used on long lines
wire 4 mm (8 s.w.g.) in diameter, and are black enamelled. The length of arrow may each rod should have a red, white or yellow flag, about 30
vary from· 25 em to 50 em, the most common length being 40 em. One end of the to 50 em square, tied on near its top (Fig. 3.17 (a)]. (a) (b)
Ranging offset
arrow is made sharp and other end is bent into a loop or circle for facility of carrying. Ranging poles. Ranging poles are similar to ranging rod rod
Fig. 3.15 shows the details of a 40 em long arrow as recommended by the Indian Standard. rods except that they are longer "and of greater diameter and FIG. 3.1·7.
:I
46 SURVEYING l LlNEAR Mi!ASUREMBNTS
47

are used in case of very long lines. Generally, they are net painted, but in all cases to be established In line with the two terminal points before chaining is started. The process
they are provided with a large flag. Their length may vary from 4 to 8 metres, and of fixing or establishing such intenitediate points is known as ranging. There are two methods
f
diameter from ·6 to 10 em. The foot of each pole is sunk about m into the ground,
of ranging : (1) Direct ranging, (il) Indirect ranging.
(1) DIRECT RANGING
the pole being set quite vertical by aid of a plumb bob. Direct ranging is done when the two ends of the survey lines are intervisible. In
6. OFFSET RODS such cases, ranging can eltitet be done by eye or through some optical instrument such
An offset rod is similar to a ranging rod and has a length of 3 m. They are
round wooden rods, shod with pointed iron shae at otle end, and provided with a notch
as a //lie "'"rtJngbet or a t~DdO/ite. 4------t-----·-----]
Ran6"'3 Y eye : 1dA. 3.20) surveyor
or a hook at the other. The hook facilitates pulling and pilshing the chain through hedges Let A and B be the two points at the ends of a ,
and other obstructions. The rod is mainly used for measuring rough offsets nearby [Fig. survey line. One ranging rod is erected at the point 3.20. RANGING BY EYE.
F!O.
3.17 (b)]. It has also two narrow slots passing through the centre of the section. and B while the surveyor stands with another ranging rod at point A. holding the rod at about
set at right angles to one another, at the eye level,. for aligning the offset line. balf metre length. The assistant then goes with another ranging rod and establishes die
Butt rod. A butt rod is also used for measuring offsets, but it is often used by . rod at a point appro~ately In the llrte with AB (by judgment) at a distance not greater
building surveyors or architects. It generally consists of two laths, each of I yard or I thaJi one chain length from
A. The surveyor at A then signals the assistant to move transverse
m in length loosely riveted together. The joint is also provided with a spring catch to to the cbaln line, till be is In line with A and B. Similarly, other intermediate points
keep the rod extended. The rod is painted black. The divisions of feet aod inches are can be established •. Tiie code of signals used for this purjlOse ii given in the table below:
marked out with white aod red paint.
CODE OF SIGNALS FOR RANGING
7. PLASTERER'S LATHS
· · SfRMI b1 the Surveyor Aclior1 In the Assislalll
In open level ground, intermediate points on a line may also S.No.

be lined out with straight laths, f


to I metre long, made of soft l.__j.+-- t Rapid sil'e<p witl1 rl8fn._hiond Move considerably to the right
Move slowly to die right
wood. They are light both in colour and welght, and can be easily 2 StoW sweep with dgtit band
Rlsht arm extended Continue 10 move to dlc right
carried about and sharpened with a knife whell required. They are \\.V//\\1 ~//\\V/1\\\ 3
Plumb the rod to lhe right
also very useful for ranging out a line when crossing a depression 4 Rloht '"" "" ·.ro nioYol.to the rlRht
from which the forward rod is invisible, or when it is hidden by Move considerably 10 the left
obstacles, such as hedges etc. FIG. 3.18. WHITES. e s Rspkl &we.p wHit left hand
Move slowly to the left

~.•t~-
6 SloW sweep With left hahd
Whites. Whites are pieces of sharpened thin sticks cut from Continue to move to rhc left
the nearest edge, and are used for the same purpose as the laths, 7 Left ann extended
Left amtuo and moved -to the.lcft Plumb the rod to lhe left
though not so satisfactory in use. They are. sharpened at one end
and split with the knife at the top, and pieces of w)lite paper .. '
i ::: ::·;~=:~ :~:~~,::~;c depress~ bris~y i ~:rr:! rOO
9
aie ir.serted in rhe clefts in order to make them more visible when J
~ -
hurls
10
stuck up in the grass. They are also useful in cross-sectioning or
. ••
in temporary marking of contour points. RANGING BY LINE RANGER
.
8. PLUMB BOB A line ranger consists of either two plane mirrors or two right angled isosceles prisms

I
While chaining along sloping ground, a plumb-bob is required placed one above the other, as shown in Fig. 3.21. The diagonals of the two prismS
.
to transfer the points to the ground. It is also used to make ranging are silvered so as to reflect the Incidental rays. A handle with a hook is provided •t
poles vertical and to transfer· points from a line ranger to the ground. the bottom to bold the instrument in hand to transfer the point on the ground with the
.
In addition, it is used as centering aid in theodolites, compass, help of plumb-bOb.
FIG. 3.19. PLUMB BOB
plane rable and a variety of other surveying instruments. To range a point P, two ranging rods are fixed at the ends A and B. and the
surveyor at P holds the line ranger very near to the line AB (by eye judgment). The

I
3.4. RANGING OUT SURVEY LINES
lower prism abc receives· the rays from A which are reflected by the diagonal ac towards
While measuring the length of a survey line or 'chain line', the chain or tape must
the observer.· Similarly, the upper prism dbc receives the. rays from B which are reflected
be stretched straight .'ong the line joining its two terminal stations. If the length of line
by the diagonal bd towards the observer. Thus, the observer views the images of ranging
is less than the length of the chain, there will be no difficulty, in doing so. If, however, rods at A and B, which may not be in the same vertical line as shown in Fig. 3.21 (C).
the length of the line exceeds the ·length of the chain, some intermediate points will have'

l
t
"!I
48
SURVEYING f LINEAR MEASUREMENTS ...
Image
of pole
person at N, then directs the
person at M 1 to move to a ----- .. -----~ ~
new position M2~· in line with .. ---------~-----------i
N, A. Thus, the two persons
N··~
are now at M, and N, which
B
are nearer to the chain line A
than the positions lt{ and N 1•
The process is repeated till A M N 8
the poinlS M and N are located
in such a way that the person
at M finds the person at N
----.::~::::.-:~~~~~~~~~~~~:::::~;-~~~::~~:---~:::--

I
(a) Plan· (b) Pictorial view
in line with MB. antl the person -'N2
...................
at N finds the person at M
I• II Topprism II •
in line with NA. After having
es<ablished M and N, other ~~,..........
...............
.
I•
points can be fixed by direct N,
Bottom prism
rapging. FIG. 3.22. REQPROCAL RANGING.
Case
f 3.5, CHAINING
(c) (d) ~~ TWo chainmen are required for meaSuring the length of a line which is great~r than
a chain length. The more experienced of the chainmen remains at tht: zero end or rear
FIG. 3.21. OPTI<;AL LINE RANGER
entl of the chain antl is called the follower. The other chainmen holding the forward handle
· The surveyor then moves the instnunent sideways till the two images are in the same
vertical line as shown · in Fig. 3.21 (d). The point P is then transferred to the ground
with the help of a plumb bob. Thus, the instnunent can be conveniently used . for fixing 1 is known as the leader. To s<art with. the leader lakes a buntlle of the arrows in one
hantl and a ranging rod, and the handle of the chain in tbe other hand.
Unfolding the chain. To unfold the chain. the chainmen keeps both the bandies

I
intermediate points on a long line without going to either end. Also, only one person, in the left hand and throws the reS< of the portion of the chain in the forward direction
holding the line ranger, is required in this case. with his right hand. The other chainman assists in removing the knots etc. and in making
Fig. 4.18 shows a combined line ranger antl a prism square. the chain straight.
Adjustment of Line Ranger Lining and marking. The follower holds the zero end of the chain at the terminal
O!k! of the .min:v1:s Oi pr~ms is co~nly made adjustable. To test che perpendicularity pomt while the leader proceeds forward with the other end in one hand and a set of
between the reflecting surfaces, . three poles are ranged very accurately with the help of 10 arrows and a ranging rod in the other hantl. When he is approximately one chain
a theodolite. The line ranger is held over the middle pole. The instnunent will. be in length away, the follower directs him to" fix his rod in line with the terminal poles. When
perfect adjustment if the ima~es of the two end poles appear in exact coincidence. If not, the point is ranged, the leader makes a mark on the ground, holds the handle with botb
they are made to do so turning the movable prism by means· of the adjusting screw. the hands and pulls the chain so that it becomes straight between the terminal point and
(ir) INDIRECT OR RECIPROCAL RANGING ?t tbe poiru fixed. Little jerks may be given for this purpose but tbe pull applied must be
~::-· just sufficient to make the chain straight in line. The leader then puts an arrow at the .
Indirect or Reciprocal ranging is resorted to when both the ends of the survey entl of tbe chain, swings the chain sli~htly out of the line and proceeds further with tbe
line are not intervisible either due to high intervening ground or due to long distance between
handle in one hand and the rest of the arrows and ranging rod in the otber hand. The
them. In such a case, ranging is done indirectly by selecting two intermediate points M,
follower also takes the end handle in one hand and a ranging rod in the otber hand.
antl N1 very near to the chain line (by judgement) in such a way that from M,. ·both ?··
follows the leader till the leader bas approximately travelled one chain len!,~h. The follower
N, and 8 are visible (Fig. 3.22) antl from N,, both M, and A are visible. puts the zero end of the chain at first arrow fixed by. the leader, and ranges the leader
Two survej·ors station themselves at M1 and N1 with ranging rods. The person. at who in turn, stretches the chain straight in the line and fixes the second arrow in th~
M1 the~- ·~irec~ _the, ~rson at N 1. tq move )o a new positi~n N2 in line wi~ M 1 B. The grountl and proceeds further. The follower takes the first arrow and the ranging rntl in

I
so SURVEYING f LINEAR MEASUREMENTS Sl

one hand and the handle in the other and follows the leader. At the end of Similarly, if the chain is too shan, the measured distance will be more, !he
ten chains, error will
the leader calls for the 'arrows'. The follower takes our the tenth arrow from pO.iitive
the ground, aod the correction will be negative.
puts a ranging rod there and haods over ten arrows to the leader. The transfer Let L = True or designated length of !he chain or rape.
of ten
arrows is recorded by the surveyor. To measure the fractional length at the
end of a L' =Incorrect (or actual) length of the chain or rape used.
line. the leader drags the chain beyond the end station, stretches it straight and
tight and
reads the links. (z) Correction w measured length :
3.6. MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH WITH THE HELP OF A TAPE Let I' = measured length of the line
For accurate measur~mems and m all irnponam surveys, the lengths an: now measured I= actual or rrue length of the line.
with a mpe. and nor with a ..:hain. However, the operation of measurement of L'
the length Then, rrue length of line = measured length of line X-
of the line with the help of a rape is also conventionally called chaining and L
the two
persons engaged in the measurement are called 'chainmen'. The following procedure L"
is adopted: or I= I' ( L J
... (3.1)
I. Let the length of a line AB be measured, point A being the sraning
point. Place
a ranging rod behind the point B so that it is on the line with respect to (iz) Correction w area
the starting
point A. Let A' = measured (or computed) area of the ground
2. The follower stands at the point A holding one end of the tape while the A = actual or rrue area of the ground.
leader
moves ahead holding zero end of the rape in one hand and a bundle of arrows
in the L' ''
other. When be reaches approximately one rape length distant from A, the follower Then, true area = measured area x ( L j
him for ranging in the line. The rape is then pulled our and whipped
gently to make
sure that irs entire length lies along the line. The leader then pushes the arrow
directs
l
!> ... (3.2)
into the or A=A' (LL' )'
ground, opposite the zero. The pin is usually inclined from vertical about 20 or i
30 degrees,
starting at right angles to the line so that it slides under the rape. with irs centre L' L+M.. M..

I
opposite Allernatively, -=-=1+-
the graduation point on the rape. L L L
3. The follower then releases his end of the rape and the two move forward where M.. = error in length of chain
along
the line. the leader dragging the rape. When the end of the rape reaches the I!.L
arrow jusr Let
placed, follower calls our "tape". He then picks up the end of rape and lines T=e
the leader
in and the procedure is repeated as in srep 2.
(L )'
I
A= /} x A' =(I + e)' x A'
4. When the second arrow has been established by the leader. the follower
picks
up the first arrow, and both the persons move ahead as described in srep 3. The (I + e)2 = I + 2e + e' ~ I + 2e , if e is small
procedure Bur
is repeated until ten rape lengths have been measured. At this stage, the ... (3.2 a)
leader will be A= (I+ 2e)A'
out of arrows. while the follower will h?.ve nine arrows. The leadc~ wili then call
"arrows"
or "ten". When the leader moves further after the rape length has been measured (iii) Correction to volume :
. and Le~
reaches the rape length ahead, the follower rakes our the tenth arrow, erects V' = measured or computed volume
rod or a nail in irs place aod then transfers 10 arrows to the leader. The surveyor
.the transfer of arrows in the field bock.
a ranging
records J V = actual or rrue volwne.

5. At the end of the line, at B, the last measurement will generally be a panial Then, true volume = measured volume x( ~j
rape length from the last arrow set to the end point of the line. The leader
holds the L' ".(3.3)
end of the rape at B while the follower pulls the rape back rill it becomes taut
and then
or V=V' [ L )'
re~ds against the arrow.
L' L+I!.L I!.L
3.7, ERROR DUE TO INCORRECT CHAIN A/Jernatively, -=-=1+-
L L L
If the length of the chain used in measuring length of the line is not equal I!.L
to Let -=e
the true length or the designated length, the measured length of the line will nor L
be correct
and suitable correction will have 10 be applied. If the chain is too long, the
distance will be less. The error will, Jherefore, be negative and the correction
measured .V=( ~ )' V' =(I +e)' V'
is positive.

I
·~
~ SURVEYING 53
LlNP.AR MEASUREMEI'ITS

(I + e) = I + e' + 3e' + 3e ~(I+ 3e), if e is small


3
But 4
Hence 11 = zc;-~ x 1400.= 1409.80 m
V =(I + 3e)ll' ... (3.3 a)
Total length= I=!,+ I,= 1503.75 + 1409.80 = 2913.55 m.
Example 3.1. The length qJ a line measured with a 20 metre chain was found 10
be 250 mmes. Calculate the true length of the line if the chain was 10 em too long. Example 3.4. A surveyor measured the distance· be/Ween two poims on the plan drawn
Solution. to a . scaie of l em = 40 m and the result was 468 m. lAter, however, he discovered that
he used a scale qJ 1 em = 20. m. Find the true distance between the two poims.
Incorrect length of the chain = L' = 20 + _!Q_ = 20.1 m Solution. Distance between two points measured with a scale of I em to 20 m
100
Measured length =I'= 250m 468
=-=234
20 . em
Hence true length of the line =I' (f) = 250 [~(/) = 251.25 metres. Actual scale of the plan is I em = 40 m
True distance between the points = 23.4 x 40 = 936 m
Example 3.2. The length of a survey line was measured with a 20 m chain and
was found to be equal to 1200 metres. As a check, the length was again measured with · Example 3.5. A 20 m chain used for a· survey was found to be 20.10 m at the
a 25 m chain and was found to be 1212 m. On comparing the 20 m chain with the beginning and 20.30 m at the end of the worL The area of the plan drawn to a scale
test gauge, it was found to be 1 decimerre too long. Find the actual length- of the 25 of l em = 8 m was measured with the help of a planimeter and was found to be 32.56

I
m chain used. sq. em. Find the true area of the field.
Solution. Solution.
With 20 m chain : L' = 20 + 0.10 = 20.10 m . . 20.10 + 20.30
L'= Average length of the cham= · _ = 20.20 m
"(L' 1 ?O 10
1=1' -1=1200x=-.:_ =1206m=True length of line. i Area of plan= 32.56 sq. em
L) 20
! 1
I Area of the ground= 32.56 (8) = 2083.84 sq. m =A' (say)
With 25 m chain I=[ f)/' 'L')'
I l-
True area= A = '20201'1 x 2083.84 = 2125.73 sq. m.
A'=(-·-
"1206 = ( ~~ )1212
or L 20 J .

Alternatively, from Eq. 3.2 (a),


L' _ 1206 X 25 = A=(l +2e)A'.
24"88 m.

I
1212
where e= ll L = 20.20-20 _ 0.20 =O.OI
Thus, the 25 m chain was 12 em too short. L 20 20
Example 3.3. A 20 m chain was found to be 10 em too long after chaining a A= (I + 2 x 0.01) x 2083.84 = 2125.52 m'
distance of 1500 m. It was found to be 18 em too long at the end of day's work after chaining . metre~
of the plan of an. old :Jur.-ey pivlied oo u .swl.c. uf i 0
E).:.am.pi::: 3.1:. Tlw ~rea.
"" !Nf1' d;;rrmre r'f '! (}') .Ti.. Ffrzd £h~.J i:-~ diJ;.,.;l(;<; if <lie i:.h~.U,, ww currecJ bejore 1he
0

commencemenJ of the work.


'i to I em measures now as 100.2 sq. em as found by planimeier. The plan is found to
have shrunk so Chat a line originally 10 em long now measures 9. 7 em only. There was
Solution.
For first 1500 metres I also a note on the plan that the 20 m chain used was 8 em too slwn. Find the true
area of the survey.
0 + 10 Solution : Present length of 9.7 em is equivalent of 10 em original length.
Average error= e= - - = 5 em= 0.05 m
2
' L' = 20 + 0.05 = 20.05 m .. Present area of 100.2 sq. em is equivalem to (
1
~ \)' x 100.2 sq. em= 106.49 sq. em

Hence /, =
20 05
· x 1500 = 1503.75 m
20
J \. 9.1
= original area on pJan
Scale of the plan is I em = 10 m
For next 1400 metres .·. Origina1 area of survey = (106.49) (10)1 = !.0649 x {o' sq. m
10 + 18 Faulty length of chain used = 20- 0.08 = 19.92 m
Average error= e = - - - = 14 em= 0.14 rn
2 19.92 1' x !.0649 x 10• sq.m.= 10564.7 sq. m
L' = 20 + 0.14 = 20.14 m Correct area = l' 20)
54 SURVEYING LINEAR MEASUREMENTS
ss

3.8. CHAINING ON UNEVEN OR SLOPING GROUND essentially consists of (!) A line of sight, (il) a graduated arc, (iii) . a ·light plumb bOb
For all plotting works, horizontal distance between the points are required. It is therefore, with a long thread suspended at the centre.
necessary either to directly measure the horizontal distance between the points or to measure Fig. 3.25. (a) shows a
the sloping distance and reduce it to horizontal. Thus, there are two methods for getting semicirular graduated arc with
the horizontal distance between two points : (!) Direct method, (2) Indirect method. two pins at A and B fornting c
A B
1. DIRECT METHOD the line of sight. A plumb bob
I, is suspended from C. the central
In the direct method or the method
of stepping, as is sometimes called, the point. When the clinometer is
distance is measured in small horizontal 3 horizontal. the thread touches
the zero mark of the ealibrated
~
stretches or steps. Fig. 3.23 (a) illustrates
circle. To sight a point, the (a) (b)
the procedure, where it is required to
measure the horizontal distance between .•

Stepplng
o ______...Je c
...... 2~ clinometer is tilted so that the
line ofsightAB may pass through
FIG. 3.25 .
the two points A and B.
The follower holds the zero end {a)
the object. Since the thread still remains vertical. the reading against the thread gives the
(b)
of the tape at A while the leader selects slope of the line of sight.
any suitable length I, of the tape and FIG. 3.23. METHOD OF SfEPPING. There are various forms of clinometers available. using essentially the principle described
moves forward. The follower directs the leader for ranging. The leader pulls the tape tight, above, and for detailed study, reference may be made to the Chapter 14 on minor instruments.
makes it horizomal and the point I is then transferred to the ground by a plumb bob. Method 2. Difference in level measured
Sometimes, a special form of drop a"ow is used to transfer the point to the surface, f
r
Sometimes, in the place of measuring the
as shown in Fig. 3.23 (b). ne procedure is then repeated. The total length D of the
line is then equal to (1, + 1, + .\ ... ) . In the case of irregular slopes, this is the only
angie e. the difference in the level between the
points is measured with the help of a levelling Tfh:
I
suitable method. instrum.em and the_ horizontal distance is compmed.
It is more convenient to measure down-hill than to measure uphill. because in the
latter case the follower end is off the ground and he is to plumb the point as well as
to direct the leader. The tape must he kept horizontal either by eye judgment or by using
have
Thus, if h is the difference in level, we

~
l •


l __ ---------------------
o----->1
i D= ... (3.4)
a hand level. Sufficient amount of pull must he applied to avoid the sag otherwise the

I
Method 3. Hypoteousal allowance FIG. 3.26
measured distance will he more. The lengths 11, I, etc.. to be selected depend on the
In this method, a correction is applied in the field ar every chain length and at
steepness of the slope ; steeper the slope, lesser the length and vice versa.
every point where the slope changes. This facilitates in locating or surveying the intermediate
2. INDIRECT METHOD
pr-int!i Vlhen the chain is strerched on th~ slope, the
!n the l'it::c Df .1 regul:i.r Vl ;;;. ·r~u. slvpc, t.he sioping distance can be measured and A
I arrow is not put at the end of the chain but is placed
the horizontal distance can be ~alcuJated. In such cases, in addition to the sloping distance, in advance of the end, by of an amount which allows
the angle of the slope or the difference in elevation (height) between the two points is for the slope correction. In Fig. 3.27, BA' is one chain
to he measured. -I length on slope. The arrow is not put at A' but is put
Method 1. Angle measured
In Fig. 3.24. let 11 = measured inclined distance
between AB and e, = slope of AB with horizontal. The
j at A, the distance AA • being of such magnirude that the
horizontal equivalent of BA is equal to 1 chain . The
distance AA' is sometimes called lzypotenusal allowmzr.e.
tl{ '''f'Jh...a
..J

horizontal distance D 1 is given by D1 = 11 cos 91• FIG. 3.27. IIYPOTENUSAL


Thus, BA = 100 sec 9 links
Similarly, for BC, D, = I, cos 92 ALLOWANCE.
BA' = 100 links
The required horizontal distance between any two e- I) (3.5)
poinES = !;J cos 9. ~~c Hence AA' = 100 see e- 100 links = 100 (sec links
2 ··.
The slopes of the lines can he measured with the
14----D,-->j e' se•
Now sec 9=1+2+24+ ..... . (were
h e IsmraJaDI::ll_ e '
. . d" l . 1 "~"2!
help of a clinometer. A clinometer, in its simplest form.
FIG. 3.24.

j
~'
l6 57
SURVEYING LII'EAR MI!ASUREMI!NfS

9' '
AA'= 100 ( I +2-!Jiinks (il) tan9= 2~=~=0.2 or 9=11'19'

or AA' =50 9' links Hypotenusal allowance = 100 (sec 11' 19'- I) links
... (3.5 a)
If. however. 8 is in degrees, we have = 1.987 links = 0.4 m.
A/Jenwlive approximole solulion
sec a~( 1 + 10 ':~ e') (r) From Eq. 3.5 (b),

M' = 100( I+ ~9 2 - I ]links Hypotenusa1 allowance =~ 9' links


10.000 • 100
9= 10'
AA'=~O' Here

l
or links ... (3.5 b).
~~ (10)1 = 1.5
100
Hypotenusal allowance = links= 0.3 m.
Thus. if 9 = 10 '. AA' = 1.5 links.
(il) Slope is 4 min 20m or 1min5m or lminnm where n = 5.
If !he slope is measured by levelling. it is generally expressed as in n. meaning
!hereby a rise of I unit vertically for n units of horizontal distance. Hence from Eq. 3.5 (c),
Thus

Hence from Eq. 3.5 <a). AA'


0 =.!. radians
n
=50 a'= 50
,,; ... 13.5 c)
I
It
Hypotenusal allowance

Example 3.9. In chaining a line, what


=
50
n'
links = ~1 links

= 2 links = 0.4 m•
(5)

is the maximum slope (a) in degrees. and


Thus. if !he slope is I in 10, '- which can be ignored if the error from this source is not to exceed 1
(b) as 1 in n,
M' = · '~ = 0.5 links. in 1()()1).

I
•'j ~)~
Solution.
The distance M' is ao allowance ;vhich must be made for each chain lenglb measured While chaining on !he sloping ground, !he error is evidently equal to !he hypotenusal
on !he slope. As each chain lenglb is measured on !he slope. !he arrow is set forward allowance if this is not taken into account. The value of Ibis error (i.e. hypotenusal allowance)
by .. Ibis amount. In !he record book, !he horizontal distance between 8 and A is directly is given by Eq. 3.5 (a), (b) and (c).
recorded as I chain. Thus, !he slope is allowed for as !he work proceeds. (a) Error per chain= 1 in 1000 = 0.1 link
Example 3.7. TilE distance between the points measured along a slope is 428 m. Hence from Eq. 3.5 (b),
Final the lwriwntal distance bern~en them if (a) tiJe angle of slope benveen the points f
~~ e' = o.1
is 8 •. (b) the difference in level is 62 m (c) tile slope is 1 in 4 .
Solution. I•'
link
S'= 0.1 X)()()
Let I = measured lenglh · = 428 m or
D = horizontal lenglh ; 1.5
. (a) D =Leos 9 =428 cos 8 • = 423.82 m From which 0 ~ 2.6°.
(b) D= ~1'-h'=..j (428)2 - (62)1 = 4Z3.48 m :i (b) Error per chain = 0.1 link
(c) For I unit vertically, horizontal distance is 4 units. Hence from Eq. 3.5 (c),

tan 9 =.!.4 = 0.25 or 9 = 14' 2' .f 50


-,=0.1
n
or n' = ~=500
0.1
L =I cos 9 = 428 cos 14' 2' = 415.Z3 m. I From which n = 22.4.
Example 3.8. Find the hypotenusal allowance per chain of 20 m <ength if (I) the
:. Max. slope is 1 in 22.4.
angle of slope is 10" (ii) the ground rises by 4 m in one chain length. ·
3.9. ERRORS IN CHAINING
Solution.
(r) Hypotenusal allowance A general classification of errors is given in Chapter 2 and it is necessary in studying
= 100( sec 9- 1) links
Ibis article to keep clearly in mind !he difference between lbe cumulative and compensating
= 100( sec 10'- I)= 1.54 links= 0.3! m. errors, and between positive and negative errors.

I
58 59
SURVEYING LINEAR MEASUREMENTS
A cumulative error is thar which occurs in lhe same direction and tends 8. Variatio n in Pull. (Compensating ± , or Cumulative + or-).
to accwnuJate If the pull applied
while a compensadng error may occur in either direction and hence tends in straightening the chain or tape is not equal to that of the
to compensate. standard pull at which it
Errors are regarded as positive or negative according as they was calibrated, ·its length changes. If the pull applied is not
make the result too greaJ measured but is irregular
or too small. (sometimes more, sometimes less), the error tends to compensate.
A chainman may. however.
Errors and mistakes may arise from apply too great or too small a pull every time and the error

l
becomes cumulative.
I. Erroneous length of chain or tape. 2. Bad ranging 9. Persona l Mistakes. Personal mistakes always produce quite irregular
effects. The
3. Careless holding and marking. 4. Bad straightening. following are the most common mistakes :
5. Non-horizontality 6. Sag in chain. (r) Dispblcemenl of arrows. If an arrow is disturbed from its
position either by
7. Variation in temperature. !mocking or by pulling the chain, it may he replaced wrongly.
8. Variation in pull. To avoid this. a cross
9. Personal misrakes. must also be marked on the ground while inserting the arrows.
(ir) Miscounling chain length. This is a serious blunder but may l
1. Erroneous. Length of Chain or Tape. (Cumulative + or-). The
the wrong length of the chain is always cumulative and is the
error due to
most serious source of
systematic procedure is adopted to count the nwnber or arrows
.
be avoided if a
\
.

error. If the length of the chain is more, the measured distance (iir) Misreading. A confusion is likely between reading a 5 m
will he less and hence tally for IS m taliy.
the error wilJ be negative. Similarly, if the chain is too short, since both are of similar shape. It can he avoided by seeing the
the measured distance. will central tag. Sometimes.
. a chainman may pay more attention on em reading on th~ tape

I
he more and error will be positive. However, it is possible to and read the metre rt:ading
apply proper correction
if the length is checked from time to time. wrong. A surveyor may sometimes read 6 in place of 9 or
28.26 in place of 28.62.
Z. Bad Ranging. (Cumulative. + ). If the chain is stretched (iv) Erroneous booking. The surveyor may enter 246 in place of
out of the line. the < 264 ere. To avoid
such possibility, the chaimnan should first speak out the reading
measure d distance will always be more and hence rhe l!rror will ' loudly and the surveyor
and every stretch of the chain. the error due to bad ranging will
be positive. For each ~. should repeat the same while entering in the field book.
be cumulat ive and the
effect will be roo grear a result. The error is nor very serious in ordinar
{
Summar y of errors in chaining
the length is required . But if offsetting is to be done, the error
y work if only I Cumulative + or-
3. Careless Holding and Marking (Compensating ± ). The follower
is very serious.
i !. Incorrect length of tape
Cumulative +

l
may sometimes 2. Bad ranging
hold the handie to one side of the arrow and sometimes to the
other side. The leader 3. Tape not stretched horizontally Cumula tive +
may thrust the arrow vertically into the ground or exactly at the
end of chain. This causes -~ Tape not stretched tight and straight , but both ends in line Cumula
a variable systematic error. The error of marking due to an
inexperienced chainman is
4. tive +

I
often of a cumulative nature, bur with ordinary care such errors 5. Error due to tempera ture Cumula tive +or-
rend to compensate.
4. Bad Straight ening. (Cumulative, + ). If the chain is not straight 6.' Variatio n in pull Compen sating ±
but is lying
in an irregula r horizontal curve. the measured distance will always Cumulative +
be too great. The error 7. Error due to sag
is, therefor e. of cumulative ch~racrer and pm:itl•;e
8. Error in marking tape lengths Compen sating ±

i
5. Non-Horizontality. (Cumulative, + ). If the chain is not horizon
tal (specially in Disturbing arrows after they are set Blunder
case of sloping oF irregula r ground) , the measured distance will 9.
always be wo grt~ar. The Errors in reading the tape Mistake
error is, therefor e, of cumulative characte r and positive. 10.
11. Incorrect counting of tape lengths Blunder
6. Sag in Chain. (Cumulative, + ). When the distance is measure
d by 'stepping·
or when the chain is stretched above the ground due to undulati Relative Importa nce of Errors

·I;
ons or irregula r ground.
the chain sags and takes the form of a catenary. The measure 1. Cumulative errors are more important lhan compensating errors.
d distance is. therefore.
too great and the error is cumulative and positive. 2. Not all the cumulative errors are equally impona.nt.
7. Variatio n in Temper ature. (Cwnulative, + or-). When a chain 3. ln a short line, a compensating error fails to compensate because
or rape is used such an error

I
ar remperarure different from that ar which it was calibrated, its may occur only once or twice. The more tape lengths there
length changes. Due to are in a line,
the rise in lhe remperarure. the length of the chain increases. the more likely are such errors to be truly compensating.
The measured distance is
thus less and the error becomes negative. Due to the fall in temperat 4. The more times a line is measured, the more likely are
ure. the length decreases. accidental errors to
The measured distance is thus more and the error becomes negative disappear from the mean.
. In either cases tht:
error is cumulative.
.,,
'·.
~ :
"'
60 61
SURVEYING LINEAR MEASUREMENTS

5. One cumulative error sometimes balances other cumulative error. For example, the correction is therefore, additive. Similarly, if the temperature is less, the length of
a greater pull may offset sag, or high temperature may offset a slight shortage the tape decreases, measured distance becomes more and the correction is negative. The
in the length of the tape.
temperature correction is given by
All things being equal it is most important to guard against those errors which
6. C, =a. (Tm- To) L ... (3.7)
are most likely to occur.
where a = coefficieru of thermal expansion
3.10. TAPE CORRECTIO NS
Tm = mean temperature in ··the field during measurement
We have seen· the different sources of errors in linear measurements. In most of To = temperature during standardisation of the tape
the errors, proper corrections can be applied. In ordinary chaining, however corrections
L = measured length.
are not necessary bur in important and precise work, corrections must be. applied. Since
in most of the cases a tape is used for precise work, the corrections are sometimes called If, however, steel and brass wires are used simultaneously, as in Jaderin's Method,
as 'tape corrections', though they can also he applied to the measurements taken with a the corrections are given by
chain or with a steel band.
c, (brass)_ "'a.":•:':<L::.'..,-::.:L"'-•) ... [3.8 (a))
A correction is positive when the erroneous or uncorrected length is to be inc~eased nb as
and negative when it is to he decreased to get the uue length.
After having measured the length, the correct length of the base is calculated by and c, (steel)= a., (L, - Lb) ... [3.8 (b)]
ab-a.s
applying the following corrections :
To lind the new standard temperature T0' which will produce the nominal length of
1. Correction for absolute length
temperature the tape or band
2. Correction for
./ Some times, a tape is not of standard or designated length at a given standard temperature
3. Correction for pull or tension
T0• The tape/band will be of the designated length at a new standard temperature T0.
4. Correction for sag
Let the length at standard temperature T0 he I± 81, where I is the designated length
5. Correction for slope
of the tape.
6. Correction for alignment
Let I:J.T he the nuroher of degrees of temperature change required to change the
7. Reduction to sea level.
length of the ta.P" by = 81
8. Correction to measuremem in vertical plane
Then 81=(1±81)a.I:J.T
I. Correction for Absolute Length
absolute length (or actual length) of the tape or wire is not equal to
If the I:J.T= 8/ .n. ~
Ia. (1±81)a
its nominal or designated length, a correction will have to he applied to the measured
length of the line. If the absolute length of the tape is greater than the nominal or the (Neglecting 81 which will he very small in comparison to I)
designated le:>.gi.b., til,;: n:.ea.surcd W::;~.ance wiiJ be too shan and the correction will be If To' is the new standard temperature at which the length of the tape will he exactly
additive. If the absolute length of the tape is lesser than the nominal or designated length. equal to its designated length I, we have
the measured distance · will be too great and the correction will he subtractive. To'=To±I:J.T
Thus, Ca=~ ... (3.6) 81 ... (3.9)
I or To'=To±
correction for absolute length
Ia.
where Ca = Xf.
L = measured length of the line See example 3.17 for illustration.
3. Correction for Pull or Tension
c = correction per tape length
If the pull applied during measurement is more than the pull at which the tape was
I = designated length of the tape
Standardised, the length of the tape increases, measured distance becomes less, and ~
C, will he of the same sign as that of c. correction is positive. Similarly, if the pull is less, the length of the tape decreases,
2. Correction for Temperature measured distance becomes more and the correction is negative.
If the temperature in the field is more than the temperature at which the tape If c, is the correction for pull, we have
was standardised, the length of the tape increases, measured distance becomes less. and ,,i!
LINEAR MEASUREMENTS 63
SUI!.VEYING

C _ (P-Po)L Ph = wl, x ~ - wl, d,


... (3.10) 2 4--8-
' AE
where P = Pull applied during measurement (N) h= w/1 d, ... (2) t.
or
8P
Po = Standard pull (N)
Substituting the value of h in (1), we get I~;
L = Measured length (m) i:_

~ _ ~ _I_ ( wl, = ~ (wl,)'


·'
C, = ~ (wl,)' = 11W.'
~
A =Cross-sectional area of !he tape (em') d, )' ... (3.11)
2
E =Young's Modulus of Elasticity (N/cm2)
I 3 "' 8P 24P' 24P 241"
The pull applied in the field should be less than 20 times the weight of the tape.
If I is !he total lenglh of rape and it is suspended in n equal number of bays, !!
!he Sag Correction (C,) per tape length is given by
4. Correction for Sag : When !he tape is stretched on supports between two points,
it takes !he form of a horizontal catenary. The horizontal distance will be lesS !han !he C, = n C,. = nl, (wl,)' = l (wl,)2 l (wl)' =~ ... (3.12)
distance along !he curve. The difference between horizontal distance and the measured 24P 2 24P' 24n'P' 24n'P'
length along catenary is called the Sag Correction. For !he purpose of determining !he where C, = tape correction per tape length
correcdon, the curve may be assumed to be a parabola. I = total lenglh of !he tape
P, W = total weight of !he tape
n = number of equal spans :~
"'---------------------------··r·
\ P = pull applied
,ifj
~I,
.
;
If L = .!he total lenglh measured f,,,
M
~· and N = !he number of whole lenglh tape "fj
!hen : Total Sag Correction = NC, + Sag Correction for any fractional tape lenglh. ~
i~
Note. Normally, the mass of !he tape is given. In that case, the weight W (or
(a) wl) is equal to mass x g, where !he value of g is taken as 9.81. For example, if the
AG. 3.28. SAG CORRECTION mass of tape is 0.8 kg, W = 0.8 x 9.81 = 7.848 N.
It should be noted that the Sag_ Correction is always negative. If however, rhe wpe
Let 1, = length of !he tape (in metres) suspended between A and B
M = centre of the tape
was standardised on catenary, and used on flat, the correction will be equal to 'Sag
Correction for standard pull- sag correcion at the measured pull', and will be positive m
~
h = vertical sag of !he tape at its centre if the measured pull in the field is more than the standnrd pull.
w = weight of !he tape per unit lenglh (N/m) For example, let !he tape be standardised in catenary at 100 N pull.
C,. = Sag correction in metres for !he length 1,
lf Lht: pull applied ill i.he ti.dd. b 120 N, lht:: Sag Correction will De = Sag C..urrccuon
C, = Sag com:cnon in metres per tape length I
for 100 N pull - Sag Correction for 120 N pull
W, = wl 1 = weight of the tape suspended between A and B
J
2
d, =horizontal length or span berween A and B. I, W,' I,(W,)
The relation between !he curved length (11) and the chord lenglh (d 1) of a very 24 (100)2 24 (120)2

flat parabola, [i.e., when~ is small) is given by


··.·l.
..
=
I1W1' [
24
I
(100) 2 -
.1
(120) 2
l
I, = d, [ 1 + H:J l and is evidemly posmve
If the pull applied in !he field is 80 N, !he Sag Correction will be
1, w? w,1- = 1, w? r 1
Hence c,. = d11 = - - -
1-
3 d,
8 h'
... (ll - - - -t1-
24 (100) 2 24 (80) 2 24 (100)2 (80) 2
--l-- ---
1 ] an d zs
. evzdent
. 1y negatrve.
.

The value of h can be found from statics [Fig. 3.28 (b)]. If !he. tape were cut If, however !he pull applied in the field is equal to the standard pull, no Sag
at !he centre (M), the exterior force at the point would be tension P. Considering !he Correction is necessary. See Example 3.13.
equilibrium of half !he length, and talcing moments about A, we get

,,,.,
ilc
!I !
64 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS 65
SURVEYING
1
Equation 3.12 gives lhe Sag Correction when lhe ends of lhe tape are at lhe same · h.= difference in elevation between lhe ends i
level. If, however, lhe ends of lhe tape are not at lhe same level, but are at an· inclination f
a wilh lhe horizontal, lhe Sag Correction given is by lhe formula, Cv=.slope correction, or correction due to venical aligmnent
Then Cv=AB -AB, = L- ~L'- h2
I+~ sinS)
Cs'=Csco s 8(
2

when tension P is applied at lhe higher end ;


... [3.13 (a))
=L- L ( I - h
2

2L2 - 8L4
h'] =h+ 2
2L
h'
8L3 + ....

and C/ = C, cos' 6 ( I - ~sin B) The second term may safely be neglected for slopes flatter !han about I in 25.
... [3.13 (b))
h' (subtracnve
C = 2L . )
when tension P is applied at lhe lower end. Hence, we get ... (3.16)
If, however, 8 is small, we can have Let L,, L, .... etc.= lenglh of successive uniform gradients
c; = c, cos' a .... (3.14) h,, h2, ... etc.= differences of elevation between lhe ends of each.
irrespective of whelber lhe pull is applied at lhe higher end or at lhe lower end. It 2
1
slwuld be noted that equation 3.14 includes the co"ections both for sag and slope, i.e. 0 hl hl h
The total slope correcnon = 2L, + 2L, + .. .. .. = l: 2L
if equation 3.14 is used, separate co"ection for slope is not necessary. See Example
3.~. 2
.
Noi'Dllll Tension. Normal tension is lhe pull which, when applied to lhe tape, equalises
If lhe grades are of uniform lenglh L, we get total slope correction= ~
lhe correction due to pull and lhe correction due to sag. Thus, at normal tension or pull, If lhe angle (B) of slope is measured instead of h. the correction is given by
lhe effects of pull and sag are neutralised and no correction is necessary.
Cv=L -Leos 6 =L (1- cos B) = 2Lsin 2 ~ ... (3.17)
The correction for pull is Cp= (P, ~;o) 1
' (additive) Effect of measured value of slope 6
. , 11 (wl1)
2 2
11 W1 Usually, lhe slope 6 of lhe
The correction 10r sag . C51 =- - - = ::-:-1 (su btracnve
. )
line is measured insmunenrally, s,
24 P,2 24 p, ~~ .... ~~ T
wilh a lheodolite. In !hat case
where P,= lhe normal pull applied in lhe field. .... ~~~~ ..9"" :h, -h
lhe following modification should _.-- oV '5::: .i. .
Equating numerically lhe two, we get be made to lhe measured value ........ ------ 18,
h,
(P, -Po) I, 1, W12 of lhe slope. See Fig. 3.30.
B
AE = 24PJ Let h1 = height of lhe

P,-
0.204
~
w, ..fiE instrument at A
P"- P.. ... (3.15) h~ = height of the targer

r~~'
... 1

I
at B
The value of P, is to he determined by trial and error with lhe help of lhe above
a = measured vertical
equation.
angle
5. Correction for Slope or Vertical
6 = slope of lhe line FIG. 3.30
Alignment •
The distance measured along
A
·-a·-· -·-·-·- ·-·-·-- -·-·-·a, AB

~
I = measured lenglh of lhe line
lhe slope is always greater !han lhe
horizontal distance and hence lhe cor- Then a= a+ Ba. From A A,s,s,, by sine rule, we get
rection is always subtractive. 1. . (h, - h,) sin (90" + a) "(h"-1 _-c:ch,,_)ccco:.:.s~a

'~1.
smBa- --
Let 1 I
AB = L = inclined lenglh measured lia." = 206265 (h, - h,) cos a ... (3.18i
I
AB, =horizontal lenglh The sign of. Ba will ..be obtained by lbe above expression itself.
FIG. 3.29. CORREGnON FOR SLOPE.
:·(
66 SURVEYING 1 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS 67

6. Correction for horizontal alignment or i+c'-h'=-2accos ~


·•.[
(a) Bad ranging or misalignment Adding 2ac to both the sides of the above equation, we get
If the tape is stretched out of line, measured distance will always be more and a'+ c'-b' +2ac=2ac- 2accos ~ or (a+ c)'- b' = 2ac (1- cos~)
hence the correction will be negative. Fig. 3.31 shows the effect of wrong aligmnent. . 2 I A
in which. AB = (L) is the measured length of the line, which is along the wrong aligmnent 2ac (1 - cos ~) 4ac sm 2 "
.. (a + c)- b = (a + c)+ b - (a + c) + b
while the correct aligmnent is AC. Lerd be the perpendicular
deviation. B 4ac sin2
c. =(a + c) - b =-,----.,..._,=..:._
!p ... [3.21(a)]
~d
Then Ll-ll=dz (a+ c)+ b
or (L+l)(L-l)=d' A 1 C Taking sin ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ and expressing ~ in minutes, we get
Assuming L = I and applying it to the first parenthesis 2
acP sin 1' 2

only, we get c. = '-:'-'"-"=--:-


(a+ c)+ b
... [3.21(b)]
FIG. 3.31
2L(L-l)!! d 2 Taking b"' (a+ c) we get
d' 2
ac J} sin I' 2
or L-1!!-
2L c. = ---:;:-'-;--,---:-
2 (a+ c)
... [3.21]

d'
Hence correction c. = 2L ... (3.19) = ac ~' x 4.2308 x 10'' ... [3.21(c)]
'
~
(a+ c)
It is evident that smaller the value of d is in comparison to L, the more accurate 8
will be the result. ' Where ~ Sin2 1' = 4.2308 X 10- .
(b) Deformation of the tape in horizontal plane 7. Reduction to Mean Sea Level
If the tape is not pulled straight and the length The measured horizontal
L, of the tape is out of the line by amount d, then c distance ihould be reduced to the
dl dl distance at the mean sea level,
C•=-+- ... (3.20) A a called the Geodetic distance. If
2 L, 2L, A
the length of the base is reduced
(c) Broken base
to mean sea level, the calculated
Due to some obstructions etc., it may not be length of all other triangulation
possible to slot out the base in one continuous straight lines will also be corresponding
line. Such a base is then called a broken base. to that at mean sea level
~Fig. 3.33, le~ AC=~uaight base
Let AB = L = measured
AB and BC = two sections of the broken base horizontal distance
~=exterior angle measured at B. A'B' = D = equivalent
AB=c ; BC=a ; and AC=b. length at M.S.L. =Geodetic
The correctiOJ;l M.S.L. ·
( Ch) for horizontal align-
h = mean equivalent
ment is given by
of the base line above
Ch =·(a+ c)- b M.S.L.
.... (subtractive) R = Radius of earth
The length b is given
by the sine rule
a = angle subtended at
the centre of the earth, by
b2 =a 2 + c2 + 2 ac cos~ AB.
FIG. 3.33. CORRECTION FOR HORIZONTAL AL!GN~:ENT FIG. 3.34. REDUCTION TO MEAN SEA LEVEL

.)
i._
.!·
il' ~
68
II
!r
SURVEYING UNEAR MEASUREMENTS 69 . 'I'

Then D L
9=-=--
R R+h
Example 3.10. A tape 20m long of standard length a1 84 'F was used to measure
a line, the mean temperature during measurement being 65°. The measured distance was
[
,,
R
D=L R+h=L ( I+R Lh
h =L-R
h )-' =C ( I-R l 882.10 metres, the following being the slopes :
2 ' 10' for IOO m
J.
,,
1_'1

for I 50 m j
:. Correction (Cm,,) = L- D = ~h (subtractive)
4'12'
... (3.22)
I ' 6' for 50 m '
:il
8. Correction to measurement in vertical plane 7' 48' for 200 m :11
Some-times, as in case of measurements in mining shafts, it is required A 3'0' for 300 m :I
1

.1
to make measurements in vertical plane, by suspending a metal tape vertically. 5 ' 10' for 82.10 m
When a metal tape AB, of length I, is freely suspended vertically, it will
I
Find the true length of the line if the co-efficient of expansion is 65 X 10- 'per I' F. ,
lengthen by value s due to gravitational pull on the mass ml of the tape.
In other words, the tape will be subjected to a tensile force, the value Solution. Correction for temperature of the whole length = C, "'i·.I
of which will be zero at bcttom point (B) of the tape, and maximum 7 !1
=La (Tm ~To)= 882.1 X 65 X 10- (65- 84) = 0.109 m (Subtractive) :'I
value of mgl at the fixed point A, where m is the mass of the tape ~
Correction for slope= J:/(1 - cos 9)
per unit length. 1.1

"+1'
= !00 (I -cos 2' 10') + !50 (I -cos 4' 12') +50 (I -cos I' 6')
Let a mass M be attached to the tape at its lower end B. Consider II"
+ 200 (I -cos 7' 48') + 300 (I - cos 3') + 82.10 (I - cos 5' 10') ~!
a section C, distant x from the fixed point A. It we consider a small
length Bx of the tape, its small increment Ss.f in length is given by Hooke's
law 1
B..,
= 0.071 + 0.403 + 0.009 + 1.850 + 0.411 + 0.334
= 3.078 (m) (subtractive)
•ii,,6

I
p (8x) Mass M Total correction= 0.109 + 3.078 = 3.187 (subtractive)
OSx=AE ,
:. Corrected length= 882.1- 3.187 = 878.913 m.
where P =pull at point C, the value of which is given by, FIG. 3.35
Example 3.11. (SI Units). Calculflte the sag correction for a 30 m steel under a
P=Mg +mg (1-x)
I•
pull of IOO N in three equal spans of 10 m each. Weight of one cubic em of steel
Substituting this value, we get =0.078 N. Area of cross-section of tape =0.08 sq. em.
os, I Solution. Volume of tape per metre run = 0.08 x 100 = 8 em'

I I
or AE-=Mg+mg -mgx
ox Weight of the tape per metre run= 8 x 0.078 = 0.624 N 'I
mor 2
Integrating, AE s, = Mg x + mglx - "-'=- + C
2
:. Total weight of the tape suspended between two supports = W = 8 x 0.078 x 10 = 6.24 N
j
'1f:(•P!.) 1 r:!!W 2 3 ~- J0 Y (6.2!")
2
,-_ -.
Whot:-n r.,... n :!!"!~ ~ ,... " ~ril::? -,,:::: t.:.·. _ ,. . ~~uw ~..:orrecnon or sag= Ls = - - - = - -2 = = 0.004H7 m. "
24 P2 24 (100)2

I
24 P
s,=~ [M +-2 m (21-x)]
t
1
AE ... (3.23 a) Example 3.12. A steel tape 20 m long standardised at 55' F with a pull of 10
kg was used for measuring a base line. Find the correction per tape length. if the temperature
lfx=l, s=~[ M+~] ... (3.23 b) ar the time of measurement was 80 'F and the pull exened was I6 kg. Weight of I cubic
When M=O, S-
_ mgl 2
2AE ... (3.23)
em of steel = 7.86 g, Wt. of rape= 0.8 kg and E = 2.I09 x IO' kg/em'. Coefficient of
expansion of tape per I'F=6.2xio-•. I
Taking into account the standardisation tension factor, a negative exrensi~n must be Solution. Correction for temperature= 20 x 6.2 x 10 - 6(80 - 55) = 0.0031 m {additive)
'allowed ,initially a< the tape is not tensioned up to standard tension or pull {P0). Thus,
. (P- Po)L
the general equation for precise measuremems is Correcuon for pull- AE
gx[ M+ t m(21
s,= AE 2
Po]
-x>--g ... (3.24) 3
Now, weight of tape= A (20 x 100)(7 .86 x 10- ) kg = 0.8 kg (given)
8
See example 3.19 for illustration. A= _°6 x = .0.051 sq. em
78 2
70 SURVEYING UNEAR MEASUREMENTS 11
j;
6 20 or at night, and should be repeated several times to overcome errors due to the expansion
Hence, c, = (! - 10) = 0.00112 (additive)
of the structure. li
0.05! X 2.JQ9 X 106 li,
'
20 2 2. Equipment. The equipment for one taping party should consist of the following: "
Correction for sag= l,(wl,y = <0·8\ = 0.00208 m (subtractive) One tape ; five to ten chaining tripods; one spring balance": two standardized thermometers: f!
24 P' 24 (16) c
two tape stretchers ; two rawhide thongs ; five to ten banker's pins for marking; two plumb
:. Total correction= + 0.0031 + 0.00112-0.00208 = + 0.00214 m bobs ; adhesive tape, 112 in. and I in. widths ; one keel ; fifty stakes, 2 in. by 2 in. u
~.~
3.11. DEGREE OF ACCURACY IN CHAINING by 30 in ; one transit, preferably with attached level ; one self-suptiorting target ; one level !:,.
Some conditions affecting the accuracy are (I) fineness of the graduations of the (if no transit level is available) ; one level rod, graduated to hundredths of a foot ; two
chain (ii) nature of !he ground, (iii) time and money available, (iv) weather etc. The error folding rules graduated to tenths of feet ; one brush hook, one hatchet ; one machete ; ~
may be expressed as a ratio such as 1In which means there is an error of 1 unit in one 6 lb. or 8 lb. hammer to wooden maul ; one or two round-end shovels ; record books
and pencils.
I
the measured distance of n units. The value of n depends upon the purpose and extent
3. Personnel. The minimum taping party consists of the chief (who acts as marker),
~
of the different conditions:
(I) For measurement with invar tape, spring balance, thermometers, etc. I in 10,000 recorder, tension man, rear tapeman and instrument man. A level man must be added if iH
the transit is not equipped with a level or if a hand level is used. n
(2) For ordinary measurements with steel tape, plumb bob, chain pins etc.! iti 1,000 ~
4. Field Procedure : tape supported at two points. A target is set at the point I
(3) For measurements made with tested chain, plumb bob, etc. I in 1.000 ~
towards which measurement is to be made, and the tripods are distributed roughly in
(4) For measurements made with chain under average conditions I in 500
(5) For measurements with chain on rough or hilly ground 1 in 250
posirion. The transit is set up at the point of beginning and sighted on the target. Although
alignment by transit is not necessary, it increases the speed of the party greatly. If the
~
J[

3.12. PRECISE LINEAR MEASUREMENTS beginning point is not readily accessible to the tape, a taping tripod is placed under the !f'
In the linear measurements of high degree of precision, errors in measurements must r instrument. carefully in order not to disturb it, and the starring point is transferred to •~
be reduced to a far degree than in ordinary chaining. The method of linear measurements the edge of the top of the taping tripod by the instrument plumb bob. The tripod is
can be divided into three categories : (1) Third order (2) Second order, (3) First order not removed until the taping of the section is completed.
measurements. 11Urd order measurements, generally used in chain surveying and other minor The tape is stretched out in the line of progress with the 100 ft. mark forward,
surveys have been described in the previous articles. Second order measurements are made and a thermometer is anached at the 2 ft. mark with adhesive tape so that the bulb is
in lhe measurement of traverse lines in which theodolite is used for measuring directions. in contact with the measuring tape, but free from adhesive tape. A loop of rawhide or
Firsc order measurements are used in rriangulation survey, for the determination of the string is passed through the eye of the tape at the zero end, and tied 6 to 18 in. from
length of base line. the tape. The tape end is laid on the starting tripod. A rear tapeman passes his stretcher
1. SECOND ORDER LINEAR MEASUREMENTS through the loop and places the lower end of the stretcher on the ground against the
The following specifications of second order chaining• are taken from Monual 20. outside of his right foot. The upper end is under his right arm and behind his shoulder.
;.;;;.;.iJ..,;J. Ho.HiiVJliaL Co;w-ui Surveys Io supplemem liZe .furutamemal Net, published by American
In ihis posiuon, he ieans over the tape to see rhat the zero graduation Is held exactly
Society of Civil Engineers. · on the mark. This is readily controlled by adjusting his stance. However, he may find
,J it helpful to grasp the tape near its end and behind the mark, applying a slight kinking
1. Method. Length measurements should be made with 100 ft. tapes of invar or
force, just sufficient to control the position of the zero graduation.
of sreel, supported either at the 0 ft. and 100 ft. marks only, or throughout the entire
The tension man passes his stretcher through a 6-in. loop of rawhide anache<\ to
tape. The two point support method can be adapted to all ground conditions and, therefore.
is used almost exclusively. The supported throughout method should be used chiefly for the spring balance, snaps the spring balance to the tape, and using the same position employed
measurements on rail road rails. It can be used on concrete road surfaces, but even wberi by the rear tapeman, applies a 200 lb. tension.
great care is taken, the wear on the tape is excessive. Reduction in cross-sections due The chief of the party who acts as marker places a tripod in line (as directed by
to wear increases the length of the tape under wnsion because of the increased srrerch the instrument man) and under the 100 ft. graduation. The tension man slides his rawhide
and decreased sag. thong until the tape just clears the top of the tripod. The marker must see that the
tape is dry, clean and free from all obstructions and may run a light sag along its entire
If possible, measurements should be made on hazy days, unless an invar tape is
used. Measurement over bridges or other structures should always be made on cloudy days. length at this time to remove any moisture or dirt. The marker gently depresses the tape
to touch the marking surface of the forward tripod and, on a signal from the tension
man that he has exactly 20 lb., and from the rear tapeman lhat the mark is right. he
• "Surveying Theory and Practice" by John Clayton Tracy.
73

72 SURVEYING lJIIEAR MEASUREMENTS


An extra man should be available when the hand level is used. He should carry
marks the tripod at !00 ft. mark. When· the tripod has a wooden top, the mark may a Ught notched stick to support the level, and standing near the 50 ft. mark. should take
be made with hard pencil or with a T-shaped banker's pin which is forced into the a reading to tenths of a foot on both tripods for each tape length, recording the difference
wood to mark the point, and is always left sticking in the tripod. Bristol board of the in elevation. Collapsible foot rules, graduated to tentha of a foot, should be carried by
thickness of the tape may be secured to the top of the tripod with Scotch marking tape, the tension man and the rear tapeman for the leve!man to sight on. The clinometer is
so that the edge of tape butts against the edge of the Bristol board. The terminal mark most successfully employed when 4 ft. taping tripods are used. It is placed on one tripod
of the tape can then be transferred to the board with a marking awl or a sharp, hard and sighted on a small target on ·the next tripod. The angle of inclination or the percentage
pencil. The Bristol board can be renewed at any time. On the heavier type of tripod.
grade is recorded.
the mark may be made on the strip of white adhesive tape attached temporarily to the measurements should be reduced as soon as possible.
8. Field Computations. The
top of the tripod. Tension is released slowly, then re-applied for a check on the marking, office. A fonn for computation is given below
signals from the tension man and rear tapeman being repeated. The recorder obtains either in the field or in the field
..........,........... --··- ----- ON FOR REDUCING MEASUREMENTS

!~ Ii i• II
the temperature from the rear tapemen, holds the rod on the tops of the chaining tripods

..e
for the insoument man and records the rod readings. A record is made for each individual Com eli on
tape length or partial tape length, which includes the length used. the temperature and l Unco"ected
length

I~-
~

'"
the inclination. 0

-.
c

~ *-
8. a~
li I a-s I
h

"I-
~

The .marker moves back to support the centre of the tape. and it is then carried .§ J! !:.
forward, the tape being held clear of all contacts by the marker, the tension man and _§ ' E e ~ ~.§
I~
!:.
the rear tapeman. After the second tape length is measured, the recorder may begin picking j !H ! ~ ~c ~
~
c
~~
'-'8 ~ i
up the tripods. He can carry about five of these, to be distributed later to the entire
party. When it is necessary to bring the transit up, one of the tripods is placed accurately
on line and the instrument is set up over it. For distance of less than a tape length,
I
I
I
I
"'!:.
....• ~ ~
!:.
E

(m)
I
(m)
!a
(m)
g-+ ~
J! ~ ~
(m) (m) (m)
I

I
I .
(m)
the tape is read independently by both the chief of party and the recorder. If the reverse
side of the tape is graduated in metres, the .. metric reading should be recorded as well.
I I
I I
The bead of the tape is carried beyond the end point, the zero mark being at the back
:' I i I

tripod as usual. If the set up is more than 50 ft., a 20 lb. tension is used; otherwise I I I II I!
a ·pull of !0 lb. is used ; this affords a close approximation for proportional application I I I !
of the standard tape correction.
5. Field procedure : tape supported throughout. When the tape is supported throughout.
l i
l I
! i i

the procedure is much the same as in the foregoing description. except that no transit
aligmnent is necessary on railroad rails. The rails themselves are sufficiently accurate. 2. FIRST ORDER MEASUREMENTS : BASE LINE MEASUREMENTS
_.:-,.~co h~~~ '!"le::~c:nrinP" ::l!'naratus : (A) Rigid bars, and
(B) Flexible
Stretchers are placed in from the foot. which is nlaced on the base of the fulcrum. The TI-:.-:-:-e .. :~
...,;

recorder must aid the rear rapeman in making conract. On railroad rails or asphalt roads. apparatus.
marks can be made with a sharp awl, but on concrete surfaces a piece of adhesive tape
should be smck to the pavement and marked with a bard pencil. .., .
'.•l·
(A) Rigid Bars
Before the introduction of invar tapes, rigid bars were used for work of highest l
!
6. Backward Measurement. It is best to measure' each section in two directions. precision. The rigid bars may be divided into two classes :
Although this is not demanded by the accuracy required, it provides the only proper check . (I) Contact apparatus. in whi~h the ends of the bars are brought into successive
against blunders. The results, reduced for temperature and inclination should agree within .-: contacts. Exatnple ; The Eimbeck Duplex Apparams.
one part in 30,000. (i!) Optical apparatus, in which the effective lengtha of the bars are engraved on
7. Levelling. Levelling may be done with a surveyor's level. the attached level '·t them and observed by microscopes. Example: The Colby apparatus and the Woodward Iced
on a transit, or hand level or a clinometer. All have been used successfully, but the first Bar Apparatus.
two increase both speed and precision. When a surveyor's level or a transit level is used. The rigid bars may also be divided into the following classes depending upon the
readings are taken to hundredth's of a foot on the tops of the tripods. A reading is taken way in which the uncertainties of temperature corrections are minimised :
on the same tripod from each of the two instrument positions, when the instrument is (i) Compensating base bars, which are designed to maintain constant length unde1
moved. and care. taken to denote which reading was obtained from each position. varying temperature by a combination of two or more metals. Example : The Colby Apparatus.
LINEAR MEASL'REMENTS 75
74 SURVEYING

(B) Flexible Apparntus


(il)Bimeto11ic non;compensating base ban, in which two measuring bars act as a
l>imetallic thermometer. Example : The Eimbeck Duplex Apparatus (U.S. Coast and Geodetic In the recent years, the use of flexible instrumentS bas increased due to the longer
Survey), Borda's Rod (French system) and Bessel's Apparatus (German system). lengths thst can be measured at a time without any loss in accuracy. The flexible apparatus
(iir) Monometallic base bars, in which the temperature is either kept constant at
consistS of (a) steel or invar tapes, and (b) steel and brass wires. The flexible apparatus
bas the following advamages over the rigid bars :
melting point of ice, or is otherwise ascertained. Example : The Woodward Iced Bar Apparatus
(r) Due to the greater leng91 of the flexible apparatus. a wider choice of base sites
and Struve's Bar (Russian system).
is available since rough ground with wider water gaps can be utilised.
The Colby Apparntus (Fig. 3.36). This is compensating and optical type rigid bar
apparatus designed by Maj-Gen. Colby to eliminate the effect of changes of temperature (ii) The speed of measurement is quicker, and thus less expensive.
upon the measuring appliance. The apparatus was employed in the Ordinance Survey and (iii) Longer bases can be used and more check bases can be introduced at closer
the Indian Surveys. All the ten bases of G.T. Survey of India were measured with Colby intervals.
Apparatus. The apparatus (Fig. 3.36) consistS of two bars, one of steel and the other Equipment for base line measurement :
of brass, each 10 ft. long and riveted together at the centre of their length. The ratio The equipment for base line measurement by flexible apparatus consistS of the following:
of co-efficientS of linear expansion of these metals baving been determined as 3 : 5. Near I. Three standardised tapes : out of the three tapes one is used for field measurement
each end of the compound bar, a metal tongue is supported by double conical pivotS held and the other two are used for standardising the field tape at suitable intervals.
in forked ends of the bars. The tongue projectS on the side away from the brass rod.
On the extremities of these tongues, two minute marks q and a' are put, the distance
2. Strairting device, marking tripods or stakes and supporting tripods or staking.
between them being exactly equal to 10' 0". The distance ab (or (a' b') to the junction 3. A steel tape for spacing the tripods or stakes.
with the steel is kept ~ ths of distance ac (or a' c') to the brass junction. Due to cbange 4. Six thermometers : four for measuring the temP.,ature of the field and two
in temperature, if the distance bb' of steel change to b, b,' by an amount x, the distance . ,/ for standardising the four thermometers.
cc' of brass will change to c1c,' by an amount ~ x, thus unahen'ng the positions of dots
S. A sensitive and accurate spring balance.
a and a'. The brass is coated with a special preparation in order to render it equally The F1eld Work
susceptible to change of temperature as the steel. The compound bar is held in the box The field work for the measurement of base line is carried out by two parties
at the middle of itS length. A spirit level is also placed on the bar. In India, five compound (I) The setting ow pany consisting of two surveyors and a number of porters, have
bars were simultaneously employed in the field. The gap between the forward mark of the duty to place the measuring tripods in alignment in advance of the measurement, and
one bar and the rear bar of the next was kept .constant equal to 6" by means of a framework at correct intervals_.
based on the same principles as that of the 10' compound bar. The framework consists (2) The measun'ng pany, consisting of two observers, recorder, leveller and staffman,
of two microscopes, the distance between the cross-wires of which was kept exactly equal for actual measurementS.
to 6". To stan with. the cross-wires of the first microscope of the framework was brought The base line is cleared of the obstacles and is divided into suitable sections of
':!0!, ~"'~ lr:~c the centre cf the ::me e~treT.ity l")f the
;!"....., !:'"~!1~~1e~':'~ •.·.. :~~ the plarlr,~~
i to I kilometre in length and is accurately aligned with a transit. Whenever the alignment
base line. The platinum dot a of the first compound bar was brought into the coincidence
with the cross-hairs of second microscope. The cross-hairs of the first microscope of the
second framework (consisting two microscopes 6" apan) is then set over the end a' of
the first rod. The work
is thus continued till a 14----- --to·o·- ------> 1
l changes, stout posts are driven firntly in the ground. The setting out pany then places
the measuring tripods in alignmentS in advance of the measurement which can be done
by two methods :
(i) Measurement on Wheeler's method by Wheeler's base line apparatus.
length of a'~ (ir) Jaderin's method.
''"
·"<i
(IQ' X 5 + 5 X 6") =52' 6" (r) Wheeler's base line apparntus (Flg. 3.37)
''
'' '' ·~[
The marking stakes are driven on the line with their tops about 50 em above the
is .measured at a time with ' '\
the help of 5 bars and
: surface of the ground, and at distance apan slightly less than the length of the tape. On
2 frameworks. The work
b1 teel !!.fR=ib•' the tops of the marking stakes, strips of zinc. 4 em in width, are nailed for the purpose
is thus continued till the
end of the base is reached.
II ~·· of scribing off the extremities of the tapes. Supporting stakes are also provided at interval
of 5 to 15 metres, with their faces in the line. Nails are driven in the sides of the
supporting stakes to carry hooks to support the tare. The pointS of supportS are set either
FIG. 3.36. TilE COLBY APPARATUS.

'I
f•'
71
SURVEYING LINEAR MEASUREMENTS
76

Measurement by Steel and Brass Wires : Principle of Bimetallic Thermometer


on a uniform grade between the marking stakes or at the same level. A weight is attacbed
to the other end of the straining tripod to apply a uniform pull. The method of measurement by steel and brass wire is based on laderin's application
of the principle of bimetallic thermometer to the flexible appararus. The steel and brass
n Stralnlng
1 1pote

l
~~~
,),\,,,,,!:tl l__
Zink strip
(]
wire are each 24 m long and-1.5 to 2.6 mm in diameter. The distance between the measuring
tripods is measured first by the steel wire and then by the brass wire by Jaderin metbod
as explained above (Fig. 3.38) with reference to invar tape or wire. Both the wires are
nickel plated to ensure the same temperature conditions for both. From the measured lengthS
given by the steel and brass wires, the temperanue effect is eliminated as given below:
Let Ls = distance as computed from the absolute length of the steel wire
L, = distance as computed from the absolute length of the brass wire
marking stake as = co-efficient of expansion for steel
stake o.• = c<HOfficient of expansion for brass
FIG. 3.37. WHEELER'S BASE LINE APPARATUS. D = corrected distance
Tm = mean temperature during meas~:~rement
To measure the length, the rear end of the tape is connected to the straining pole Ts = temperature at standardisation
and the forward end to the spring balance to the other end of which a weight is attached. T = Tm - Ts = temperature increase
The rear end of the tape is adjusted to coincide with the mark on the zinc strip at ihe ... (0
top of the rear marking slake by means of the adjusting screw of the side. The position
of the forward end of the tape is marked 01i the zinc strip at the top of the forward I or
Now D =L,(l + a., T) = Lb(l + a., T)
T(Lb a,- L, o.,) = L, -L,
marking slake after proper tension has been applied. The work is thus continued. The
thermometers are also observed. ! T- L,-L,
Lb ctb Ls O.s
... (2)

I
(iz} Jaderin's method (Fig. 3.38) Substituting this value of T in (1) for steel wire, we get
In this method introduced by Jaderin, the measuring tripods are aligned and set at
a distance approximately equal to the length of the tape. The ends of the tapes are attached
D=L) I+ o.,(L,-L,)
l Lbab-Lsas
l
to the straining tripods to which weights are attached. The spring balance is used to measure . . Correction for steel wire = D - Ls
the rension. The rear mark of ¢.e tape is adjusted to coincide with the mark on rear + L, o.,{L, - L,) ~ + o.,{L,- L,)
= ... (3.25)

I
measuring tripod. The mark on the forward measuring tripod is then set at the forward Lb ctb Ls as --=o.:-,----:o.:-,~
mark of the tape. The tape is thus suspended freely and is subjected to constant tension.
Ao aligning and levelling telescope is also sometimes fitted to the measuring tripod. The with sufficient accuracy.
levelling oh~ervations ~re m::~de J,y ::~ level :md ::. li?-ht !ltaff fitted with ::~ mbber p~d for ~uniiariy, ~.;omxuon 1ur Drass win:= D- Lt, ~ ;- 'Jt/!.-- !.L' ... .;).26)

I
contact with the tripod heads. The te~ion applied should not be less than 20 times the ctb- as
weight of the tape. The corrections can thus be applied without measuring the temperature in the field-
The method has however been superseded by the employment of invar tapes or wires-
Example 3.13. A nominal distance of 30 metres was ser our wizh a 30 m sreel

1
Straining Straining
tripod tripod rape from a mark on rhe rop of one peg ro a mark on rhe rop of anozher, rhe rape
being in catenary under a pull of 10 kg and ar a mean temperature of 70 " F. '[he

A\/~-- 71\/t\ top of one peg was 0. 25 metre below rhe rop of rhe other. The top of rhe higher peg
was 460 metres above mean sea level. Calculate the exact horizontal distance between the
marks on rhe rwo pegs and reduce ir ro mean sea level, if rhe rape was standardised at
7771CIIII///I//IIII/IIIIII!IIIIIIII/IIIIl/177777TT T17 a temperature of 600F, in catenary, under a pull of (a) 8 kg, (b) 12 kg, (c) JO kg.
Rear Forward
measuring tripod measuring tripod Take radius of earth = 6370 km
Density of rape = 7.86 g/cm'
FIG. 3.38. JADERIN'S METHOD.
.,
78 SURVEYING ~ LINEAR MEASUREMB!<YS 79 ll
l
'
Section of tape = 0.08 sq. em Solution.
From expression for sag, we have
Co-ejfident of expansion
Young's modulus
=6x Jtr per l'F
= 2 x 10' kg/cnr.
h = wl, d1 1!
8P
Solution. h = 20.35 em (given)
I
But I
=nil
(i) Correction for slalldardisation
h' (0 25)
2
Taking 1, = d1 (approximately), we get I
{il)

(iir)
Correction for slope

Temperature correction
= L =
2
~
2 30
= 0.0010 m (subtractive)
6
= L a (Tm- To)= 30 X 6 X 10- (70- 60)
0
h = wl?
8P Il
or w = 8Ph = 8 x 100 x 20.35 N/m = 0.407 N/m
= 0.0018 m (additive) /1l 20 X 20 JOO . I
(P- Po)L I
(iv) Tension correction
AE Example 3.15. Derive an expression for correction to be made for the effeds of !
sag and slope in base measurement, introducing the case where the tape or wire is supponed i
(a) When Po = 8 kg aJ equidisrant points. between measuring pegs or tripods.

Tension correction (10 - 8)30 6 = .0.0004 m. (additive) Solution. (Fig. 3.39)


0.08 x2~ 10 In Fig. 3.39, let tape be sup-
(b) When Po= 12 kg, ported at A and B, and let C be
(10- 12)30 _ 0 _0004 m (subtractive) the lowest point where the tension
Tension correction - 6
0.08 X 2 X 10 is horizontal having value equal to
(c) When Po = 10 kg, Tension correction = zero P. Let the horizontal length be s,
/ 1 and 11 such that /1 + I, = I. Let
. LW'
(v) Sag correcnon = P'- s1 and s, be the lengths along the curve
24
such that s, + s, = s = total length along
Now weight of tape per metre run = (0.08. x I x 100) x ~a: kg= 0.06288 kg/m the curve. Let a = difference in
t----- r,----
:. Total weight of tape = 0.06288 x 30 = 1.886 kg elevation between A and C, and b
. 30 X (1.886)') 30(1.886)
0 = difference in elevation between B FIG. 3.39
(a) When Po = 8 kg, sag correction and C. Let h = b - a = difference
24(8)2 24(10)2
in level between B and A. Treating approximately the curve to be parabola. the equations
= 0.0695 - 0.0445 = 0.0250 (additive) are :
30(1.886)' 33(1.886)' y=k,x', for CA and y =kzx', for CB
(b) When Po = 12 kg, sag correction
24(12>' 24(10)1 where the origin is at C in beth the cases.
= 0.0309 - 0.0445 = - 0.0136 m (subtractive) J Now, when x=l1, y=a; .. kl = .!!._
I(
(c) When Po= 10 kg = P, sag correction is zero.
Final correction and, When x=h. y=b; k, = .!'..
[,'
(a) Total correction=- 0.0010 + 0.0018 + 0.0004 + 0.0250 m = + 0.0262 m.
=- 0.0132 m Hence the equations are
(b) Total correction=- 0.0010 + 0.0018 - 0.0004- 0.0136
(c) Total correction=- 0.0010 + 0.0018 + 0 + 0 = + 0.0008 m ax'
y=- for CA and '
Y -_bx' for CB
Example 3.14. (Sl units). It is desired to find the weight of the rape hy measuring
1.' [,

its sag when suspended in CJllenary with both ends level. If the rape is 20 metre long !!l = 2ar for CA and !!l__ 2bx for CB
and the sag amounts to 20.35 em aJ the mid-span under a tension of 100 N, what is d:t. 1.' d:t. - 1,'
the weight of the tape ? Thus. the length of the curve .
~'-
81
80 SURVEYING UNBAR MEASUREMEN'!S

~ !I + ( ~ J' )dx + II + ( Z~x J' ldx


s = S1 + s, =
1
t ·:·~
OM of ,the tape, of lengths, such
that the horizontal tension at 0
is H. aod the tension P at point
T
;
'
: ..
.·a
'
1
T

~3 a'II +b')]
2 M makes an angle IV with the ' ' '
= [ 11+1,+ - - =1+-
[,
2(a'
3 II
- +b-
I,
)
J
... (I)
x-axis. Resolving forces vertically 0' ----·-·-·---"~~.l.-J
Again, from the statics of the figure, we get and horizontally for this portion 1+----.: "
2 of tape, L=2x'------+1
P x a= T
wl 2
for C4, aod P x b = T
w/
for CB P sin IV = w . s ... (I) (a)

2 Pcos IV=H ... (2)


P= wl1 = wll ... (2) p

~ey
2a 2b w. s
taniV=n
a b ... (3) (From I and 2)
and
l;l = 11 Differentiating with respect
H
o
dx

Substiruting these values in (1), we get

s-1=~3 1(~)
' l1 +(~) I,')-.!.
- 6 w'
3
p' (li +It)
2
to x,
2 diV_~d< ... (3)
(b) (c)

2P . 2P seciVdx-Hdx
FIG. 3.40.
Now, writing 1~=~1-e aod l,=~l+e, we get Now, from the elemental
niangle [Fig. 3.40 (c)]
(s-f)= (sag + level) correction
ds =sec IV
= !w'
P' [( tz- e)'+ n I+ e) 3
] = 6wp'
'i'
1~+~I (I,- 11)
2 '
i 2
seciV.dx-H
dx
dl.jl_~secw
w2 l 2(iz -l1)2 l (wli
2
w2l 3 w2 U· t?l ... (4)
= - - + - -2 = - -2 + - - . dl!l -~ ... (4)
24P 2 8 P • I 24P 8 P' I or seciV.dX-H
b I ' I'1 ' _a'
Now from (3), --a_,-
---- and fr om (2) , -w-2 - -4 Let x' be half the length of tape, and IV' be the inclination of tangent at the end.
a It' 4.P /1
lmegrating Eq. (4) from 0 to B, we get
~ . (1,' -li)' _ a' . ( b - a . 11, )'!. = (b - a)' = /i
f•. f" ~
2
:.
8 P' I 2 11' a I 2I 2I sec IV diV = dx
Substimting in (4), we get •
(s-f)=--+-
I (wl)' h' ··t,
·.
[log.(sec IV+tan IVl]: =-jjx'
24 P' 2 I H[ .s.ec=._:o:IV,_'+:_tan::::_IV!_' )
Thus, the total correction is the swn of the separaJe corrections for sag and slope. .; .·. or .t' = - loge-
w 1 +0
Example 3.16. A flexible. uniform, inextensible tape of total weight 2W hangs freely ... (5)
between two supports at the same level under a tension T at each support. Show that or x ' =!!. log, (sec IV' + tan IV')
w
·horizo/IJIJJ distance between the supports is -~·"
Again, resolving vertically for one-half of the tape,

=r·w
H T+W
-logc-- or sin w'
'~··
w T-W T sinw'=W
H = horizol!lal tension at the cel!lre of the tape and w = weight of tape per unit .,1,
where
length. cos 111' = ~sini lV' = ..fr'::: W'
Solution
Also, tan \II' = ___!r
Fig. 3.40 (a) shows the whole tape, being hung from two suppons A aod B. Let . =-r'
-W .
0 be the lowest point, which is the origin of co-ordinates. Fig. 3.40 (b) shows a portion •;II

'111=-
·""t~:
83
SURVI!YING UNBAR MBASUREMBNI'S
82

Substituting lhe values in Eq. (5), we get .

x' = w
H log, [ ~T' T- W' + ~Tl - W W' lw
H [ T+ W
= log, yT' - W'
l (b) s=E-[M+ !'!.(21-x
AE

s 9.81
2
)- Po]
g
Here x = 999.126, M = 0 and Po= 175
999.126 [ 0 + O.Q75 (2
X X 1000- 999.126 )- 175 ]
H -~ 1H
=-log,"'/~-- =--lo g,--
T+W 10.2 X 2 X JO' 2 9.81
w T-W 2w T-W = 0.095 m
The IOta! horizontal distance = 2 x '
PROBLEMS
H T+W (Hence proved)
=-1og e--
w T- W 1. Describe different kinds of chains used for linear measurements.
Example 3.17. A field rape, standardised at 1B•c measured 100.0056 m. Explain lhe melhod of testiDg and adjusting a chain.
of 100 2. (a) How may a chain be standardized 1 How may adjustments be made to
the chain if
Detennine the temperature at which it wiU be exactly of the nominal length
long 1
m. Take a= 11.2 X w-• per ·c. it is found to be toO
(b) A field was surveyed by a chain and the area was found to be
127.34 acres. If lhe
Solution : Given 81 = 0.0056 m ; T, = 18° C per cent 100 long, what is the correct area of lhe field?
chain used in lhe measurement was 0.8
(A.M.l.E.)
81
New standard temperature To' = To ± Ia
3. Explain, wilh neat diagram, the working of lhe line ranger.
not interVisible.
0 0056
· = 18•- 5• = 13• c Describe bow you would range a chain line between two points which are
= 18• - l allowance?
100 X 11.2 X 10-0 4. Explain the different methods of chaining on sloping ground. Wbat is bypotenusa
·;'
Example 3.18. A distance AB measures 96.245 m on a slope. From a theodolite 5. What are different sources of errors in chain surveying?
1. 675 m with Distinguish clearly between cumulative and compensating errors.
set at A, with instrument height of 1. 400 m, staff reading taken at B was
e the horizontal length of the line AB. What will 6. Wbat are different tape corrections and bow are !hey applied?
a venical angle of 4" 30' 4()", Determin
7. The lenglh of a line measured wilh a chain having 100 links was found to
be 2000 links.
be the error if the effect were neglected.
Solution : Given h, = 1.400 m; h, = 1.675 m; a = 4• 30' 20" ; I = 96.245
m If the chain was 0.5 link too shon, find the true length of line.
with
8. The nue length of a line is known to be 500 metres. The line was again measured
Sa"_ 206265 (h,- h,) cos a 206265 (1.400- 1.675) cos 4• 30' 20" a 20 m tape and found to be 502 m. Wbat is lhe correct lenglh of the 20 m tape ?
· I 96.245 and found to be
9. The distanCe between two stations was measured with a 20 m chain
1476 melres. If the
= - 588n = - 0° 09' 48" 1500 metres. The same was measured witll a 30 m chain and found to be
9 =a+ Oa = 4° 30' 20" - oo 09' 48" = 4°20' 32" 20 m cbain was 5 em too short, what was the .error in the 30 metre chain?
and found to
l<>n~l. 1 ,... / ... nc-A- o.< "!-1" ':'"~,to ?I)' ?7"- o~_oe;,c;
10 A 3(' 11! chain was t~terl J:o.efnre the com_rnencement of !he day's work
J..Jn..;·mm~~ found to be half decimetre too long. At the
be correct. After chaioing 100 chains, the chain was

I
If lhe effect were neglected, L = 96.245 cos 4• 30' 40" = 95.947 m end of day's work, after chaining a total distance of 180 chains, the chain
was found to be one
decimetre too long. Whai: was the true distance chained ?
Error= 0.019 m 20 metres.
11. A chain was rested before starting the survey, and was found to be exactly
Example 3.19. (a) Calculate the elongation at 400 m of a 1000 m mine shaft measuring and was found be 20.12 m . Area of the plan

l
At the end of the survey, it was teSted again to
elasticit y is area of the field
tape hanging vertical ly due to its· own mass. The modulus of of the field drawn to a scale of 1 em = 6 m was 50.4 sq. em. Find the true
cross-sectional area of the
2 x Jo' N/mm , the mass of the rape is 0.075 kglm and the
1 in sq. metres ..
12. The paper of an old map drawn to a scale of 100 m to 1 em has
shrunk. so that
. tape is 10.2 "'"''· 9.6 em. The survey was done with a 20 m chain 10
a line originally 10 em has now betome
(b) 1f the' same· tape is .randordised as 1000.00 m at 175 N tension,
what is the on the ground.
em too shan. It the area measured now is 71 sq. em, find the correct area
shoft recorded as 999.126 m ? to a scale
,true length of the 13. The surveyor measured the distance between two stations on a plan drawn
the result was 1286 m. later, however, it was discovered that he used
Solution of 10 m to 1 em and
a scale of 20 m to 1 em. Find the true distance betwCen the stations.
(a) Taking M = 0, we have
s_, = mgx (21 _ x) _ O.Q75 x 9.81 x 400 (2000- 400) 0 _115 m
2AE 2 X 10'
10.2 X 2 X

'··'
84

14. The distance between two points measured


distance between them, if (a) the angle inof4.slope
in level is 30 m, (c) the slope is I
15. Find the hypotenusal allowance per chain of
aJong a slope is 126 m. Find the horizontal
between the points is 6° 30', (b) the difference

30 m length if the angle of slope is 12 o 30'.


SURVEYING

m II
tspe under a pull of 8 kg in three equal •I
16. Find the sag correction for a 30 m steel = 7.86 g. Area of cross-section of the Lape
spans of 10 m each. Weight of l cubic em
of steel Chain Surveying I;
= 0.10 sq. em.
of 65°F when lying horizontally on the ground
. iI'
17. A steel tape is 30m long at a temperature x 10-' per I
t 2 kg and the co-efficient of expansion 65
Its0 sectional area is 0.082 sq. em, its weigh tions i
three equal spans. Calculate the acruallength ber.veen the end gradua
l f. The rape is stretched over
pull 18 kg. Take £:;; 2.109 X 10 6 kg/cm 1 4.1. CHAIN TRIANGULATION 1
under the following conditions : temp. 85°F, in which only linear measurements are il
rdized on the flat and was found to be exactly 30
m Chain surveying is that type of surveying (f
18. A 30 m steel tape was standa
The temperature is suitab le for surveys of small extent on open
under no pull at 66°F. It was used in catem
ry to measu re a base of 5 bays. made in the field. This type of surveying to
pull exerted during the measurement was 10
kg. The of the boundaries of a piece of land or
during the mearurement was 92 o F and the ground to secure data for exact description

II
The specific weigh t of steel is 7.86 g/cm 3.
area of cross-section of the tape was 0.08 sq. em. take simple details.
6 2.
The principle of chain survey or Chain
Triangulation, as is sometimes called, is
a. =0.0000063 per l°Fand £=2.1 09 x 10 kglcm of a number of connected triangles, as triang
le
Find the true lenglb of the line. to provide a skeleton or framework consistin of tiS Stdes measu red in
is the only sunp e gure can be plotted from the lenijibs
errors in long chain iine? which
19. {a) What are the sources of cumulative the framework should consis t of triangles
able in chain surveying? the field. To get good results in plotting,
(b) What is the limit of accuracy obtain areas-D early equilateral as possible.
too long after chaining 5,000 ft. The
same
(c) An engineer's chain was found to be 0'6" ft. Find the correct
ng a tola.l. distan ce of 10,000 4.2. SURVEY STATIONS

I
chain was found to be 1' 0" too long after chaini (A.M.I.E. May, 1966) chain line and can be either at the
length at the commencement of cbaining. A survey station is a prominent point on the
Such statio is known as main station. Howe
ver,
lenglb to be applied when chaining on a beginning of the chain line or at the end.
n
20. Derive an expression for correction per chain gradient expressed as 1 in n. subsid iary
and (b) the here on the chain line and
regular slope in terms of (a) the slope angle
exceed subsidiary or tie station can also be selected anyw ;,,,
What is the greatest slope you wouldangleignore if d:te error from this source is not to or tie lines may be run through them.
gradie nt. li,,
1 in 1500 ? Give you answer {a) as an.
(b) as a '' ground by driving pegs if the ground is
A survey station may be marked on the
survey station can be marked or located I'
soft. However. on roads and streets etc., the
ANSWERS with respect to some pennanent reference il
by making two or preferably three tie measurements points
the lines joining the peg to the reference
2 (b) 129.34 acres
fr objects near the station. The more nearly
!he more definitely will the station be fixed.
~mcr.o::cc~ .1t ~~g~r ~ng!e~.
A diagram of lhe \I

should be inserted in the beginning o!" the ilela


I. lWU hnks survey lines with main stations numbered
8. 19.92 m note book.
9.
10.
41 em too long
180.28 chains or 5408:4 m
I 4.3. SURVEY LINE S
called main survey lines. The biggest
II. 1825 sq. m. The lines joining the main survey stations are
and the various survey .stations are planed
12. 0. 763 sq. km. of the main survey line is called the base line
has more than three straight boundaries.
13. 643 m. with reference to this. If the area to be surveyed down the
that they can be plotted by laying
14. (a) 125.19 m (b) 122.37 m (c) 122.24 m the field measurements must be so arranged
15. 0.71 m triangles as shown in Fig. 4.1 (a) or (b).
are the lines which are run in the field
16. 0.01206 m Check lines. Check lines or proof lines
length of the check line measured in the fteld
17. 30.005 rn to check the accuracy of the work. The apex
A check line may be laid by joining the
18. 30.005 rn must agree with its length on the plan. (85)
19. 10.050 ft.
20. (a) 2. w (b) I in 27.4.
87
86 SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING

of point C to be plotted. Let !here be some error in !he measuremeru of side AC so


of !he triangle to any point on
!hat c' is !he wrong position. The corresponding displacement of !he plotted position of
!he opposite side or by joining
C will depend upon the angle ACB. Fig. 4.4. {a) shows !he case when acb is a right
two points on any two sides of

~
a triangle. Each triangle ·must angle : in !his case the dis-
bave a check line. For !he frame- placement of C will be
work shown in Fig. 4.1 (a), !he nearly equal to !he error
various arrangements of !he check in !he side AC. Fig. 4.4.
lines are shown in Fig. 4.2 (a), (b) shows the case when
(b), (c) and (d) by dotted lines. ACB is 60' ; in this case /c
In Fig. 4.1 (b), !he dotted lines (a) (b) !he displacement of C will rtf;_ .. ,
show !he arrangements of check
FIG. 4.1.
be nearly 1.15 times !he -~00~...
lines for !he framework. error. In Fig. 4.4 (c), !he ·'
angle ACB is 30' ; !he dis- a b a b a

~QE;3
(b) (C)
(a)
:' ' ........ placement of C will be
/ ' ! ...... nearly t~ice the error. FIG. 4.4. WELL CONDITIONED TRIANGLES.
' Hence, to get more accurate
(a) (b) (c) (d) result, angle C must be a
right angle. If, however, !here is equal liability of error in all !he lhree sides of a triangle.
FIG. 4.2 !he best form is equilateral triangle. In any case, to get a well-proportioned or well-slwped
Tie lines. A tie line is a line which joins subsidiary or tie stations on !he main triangle, no angle should be less !han 30'.
line. The .main object of running a tie line is to take !he details of nearby objects but CONDmONS TO BE FULFILLED BY SURVEY LINES OR SURVEY STATIONS
it also serves !he purpose of a check line. The accuracy in !he location of !he objects The survey stations should be so selected that a good system of lines is obtained
depends upon the accuracy in laying the tie- line. A framework may have One or more
fulfilling !he following conditions :
tie lines depending upon the circumstances (Fig. 4.3).
(I) Survey stations must be mutually visible.
(2) Survey lines must be as few as possible so !hat the framework can be plotted
conveniently.
(3) The framework must bave one or two base lines. If one base line is used.
0

it must run along the lenglh and lhrougb !he middle of !he area. If two base lines are

~~0
~ \P o_?~.fi:~~~~":·oooo,. used, !hey must intersect in !he form of letter X.

il
(4) The Jines musr run through level ground as possiuic::.

I
1 ,"' <(_r§'_o e
(5) The main lines sho_uld form well-conditioned triangles.
I "' "' • (6) Each triangle or portion of skeleton must be provided wilh sufficient check lines .
.;--0~ (7) All the lines from which offsets are taken should be placed close to !he corresponding
0 ,.,"'"'I
e..'J"•?
........ o
........ Gil
c'
-~~
i='I
I swface fearures so as to get shan offsets.
~8) As far as possible, !he main survey lines should not pass lhrough obstacles.
(9) To avoid trespassing, !he main survey lines should fall wilhin !he boundaries
of !he propeny to be surveyed.
Land boundary 4.4. LOCATING GROUND FEATURES: OFFSETS
FIG, 4.3 An offset is !he lateral distance of an object or ground feature measured from a
ARRANGEMENTS OF SURVEY LINES survey line. By melhod of offsets, !he point or object is located by measurement of a
Let us ·take !he case of plottiog a simple triangle ABC. Let a and b represent two distance and angle (usually 90') from a point on the chain line. When !he angle of offset
points A and B correctly plotted wilh respect to each olher and c be the correct position is 90', it is called perpendicular offset [Fig. 4.5 (a), (c)] or sometimes. simply, · offser
'~
S9 II
SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING 11
88
Degree of Precision in Measuring the Offsets f
and when the angle is other

~ l__ o ~L,
Before commencing the field measurements, one should know the degree of precision
than 90', it is called an oblique
offset [Fig. 4.5 (b)]. Another
method of locating a point is
called the method of 'ties' in P-·--·-s P-·-·-·-s
to be maintained in measuring the length of the offset. This mainly depends on the scale
of survey. Normally, the limit of precision in plotting is 0.25 mm. If the scale of plotting
. I em = 2 m, 0 .25 mm on paper wdl
IS
2 0 25
X ·
. correspond to---w--= 0 .05 m on the ground. Hence,
'
l
'
~

which the distance of the point (a) Perpendicular (b) Oblique


offset offset in such a case, the offsets should be measured to the nearest 5 em. On the other hand, •I
is measured from two separate if the scale of plotting is I em= 10m, 0.25 inm on paper \viii correspon·ct to
!i
points on the chain line such it
that the three points form, as 10 X0.25 = 0.25 m on the ground. Hence the offset should be measured to the nearest
nearly as possible an equilateral 10 is likelihood of changing the scale of plotting at a later stage.
oiangle [Fig. 4.5 (d)]. The 25 em. However, if there
than to be under-accurate.
method of perpendicular offsets it is better always to be over-accurate
yl'l.
involves less measuring on the Long Offsets .,( b \
ground.
(c) Perpendicular (d) Ties
The survey work can be accurately and expeditiously
accomplished if the objects and features that are to be surveyed /~
/ I
/~
/
Offsets should be taken offset \~,
are near to the survey lines. The aim should always be to \'\
in order of their chaioages. In ..,.,.,. a c 1-
offsetting to buildings, check can
FIG. 4.5. make the offset as small as possible. Long offset may be
be made by noting the chainages largely obviated by judiciously placing the main lines of the FIG. 4.S.
at which the directions of the walls cut the survey line, as shown by dotted lines in survey near the object or by running subsidiary lines from
the main lines. Fig. 4.8 shows a well-proportioned subsidiary
Fig. 4.5 (c), (d). r· triangle abc run to locate the deep bend of the outline of the
fence. The base of the
In general, _an offset should be taken wherever the outline of an object changes.
In the case of a straight wall or boundary, an offset at each end is sufficient. To locate triangle is on the main line and bd is the check line.
irregular boundaries, sufficient number of offsets are taken at suitable interval and at such LIMITING LENGTH OF OFFSET
point where the direction suddenly changes, as shown in Fig. 4.6 (a). In the case of The allowable length of offset depends upon the degree of accuracy required, scale,
a nallah, offsets should be taken to both the sides of its width, as shown in Fig. 4.6 method of setting out the perpendicular and nature of ground. The only object is that
(b). However, in the case of regular curves with constant width, the offsets should be the error produced by taking longer lengths of offsets should not be appreciable on the
taken to the centre line only and the width should also be measured. paper.
(1) Effect of error in laying out the direction. Let us first consider the effect
~
-1 I I I I I I I I I I I
of error in laying out the perpendicular.
! ! : : ~ ! ! ! ! 1 : : .... ha~l li.i.;.. ~v i..i.~.- :J~j:.:--.. !' .
Let the offset CP be laid out from a poinL L: uu i.iu;;
(a) '-!...-
FIG. 4.6.
(b)

I and let the angle BCP be (90 •- a) where a is the error


in laying the perpendicular. Let the length CP be I. While
plotting, the point P will be plotted at P, , CP, being perpendicular
P,
p2~----------­
:

I
Taking Perpendicular Offsets to AB and of length I. Thus, the displacement of the point ''
' al
Fig. 4. 7 illustrates the procedure for finding the length
p P along the chain line is given by ''' I
and position of the perpendicular offset. The leader holds the " l sin a '' I
''''' PP,=-- em '
'' I
zero end of the tape at the point P to be located and the '' ' s I
'' '' ''
follower carries the tape box and swings the tape along the I = length of offset in meters : I
'' ' ''
'
where
' I
chain. The length 'of the offset is the shortest distance from '' s =scale (i.e. I em= s metres) •a
'' I
the object to the chain obtained by swinging the tape about '' ' ''
' Taking 0.25 mm as the limit of accuracy in plotting,
I

the object as centre. Such an offset is called swing offset. '' ''
we have ~._._.f.V_·-·-·-·lo___ .-~
The position of the offset on the chain is located by the
FIG. 4.9.
point where the arc is tangential to the chain. FIG. 4.7
91
SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING
'lO
'Yr. (c) Given the maximum error In the length of the offset, the maximum length
I sin a 0.25 ofllie offset and the scale, to lind the maximum value of a so that maximum displacement
-s-=w or I= 0.025 s e<>sec a ... (4.1)
on the paper mny not exceed 0.25 mm.
Also, displacement of the point perpendicular to the chain line is e = maximum error in measurement of offset (metres)
I-I rosa Let
P, P2 = CP, - CP,- em (on the paper) ... (4.2) PP, = e metres (given)
s
(il) Combined effect of error due to length and direction
....,p P, P, = I sin a (approx)
•' •'
(Fig. 4.10). /
•' pp, = ~ t!- + 12 sin' a Approximately (on ground)

Let P = actual position of the point .. pp, on paper=.!.~ e' + 12 sin' ex = 0.025
s
CP = true length of the offset
CP, =I= measured length of the offset Hence sin' a = ( 6.25s' - t!-) .!_ 2
... (4.5)
1002 1
CP2 = I = ploned length of the offset
From which a can be calculated.
a = angular error '-i!xample 4.1. An offset is laid out 5' from its troe direction on the field. Find
PP2 = total displacement of P A B the resulting displacement of the plotsed point on. the paper (a) in a direction parallel
in r =the accuracy in measurement of the offset FIG. 4 _10 to the chain line, (b) in a direction perpendicular to the chain line, given that the length
1 em = s metres (scale). of the offset is 20 m and the scale is 10 m to 1 em.
~ (a) Given the angulnr error, to find tbe degree of accnracy with which the le~gth Solution.

I
of offset should be measured so that the error due to both the sonrces may he equal. . . I sin a. 20 sin SQ
(a) DISplacement parallel to the cham =--em = . - 0.174 em
Displacement due to angular error = P1 P, = I sin a (nearly) s
. . th ha' I (1 - C<lS a) 20 (I
ir s em = 10 - cos 5')

I
Displacement due to linear error = (b) D!Splacement perpendicular to e c m=
= 0.0076 em {inappreciable).
Assuming both the errors equal, we get I sin a = ir
./Example 4.2. An offset is laid oUl 2' from its troe direction on the field. If the

I
or r = cosec a ... (4.3) scale of plotting is I 0 m to I em. find the maximum length of the offset so that the
If a = 3', cosec 3' = 19 = r. Hence lhe degree of accwacy in linear measurement displacement of the point on the paper may not exceed 0. 25 mm.
should be 1 in 19. . Solution
. l sin a l sin 2°
Similarly, if r = 100, ex= cosec- 1100 = 34' i.e., the offset should be laid out with = - - - = - --"- em
Displacement ~f ~~f" .ry0!nr "'!l t'h~ p<!per
. s 1u
Q..U. iiiA;WQ...,) ui. i.lCGJ.i,Y z,
This should not exceed 0.025 em.
length of tbe offset so !bat error due
}{., (b) Given the scale, to fmd the Umiting
exceed 0.25 mm I sin 2' = 0_025 .
to both the sources mny not on the paper. Hence 10
Taking p, p, = p, P and LPP, P, = 90' we have
0.025 x 10 = 7.16 m
or l = sin 2o
pp, = {2 pp 1 = {2 i
r
, on the ground.
v'Example 4.3. An offset is laid oUl I' 30 'from its troe direction on the field. Find
Hence the corresponding displacement on the paper will be equal to -f2 ir . .!..s If the degree of accuracy with which the offset should be measured so that the maximum
displacement of the point on the paper from both the sources may be equal.
this error is not to be appreciable on the paper. we have
Solution.
{2 .!...=0.025 Displacement due to angular error =lsina
rs
I
0.025 Displacement due to linear error
or I= --:;r2 rs metres ... (4.4) r

·•,
r
' 92 SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING

UneADends
93

Taking both these equal, I sin a =_I_ UneDE Uneoc lineAB ends
r 0 B
r = cosec a = cosec l o 30' = 38.20 11218
or
Hence, the offset should be measured with an accuracy of I in 39.
1624
1fo'o f-·~-~<--,.
171.30
.fil!xample 4.4. An offset is measured with an accuracy of 1 in 40. If the scale of 17.21
158.10
plotting is I em = 20 m, find the limiting length of the offset so· thai the displacement of
153.80
the point on the paper from both sources of error may not exceed 0. 25 mm. 15.86.
Solution 140.00
-f2I 14.53 8.12 135.00
The total displacement of the paper = - · - em
rs 130~~·
127.30 -a. .
But this is not to exceed 0.025 em. 123.50
1~·00
120.00 3.2 ~
6.1 ::,..~
{21 .10
Hence - - = 0.025 UneT.!!.L-,.

or
" I= o~w; X 40 X 20 = 14.14 m "'•-:q; cwr~~~tlon
T,
3.60,92.70
_fixample 4.5. The length of an offset is 16 m and is measured with a 11UJXimum 3.10 84.50
error of 0. 2 m. Find rhe maximum permissible error in laying off the direction of the Tre line
75.10
T1T2
offset so thai the 11UJXimum displacement may not exceed 0. 25 mm on the plan drawn to a scale /
70.00
of Icm=40m.
_45.1
Solution
• 2 a=-
sm 2
6.25s~ -e2
I (-
1 100 2
l Bali Roae1
42·
4m
55.90
50.50
45.60

(~~2 (40) 1~ ~ 0.96 = 0.0612


1
sin a= ..J
2 2
- (0.2) =
16 36.00
or a=3 o 30'·.
25.40
4.5. FIELD BOOK
The book in which the chain or tape measurements are entered is called the field
bt;c_l· fr ::- ~~ ~-hlcng book of size s.b01Jt ::!0 em Y ~2 em and opem kngt.i.·,vise. ~h: :~i.a[:::
requirements of the field book are that it should contain good quality stout opaque paper.
it should be well·bound and of a size convenient for the pccket. The · chain line may
'· . ':<~o
" 6'..c-

. ,.
.:1; Une AB begins
be represented either by a single line or by two lines spaced about 1,J; to 2 em apart,
.•.
·~! -·
-:
ruled down the middle of each page. The double line field book (Fig. 4.12) is most commonly
Une AD 5tarta
used for ordinary work, the distance along the chain being entered between the two lines it;
;;.· FIG. 4.12. DOUBLE LINE BOOKING.
of the page. Single line field book (Fig. 4.11) is used for a comparatively large scale
and most detailed dimension work. A chain line is started from the bottom of the page
,,., FIG. 4.tl. SINGLE LINE BOOKING.

tlj At the beginning of a particular chain survey, the following details must be given:
and works upwards. All distances along the chain line are entered in the space between i;t:
the two ruled lines while the offsets are entered either to the left or to the right of ,,.., (1) Date of survey and names of surveyors
the chain line, as the case may be. Offsets are entered in the order they appear at the ' (if) General sketch of the layout of survey lines
(iii) Details of survey lines
_.,...~

chain line. As the various details within offsetting distances are reached, they are sketched
and entered as shown in Fig. 4.11 and Fig. 4.12. Every chain line must be staned from (iv) Page index of survey lines
a fresh page. All the pages must be machine numbered. (v) Location sketches of survey stations.
95
94 SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING

At the starting of a chain or survey lines, the following details should be given: (c) Running Survey Unes. After having com-
(I) Name of the line (say, AB) pleted the preliminary work, the chaining may be G;ree b~.~
(il) Name of the station marked either by an oval or by a triangle.
started from the base line. The work in running a \\5.38m ..........
(iii) Bearing of the line (if measured)
survey line is two-fold : (I) to chain the line, and
(il) to locate the adjacent details. Offsets should be
''
,~----a.ssm
-- -
(iv) Details of any other line meeting at the starting point of the survey line. taken in order of their chainages. To do this, the
4.6. FIELD WORK chain is stretched along the line oti the ground. Offsets /
Equipment. The foDowing is the list of equipment required for chain survey or chain are then measused. After having assused that no offset '
/' 6.55m
triangulation : has been omitted, the chain must be pulled forward. /
(1) A 20 m chain The process of chaining and offsetting is repeated (V' Elec. pole
(il) 10 arrows
until the end of the -line is reached. The distances
along the surVey line at which fences, streants, roads, FIG. 4.13.
(iit) Ranging rods and offset rods
etc., and intersected by it must also be recorded.
(iv) A tape (10 m or 20 m length)
(v) An instrument for setting right angles : say a cross staff or optical square 4.7. INSTRUMENTS FOR SETIING OUT RIGHT ANGLES
(VI) Field book, pencil etc., for no1e-keeping There are several types of instruments used to set out a right angle to a chain line,
(vit) Plumb bob the most CODIIDOD being (I) cross staff (il) optical square (iii) prism square (iv) site square.
(viit) Pegs, wooden hammer, chalks, etc. (1) CROSS STAFF
A chain survey may be done in the following steps : The sintplest instrument used for setting om right angles is a cross staff. It consists
(a) Reconnaissance (b) Marking and fixing survey stations (c) Running survey lines. of either a frame or box with two pairs of venical slits and is mounted on a pole shod
Reconnaissance. The first principle of any type of surveying is to work from
(a)
for fixing in the ground. The CODIIDOn forms of cross staff are (a) open cross staff (b)
whole to part. Before starting the actual survey measurements, the surveyor should walk French cross staff (c) adjustable cross staff.

I
around the area to fix best positions of survey lines and survey stations. During reconnaissance, (a) Open Cross Staff. Fig. 4.14. (a) shows an open cross staff. It is provided
a reference sketch of the ground should be prepared and general arrangement of lines, with two pairs of vertical slits giving two lines of sights at right angles to each o!her.
principal features such as buildings, roads etc. should be shown. Before selecting the stations, ~ The cross staff is set up at a point
the surveyor should examine the intervisibility of stations and should nole the positions on the line from which the right angle

1Rmrm
of buildings, roads, streants etc. He should also investigale various difficulties that may is to run, and is !hen turned until one
arise and think of their solution. line of sight passes through the ranging
(b) Marking and Fixing Survey Stations. The requirements for selection of survey pole at the. end of the survey line. The
.::r~tirm5: h1.1v~ ~!r~i.ldv ~" !'fi<~~~!'lser! ~e-r ~.,.,,:~'! ~t"'lerter! the survey ~t!:!rk•n'l fhev <!h!'u!d line of sight through the other two vanes
i
A.

be marked to enabie them to be easily discovered during the progr~ of the s...;ey. The will be a line at right angles to !he

1rli
following are some of the methods of marking the stations : -~ sunrey line and a ranging rod may be
• established in that direction. If, however,
(1) In soft ground, wooden pegs may be driven, leaving a small projection above
it is to be used to take offsets, it is
the ground. The name of the station may be written on the top.
held vertically on the chain line at a
(it) Nails or spikes may be used in the case of roads or streets. They should be point where the foot of the offsets is
flush with the pavement. FIG. 4.14. VARIOUS FORMS OF CROSS SfAFF.
likely to occur. It is then turned so
(iit) In hard ground, a portion may be dug and filled with cement mortar etc. that one line of sight passes through
(iv) For a station to be used for a very long time, a stone of any standard shape the ranging rod fixed at the end of the survey line. Looking through the other pair of
may be embedded in the ground and fixed with mortar etc. On the lop of the stone, slits, it is seen if the point to which· the offset is to be taken is bisected. If not, the
deScription of the station etc. may be written. cross staff is moved backward or forward till the line of sight· also passes through the
Whenever possible, a survey station must be fixed with reference to two or three point.
permanent objects and a .reference or location sketch should be drawn in the field boo~. (b) French Cross Staff. Fig. 4.14 (b) shows a French cross staff. If consists of
Fig. 4.13 shows a typical locaiion sketch for a survey station. a hollow octagonal box. Vertical sighting slits are cut in !he middle of each face, such

ii<'
CHAIN SURVEYL'IG
w l
I
96 SURVEYING
'
direction roughly perpendicular to the chain line, to move tili the two images described
that the lines between the centres of opposite slits make angles of 45° with each other.
It is possible, therefore, to set out angles of either 45° or 90 o with this instrument. above coincide.
(c) Adjustable Cross Staff. The adjustable cross staff [Fig. 4.14 (c)] consists of
Testing the Optical Square (Fig. 4.16) l
{
(I) Hold the instrument in hand at any intennediate point C on AB, sigbt a pole l
two cylinders of equal diameter placed one on top of the other. Both· are. provided with \
held at A and direct an assistant to fix a ranging rod at a. such that the images of
sigbting slits. The upper box carries a vernier and can be rotated relatively to the lower
by a circular rack and pirtion arrangement actuated by a milled headed screw. The lower the ranging rods at a and A c0incide in the instrument. A c 6 ~
~~
box is graduated to degrees and sub-divisions. It is, therefore, possible to set out any (il) Tum round to face B and sigbt the ranging rod at a.
angle with the help of this instrument. If the image of the ranging rod at B coincides with the image of I'
(u) OPTICAL SQUARE ranging rod at a, the instrument is in adjusnnent.
Optical squ~e is somewhat more convenient and accurate instrument than the Cross (iii) If not, direct the assistant to move to a new position
staff for setting out a line at rigbt angles to another line. Fig. 4.15 (a) illustrates the b so that both the iruages coincide. Mark a point d on the ground
principle on which it works. ...,c ntid-way between a and b. Fix a ranging rod at d. a d b n
It consists of a circular box with ~"'7 (iv) Tum the adjustable mirror till the iruage of the ranging ::r
~!

Ja Effi
three slits at E, F and G. In line with - --:; ' rod at d coincide with the iruage of the ranging rod at B. Repeat FIG. 4.16

the openings E and G, a glass silvered the test till correct.


at the top and unsilvered at the bottom, (E "'2\ From a (iil) PRISM SQUARE
The prism square shown in Fig. 4.17 works on the same principle as that of optical
is fixed facing the opening E. Opposite ~ 1 G
to the opening F, a silvered glass is fixed square. It is a more modem and precise insuument and is used in a similar manner.
at A making an angle of 45° t? the previous It has the merit that no adjusnnent is required since the angle between the reflecting surfaces
glass. A ray from tho rangmg rod at Q (i.e. 45°) carmot vary. Fig. 4.18 shows a combined prism square as well as line ranger.
passes through the lower unsilvered portion F a
of the mirror at B, and is seen directly
by eye at the slit E. Another ray from • From p
the object at P is received by the mirror
at A and is reflected towards the mirror (a) (b)
at B which reflects it towards the eye. FIG. 4.15. OPTICAL SQUARE.
Thus, the images of P and Q are visible
at B. If both the iruages are in the same vertical line as shown in Fig. 4.14 (b), the
line PD and QD will be at rigbt angles to each other.
L·:t :he .r:::.~· PA r.;,~;U~~ ~ "-iig~c ..... ..vill.1 . .;,•. :. ulli:iVi: at .ti, ~-· -" -2: ii
•:
LACB=45° or LABC = 180 o- (45° +a)= 135°- a I b, '
By law of reflection
Hence
LEBb, = LABC = 135° - a
LABE = 180° - 2(135° - a) = 2a - 90° ... (1)
I p
Also LDAB = 180°- 2a ... (il)
From 1:!. ABD ,.LADB = 180°- (2a- 90°)- (I80°- 2a) FIG. 4.18. COMBINED PRISM SQUARE AND
FIG. 4.17. PRISM SQUARE.
= 180°- 2a + 90°- 180° +2a = 90° UNE RANGER.
Thus, if the images of P and Q lie in the same vertical line, as shown in Fig. (iv) SITE SQUARE (Fig. 4.19)
4.14 (b), the line PD and QD will be at right angles to each other. A site square. designed for setting out straigbt lines and offset lines at 90 o, consists of
To set a right angle. To set a rigbt angle on a survey line, the instrument is a cylindrical metal case containing two telescopes set at 90 o to each other, a fine sening
held on the line with its centre on the point at witich perpendicular is erected. The slits screw near the base, a circular spirit levei at the top and a knurled ring at the base.
F and G are directed towards the ranging rod fixed at the end of the line. The surveyor It is used in conjunction with a datum rod screwed into the base of the instrument.
(holding the instrument) then directs person, holding a ranging rod and stationing in a_ ·

I
98 SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING ""
(B) To Drop a Perpendleular to a Chain Line from a Point outside it : .
1 Telescopes Let it be required to drop a perpendicular to a chain line AB from a point D outside
2 Clamp it.
3 Tripod (•) First method [Fig. 4.21 (a)]. Select any point E on the line. With D as centre
4 Cylindrical case and DE as radius, draw an arc to cut the chain line in F. Bisect EF at C. CD will
5 Fine setting screw
be petpendicular to AB.
5
(il) Second method [Fig. 4.21 (b)]. Select any point E on !he line. Join ED and
6 Knurled ring
bisect it at F. With F as centre and EF or FD as radius, draw an arc to cut the chain
7 Datum rod
line in C. CD will be perpendicular to !he chain line.
8 Clamp arm
(u•) Third method [Fig. 4.21 (c)]. Select any point E on !he line. With E as centre
and ED as radius, draw an arc to cut the chain line in F. Measure FD and FE. Obtain

FIG. 4.19. THE SITE SQUARE. D D

~ .L.D.
4.8. BASIC PROBLEMS IN CHAINING
(A) To Erect a Perpendicular to a Chain Line from a Point on it :
The method of establishing perpendiculars wilh !he tape are based on familiar geomenic
constructions. The following are some of !he melhods most commonly used. The illustrations
A E "·c-· F B
(b) (c)
given are for a 10 m tape. However, a 20 m tape may also be used. (a)

(1) The 3-4·5 method. Let it be required to erect a petpendicular to !he chain line FIG. 4.2!
at a point C in it [Fig. 4.10 (a)]. Establish a point E at a distance of 3 m from C.
Put !he 0 end of !he tape (10 m long) at E and !he 10 m end at C. The 5 m and !he point C on !he line by making FC = ;~~. Join C and D. CD will be petpendicular
6 m marks are brougbt togelher to form a loop of I m. The tape is now stretched tight :[:
by fastening !he ends E aod C. The point D is !bus established. Angle DCE will be to the chain line.
90". One person can set out a right angle by this melhod. (C) To run a Parallel to Chain Line througb a given Point :
D D Let it be required to run a parallel to a chain line AB through a given point C.

~~ 11) (I) First method [Fig. 4.22 (b)]. Through C, drop a perpendicular CE to !he chain

\1.
5

A l+3m+l
4m

li"
B A
A
1
E C
! ~F B Aee3c a
\J/
line. Measure CE. Select any olher point F on line and erect a perpendicular FD. Make
FD = EC. Join C and D.
(U) Second meihod _[fig. 4.22 (a)j. Selecl any po1ul F on the chain line;. Jo~u CF
and bisect at G. Select any other point E on the chain line. Join EG and prolong it to
E c D such !hat EG = GD. Join C and D.
(a) (b) (c) (iii) Third method [Fig. 4.22 (c)]. Select any point G outside !he chain line and
FIG. 4.20. away from C (but to !he saroe side of it). Join GC and prolong it to meet !he chain
(il) Second metlwd [Fig.4.20 (b)]. Select E and F equidistant from C. Hold !he G
'
:rero end of !he tape at E, and 10 m end at F. Pick up 5 m mark, stretch !he tape
tight aod establish D. Join DC.
c 0
'
c/\o
• • .
'
•• •• .
X
(w) Third method [Fig. 4.20 (c)]. Select any point F outside !he chain, preferably '' ••
'' •
• :' •• .
·at 5 m distance from C. Hold !he 5 m mark at F and zero mark at C, and wilh F '' '' •'
.as centre draw an arc to cut !he line at E. Join EF and produce it to D such !hat
'' '• •' •
••
' ' '
EF= FD = 5 m. A E F B FB A E ~----- FB
(a) (b) (c)
Thus, point D will lie at !he 10 m mark of tape laid. along EF wilh its zero eod
at E. Join DC. FIG. 4.22
~
101
SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING
100
B (ii)When it is not possible to chain round the obstacle, e.g. a river.
line in E. With G as centre and GE as radius, draw A
.J:L ----
Case (I): Following are the chief methods (Fig. 4.25).
~

an arc to cut. AB in F. Join GF and make


~ c
~
\ C D
GD = GC. Join C and D. I

~
\

~?L>£1i»loo·
II '\ I I
(C) To run a Parallel to a giveo Inaccessible
---f<AA~
I \ I I
I I
Line through a Giveo Point : \ \
I A~B ·
I \ /
Let AB be the given inaccessible line and C be I \ I I
(c)
(a) (b)
the given point through which the parallel is to be drawn '' I

(Fig. 4.23). c

~~.A
Select any pointE in line with A and C. Similarly, I
.l
select any other convenient point F. Join E and F. Through T
C, draw a line CG parallel to AF. Through G, draw G______ FI
~
E __
a line GD parallel to BF, cutting BE in D. CD will
then be the required line. D D C
FIG. 4.23 (d) (e) (fj

4.9. OBSTACLES IN CHAINING FIG. 4.25. OBSTACLES TO CHAINING.


between two points
Obstacles to chaining prevent chainman from measuring directly perpendiculars
and give rise to a set of problems in which distances are found by indirect measurements. Method (a) : Select two points A and B on either side. Set out equal·
Obstacles to chaining are of three kinds : AC and BD. Measure CD; then CD= AB [Fig. 4.25 (a)].
AC and BC [Fig.
(a) Obstacles 10 ranging Method (b) : Set out AC perpendicular to the chain line. Measure
AB = ..J BC'- AC' .
{b) Obstacles to chaining 4.25 (b)]. The length AB is calculated from the relation ;J'
i
(c) Obstacles to both chaining and ranging. Method (c) : By optical square or cross staff. find a point
C which subtends
(a) OBSTACLE TO RANGING BUT NOT CHAIN
ING AB is calculated from
90° with A and B. Measure AC and BC [Fig.4.25 (c)]. The length
quite common except
This type of obstacle, in which the ends are not intervisible, is the relation : AB = ..J Ac' + BC'
in flat country. There may be two cases of this obstacle .
in the same line.
on the line. Method (d) : Select two points C and D to both sides of A and
(!) Both ends of the line may be visible from intermediate points BD [Fig. 4.25 (d)]. Let angle BCD be equal to 9.
Measure AC, AD, BC and

I
on the line
(il) Both ends of the line may not be visible from intermediate points 2 2
From t:. BCD, Brl = BC + CD - 2BC x CD cos 9
(Fig. 4.24).
Case (!) : Method of reciprocal ranging BC 2 + CD'-B D' (j"\
.~"';~ q, -
w
3.3 .r;-'!J' !.Jt: l.l.S~~- B 2 BC: X

II
I
M
-· 0

BC' + AC' -AB


2
CCI1ie (ii) : In Fig. 4.24, let AB be the ... (ii)
line in which A and B are not visible from intermediate Similarly from t:. BCA, cosS- 2BCxA C
point on it. Through A, draw a random line AB 1
Equating (!) and (il) and solving for AB ·we get
in any convenient direction but as nearly towards
B as possible. The point B1 should be so chosen A C D B ~ (BC X AD) + (BD' X AC) - (AC X AD)
AB = . CD
thar (I) B, is visible from B and (il) BB, is per- FIG. 4.24 f making AE = EC.
pendicu lar to lhe random line. Measure BB 1 • Select Method (e) : Select any point E and range C in line with AE,
C and D1 D on it. = ED. Measure CD ; then AB =CD [Fig. 4.25 (e)].
points C1 antl D 1 on the random line and erect perpendicular C1 Range D in line with BE and make BE
. AE and BE. Mark C and
AC AD, and prolong. Method if) : Select any suitable point E and measure
Make CC, = - · . BB, and DD, = - . BB,. Jom C and D.
AB 1 AB, CD ; then
D on AE and BE such that CE = AE and DE= BE. Measuren n
(b) OBSTACLE TO CHAINING BUT NOT, RANGING
AB = n . CD. [Fig. 4.25 (f)].
There may be two cases of !his obstacle :
a pond, hedge etc.
(!) When it is possible to chain round the obstacle, i.e.
103
102 SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING
0

c
lr to any convenient point D. At D,

~
Case (II) : (Fig. 4.26)
Method (a) : Select point B on one side and A and C on the other side. Erect set a right angle DE such that
AD and CE as perpendiculars to AB and range B. D and E in one line. Measure AC, DE= DB. Chocse another point F on
AD and CE [Fig. 4.26 (a)]. If a line DF is drawn parallel to AB, coning CE in F DE such that DE = DC. With F as
centre and AB as radius, draw an arc. B A G E
perpendicularly, then triangles ABD and FDE will be similar.
AB DF With E as centre, draw another .arc (a) (b)

AD= FE of the same radius to cut the previous


arc in G. Join GE which will be in
But FE= CE- CF = CE- AD, andDF=AC.
range with the chain line Measure
AB AC . ACxAD CF [Fig. 4.27 (b)]. Then AG = CF.
AD - CE _ AD From which AB - CE _AD
Method (c) : Select two points
Method (b) : Erect a perpendicular AC and bisect it at D. Erect perpendicular CE A and B on the chain line and construct
ai C and range E in line with BD. Measure CE [Fig. 4.26 (b)]. Then AB = CE. an equilateral triangle ABE by swinging 'K
' ' s·' ' arcs. Join AE and produce it to any

=k'' ~ ~ ~
I,
·A--
-·, point F. ·On AF, choose any point H
and construct an equilateral triangle
F
(c) (d)

:' !''

1r ir
-\ FIG. 4.27. OBSTACLES TO CHAINING.
~ FHK. Join F and K and produce it

Ai o~C~ . '<;'
to D such that FD=FA. Chocse a point
G on FD and construct an equilateral triangle CDG. The direction CD is ifi range with
·the chain line [Fig. 4.27 (c)]. The length BC is given by
. F
I i E
BC =AD- AB- CD= AF- AB- CD
i
(a) (b) (c)
Method (d) : Select two points A and B on the chain line and set a line CBD
at any angle. Join A and C and produce it to F such that AF = n . AC. Similarly join
FIG. 4.26. OBSTACLES TO CHAINING. A and D and produce it to G such that AG = n. AD. Join F and G and mark point
Method (c) : Erect a perpendicular AC at A and chocse any convenient point C. E on it such that FE = n . BC. Similarly, produce AF and AG to H and K re>pectively
With the help of an optical square, fix a point D on the chain line in such a way that such that AH=n' .AC and AK=n' .AD. Join Hand K and mark· I on it in such a
BCD is a right angle [Fig. 4.26 (c)]. Measure AC and AD. Triangles ABC and DAC way that HJ = n' . CB. Join EJ, which will be in range with chain line. The obstructed
AB AC distance BE is given by ,!Fig.4.27 (d)) :
are similar. Hence Therefore, AB = AC'
AC =AD AD BE=AE-AB But AE=". AB
Method (d) : Fix poim C in such a way that it subtends 90° with AB. Range J, BE= n. AB-AB = (n- l)AB.
D in. line with AC and make AD= AC. At D. erect a perpendicular DE to cut the line
in E [Fig. 4.26 (d)]. Then AB = AE.
(c) OBSTACLES TO BOTH CHAINING AND RANGING
J Example 4.6. To continue a survey line AB past an obstacle, a line BC 200 metres
long was set out perpendicular to AB, and from C angles BCD and BCE were sec our
at 600 and 45° respectively. Detennine the lengths which must be chained off along CD
and .CE in order thai ED may be in AB produced. Also, c
A building is the typical example of this type of obstacle. The problem lies in prolonging
~I(; detemtine the obstructed length BE.
the line beyond the obstacle and detennining the distance across it. The following are :;.
some of the methods (Fig. 4.27). Solution. (Fig. 4.28).
Method (a) : Choose two points A and B to one side and erect perpendiculars AC L ABC is 90 o

and BD of equal length. Join CD and prolong it past the obstacle. Cbocse two points From t. BCD, CD = BC sec 60° = 200 x 2 = 400 m.
E and F on CD and erect perpendiculars EG and FH equal to that of AC (or BD). Join From tJ. BCE, and CE = BC sec 45° = 200 x 1.4142
GH and prolong it. Measure DE. Evidently, BG=DE [Fig. 4.27 (a)]. 90"
= 282.84 m. 0
Method (b) : Select a poim A and erect a perpendicular AC of any convenient length. A B
BE= BC tan 45° =200 x I =200 m.
Select another poim B on the chain line such that AB = AC. Join B and C and prolong FIG. 4.28
,.-
~'
104/ SURVEYING CHAIN SURVEYING

CB BE CB 60
lOS

Example 4.7. In_,passing an obstacle in the form of a B


or -=c=lJo::+-::BH== = HG + GD
06
CB+ 80 = 40 + 60 = '
pond, stations~ and D; on the main line,.,;rere take~j..,~n the
or

opposite sides of the pond. On the left of''li}r g line AK, 200 .. CB=0.6 CB+48 or C8=12 0m
m long was laid down and a second b'ne ~'·· 250 I!' long, 4.10. CROSS STAFF SURVEY
was ranged on the rig/u of AD, the points B, if and C ·being determine its
in the same straig/u line. BD and DC were then chaJ'ned and Cross staff survey is done to locate the boundaries of a field and to
through the centre of the area whicb is divided into a number
found to be 125 m and 150 m respectively. Find the length c area. A chain line is run
s.
order of their chainage
of AD. FIG. 4.29 of triangles and trapezoids. The offsets to the boundary are taken in
chain, tape, arrows and a cross staff.
Solution . (Fig. 4.29). In ll. ABC, Let L AQJ= 8 The instruments required for cross staff survey are
After the field work ~ over, the survey is plotted to a suitable scale.
AC = 250 m ; AB = 200 m ; BC = BD +DC= 125 + 150 = 275 m calculate
Example 4.10. Plot the following cross staff survey of a field ABCDEFG and
2 2 2 2
Now, s 8 = AC' + CB'- AB _ (250) + (275) - (200) = 9.813 = O 7137 its area [Fig. 4.32 (a)].
co 2 A c X CB 2 X 250 X 275 13.75 .
From tl.ADC, AD'= AC' +CD'- 2 AC. CD cos 8 750 Io
2 C
= (250) +(!50) - 2(250) (J50) X 0.7!37 = 31474.5
2 650 210 E

Hence
Example 4.8.
AD= 177.41 m.
A survey line BAC crosses a river, A and
C180l4 90l ~
I 5 : 6 l 7
C being on the near and distant banks respectively. Standing at --·.d_·--f ·-~D
D, a point 50 metres measured perpendicularly to AB from A, the
i
l~ 300 1250 F A4t·_j~~--
2 3 4 1 I
l
bearings of C and B are 320 • and 230 • respectively, AB being .~~'. 5 : -::= a tso I tso I l
25 metres. Find the widJh of the river.
., ' '' ''
'-.. ']

~
Solution. (Fig. 4.30), too ISO G
"-
In ll.ABD ,AB=2 5m; AD=50 m ~A F
25 0.5 (b)
tan LBDA = = or LBDA = 26' 34' (a)
50 B
LBDC = 320' - 230' = 90' and LADC = 90' - 26' 34' = 63' 26' FIG. 4.30 PIG. 4.32
26' =100 m the area are
Again. from ll. ADC, CA =AD tan ADC =50 tan 63' Solution. Fig 4.32 (b) sbows the field ABCDEFG. The _calculations for
and C. and
: Example 4.9. A survey line ABC cuts the banks of a river at B give11 i!! the table helow ·
set out roughly parallel ro the
ro de<emune rhe aistance BC, a line BE, 60 m long was
river. A point D was then found in CE produce d and middle point F of DB derermin ed. I S.No.l Figure Chainage Base Offseu Mean I Arra
rnr'J
1 (m) (m) (m) (m)
I
EF was then produced to G, making FG equal to EF,
line in H. GH and HB were found to be 40 and 80 metres
and DG produce d to cut the survey
I I. AjG 0 & 100 100 0 & so 2S 2.SOO

long respe~rively, :ind the distance from B to C . ~)· ::= 2. jGFm 100 & 300 200 so & 2SO !SO 30,000
Solullon. (F1g. 4.31) . \ 350 250 & 210 230 80,SOO
3. mFEP 300 & 650
In BEDG, BF = FD and GF =FE 650 & 750 100 210 & 0 lOS IO,SOO
4. pED
14.400
Hence BEDG is a parallelogram. s. ABk 0 & 180 180 0 & 160 80 '

170 52.700
Hence GD =BE= 60 m 6. BknC 180 & 490 310 160 & 180
180 & 0 90 23.400
HD =HG+ GD =40 + 60 =100m 7. CnD 490 &750 260
Total 214.000 J
From similar triangles CHD and CBE, we get
2
CB BE AI . . Area of Field= 214000 m = 21.4 hectares.
CH= HD
FIG. 4.31

~su'
106

4.11. PWTIING A CHAIN SURVEY


Generally, the scale of plotting a survey is decided before the survey is started.
In general, the scale depends on the purpose of survey, the extent of survey and the
SURVEYING
CHAIN SURVEYING

having zero mark in the mid-


dle. The zero of the long
scale is kept .in !inc '':'ith
the zero of the cham hne.
[§] rna
~ * ~
[J]
--._,___
107 'i

finances available. Chainages are then marked


O•m Streams and Pond
The plan must be so oriented on the sheet that the north side of the survey lies against the working edge of WalerFaU Forn

towards the top of the sheet and it is centrally placed. The way to achieve this, is to the offset scale and the offsets

~ ~rn
first plot the skeleton on a tracing paper and rotate it on the drawing paper. After having are measured along its edge.
oriented it suitably, the points may be pricked through. To begin with. base line is first Thus, the offsets can be plot- *'if.*
plotted. The other' trian- ted to both the sides of the Jf*if.
gles are then laid by in- TTTT line. )f. *'if.
--~­
Board Fence
tersection of arcs. Each Stone Fence Telt Line Different features on ~ •..
--*""~~~----
triangle must be verified (Chain Une)
Balbed Wire
f!IIQI:O: I'+»Q
the ground are represented Level Crossing Pine Tree Church
""""
by measuring the check by different symbols. Figs.
------------· Power LJne

(\.~~·~~::x~ ~
~
Haclge (Green)
~125
Pipe Railing
line on the plan and com- 4.33 and 4.34 shows some
Boundaries Fence Fence & Hedge Lines
paring it with its meas- convenJional symbols com- T.B.M_ .;.
ured length in the field. . .:·'
~
-----or::::::: monly used.
If the discrepancy is not Path Single Una
.,
within the limits. meas- -----------·
-----------·
G,T_S.
Bench Marks ~~
Unfenced Road Aetuse Heap Sand PI! Rocks
urements may be taken
again. If it is less, the
.c~ndoe TTTTI I I I
FIG. 4.34. CONVENTIONAL SYMBOLS.
t
~
Fenced Road
Double Line r!
error may be adjusted
Road and Path Railway Embankmenl Cu11ing PROBLEMS
suitably.

~....
After having
~~

~~
,,•• tJ,,, ,,,,,,,,, 1. Explain the principle on which chain survey is based.
drawn the skeleton con- -li
,,,,11,,, ,,,,h,,, 2. Explain, with neat diagrams the construction and working of the following
·~•I
~ ~
b
sisting a nwnber of tri-
,,,,h,,, ,,,,,,,,,
angles, offsets may be (a) Optical square (b) Prism square (c) Cross staff. '"
plotted. There are two ~ ~ t ,,,,11,,, ·'''"''• 3. What are the insliUIDents used in chain surveying ? How is a chain survey executed in
methods of plotting the
offsets. In the first
DeciUuous Tr~s Evergreen Trees Rough Pastures Marsh lhe field ?
d. Whar is a well conditil)mll triangle ? Why is it necessary ,., use well-c:nnditioned triang:les.?
:i
methM. !he ('halmtges of ..
the offsets are marked on I WI-I ~d i 5. (a) Explain clearly the principle of chain surveying. ,i
'
the chain line and per- Hous~

"(( (b) How would you orient in direction a chain survey plot on the drawing sheet.
~";~ I
I
. . [J
pendicular to the chain
(Small Shed (c) Set out clearly the precautions a surveyor should observe in booking the field work of

I
line are erected with the 15 (A.M.l.E.)
Scale) U>ko a chain survey.
help of a set-square. In Cultivated land Buildings River, Lake Conlours 6. Illustrate any four of the following by neat line diagrams (explanation and description not
the othc. method, the required) :
~

~
plotting is done with the
help of, an offset scale. =IIH!H!HIHI=
Fairy r
0Triangulation
(a) Permaneru reference of a survey station. (b) ConsUllction and working of eilher an optical
square or a prism square. (c) Melhods of checking the triangle of a chain survey. (d) Methods
A long scale is kept par- of setting out a chain line perpendicular to a given chain line and passing through a given point
allel to the chain line and 'r------{
,... ......" I :::::2:.L: I I r,.,.,,. 8 laying outside the latter. (e) The prismatic reading arrangement in a prismatic compass.
a distance equal to half Tunnel L__J (/) Map conventional signs for a meralled road, a hedge with fence, a tram line. a house
Brfrlges C;mal Lock SlalfC"~ and a rivule<. (A.M.l.E.)
the length of the offset
scale. The offset scale 7. (a) What factors should be cons!dered in deciding the stations of a chain survey ?
coJ]si:;ts of a small scale FIG. 4.33. CONVENTIONAL SYMBOLS.

.,
108
(b) What detailed instructions would you give oo a fresh trainee surveyor regarding the care
and use of his field book for recording survey measurements?
8. Explain !he following rerms : (a) Base line (b) Check line (c) Tie line (d) Swing offset
(e) Oblique offset IJ) Random line.
SURVEYING

m
9. Explain how will you continue chaining past the following obstacles
(a) a pond (b) a river (c) a hill (d) a Ia!! building. The Compass
10. Explain Various methods for determining the width of a river.
11. Find the maximum length of an offset so that the displacement of a point on the paper
should not exceed 0.25 mm, given that the offset was laid out 3° from its true direction and the
scale was 20 m to 1 em. 5.1. INTRODUCTION
12. To what accuracy should the Qffset be measured if the angular error in laying out lhe Chain surveyn;g can be used when the area to be surveyed is comparatively small
direction is 4° so that the maximum displacement of the point on the paper from one source of and is fairly flat. However, when large areas are involved, methods of chain surveying
error may be same as that from the other source. a/one are not sufficieii( and conveniem. In such cases, it becomes essential ro use some

~
13. Find lhe maximum length of offset so that displacement of the Point on the paper from sort of insUlllD.erit which enables arigles or direcriOris of the survey lines ro be observed.
bolb sources of error should not exceed 0.25 mm, given that the offset is measured with an accUracy In engineering practice, following are the instruments used for such measuremems :
of 1 in SO and scale is I em = 8 m.
14. Find the maximum permissible error in laying off lhe direction of offset so that the maximum
(a) Instruments for the direct measuremeJU of directions :
(i) Surveyor's Compass
i'
displacement may not exceed 0.25 mm on the paper, given that the length of the offset is 10 metres,
the scale is 20 m to. 1 em and the maximum error in the length of the offset is 0.3 m. (il) Prismatic Compass
~I(

15. A main line of a survey crosses a river about 25 m wide. To find the gap in lhe (b) Instruments for measurements of angles
line, stations A and B are established on lhe opposite banks of lhe river and a perpendicular AC.
60 m long is set out at A. If the bearings of AG and and CB are 30° and 270° respectively, (1) Sextant ·
and the chainage at A is 285.1 m, find the chainage at B. (ii) Theodolite . J . - _,.

16. A chain line ABC crosses a river, B and C being on the near and distant banks respectively. Traverse Survey. Traversing is that type of survey in which a number of connected
The respective bearings of C and A taken at D. a point 60 m measured at right angles to AB survey lines ·rann the framework and me directionS' and lengths of the survey line are
from B are 280° and 190°, AB being 32 m. Find the width of the river. measured with the help of an angle (or direction) measuring instrument and a tape (or l'
17. In passing an obstacle in the forin of a pond, stations A and D, on the main line, chain) respectively. ·When the lineS fonn a circuit which ends' at the starting point.· it is
were taken on the opposite sides of the pond. On the left of AD, a line AB, 225 m long was known as a closed lraverse. If the circuit ends elsewhere, ·it~ is said to be an open traverse.
laid down, and a second line AC, 275 m long, was ranged on the right of AD, lhe points B, The various methods of traversing have been dealt with in detail in Chapter 1.
D and C being in the same straight line. BD and DC were then chained and found to be 125 TTnjfc: f'f A!lgle Measurement . .A.n angle is rhe difference in directions of tw0 intersecriny
m and 1~7 5 m r~ecrivel~· Finr! ~h~ '~!"!gr!"o ,...f 1n
18. (A) What are the conventional signs used to denote the following ; (1) road, (i1) railway double
line. (iii) cemetery. (iv) railway bridge, and (v) canal with lock ?
(b) Differentiate between a Gunter's chain and an Engineer's chain. State relative advantages
of each. (A.M.l.E. May. 1966)
lines. There are three popular systems of angular measurement
(a) Sexagesimal System : I Circumference
I degree
l minute
= 360°(degrees of arc)
= 60'tminures of "arc)
= 60" (second of arc)
I
19. B and C are two points on lhe opposite banks of a river along a chain line ABC which (b) Centesimal System : l circumference = 400' (grads)
crosses the river at right angles to the bank. From a point P which is 150 ft. from B along the
~·; grad = IOO' (centigrads)
baok, !he bearing of A is 215" 30' and !he beariog of C is 305° 30' If !he Ienglh AB is 200 cendgrad =100~~ (centicentigrads)
ft., find Ihe widlh of !he river. (A.M.l.E. May 1966)
circumference = 24h (hours of time)
(c) Hours System
ANSWERS hour :.: 60m (minutes of time
ll. 9.5 m 12. l in 14.3 13. 7.07 m 14 zo 18' 15. 386 m 16 112.5 m
minute = 605 (seconds of time:
17 212.9 m 19 ll2.5 ft. (109)

••
"1R""~
,,(I"
~ III
SURVEYING THE COMPASS
110
is
The sexagesimal system is widely used in United States, Great Britain, India
and direction. The value of the bearing thus varies from oo to 360°. Prismatic compaSs
_,.';,' is measured clockwise with magnetic
available in this system and most surveying graduated on this system. In India and U.K., the W.C.B.
other pans of the world. More complete tables are _31
on north.
insrruments are graduated according to this system. However, due to facility in computati
illi

and interpolation, the centesimal system is gaining more favour in Europe. The Hours system Referring to Fig. 5.1, the W.C.B. of AB is 8 1 , of AC is 82 , of AD is 93 and
is mostly used in astronomy and navigation. of AF is a,.
(b) The Quadrantal Bearing System: (Reduced bearing)
5.2. BEARINGS AND ANGLES
each In dtis system, the bearing of a line is measured eastward or westward from north
The direction of a survey line can either be established (a) with relation to
will give the angle between two or south, whichever is nearer. Thus, both North N
other, or (b) with relation to any meridian. The first
of the line. and South are used as reference meridians and
lines while the second will give the bearing the directions can be either clockwise or anti- B
'l;j
Bearing. Bearing of a line is its direction relative to a given ~- A meridian clockwise depending upon the position of the line.
Meridian.
is any direction· such as (I) True Meridian (2) Magnetic Meridian (3) Arbitrary In this system. therefore, the quadrant, in which
(1) True Meridian. True meridian through a point is the line in which a plane,
the line lies, will have to be mentioned. These
surface of the earth. It,
passing that point and the norlli and south poles, intersects wiih bearings are observed by Surveyor's compass.
direction of true meridian through a 01{ e
thiiS,- passes through the true north and south. The Referring Fig. 5.2, the Q.B. of the line w
point can he established by astronomi cal observatio ns. AB is a and is written as N a. E, the bearing ·
Tru~g. True hearing of a line is the horizontal angle which it
makes with being _measured with refer~!lte to _North meridian
the direction of- true Ill II
the true meridian through one of the extremitie s of the line. Since (since ·it is nearer), towards East. The bearing
point rematns fixed, the rrue bearing of a line is a constant quantity. of AC is ~ and is writt~~ as S ~ E, it being
mendtan ihiougti a
)"
(2) Magnetic Meridian. Magnetic meridian through a point is
the direction shown measured with reference of South and in an-
magnetic needle free from all other attractive forces. ticlockwise direction towards East. Similarly, the c
by a freety floating and balanced
d with the help of a magnetic compass. bearings of AD and AF are respectively SaW
1ge d~rection of magnetic meridian can he establishe s
..ri
Magnetic Bearing. The magnetic hearing of a line is \l!e horizontal angle which andN~ W. FIG. 5.2 Q.B. SYSTEM. ,,..,
it makes wrth the magnetic mendran. passing through One of the extrenunes o'
·<- ' Thus, in the quadrantal system, lhe reference
affixed
A nfagnetic compass is used to measure it. meridian is prefiXed and the direction of measurement (Eastward or Westward) is
(3) Arbitrary Meridian. Arbitrary meridian is any convenient direction
towards a to the numerical value of the bearing. Tbe Q.B. of a line varies from 0° to 90° . The
f
permanent and prominen t mark or signal, such as a church
postttons
spire
of
or
lines
top
in a
of a
small
chimney.
area.
bearings of this sysrem are known as Reduced
CONVERSION OF BEARINGS FROM ONE SYSTEM TO THE OTHER
Bearings. (R.B.)
i
~.,
Such mendtans are used to Cfefermine the relative
. Arbitrary Bearing. Arbilrary bearing of a The bearing of a line can be very easily converted from one system lO the other,
!b-: is t-Ile horizontal ang!e \'ihkh it !!1.akes ·.viLlt i~ with the aid of a diagram. Referring w Fig.~ 5.1, the conversion of W.C.B.
into .R.B.
an,z arbitrary· mendlan passtng throuijh onO: of the l can be expressed in the following Table : -· · -· !I
exrremities._A theodolite or1extant is used to measure
it. -
,..J;
!(~
TABLE S.t. CONVERSION OF W.C.B. INTO R.B ~

!
IV Quadram

j Une W.C.B. between Rule for R.B .


DESIGNATION OF BEARINGS .
- I
The conunon systems of notation of hearings w E
-
AB 0° and90° R.B.= W.C.B. I
I
NE
are
(a) The whole circle hearing system (W.C.B.) ,,, AC 9(1° and 180° R.B.= 180"- W.C.B.
I

I SE
1
or Azimuthal system. il ,AD 180° and 270° R.B.= W.C.B.- 180°.
SW
'

(b) The Quadrantal hearing (Q.B.) system. II ._,., NW


Ill AF 270° and 360° R.B.= 360°- W.C.B. i
(a) The Whole Circle Bearing System. (Az- : 1
'JI' '--------
imuthal system).
s ·.;t.
In this system, the hearing of a line is measured
with magnetic north (or with south) in clockwise FIG. 5.1 W.C.B. SYSTEM.
"''""'
'
\ll
~I'
113
SURVEYING TilE COMPASS
112
CALCULATION OF ANGLES FROM BEARINGS
Similarly, referring to Fig. 5.2, the conversion of R.B. into W.C.B. can be expressed
int the following Table ··; Knowing the bearing of two
TABLE 5.2. CONVERSION OF R.B. INTO W.C.B.
lines, the angle between the two
can very easily be calculated with
line I R.B. Rule for W.C.B.
!
W.C.B. between the help of a diagram,
Ref. to Fig. 5.5 (a), the in

NaE W.C.B. = R.B. 0° and 90° cludc;d angle a. between the lines
AB
ACandAB = e,- 9 1 = F.B. of one c·
AC I S~ E W.C.B. = 180°- R.B.
90" and 180°
line- F.B. of the other line, both
A,

AD saw W .C. B. =180° + R.B. 180° and 270° bearings being measured from a
I 270° and 360° common point A, Ref. to Fig. c
AFj NoW W.C.B. = 360'- R.B.
5. 5 (b), the angle (b)
i I (a)
a= (180' +-e,}- e, =B. B. of FIG. 5.5 CALCULATION OF ANGLES FROM BEARINGS.
FORE AND BACK BEARING previous line- F.B. of next line.
The bearing of line, whether expressed in W.C.B. sySiem or in Q.B. system, differs Let us consider the quadrantal bearing. Referring to Fig. 5.6 (a) in which both the
according as the observation is made from. one end of the line or from the other. If bearings have been measured to the same side of common meridian, the included angle
the bearing of a line AB is measured from A towards B. it is known as forward bearl;:;-g a.= e,- e,. In Fig. 5.6 (b), both the bearings have been measured to the opposite sides
or Fore Bearing (f. B). It the bearmg of the line Ali is measured from B towards
A,
in bacKward • B


itls kiiown as backward bearing or Back Bearing (B.B.), smce it is measured

~ ¥
"
-
direction.
Considering first the W.C.B.
• c

'•
system and referring to Fig. 5.3
(a}, the back bearing of line AB
c '
is $ and fore bearing of AB is (o) (d)
1•1 (b)
e . Evidently $ = 180 • +e. Simi-
larly, from Fig. 5.3 (b), the back (a) (b) FIG. 5.6 CALCULATION OF ANGLES FROM BEARINGS.
CD and fore bearing
of. the common meridian, and included angle a.= e, + 92 • In Fig. 5.6 (c) both the bearings
bearing of is $
FIG. 5.3 FORE AND BACK BEARINGS.
e. hence. $ = e- 180 '. Thus, in angle
have been measured to the same side of different meridi~ns and the included
general, it can be stated that
B. B.= F.b. :r: idu~, usmg ptus sign when r.D. 1s u:,),) wur1 JbV uiid itWU4,J .J'O" rvii.C.i1 l· .... - .. .:..v \."'2 ' "IJ• ......... 'b'
~ .. '..
.... ~ ,_,,

sides of differet!l meridians, and angle a.= 180 •- (e, - 9,).


~~- --
·~ ... . .. •---- -------~..>
----c- --· --··· --------•--
-~
TP·-:-~fr('

F.IJ. is greater than 18{) 6


Again, considering the Q.B.· system and .·-1-. CALCULATION OF BEARINGS FROM ANGLES
c In the case of a traverse in which incLuded angles between successive lines have
referring to Fig. 5.4 (a), the fore bearing of any
line AB is NeE and, therefore, the back bearing been mea>llfed, the bearings of the lines can be calculated provided the bearing of
is equal to sew. Similarly. from Fig. 5.4 (b), one line is also measured.
::·t:
the fore bearing of the line CD is sew and Referring to Fig.
back bearing is equal to NeE. Thus, it con ~... 5.7, let a..~.y.li, be
~.included angles meas- ---M- ./"I ""'- hJ_/e,
be srated thar ro conven the fore bearing to
back bearing, it is only necessary to change 0
ured clockwise from back
the cardinal poinrs by substituting N for S, srations and 9 1 be lhe meas-
ond E for W ond vice versa, the numerical ured. bearing of the line
(b) AB.
value of the bearing remaining the same. (a) FIG. 5.7. CALCULATION OF BEARINGS FROM ANGLES.
FIG. 5.4. FORE AND BACK BEARINGS.
SURVEYING 115
ll4 THE COMPASS

The bearing of the next line BC = e, = e, + a - 180' ... (1) Axample 5.3. The following bearings were observed with a compass. Calculale the
The bearing of the next line CD = a, = a, + ~ - 180' ... (2) interior angles.
The bearing of the next line DE= a, = a, + y - 180' Line Fore Bearing
... (3) 60' 30'
The bearing of the next line EF =a,= e, + 1i + 180' AB
... (4) 122' 0'
BC
As is evident from Fig. 5.7, (a,+ a), (a,+~). and (a,+ y) are more than !80' while
CD 46° 0'
(a,+ li) is Jess than 180'. Hence in order to calculate the bearing of the next line, the 205' 30'
DE
following statement can be made : EA 300" 0'.
"Add the measured clockwise angles to the bearing of the previous line. If the Solution. Fig. 5.8 shows the plotted traverse.
sum is more than 180°1 deduct 180°. If the sum is less than 180°, add 180° ".
In a closed traverse, clockwise angles will be obtained if we proceed round the
traverse in the anti-clockwise direction. .. ,122°0'
' '
~...'205°30'
E~LES ON ANGLES AND BEARINGS '
c.A(xample 5.1. (a) Convert the following whole circle bearings to quadrantal bearings:
(i) 22' 30' (ir) 1700 12' (iir) 211' 54' (iv) 327' 24'.
(b) Convert the following quadrantal bearing to whole circle bearings :
(i)Nl2'24'E (ir)S31'36'E (ii1)S68'6'W (iv)N5'42'W .
Solution.
(a) Ref. 10 Fig. 5.1 and Table 5.1 we have
(1) R.B.= W.C.B. = 22' 30' = N 22' 30' E.
(ir) R.B.= 180'- W. C. B . = 180'-170' 12' = S 9' 48' E.
(iii) R.B.= W. C. B.- 180' = 211' 54 -180' = S 31' 54' W.
(iv) R.B.= 360'- W.C.B. = 360'- 327' 24' = N 32' 36' W. \,Jj/
(b) Ref. 10 Fig. 5.2 and Table 5.5 we have FIG. 5.8.
(1) W.C.B.= R.B.= 12' 24' Included angle = Bearing of previous line- Bearing of next line
(ir) W.C.B.= 180'- R.B.= 180'- 31' 36' = 148' 24' LA = Bearing of AE - Bearing of AB
(iir) W.C.B.= 180' + R.B.= !80' + 68' 6' = 248' 6' = (300' - 180')- 60' 30' = 59' 30''
(iv)/ W.C.B.= 360'- R.B. = 3UO'- 5' 42' = 354' 18' -q.,. .... ;..,., ,..,; rJr

i ,....~
/D . 0".,,.;..,,.. DA

_;EXample 5.2. The following are observed fore-bearings of the lines (1) AB 12' 24' (ii) = (60' 30' + 180')- 122' = ll8' 30'.
BC 119' 48' (iir) CD 266' 30' (iv) DE 354' 18' (v) PQ N 18' 0' E (vi) QR Sl2' 24' E (vii) L C = Bearing of CB - Bearing of CD
RSS59' 18'W (viii) ST N86' 12'W. Find their back bearings. = (122' + 180')- 46' = 256'
Solution : 8.8.= F. B.± 180', using+ sign when F.B. is Jess than 180' ,and- sign LD = Bearing of DC - Bearing of DE
when it is more than 180°. = (46' + 180') - 205' 30' = 20' 30'.
(r) B.B. of AB = 12' 24' + !80' = 192' 24'. LE = Bearing of ED - Bearing of EA
(ii) B.B. of BC = 119' 48' + 180' = 299' 48' = (205' 30' - 180') - 300'+ 360' = 85' 30'
(iii) B. B. of CD= 266' 30'- 180' = 86' 30'
(iv) B.B. of DE= 354' 18' - 180' = 174' 18' Sum = 540' 00'.
(v) B.B. of PQ =S 18' 0' W Check : (2n - 4) 90' = (10 - 4) 90' = 540'.
fvl) B. B. of QR = N 12' 24' W
~xam.ple 5.4. The following interior angles were measured with a se.aanr in a closed
(vii) B.B. of RS = N 59' 18' E
traverse. The bearing of the line AB was measured as 60° 00' with prismaJic compass.
(viii) B.B. of ST = S 86' 12" E
J
117
SURVEYING THE COMPASS
116
features are
if LA ~ 140' 10'; LB ~ 99' 8'; ;L C ~ 60" 22'; The various compasses exhibiting the above
Calculate the bearings of all other line
(l) Surveyor's compass
LD ~ 69' 20~
(2) Prismatic compass
Solution.
(3) Transit or Level Compass.
Fig. 5.9 shows the plotted ttaverse.
Earth 's Magnetic Field and Dip
To fmd the bearing of a line, add any magnet, fonns a field of magnetic
The earth acts as a powerful magnet and like
the measured clockwise angle to the bearing magnetised bar of steel or iron. lf any slender
force which exerts a directive influence on a
of the previous line. If the sum is more at its centre of gravity so that it is free to
symmetrical bar magnet is freely suspended
than 180', deduct 180'. If the sum is on parallel to the lines of magnetic force
tum in azimuth, it will align itself in a positi
less than 180', add 180'.
* ~ of the earth at that point.
Clockwise angles will he obtained
if we proceed in the anticlockwise direction f
-
. "' <u
~ C The Jines of force of earth's magnetic
field run generally from South to North
round the traverse.
(Fig. 5.10). Near the equator, they are
Starting with A and proceeding to- FIG. 5.9 parallel to the earth's surface. The horizontal
ward D, C, il etc., we have projections of the lines of force define the
Bearing of AD~ Bearing of BA + 140' 10'-
180'
magnetic meridian. The angle which these
~ (180' + 60') + 140' 10'- 180' ~ 200'
10'
lines of force make with the surface of
Bearing of DA ~ 20' 10' the earth is called the angle of dip or
Bearing of DC~ Bearing of AD + 69' 20' - 180' ( simply the dip of the needle. In elevation,
~ 200' 10' + 69' 20'- 180' = 89' 30' these lines of force (i.e. the North end
Bearing of CD.= 269' 30' of the needle), are inclined downward towards
the north in the Northern hemisphere and
Bearing of CB = Bearing of DC + 60' 22' +
180'
downward towards South in Southern hemi-
= 89' 30' + 60' 22' + 180' ~ 329' 52'
sphere. At a place near 70' North latitude
Bearing of BC = 149' 52'
and 96' West long itude , it will dip
fll&=

I
Bearin g of CB + 90' 8' - 180'
Bearing of 90'. This area is called North magnetic
~ 329' 52' + 90' 8' - 180' ~ 240' pole. A similar area in Southern hemisphere
Bearing of AB = 60' (check). is called the South magnetic pole. At any
5.3. THE THEORY OF MAGNETIC COM
PASS other place, the magnetic needle will not
Q.
pomt towaros rne Norm magneuc pou:, Uul
V)

bearings of lines. The bearings may


Magnetic compass gives directly the magnetic
either be measured in the W.C.B. system
or in Q.B. system depending upon the fonn ,I it will take a direction and dip in accordance
with the lines of force at the point. Since
FIG. 5.10. CROSS-SECTION OF EARTH'S
FIELD.
MAGNETIC
entirely independent on any other measurement. .·1
of the compass used. The bearings so measured are the lines of force are parallel to the surface
depends upon the fact lhat if a long, needle will he zero at equator and the needle
The general principle of all magnetic compass of the earth only at equator, the dip of the
and is suitably suspended or pivoted about one end of the needle will dip downwards
.
narrow strip of steel or iron is magnetised, will remain horizontal. At any other place,
te freely about the vertical axis, it will teild needle may be brought to a horizontal position.
a point near its centre so that it can oscilla By suitably weighting the high end of the
at the place of observation.
to establish itself in rbe magnetic meiidian The Magnetic needle
The most essential features of a magnetic comp
ass are : symmetrical bar of magnetised steel or
"~' The compass needle is made of a slender
(a) Magnetic needle, to establish the magn
etic meridian. ing supported on a sharp, hardened steel pivot.
iron. It is hung from a conical jewel-bear does
to sight the other end of the line. rotate both vertically and horizontally and
(b) A line of sight,
the box or to the needle, to read Before magnetisation, the needle is free to is originally pointed. When it
(c) A graduated circle, either attached to not tend to move away from any direction
in which it
etic meridian.
the directions of the lines. a definite direction of magn
is magnetised, it will dip downwards and take force tending to make
(d) A compass box to house the above parts. A small coil of brass wire is wrapped aroun
d it to balance the
be used to support the box. .·•·
Tn addition, a tripod or suitable stand can
11'
119 H!
SURVEYlNG THE COMPASS H:
118
I
the needle dip. The position of the coil is
adjustable for the dip in the locality where
the compass is to be used.
Fig. 5.11 shows a typical needle in
section, which can either be a "broad needle"
~rmr

weight
-

:wr -
rJewel

Pivot
n~
N
-~· - - · I
I
ffr
tr.
or "edge bar" needle type. FIG. 5.11. THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. •I

~1!
The pivot is a sharp and hard point
and the slightest jar will break its tip or make it blunt. A lever arrangeme
nt is usually
provided for lifting the needle off its bearing when not in use, so as to prevent unnecessary
wear of the bearing with consequent increase in friction.
Requirements of a Magnetic Needle
The following are the principal requirements of a magnetic needle :
(I) The needle should be straigbt and symmetrical and the magnetic axis of the needle
16
~f:,.
with
should coincide with the geometrical axis. If not, the bearing reading will not be.
reference to the magnetic axis, and, therefore, will be wrong. However, the included angles
calculated from the observed bearings will be correct.
(2) The needle should be sensitive. It may loose its sensitivity due to (ti) loss of
polarity, (b) wear of the pivot. If the polarity has been lost, the needle should be remagnetis
The pivot can either be sharpened with the belp of very fine oil stone or it may be
completely replaced. Suitable arrangement should be provided to lifr the needle off the
pivot
ed.
l 1. Box
2. Needle
3. GradL•aled ring
4. Object vane
5. Eye vane
6. Prism
7. Prism cap
8. Glass cover
·g. Lifting pin
10. Ufting lever
11. Brake pin
12. Spring brake
13. Mirror
14. Pivot
15. Agate cap
16. Focusing stud
17. Sun glass

when not in use.


FIG. 5.12. THE PRISMATIC COMPASS.
(3) The ends of the needle should lie in the same horizontal and vertical planes
that
as those or' the pivot point. If the ends are not in the same horizontal plane as an angle which the line makes with the magnetic meridian. A triangular prism is
fitted
of the pivot point, they will be found to quiver when the needle swings, thus causing arrangeme nt for focusing to suit different eye sights.
below the eye slit, having suitable
inconvenience in reading. The prism has both horizontal and vertical faces convex.. so that a magnified image of
(4) For stability, the centre of the gravity of the needle should be as far below the ring graduation is formed. When the line of sight is also in the magnetic meridian,
The
the pivot as possible. the South end of the ring comes vertically below the horizontal face of the prism.
0° or 360° reading is. therefore, engraved on the South end of the ring, so that bearing
In addition to the above requirements of the needle, · the compass box along with
:.: :h·: ;-;-:~- .,_.~~r!"l i~ verticr!llv
01 the magm::Lil: mtuulCl.Li iS 1C"~ ..., ;: · ..... ~ .:.~ :.~~~
nthP.r acce.,.~orif'5; shouM he nf nnn-m~~t'.tic. snh!l.tanc~ so that needle is uninfluenced hv
all other attractive forces except that of the earth's.
5.4. THE PRISMATIC COMPASS
Prismatic compass is the most convenient and portable fonn of magnetic compass
which can either be used as a hand instrument or can be fitted on a tripod. The
main
I ~'
'%. q./ \
Angle
reqd (330")

parts of the prismatic compass are shown in Fig. 5.12.


/
---- ~-- -- ,--
--~---
As illustrated in the diagram, the magnetic needle is attached to the circular ring J ,.,.....Angle

or compass card made up of alnmioium, a non-magnetic. substance. When th~ needle


is / read (330°)
meridian and, therefore, the N and S
\
' .... -l:
on the pivot, it will orient itself in the magnetic
by the object .:s
' \
'
ends of the ring will be in this direction. The line of sight is defined
of
vane and the eye slit, both attached to the compass box. The object vane consists
the eye slit consists of a vertical slit
a vertical hair attached to a suitable frame while (b)
an
cut into the upper assembly of the prism unit, both being hinged to tke box. When (a)
object is sighted, the sigbt vanes will rotate with respect to the NS end of ring through FIG. 5.13. SYSTEM OF GRADUATION IN PRISMATIC COMPASS.
12t
SURVEYING THE COMPASS
t20

above South end in thiS particular pos1t10n. The readings increase in clockwise direction
from 0' at South end to 90' at West end, 180' at North end and 270' at East end.
This has been clearly illustrated in Fig. 5.13 (a) and (b).
When nm in use, the object vane frame can be folded on the glass lid which covers
the top of the box. The object vane, thus presses against a bent lever which lifts the
needle off the pivot and holds it against the glass lid. By pressing knob or brake-pin
placed at the base of the -object vane, a light spring fitted inside the box can be brought
into the contact with the edge of the graduated ring to damp the oscillations of the needle
when about to take the reading. The prism can be folded over the edge of the box.
A meral cover fits over the circular box, when not in use. To sight the objects which
ar.e too high or too low to be sighted directly, a hinged mirror capable of sliding over
the object vane is provided and the objects sighted by reflection. When bright objects are
sighted, dark glasses may be . interposed into the line of sight.
The greatest advantage of prismatic compass is that both sighting the object as well
as reading circ1e can be done simultaneously without changing the position of the eye.
The circle is read at the reading at which the hair line appears to cut the graduated ring. 7. Counter weight
1. Box
Adjustment of Prismatic compass 2. Magnetic needle 8. Metal pin
The following are the adjustments usually necessary in the prisinatic compass. 3. Sight vanes 9. Circular graduated arc
./ 10. Lifting pin
(a) Station or Temporary Aqjustments: 4. Pivot
5. Jewel bearing 11. Lifting lever
(I) Centring (ii) Levelling (iii) Focusing the prism.
6. Glass top
(b) Pennanenl Adjustments. The permanent adjustments of prismatic compass are almost FIG. 5.14. THE SURVEYOR'S COMPASS.
the same as that of the surveyor's compass except that there are. no bubble rubes to be §
adju.<ted and the needle cannot be straightened. The sight vanes are generally not adjustable. bar needle freely floats over the pivot. Thus, the as~·
11
~~:!,
(See the pennanent adjusnnents of Surveyor's compass). graduated card or ring is not oriented in the magnetic
Temporary Adjustmenls meridian. as was the case in the prismatic compass.
g
Temporary adjustments are those adjustments which have to be made at every set The object vane is similar to that of prismatic compass.
up of the instrument. They comprise the following:
(I) Centring. Centring is the process of keeping the instrument exactly over the
The eye vane consists of a simple metal vane with
a fine slit. Since no prism is provided, the object
i
;~ fr ~ .. d:'h.!"'~ oh .... t •vith tl,~ 0n;~,.t ::~nrl PVP v::~rv·~
3~:;·=~- 1"'\ •• r~::::_:~· .-·-·-::~. ----r--- ·· ··-· c-·- :.::.:.:. .. ::.:. :. ..• -----·o .:.:·.: •. -- ·- :;,•··-·-••J Heao oeanng nere
and the reading is then taken against the North
fitted to engineer's theodolite. The centring is invariably done by adjusting or manipulating
end of the needle, by looking vertically thsough
the legs of the tripod. A plumb-bob may be used to judge the centring and if it is not
the top glass. Fig. 5.15 shows the plan view of
available, it may be judged by dropping a pebble from the centre of the bottom of
a surveyor's compass.
the instrument.
When the line of sight is in magnetic meridian,
(i1) Levelling. If the instrument is a hand instrument, it must be held in hand in
the North and South ends of the needle will be
such a way that graduated disc is swinging freely and appears to be level as judged from
over the 0' N and 0' S graduations of the graduated
the top edge of the case. Generally, a tripod is provided with ball and socket arrangement
card. The card is graduated in quadrantal system
with the help of which the top of the box can be levelled.
having 0' at N and S ends and 90' at East and
(i1) Focusing the Prism. The prism attachment is slided up or down for focusing
West ends. Let us take the case of a line AB
till the readings are seen to be sharp and clear. which is in North-East quadrant. In order to sight
5.5. THE SURVEYOR'S COMPASS the point B, the box will have to be rotated about
Fig. 5.14 shows the essential parts of a surveyor's compass. As illustrated in the the vertical axis. In doing so, the pointer of. the
5.15. SURVEYOR'S COMPASS (PLAN).
fignse, the graduated ring is directly attached to the box, and not with needle. The edge needle remains fixed in position (pointing always FIG.
123 t~
iii
122 SURVEYING THE COMPASS
"
to tbe magnetic meridian) while lhe o• N
graduation of tbe card moves in a clockwise
direction. In olher words. the North end of the needle moves in the anti-clockwise direction
with relation to the o• N graduation of the card. Taking the extreme case when the line
Temporary Adjustments. Same as for prismatic compass, except for the focusing
of the prism.
Permanent Adjustments of Surveyor's Compass
a
4

~~
has a bearing of 90° in East direction, the pointer appears to move by 90° from the Permanent adjustments are those adjustments which are done only when the fundamental
relations between the parts are disturbed. They are, therefore, not required to be repeated
o• N graduation in anti-clockwise direction ; in this position, therefore, the pointer must
read the reading 90" E. Thus, on lhe graduated card, the East and West are interchanged. at every set up of the instru~ent. These consist of :
(I) Adjustment of levels. (ii) Adjustment of sight vanes.
See Fig. 5.16 (a) and (b). !U
(iii) Adjustment of needle. (vi) Adjustment of pivot point.
(1) Adjustment of levels t
Object To make the levels, when they are fitted, perpendicular to the vertical axis.
Test. Keep the bubble tube parallel to two foot screws and centre the bubble. Rotate ~
the instrument through 90° about the vertical axis, till it comes over the third foot screw
and centre the bubble. Repeat till it remain central in these two positions. When the bubble
..ll'i
is central in any of these positions, tum the insaument through 180° about vertical axis.
i
If the bubble remains central, it is in adjustment. If not, -~
~
Adjustment. Bring the bubble half way by foot screws and half by adjusting the
screws of the bubble tube.
Note. If the instrument is not fitted with the levelling head, the bubble is levelled ,--~

with the help of ball and socket arrangement, turned through 180' and tested. In case ··j
j
it needs adjustment, it is adjusted half way by the adjusting screw of the bubble tube
(a) Una of sight In (b) Line of sight towards B
and half by the ball and the socket. Generally, this adjustment is an unnecessary refinement
l
magnetiC meridian bearing N 30" E
FIG. 5.16. SYSTEM OF GRADUATIONS IN THE SURVEYOR'S COMPASS. and the levels are not provided on the instrument.
(il) Adjnstrnent of Sight Vanes
The difference between surveyor's and prismatic compass is given in Table 5.3. Object. To bring the sight vanes into a vertical plane when the instrument is levelled. '1
TABLES 5.3. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SURVEYOR'S AND PRISMATIC COMPASS I
Test. Level the instrument properly. Suspend a plumb line at some distance and look
llem I Prlsmolic COI!!J!liSS Surveyor's Comntus
at it. first through one of the sight vanes and then through the other.
'.II
Magnetic ! The needle is of 'broad needle' type. The needle The needle is of' edge bar ' type. The needle acts
~I
(1)
Nee tOe idoes not act as index. as the index also. Adjustment. If the vertical hair in the object vane or the slit in the eye vane is
(2) Graduated~ (1) The graduated card ring is attached with the (1) The graduated card is attached to the box and not seen parallel to the plumb line, remove the affected vane and either file the higher
Ctutl needle. The rine dot$ nm ror:ne alon~ with the !ine nnt rn rhe needle. The card rnr!lr~s l!!nnl' wirh rhP lineo ~lUI:: 01 Ult:: Oeti Ul ll~H 111 ;;uii.4bl~ paw~iu5, ....,..J.;..i o1....,; :.... ·.~ ;:;~ s.:J~.
10t Slgnt. of sight.
{it) The gradualions are in W.C.B. system, having (it) The graduations are in Q.B. system, having
(iz) Adjnstrnent of Needle
oo at South end, 90° at West. 18QG at North and oo at N and S and 90g at East and West. East and The needle is adjusted for : (a) Sensitivity, (b) Balancing the needle, (c) Straightening :i
270° at East. West are interchanged.
!
J vertically, and (d) Straightening horizontally.
(ii1) The graduations are engraved inverted. (iit) The Rraduations are engraved erect.
(a) Sensitivity. The needle may loose its sensitivity either by the loss of its magnetism
(3) Sighting (1) The object vane consists of metal vane with a (l) The object vane consists of a metal vane wilh a
vertical hair.
or by the pivot becoming blunt. To test it, level the instrument and lower the needle
Vanes vertical hair.
on its pivot. If it comes to rest quickly, it shows the sign of sluggishness. To adjust
(ii) The eye vane consisr.s of a small metal vane (ir) The eye vane consists of a metal vane with a
Iwith slit. fine slit. it find the reason, whether it is due to loss of magnetism or due to the blunt pivot.
(4) Reading (1) The reading is taken wilh the help of a prism (t) The reading is taken by directly seeing through Remagnetise the needle, if necessary. The pivot point can be sharpened with the help of
provided at the eye slit. the 1op of lhe glass. fine oil stone or can be completely replaced.
(it) S•ghtmg and readmg taking can be done (i1) Sighting and reading taking cannot be done (b) Bakzncing the needle. Due to the effect of the dip, the needle may not the
Slmultane-ouslv from one oositLOn of the observer simultaneouslv from one oosition of the observer.
balanced on its pivot. To test it, level the instrument and lower the needle on its pivot.
(5) Tripod Tripod may or may not be provided. The The instrumem cannot be used without a tripod.
instrument can be used even by holding suitably in Note the higher end, remove the compass glass and slide the counter weight towards the
hand. higher end, till it balances.
124 SURVEYING
~~I THE COMPASS
125 n
I
position so that the damage
'
vertically, a vertical is lifted automatically off the pivot and is held again in a fixed
(c) Straightening the needle vertically. If the needle is bent
swing when the needle is to the pivot cannot occur during transport.
seesaw motion of the ends will take place with its horizontal used as a simple angle
lowered on the pivot. In such a case, the needle may be taken
off the pivot and may With the circle in the clamped position, the B3 can be
telescope allows slopes to be
be suitably bent in the vertical direction so that the seesaw
motion ceases. measuring instrument. The small vertical arc alongside the
(iv)Straightening Horizontally measured within a range of ± 70%.
sharp and made of
Object. To straighten the needle so that its two ends shall lie in
the same vertical The circle has a spring mqunted sappire bearing. The pivot is
instrum ent can be adjuste d for earth's magnet ic field (i.e. for
plane as that of its centre. extremely hard metal. The
circle so that it will swing
s of the graduated dip) by moving tiny adjustment weights, thus balancing the
Test. Note the reading of both ends of the needle in different position
arc. ·horizontally in any part of the world.
hairs for approximate
constant quantity -other The small sighting telescope has 2 X magnification and stadia
If lhe difference between both end readings is always some
bent horizontally but the pivot coincides the centre of the graduations. distance measurement from a staff.
than 180°, the needle is
both in the needle as well 5.7, MAGNETIC DECLINATION
On the other hand, if the difference varies, the error may be
the needle is straight or Magnetic declination at a place is the horizontal angle between
the true meridian
as in the pivot. In order to know, in such a case, whether
any position. Revolve the tion. If the magnetic
·and the magneuc mendtan shown by me needle at
not, level the instrument and read both ends of the needle in the ume of observa
previous reading of the North meridian, declination is said
compass until the South end of the needle comes against the meridian is to the nght stde (or eastern side) of the true
end now. If the reading at the North end is the same as that of 5.19 (a)]; if it to be the left side (or western side),
end; read the North to be easrem or positiye [see Fig.
Otherwise, it is bent and
the South end in the previous position, the needle is not bent. the declination is said to be western or negative [see Fig. 5.19 (b)].
needs adjusnnent. .,.
Mariners call declination oy we name True Magnetic M.M. T.M.
pivot and bend
Adjustment. If not, note the difference. Remove the needle from the
the North end halfway towards the new position of the original
reading at the South end. ' variation.
The declination at any particular location
meridian
(T.MJ
meridian
(M.M)
Replace and repeat till correct.
can be obtained by establishing a true meridian
(v) Adjustm ent of the Pivot from astronomical observations and then read-
graduated circle.
Object, To bring the pivot point exactly in the centre of the ing the compass while sighting along the
the North o•
Test aiUl Adjustment. (I) Bring the North end of the needle against true meridian.
end of the needle. If it does Isogonic line is the line drawn through
mark of the graduated circle. Note the reading of the South (b) Declination west
in a direction at right the points of same declination. The distribution (a) Declination east
not read 0°, correct the error ·by bending the pivot pin slightly
zeros. • of earth's magnetism is not• regular and con-
angles to the line between the North and South F1G. 5.19. MAGNETIC DECLINATION.
(2) Bring the North end of the needle exactly against 90• mark.
and note the reading sequently, the isogonic lines do not fonn 'Com-
th~;" hP-nrlin~ t~P. .:--ivnr • ~''*" :'"""t ,.;'!""'"'(' ~ut r~rti~tiT10 frnm thP
Nnrth ~nrl ~nuth ma£metic reg-ions thev follow
a~ainst the South Pnrl. Tf it <inP:.~ nnt rP~rl <mo rnrrPrr
PrTnr h,,
a zero declination.
two 90°. marks. Repeat (I) irregular paths. Agonic line is the line made up of points having
pin in a direction at right angles to the line between the remains constant
Variations in Declination : The value of declination at a place never
and (2) until the readings for the opposite ends of the needle
the needle.
5.6. WILD B3 PRECISION COMPASS
agree for any position of
1 bm changes from time to time. There are four types of
(a) Diurnal variation (b) Annual variation (c) Secular variatio
variations in declinat
n (d) Irregular variation.
the systematic
ion

It is a precision compass (a) Diurnal Variation : The diurnal variation or daily variation is
Fig. 5.18 shows the photograph of Wild B3 tripod compass. departure of the declination from its mean value during a period
of 24 hours. It generally
er a small, light weight survey
for simple, rapid surveys. It is particularly valuable whenev d varies with the phase of the sunspot period. The difference in declination between morning
pivot system, the balance
instrument is required. It derives its precision from the" fine and afternoon is often as much as 10' of arc. The extent of daily
variations depend upon
circle and the strong magnet.
and circular bubble the following factors:
The B3 is set up on a tripod and levelled with foot screws the (1) The Locality : More at magnetic poles and less at equator
.
the magnet brings
like other surveying instruments. On pulling out the circular clamp, target (il) Season of the year : Considerably more in summer than in
winter.
magnetic bearing to the
zero graduation of the circle to magnetic north, and the (iii) Time: More in day and less in night. The rate of variatio
n during 24 hours
has been taken, the circle
can be read to 0.1 •. On releasing the· clamp, after the reading is variable.

;<'c'
~-·-
127
·SURVEYING THE COMPASS
126
....£xampl e 5.7. In an old map, a line AB was drawn to a magnetic bearing
of
(iv) The amount of daily variation changes from year to year. r magnetic bearing should
(b) Annual Variation
s• 30' the magnetic declination at the time being East. To what
the line be set now if the present magnetic declination is 30' East.a·
The variation which has a yearly period is known as annual variation. The declination
has a yearly swing of about 1' or 2' in amplitude. It varies from place to place. Solution
True bearing of the line = 5" 30' + I" = 6" 30'
(c) Secular Variation
Due to its magnitude, secular variation is the most important in the work of surveyor. Present declination = + s• 30:. (East)
It appears to he of periodic 'haracter and follows a roller-coaster (sine-<:urve) pattern.
It Now, True hearing= Magnetic hearing + s• 30'
For a given place, the compass needle after moving continuous ly
swings like a, pendu1um. :. Magnetic hearing= True hearing - 8" 30'
for a period of years in one direction with respect to the true North, gradually
comes = 6° 30'- go 30' =- 2° (i.e. 2° in the anti-clockwise direction)
direction. Secular change from year
to a stand still and then begins to move in opposite J = 358".
and is different for different places. Its period
to year is not uniform for any given locality
to ~xample 5.8. if the magnetic bearing of
Find the magnetic declination at a place
is approximately 250 years. In Paris, the records show a range from 11• E in 16BO the sun at noon is (a) 184 • (b) 350" 20~
22" W in I820. This magnitude of secular variation is very great, it is very important
Solution. (a) AI noon, the sun is exactly on the geographical meridian. Hence. the
in the work of the . surveyor, and unless otherwi§e specified, it is the change commonly to the
true hearing of the sun at noon is zero or lBO" depending upon whether it is
referred to. of the place. Since the magnetic hearing of the sun
North of the place or to the South
·(d) Irregular Variation 180".
earthq~kes is 184", the true hearing will be
The irregular variations are due to what are known as 'magtfetic storms'.
Now True bearing = Magnetic hearing + Declination
and other solar influences. They may occur at' any time and cannot be predicredc Change
of lhis kind amounting to more than a degree have been observed. 180° = 184° + Declination
Dete~ation of True Bearing. or Declination = - 4° = 4° W
(b) Since the magnetic hearing of the sun is 350" 20', it is at the Norrh of
the
All important surveys are plotted with reference to uue meridian, since lhe direction be 360".
place and hence the true hearing of the sun, which is on the meridian, will
of magnetic ·meridian at a place changes with time. If however, the magnetic declination
at a place, at the time of observation is known, the true hearing can he calculated from Now, True bearing = Magnetic hearing + Declination
the observed magnetic hearing by the following relation (Fig. 5.19): 360° = 350° 20' +Declination
Tru: bearing bearing + declinaqon.
= magnetic or Declination= 360" - 350" 20' = 9" 40' = 9" 40' E.
Use plus sign if the declination is to the EaSt and minus sign if it is to the West. 5.8. LOCAL ATTRA~TION
The above rule is valid for whole circle hearings only. If however. a reduced hearing A magnetic meridian at a place is established by a magnetic needle which is uninfluenced
bas --~- ,o~~erv__~· ~ is alway~ ~dvisable ,.to ~aw ~~~~~~ram""' ~d. ~~alculat~' ~i~~.', by other attracting forces. However. sometimes. the magnetic needle may be attracted
and

~-~P·~ .., . .., . . ,.~ ··-o··~··- . . _.. ,, ..6 .. ••••- . . . . .., -· '--·--·-·<- .!.~ ··-" :.J6uJ,,.b
prevented from indicating the true magnetic meridian when it is in proximity to certain
l
"J

if the magnetic declination is 5° 38' Easr. magnetic subsrances. Local attraction is a tenn used to denote cury influence, such as the
Solution. Declination= + 5" 38' M.M.. •I>T.M.
:l above, which prevents the needle from pointing ro the magnetic North in a grven localiry.
+ 5• 38' =54" 02'~ Some of the sources of local attraction are : magnetite in the grourid, wire carrying electric
: True hearing= 48" 24'
current, steel strucrures, railroad rails, underground iron pipes, keys, steel-bowed spectacles,
--{xamp le 5.6. The magnetic bearing of a line AB is S metal buttons, axes, chains, steel tapes etc., which may he lying on the ground
nearby.
28 • 30' E. Calculate the true bearing if the declination is 7 • 30' ··I'
:; Detection of Local Attraction . The local attraction at a particular place can he
West. detected by observing the fore and back bearings of each line and finding its difference.
Solution. The positions of true meridian, magnetic meridian .>t If the difference between fore and back bearing is lBO", it may he taken that both
the
and the line have been shown in Fig. 5.20. Since the declination stations are free from local attraction, provided there are no observational and instrumental
j•'-
is to he West, the magnetic meridian will be to the West of errors. If the difference is other than ISO•, the fore hearing should be measured
again
true meridian. ---~;.;; B
from the articles on
'Oe?J.~ to find out whether the discrepancy is due to avoidable attraction
Hence, true heariog = S 28" 30' E + 7 • 30'. person, chains, tapes etc. It me difference still remains, the local attraction exists at one
= S 36• 00' E. FIG. 5.20. or both the stations. ·

~I
.$1
T 129