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1. Explain the difference between ‘ hearing’ and ‘listening’.

Answer : Topic 3

Hearing is one of the five senses of a person and it is the ability to perceive sound by
detecting vibrations through an organ such as the ear. Listening also known as ‘active
listening’ is a technique used in communication which requires a person to pay attention to
the speaker and provide feedback. Listening is a step further than hearing, where after the
brain receives the nerve impulses and deciphers it, it then sends feedback.

2. Interferences or noisy may distract a receiver from paying attention to the massage. List
FOUR possible interferences.

Answer : Topic 2 Page 37

 Physical Interference:
 Physiological Interference
 Phychological Interference
 Semantic Interference

3. In your face-to-face tutorial, whatever style the tutor uses, there will always be cues that
point listeners to important ideas and information in the tutorial. State FOUR of the micro-
markers that often used in the tutorial.

Answer: Topic 4 page 58

Examples of micro-markers are :

What I'm going to talk about today is something that you probably already know......
We'll see that ......
That / This is why......
To begin with....

4. People interect orally in small groups that are set up to achieve specific
goals. List FOUR goals that can be achieved in small group communication.

Answer : Topic 1 page 15

Small group communication takes place in a group, usually comprising 5 to 10 people.

FOUR goals that can be achieved in small group communication:

 This form of communication serves relationship needs like companionship, family

bonding and affection or support as well as tast-based needs, for example deciding on
disciplinary or resolving conflict in the workplace.
 In academic institutions, students often form small groups which meet regularly for
study discussion or to work collaboratively on projects.

 At the workplace, small groups may meet to discuss issues related to work, or for
problem-solving or team-building purposes.
 Small group communication allows you to interact with others, be at home, in school,
at the workplace or in public. You learn to exchange ideas, solve problems and share

5. Stress and intonation are important in speech. There are two kinds of stress. Define both
of them with examples.

Answer: Topic 5 Page 102

 Word Stress- Example SYLlabus, SUBstitute, TECHnical

 Sentence Stress- Example – He LIVES in the HOUSE on the CORNER
The stressed words are content and they convey the most important ideas in the sentence:
lives, house, corner.

6. The utilisation of visual aids is important in any oral presentation. What are the impacts
if a presenter does not use visual aids during his presentation ? Describe at least FOUR

Answer : Topic 9 Page 204

 Communication less effectiveness – clear pictures multiply the students’ level of

understanding of the material presented, and they should be used to reinforce your
massage, clarify points, and create excitement.
 Bored the audience- visuals can help them to better absorb information
 Make a difficulty to the presenter- words plus images help to make complex information
more understandable
 Students perception of the presenter decrease

7. Define intercultural communication and describe a situation in the Malaysia context

where an intercultural problem could cause disharmony in oral communication practices.

Answer : Topic 1 Page 16

Intercultural communication is communication between people of diverse cultural and

ethnicities. The world is increasingly becoming a global village and every country has
people of various ethnicities. Thus, it is important to note differences in the communication
practices of different cultures if intercurmony, as well as understanding is to be maintained.
For example in Malaysia.............................................

8. Why do speakers, especially public speakers, use emotive language?

Answer: Topic 3 page 50

 Speakers use words not just to convey information but also to persuade listeners. The
words are chosen for their emotive force or their impact on a listener’s feeling, desire and
 Emotion language reveals a speaker’s attitude and feelings towards the subject and
persuades the listener to feel the same rather than increases the listener’s knowledge of the
 Good speakers often use emotive words to arouse feelings and emotions in us.

9. In public speaking, a presenter shoul adhere to the principle of effective presentation to

maximise communication. Discuss FOUR techniques on how to build your confidence in
public speaking.

Answer: Topic 8 Page 171 ( 4 only )

 Change the way you think

 Systemic desensitisation
 Skills training
 Prepare and practise your speech
 Relaxation techniques
 Gain experience

10. In oral communication, information, thoughts and ideas are conveyed via a spoken
language. State FOUR ways of oral communication.

Answer : Topic 1 Page 6

 Face-to-face conversation
 Meetings
 Voice mail massages
 Teleconferencing
 Oral presentation
 Public speaking
OUMH 1303 2009
1. In the English Language, vowels may be divided into two categories : simple vowels and
diphthongs. State a definition for each of them to show the main difference.
Answer :

2. There are many common words and phrases that denote a cause and effect relationship such as
“ as a result of” and “ as a consequence “ . State FOUR other examples.

3. What does being a crirical listener involve ? Why do you need to be a critical listener. Give TWO
examples of a situation when you need to be a critical listener.

 We need to be a critical listener during the tutorial / lecture class. Students should be a critical
listener in order to identify the main and supporting point or to take note.
 When we need to obtain information.

4. Provide TWO differences being giving fatcs and giving opinions ?

Answer : Topic 4 pg 63

Giving facts:
 Objective statement
 Something that is real, true, actual, realible sources, statistics, research, evidence.
 e.g: Smoking causes cancer.
Giving Opinions:
 subjective statement
 prejudise, personel ideas, belief, not reliable sources, perception, true or not true.
 e.g : Men are more intelligent than women.

5. In the face-to-face communication, at least FOUR things can signal the speaker’s attitude
towards the situation. What are they ?

6. What are FOUR key element of making small talks?

7. When preparing speech, a public speaker has to create a proper structure for his/her
speech. What happens if she / he does not have a structure for the speech. Give TWO
consequences for a poor structure.

Answer: Topic 9 pg 198

Consequences for a poor structure:

 The audience cannot pay attention for a long period of time.
 The audience may find the presentation difficult to follow if it is not systematicallay structured
and organised.

8. That are many things that one should bear in mind when preparing a speech. For instant, he
/she should stand straight and not slauch in front of the audience. What are FOUR other things he/
she should do during the presentation?
Answer : Topic 10 pg 217

When making the actual presentation, bear in mind the following:

 Maintain eye contact with the audience.

 Great the audience, and then start your presentation.
 Give an overview of what you are going to talk about.
 Try not to read from your notes. Talk to the aidience instead.

9. Match the following phrases with the correct function. Some function may be used more than

10. Solorzano and Schmidt (1998) in your text explain that there are ways to support one’s opinions
as well as justify and explain those opinions: by giving facts, statistics, examples and personel
stories. Explain each one in detail, giving example if necassary.
OUMH 1303 2010
OUMH 1303 2010
1. What are the 4 main purposes of communication?
Answer : Topic 1 pg 8

The purposes of communication:

1. To inquire / ask
 Obtain or get information / knowledge / ideas
 e.g : What is GST ?

2. To inform
 Tell / spread information / knowledge / ideas to people
 e.g : the advantages of GST

3. To pursuade
 To inluence people / to get agreement
 e.g : teacher must support the new education policy

4. To develop goodwill / friendship / relationship

 To maintain relationship with people
 e.g : having small talk with friends/ gathering / phone

2. Describe the 7 forms of oral communication.

Answer : Topic 1 pg 13-14

 Intrapersonal communication
 Interpersonal communication
 Small group communication
 Public communication
 Mass communication
 Corporate communication
 Intercultural communication

3. Explain the 5 stages of effective listening process

Answer : Topic 2 pg 23-24
 Receiving
 Understanding
 Remembering
 Evaluating
 Responding

4. List and explain Maslow’s Hierarchy human needs

Answer : Topic 2 pg 34

 Physical needs
 Security needs
 Social needs
 Self-esteem
 Self actualisation

5. Explain the different ways of asking question in oral communication.

Answer : Topic 7 pg 133-134

 Wh Question – Why, What, Where, Who, How

To get information / to seek clarification
 Yes / No Question
e.g : Do you understand?
 Polite Form
e.g : Could you help me please?
 Question tags – to get information
e.g : England is not a strong team, isn’t it?

6. List 6 ways of becoming active listeners.

Answer: Topic 3 pg 40-41

 Focus on the massage

 Anticipate what the speaker wants to say,
 Identify main and supporting points
 Check the bias / evidence / validity / sources
 Listen between the lines
 Minimise distractions / disturbance

7. What is “small talk “? Give example of the situation.

Answer : Topic 6 pg 108-112

 “ Small talk “ is a conversation about everyday topics. To start conversation. Talk for social
purposes. Talk about game, politic, weather.
 Waiting for the bus / train/ flight
 Queue at supermarket / post office / ticket counter
 Lobby / waiting room

8. Explain the various types of speech

Answer : Topic 8 pg 168-175
 Information speech
Knowledge / information / skill
 Persuasive speech
Influence / change attitude / behaviour / belief
 Negotiation speech
Solve problems / conflict / crisis
 Argumentative speech
Get conclusion / reason based on evidence and proof

9. Describe the TWO main types of stress in English

Answer : Topic 5 pg 96 -97

 Word Stress- Example SYLlabus, SUBstitute, TECHnical

 Sentence Stress- Example – He LIVES in the HOUSE on the CORNER
The stressed words are content and they convey the most important ideas in the sentence:
lives, house, corner.

10. Explain the different between fact and opinion.

Answer : Topic 4 pg 63-64

 A fact is something that has objective reality, it is not a matter of perception or opinion, and is
 reliable sources or data / include statistical data / reports of observation.
 e.g : Melaka was founded by Parameswara.

 Opinions are often based on what one believes to be true or not how a person feels about
 Opinions, unlike facts, can be very subjective. Can be true or false
 e.g: Woman teachers are better than man teachers.
OUMH 1303 MAY 2013
1. Active listening is concerned with the ability to distinguish and identify relevant elements
pertinent to listening and speaking skills. Gice FOUR examples of how to enhence listening
to distinguish details.

Answer : Topic 3 page 42 ( 4 only)

Some tips for active listening:

 Focus on the massage:

 Anticipate what the speaker wants to say :
 Identify main and supporting points
 Check the bias
 Listen between the lines
 Minimise distractions

2. Define ‘ Speech Rhythm”. Give TWO examples which show the different rhythm.
Answer : Topic 5 page 108

Speech rhythm is simply a way of breaking down sentences into component parts so that the
sentence is easily understood.
Example :
 Propositional phrases : in the evening, after the show, at night,
across the street
 After lunch, I went to the library to get a book.
It should be read as follow :
After lunch / I went to the library / to get a book.

3. The art of negotiation in a meeting or discussion is helpful to resolve conflict among

people. There are some phrases that we can use to negotiate. Give FOUR examples of the
phrases and TWO sentences using any four of the phrases.

Answer : Topic 7 page 149 ( 4 only)

These are some phrases that we can use to negotiate :

(a) Can we do this another way......?

(b) What about.............../ How about .........?
(c) All right then.......
(d) Okay, then......
(e) Are you sure......?

Example :
 What about the children at the arphanage then?
 All right , Sam, I’ll take the car but I’ll only pay RM16,000 for it.
4. Active participation in agroup discussion is important for members to give their opinions
and others to respond. Therefore, turn taking is important so that all the members have the
chance to give their opinions. Provide FOUR skills that one can employ in turn taking.

Answer : Topic 7 page 154 ( 4 only )

The skills we can employ in turn-taking include :

(a) Recognising the appropriate moment to get a turn;

(b) Signalling the fact that you want to speak;
(c) Holding the floor while you have your turn;
(d) Recognising when other speakers are signalling to speak;
(e) Yielding the turn;
(f) Signalling the fact that you are listening

5. You are in the meeting with the sales team of your company to find ways of improving
the company’s profit margin. How would you invite them to contribute to the
discussion ? List FOUR questions.

Answer : Topic 7 page 156

Examples :
(a) What do you think, Mrs Ang ?
(b) Don’t / Do you agree, Mr Chairperson ?
(c) You’re very quiet , Leela.
(d) I don’t know what Joe thinks, but....
(e) Jagjit, you haven’t said much so far....

6. In a group interaction such as meeting, active participation is required of members in the

group so that the objectives of the meeting can be achieved. What are the FOUR different
oral techniques groups members can contribute in the meeting ?
Answer : Topic 7 138

Successful group interaction reguires active group participation. Members may be invited :
 To ask and respond to question
 Express opinions
 Negotiate
 Give suggestions

7. In an academic situation, a lecturer’s delivery style can sometimes cause difficulties in

term of poor reception and understanding. Explain any TWO presentation styles that lecturer
may use.
Answer : Topic 4 page 57

Lecturers’ presentation or lecturing styles include the following:

(a) Reading Style
The lecturer reads from his lecture notes; the speech is characterised by short tone-
groups, few changes in intonation and use of a falling tone.

(b) Conversational Style

The lecturer speaks informally, with or without notes, using longer tone groups and key
sequences that range from high to low.

8. You have been asked to present a papar. What are the FOUR factors that you would give
priority ? Give a brief explaination for each.

Topic : Topic 10 page 212

Factors that you would give priority:

(a) Introducing the topic:

An important step when giving a speech or making an oral presentation is to introduce the
topic before beginning to talk about it.
(b) Presenting the content:
When presenting the content, it is important to organise your presentation. Try not to read
from your notes. Talk to your audience istread.
(c) Giving the conclusion :
In concluding, there are two steps involved. First, you should summarise the main
point. Second, thank the audience for being good listener.
(d) Inviting participation:
At the and of your talk, you can invite question and comments from the floor.

9. What are the TWO types of intonation movement and what feeling or behavior does each

Answer : Topic 5 page 97

 Use rising intonation to show it is a question.
 Use falling intonation to show it is a statement.

10. There are five important stages in preparing an oral speech. Name any FOUR of them
and briefly describe what is required at each stage.
Answer : page 187

(a) Input and Output :

the occasion for the speeah
the audience for whom the speech is intended
the setting where the speech wii be made
(b) Determining the purposes and topic
determine the aim
determine the objective
(c) Collecting material
information resources
life experience
adapt material
more is best
(d) Structuring the oral presentation
why structure is important
basic procedurs
main ideas
sequencing of main ideas
outlining the material