S.I. Units: s
What do P eriod and F requency mean?
Vectors?
Period T i s the n umber of seconds it takes for something to complete 1 entire cycle/revolution.
Frequency f is the n umber of c ycles/revolutions c ompleted by an object in 1 second.
v = speed of the object moving in the circle T = period of the object f = frequency of the object R = radius of the circle traveled
Note: ” RPM” stands for revolutions per minute.
Example Question:
Question: A moon travels around a planet in a circular orbit of radius R and constant speed S. What is the period and frequency of the orbit in terms of given quantities and fundamental constants?
Period Frequency 
2πR S R
S 
2πR S
S 2πR S 
2πR T 
Answer: C
What does Centripetal acceleration mean?
S.I. Unit: m /s ^{2}
Vector?
Centripetal acceleration a _{c} is acceleration that causes a mass to travel in a circle.
The Centripetal Acceleration a _{c} always p oints into the circle traveled by the object. The Centripetal Acceleration a _{c} only changes direction of velocity, it does not speed up the object or slow down the object.
Example Question:
Question: Particle A is traveling in a circle with speed S and radius R. If particle B travels
with twice the speed of A and twice the radius of A. What is the ratio of the acceleration of a A compared to the acceleration of B?
A. 
0.5 
B. 
1 
C. 
2 
D. 
4 
Answer: A 
S .I. Unit: N
What does Centripetal Force mean?
C entripetal forces a re not a new type of force.
Vector?
The term “Centripetal Force” is just a label for any of the regular forces we’ve already met (F _{g} , F _{T} , F _{n} , F _{s} ) that happen to be making something move in a circular path.
a _{c} = the centripetal acceleration ΣF = the net centripetal force on the object m = mass of the object moving in the circle v = speed of the object moving in the circle R = radius of the circular path
c
Note: You only plug in centripetal/radial forces into ΣF . If there are forces that point in the tangential direction they go into a separate Newton’s second law equation for that direction.
c
Example Question:
Question: A ball of mass M rolls over the top of a hill of radius R with a speed S. At the top of the hill, what is the magnitude of the normal force exerted on the ball by the road?
S ^{2}
R
S ^{2}
R
S ^{2}
R
Answer: B
S .I. Unit: N
Vector?
What does Newton’s Universal Force of Gravity mean?
All masses M in the universe pull/attract every other mass m with gravitational force F _{G} .
The force F _{G} i s proportional to the masses (M and m ) , and inversely proportional to the square of the center to center distance R between the objects.
F _{G} = gravitational force between masses M and m
G = Universal gravitational constant = 6 .67 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} Nm ^{2} /kg ^{2}
M = one of the masses
m = the other mass
R = the c enter to center distance between the two masses M and m
Example Question:
Question: Two masses both of mass M exert a gravitational force F on each other. If one mass is exchanged for a mass 3M, and the distance between the masses is tripled, what is the new gravitational force?
A. F
B. 3F
C. F/3
D. F/9
Answer: C
What does Acceleration due to Gravity or Gravitational Field mean?
The ” acceleration due to gravity g” i s also called t he “gravitational eld”.
Masses create a g ravitational eld g around them. The eld g causes a gravitational force on other masses that end up in the g ravitational eld g.
g = g ravitational eld/acc created by M G = 6 .67 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} Nm ^{2} /kg ^{2} M = the mass creating g ravitational eld g R = the distance from M to t he point in space where you are determining the value of g
F _{G} = gravitational force exerted on mass m m = the mass placed in the gravitational eld which was created by M
Example Question:
Question: A hypothetical Planet X has 3 times the mass of Earth and half the radius of Earth. What is the acceleration due to gravity on planet X in terms of the acceleration due to gravity on Earth g _{E} ?
1
3
Answer: D
S .I. Unit: k g/m ^{3}
What does density mean?
Vector?
Density is the amount of mass per volume for a material. Concrete has a larger density than Styrofoam since concrete has more mass per volume than Styrofoam.
We can use the density to determine the mass of an object if we also know the volume.
⍴ = density of the mass M M = the mass V = the volume of the mass M
Example Question:
Question: A hypothetical Planet X has 3 times the density of Earth and half the radius of Earth. What is the acceleration due to gravity on planet X in terms of the acceleration due to gravity on Earth g _{E} ?
1
2
2
3
2
Answer: D
What do Gravitational Orbits mean?
When an astronomical object (like a planet) orbits another astronomical object (like the sun) we say it is in a gravitational orbit.
If the orbit is a circle we can use the formula for centripetal acceleration to relate the speed, radius of orbit, and mass.
Example Question:
Question: A space station of mass M _{S} orbits an altitude 3R above a planet of mass M _{P} and radius R as seen in a diagram below. A di erent space station of mass 3M _{S} orbits an altitude 2R above a planet of mass 4M _{P} and radius 2R. If the speed of the station of mass M _{S} is v, what is the speed of the space station of mass 3M _{S} ?
A. 
1 2 v 
3 



2 
Answer: C