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An Optimal Design of Solar Water Pump System with Considering Cost and
Effectiveness: Indonesian Perspective

Conference Paper · October 2016

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An Optimal Design of Solar Water Pump System with Considering Cost and
Effectiveness: Indonesian Perspective
 

Bayu Nadya Kusuma1, Dian Budhi Santoso2, Syahrial Shaddiq3, F. Danang Wijaya4,
Igi Ardiyanto5
Jl. Gafika No. 2, Kampus UGM, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia.
e-mail: bayu.mti15@mail.ugm.ac.id
1
Master Program of Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Yogyakarta Indonesia
2,3
Master Program of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Yogyakarta Indonesia
4,5
Lecturer of Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of
Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta Indonesia

Abstract:
Problems encountered in the design of solar water pump is about the cost of making the solar water
pump by considering two variables, namely the cost and effectiveness of solar water pump solar
water pump when installed. The case studies raised regarding Indonesia perspective to be applied
well in Indonesia. The solution offered is the design of the solar water pump system by considering
aspects of cost and effectiveness carefully. The result is a plan to build a solar water pump which
was suitable for use in all conditions and situations in the area of Indonesia.

Keywords: Solar water pump, effectiveness, Indonesia.

1. Introduction

Today the demand for energy is increasing, one of the master plan launched by the government
through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources in 2025 is 25% of the energy resources in
Indonesia will be supplied by renewable energy. According to data from the Ministry of Energy
and Mineral Resources, Indonesia has the potential of new and renewable energy quite large
among other things, micro hydro amounted to 450 MW, biomass 50 GW, solar energy 4.80
kWh/m2/day, wind energy 3-6 m/s and 3 GW of nuclear energy. Along with the development of
new and renewable energy, solar energy plays an important role in the growth of renewable energy
in Indonesia.

New and renewable energy are the best solutions to generate the electrical energy of
environmentally friendly, does not pollute the environment, abundant, free and interesting too,
though, one of which is by utilizing solar energy as electrical energy generation small scale. The
energy generated from the photovoltaic process has low efficiency in the output due to the electric
power generated in the photovoltaic process is directly proportional to the amount of solar
radiation received by the solar panel. However, the energy produced can be maximized in their
utilization.

One of the considerations of solar energy, that solar energy has great potential to be applied
to the Indonesia country due to geographic location of astronomical Indonesia is the 60 NL
(latitude North) - 110 SL (south latitude and between 950 ES (longitude) - 1410 ES (longitude east)
thereby astronomical position of Indonesia is located in the tropical climate and is located in the
eastern hemisphere of the earth, it makes Indonesia is always exposed to the sun throughout the
year with twice the turn of the seasons, the summer season and the monsoon season. With the
strategic location, Indonesia has great potential for development of solar water pumps.

In the research [1], Amarbayar Adiyabat et al doing to optimize design for solar home system in
Mongolia with training manual and demand-side load management for enhancing lifetime and
minimize failures of SHS. In the research TS. Surendra [2], Thus far approximately 5000 solar PV
water pumping systems has been set up in the “country by several makers. Chuanlin Jin et al [3]
designed for a single solar panel powered induction machine-driven water pump system, which is
used in an on-board nano-filtration system. Bhim Singh et al [4] doing for solar powered water
pumping system employing switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive, which is the SRM drive that
reduced switching losses in a mid-. point converter and considerably increases the efficiency of
the proposed system. Optimisation for cost analysis of wind, solar hybrid system powered AC and
DC irrigation pump using HOMER was done by Basanagouda F. Ronad [5].

Doing to optimize for Cost Analysis of Wind-Solar Hybrid System Powered AC and DC Irrigation
Pumps using HOMER. Based on previous research, we proposed an optimal design water pump
considering cost and effectiveness.
The growing need for electrical energy and the depletion of groundwater needs, especially in
urban areas. Encouraged us to design a blueprint "Urban Design Solar Water Pump"
environmentally friendly renewable energy. By utilizing the sun as a source of electrical energy,
and the use of sewage treatment plant (STP) types extended aeration who is able to recycle
wastewater for residential use and used to water the garden. This paper consists of five parts, part
1 is an introduction, part II is the solar water pump, part III is a system model of solar water pump,
part IV is a discussion, and the research concluded in part V.

2. Solar Water Pump

Conventional water pumps in operation typically use electrical energy generated from fossil fuels
supplied by the state electricity company, in this case, Indonesia country. In the solar water pump
is the main source of electricity consumption is sourced from solar energy is processed by solar
panels. Solar water pumps an alternative technology using solar power are used to generate the
electricity needed by the water pump that can operate with maximum efficiency considering the
cost and effectiveness of the design. Design solar water pump for one house is pretty simple does
not require complicated equipment in assembling it into the system intact and maintenance
minimum.

3. System Model
A system model of an optimal solar water pump in figure 1.
Figure 1. System Model of Solar Water Pump

The solar panel type of conventional solar powered water pump that consists of several
components: solar panels, solar charge control (SCC), inverter, water pump, water pipes, and roof
tank. The solar panels used to convert solar energy into electrical energy with the character of
electricity generated from fluctuating, while solar charge control functions to rectify the power
generated from the solar panels, inverter has the function to change the dc current produced by
solar panels into ac current required by the water pump and roof tank which serves as water storage.
The solar water pump has many advantages, which is: solar water pump is renewable energy
resources, green technology, environmentally friendly, etc. A system model of the solar water
pump can operate in all conditions because we design a solar water pump with effectiveness the
design. Another benefit if solar water pump applied in Indonesia which are can reduce pollution
and can operate in all situations and condition.
In figure 2 interpreting flowchart solar water pump.
Figure 2. Flowchart Solar Water Pump

Solar panels can generate power of each one of his cell to generate power ± 4volt with a
maximum power current of each one of his cell ± 100mA. In figure 2 solar water pump has an
energy storage of photovoltaic energy to be controlled by a photo voltaic solar charge control
(SCC), because the current fluctuations produce energy that broke the electronic system.
Furthermore, the energy of the solar charge controls (SCC), distributed by changes in alternating
current (AC) to direct current (AC) needed to design a water pump .To improve power efficiency
solar panels fully allocated to pump water to produce water tank and storage to be allocated to the
pump sewage treatment alternately.
4. Domestic Sewage Treatment
Figure 3. Process flow diagram of domestic sewage treatment.

Air pump

Backwash
device

Domestic
sewage Effluent
First facultative Second anaerobic Aerobic Sedimentary
anaerobic chamber filter chamber chamber disinfectant chamber
 
Firstly, all effluent domestic wastewaters including in black and gray wastewater flowed into the
first facultative anaerobic chamber, where the kitchen organic matter and the excrement sewage
were decomposed and the toilette paper and coarse suspended materials were given up in the
chamber and cleared away from the manhole. And so the wastewater flowed automatically into
the second anaerobic chamber, where macromolecule organisms were decomposed into small
molecular matters by the anaerobic bacteria.

The upper parts of two-stage anaerobic chambers were designed for the flow adjusting
region, where could buffer the shock of the instant heavy flow rate of the processing scheme. The
effluent wastewater from the second anaerobic chamber was pumped into the biological film
contact aerobic chamber by an intermittent lift pump, which the organic pollutions were
decomposed by aerobic microorganisms attaching to the airfoil of the filters. Thereby, the
wastewater became clean and clean water flowed into sedimentation chamber, where precipitated
suspended solids. And the last the supernatant water flowed into the disinfectant pool and
discharged after disinfection. Likewise, the sewage contained active sludge was returned to the
first facultative anaerobic chamber and further purified again [6].

STP capacity for residential houses is 120 liters/person/day added to 30% of total water needs [7].

5. Economic analysis of Levelized costs of electricity (LCOE)


LCOE is the price at which electrical energy is generated from a particular energy source can reach break
even over a certain period. Usually, the period is determined by the lifetime of the plant system. The cash
values of all expenditures are divided by the cash values of power generation. The LCOE are calculated
using the following formula [8]:

At
I 0   t 1
n

1  i 
t

LCOE  ,
M el
 1  i 
n
t 1 t

where

I0 : Investment expenditures in IDR

At : Annual total costs in IDR in year t

M el : Produced quantity of electricity in the respective year in kWh

i : Real discount rate in %


n : an Economic operational lifetime in years
t Year (1, 2, ...n).

6. Result and Analysis


In figure 3 interpreting flowchart of the blueprint urban design pump storage system and in
figure 4 interpreting an optimal design in the village water pump for urban.
Figure 3. Flowchart of blueprint urban design pump storage system

Figure 4. Design in the village water pump storage


The effective time of the solar panels to generate energy during the day until late afternoon for
a period of 6 hours In figure 3 is a conventional design solar water pump, to minimize the
additional cost of this design is applied without the use of batteries as power storage. The energy
generated from the solar panels will be directly used for work the water pumps and sewage pumps
alternately. with the addition of a wastewater treatment system to maximize the benefits of the use
of power the solar panel itself.The estimation cost for an optimal design solar water pump.
In the next process when the waste water storage tank was full, the pump in the waste water
tank will be activated manually. Then the submersible pump that drains water into the reservoir
will be turned off. In the storage tanks of waste water will be a process of equalization of the
wastewater rural output results in the form of clear water, odorless, non-toxic, clean of bacteria
and sediment, can then be used for lawn watering, and other needs that are secondary and not for
consumption.

The advantages of Design Solar Water Pump:


1. Roof tank + include seat (feet)
 Stainless steel materials
 Anti-rust
 Anti-moss
 Quality of clean water more hygienic
 Longer lifespan roof tank than other types like FRP
 
2. Solar panel monocrystalline
                    The comparative of monocrystalline and polycrystalline interpreting in table 1.
Table 1. Comparison of Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline [9] [10].

Monocrystalline Polycrystalline
 The price is more expensive  The price is cheaper
 Efficiency 10% more good  Have standard efficiency
than polycrystalline  Measurement of panel more
 Measurement of panel more large/less efficiency
small/more efficiency  Have inconsistence in color
 Have a nice uniform color and type (like granite)
shape of a circular cell  A shorter lifespan than a
 More durable ± 50 years monocrystalline (only ± 25
years)

Known:
10 houses x 5 persons = 50 persons (1)
50 x 120 liter/person/day = 6000 liter/day (2)
Total = 6000 + 30% (2)
= 7800 liter/day (3)
STP capacity = 7800 x 3 days
= 23.400 liter/day
= 25 m3/day
Analysis of costs the electricity needs:
1 unit of submersible pump = 1 kW x 4 hour x Rp. 1459
= Rp. 5836 (4)
1 unit of STP (include pompa) = 2(500 Watt) x 4 hour x Rp. 1459
= Rp. 5836 (5)
Usage per month:
(4) x 30 days = Rp. 175.080 (6)
(5) x 30 days = Rp. 175.080 (7)
Usage per year:
(6) x 12 month = Rp. 2.100.960
(7) x 12 month = Rp. 2.100.960
Total = Rp. 4.201.920
By using this design, can save costs in one year is Rp. 4.20192 million. Total expenditures designs solar
water pump is Rp. 60,000,000. Therefore the break even point (BEP) will occur in the year to 14. After that
year, the use of electricity will be free of charge except for the cost of care. The design will be very
meaningful when applied to areas far away from the power source.

5. Conclusion

In this paper water pump, solar design can maximize the use of water by processing household
waste water into clean water that can be reused for everyday purposes except for consumption
purposes. In terms of cost, can reduce the use of electricity cost of electricity Country Rp.4.20192
million / year with a break-even point occurred in the 14th year. After that year, the use of electricity
will be free of charge except for the cost of care. The design will be very meaningful when applied to areas
far away from the power source.
References

[1] Design, A. N. O. (2003). An optimal design and. Energy Conversion, 2272–2275.


[2] Surendra, T. S., & Subbaraman, S. V. V. (2002). Solar PV water pumping comes of age in
India. Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2002. Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth
IEEE, 1485–1488. https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2002.1190891
[3] Jin, C., & Jiang, W. (2011). Design of a digital controlled solar water pump drive system
for a nano-filtration system. Proceedings of the International Conference on Power
Electronics and Drive Systems, (December), 982–986. doi:10.1109/PEDS.2011.6147376
[4] Singh, B., Mishra, A. K., Kumar, R., & Member, S. (2014). Solar Powered Water Pumping
System Employing Switched Reluctance Motor Drive, 9994(c).
doi:10.1109/TIA.2016.2564945
[5] Ronad, B. F., & Jangamshetti, S. H. (2016). Optimal cost analysis of wind-solar hybrid
system powered AC and DC irrigation pumps using HOMER. 2015 International
Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications, ICRERA 2015, 5, 1038–
1042. doi:10.1109/ICRERA.2015.7418568
[6] F. Li, G. Yu, and H. Huang, “Development and Study of a Decentralized Domestic Sewage
Treatment Device,” pp. 587–591, 2013.
[7] BSN, “SNI 03-7065-2005 Tata cara perencanaan sistem plambing,” pp. 1–17, 2005.
[8] Y. Bicer, “Economic Analyses of PV Certification and Inspection Processes for Smart Grid
Integrated PV Power Plants and Benefits of Domestic Institutions,” 2017
[9] G. Nanda, R. Dash, S. C. Swain, and R. Kumar, “A Comparative Study on Different Types
of PV Modules and Their Optimization for Increasing the Efficiency Part-I,” 2016 Second
Int. Conf. Comput. Intell. Commun. Technol., pp. 406–409, 2016.
[10] T. Jiang and S. Grzybowski, “Impact of lightning impulse voltage on
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Biographical Notes

Bayu Nadya Kusuma received the S.T. degree in Informatics Engineering from
Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 2014. Currently, he is a
Master Student of Information Technology in Department of Electrical
Engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas
Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Dian Budhi Santoso received the S.T. degree in Electrical Engineering from
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 2013. Currently, he is a
Master Student of Electrical Engineering in Department of Electrical Engineering
and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Syahrial Shaddiq received the S.T. degree in Electrical Engineering from


Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 2014. Currently, he is a
Master Student of Electrical Engineering in Department of Electrical Engineering
and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Fransisco Danang Wijaya received the S.T. degree in Electrical Engineering


from Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 1996, the M.T. degree
in Electrical Engineering from Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia,
in 2002 and Dr.Eng. degree in Electrical Engineering from Tokyo Institute of
Technology, Tokyo, Japan, in 2009, respectively. Currently, he is a Lecturer of
Electrical Engineering in Department of Electrical Engineering and Information
Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta,
Indonesia.
Igi Ardiyanto received the S.T. degree in Electrical Engineering from
Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 2009, the M.Eng. degree in
Computer Science and Engineering Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan
in 2012 and Dr.Eng. degree in Computer Science and Engineering Toyohashi
University of Technology, Japan, in 2015, respectively. Currently, he is a Lecture
of Electrical Engineering in Department of Electrical Engineering and
Information Technology Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

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