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TITLE: Experiment 6 Paint Chip Analysis

OBJECTIVE:

To analyze and determine the paint chips layers from different cars using stereomicroscope and
ATR-FTIR.

PROCEDURES:

Part A

1. The paint chip samples were mounted on the plasticine sideways.
2. The layers of the paint chip were viewed using stereomicroscope.
3. The wideness or thinness of each layer, color and overall number of layers were noted for
each of the paint chip samples.
4. Each of the paint chip samples provided was drawn.

Part B

1. The paint chips were mounted on FTIR microscope for mapping.
2. The ATR mapping measurements were performed using a 20 x ATR-objective in
combination with a motorized sample stage.
3. The position of measurements and sampling areas were set specifically for each layer.
4. The acquisition time of 14 sec at a spectral resolution of 4cm-1 was being used.
5. The sample was then brought into contact with the tip of Germanium (Ge) crystal of 100
μm in diameter of the ATR objective during the infrared measurement on all predefined
sampling positions.
6. The effective field of view at all sampling positions were adjusted automatically by a
motorized aperture.
RESULTS:

Part A

Type of Car Proton Saga Proton Wira Ford

Observation

Details of car Proton Saga Magma Proton Wira 2007 Ford laser
Saloon 1989 1.3s 4 door
WCA 4200
Number of 4 3 9
layers

Color of Silver, white, yellow, silver Pink, red, brown Red, yellow, brown, dark red,
layers brick red, black, white, brick
red, dark brown
Part B

1. Proton Saga

Result

Library spectra
2. Proton Wira

Result

Library spectra
3. Ford

Result

Library spectra
DISCUSSION:

Based on the experiment that had been conducted in which about three different cars
were being used as samples for the paint chip analysis under the stereomicroscope and an ATR-
FTIR microscope. Generally, automotive paint was one of the most commonly experienced kinds
of paint evidence which involved in hit-and-run accidents and also any serious crimes involving
vehicles. The automotive paint usually functioned in protecting or coloring the surface of the
vehicles whereby, the finishing automotive process consists of four separate coatings in which
each of the layers was a mixture of different components such as pretreatment, primer, topcoat
and clear coat.

Therefore, in pretreatment process, zinc electroplating was used to apply to the steel body
of the vehicle in order to prevent any rusting process occurred and it will become more easier for
the forensic paint analyst if there was presence of zinc during the elemental analysis as it may
come from this coating. The next coating which was primer, often called as an epoxy resin with
corrosion-resistant pigments. The primer color itself was coordinated with the final color of
vehicle as to minimize the contrast and bleed-through. This coating was usually finished with a
powder which can smooth the surface of the metal and also provides good adhesion for the next
coating. As for the third coating which called as topcoat or basecoat, it was generally formed
from different additives such as a single color layer, a multilayer coat or a metallic color coat.
These topcoat coatings have characteristics of water-based chemistries in order to provide a
healthier atmosphere for the factory workers and environment due to no longer used of any
heavy metal such as lead. The last coatings which called as clear coats that comprises of
unpigmented coatings which able to improve gloss and durability of the coatings of vehicle.

Apart from that, the samples were also being analyzed under the ATR-FTIR microscope.
Theoretically, ATR-FTIR was known as Attenuated Total Reflection which operated when the
infrared beam comes into contact with the paint chip samples by measuring any changes that
occur in an internally reflected infrared beam. The infrared (IR) beam was directed with a high
refractive index at certain angle onto an optically dense crystal. The internal reflectance will
form an evanescent wave which extended beyond the surface of the crystal into the sample.
Furthermore, the attenuated beam returned back to the crystal and then directed to the detector in
IR spectrometer which records as interferogram signal and used to generate the IR spectrum.
The results obtained showed different observations for each of the cars that are being
used which included Proton Saga, Proton Wira and Ford. As in part A whereby the paint chips
samples was observed under the stereomicroscope formed several layers depending on the type
of the cars. Firstly, in Proton Saga of Magma Saloon 1989 model with plate number of WCA
4200 formed about 4 layers with color of silver, white, yellow and silver. While for Proton Wira
2007 with 1.3s 4 door model formed 3 layers which comprised of pink, red and brown color and
as for Ford laser, the formation of 9 layers which were red, yellow, brown, dark red, brick red,
black, white, brick red and also dark brown in the paint chip sample. This may be due to the type
of cars being produced whereby Proton Saga and Wira have a cheaper price as it were made in
Malaysia as compared to the car made in America, Ford laser with such a higher price as the
number of coatings increased.

Next, in the ATR-FTIR in which the samples spectra were being observed in the range of
500 to 4000cm-1 in order to detect any functional groups that may present in the organic
compound of the paint chip. Therefore, the spectral resolution used during the analysis was 2cm-1
with 16 times scanning until the acquisition time ended. In this instrument where there was
presence of library spectra in the database such that it can compare the IR spectrum of the
unknown sample with the reference sample. The result of the IR spectrum for Proton Saga
showed the presence of alkane group (C-H) at 2800-2950cm-1 and carbonyl group (C=O) at
1650-1750cm-1 in range. While in Proton Wira, the IR spectrum have presence of a bonded (O-
H) group and also free (O-H) group with the range of 3200-3400cm-1 and 3600-3700cm-1
respectively. Besides that, at the range of 1650-1750cm-1 the carbonyl group was present and
also alkane group (C-H) at the range 2800-2950cm-1. Lastly, the Ford paint chip also showed
similar functional group which included of alkane and carbonyl group at the same range such as
at 2800-2950cm-1 and 1650-1750cm-1 respectively.

The functional group of the compounds present in the samples can be identified and
compared with the spectra library of ATR-FTIR as reference. For instance, the library spectra for
Proton saga showed presence of several compounds such as ethyl-1-phenylpropylamine, b-
Methylphenethylamine-2-phenylpropylamine and N (-1- Phenylcyclohexyl) ethylamine which
may indicate the presence of alkane (C-H) and also carbonyl (C=O) group. Next, in Proton Wira
in which the free O-H group present may come from the library spectra of Duro Outdoor fixture
adhesive that was used as one of the elements for synthetic rubber while the Diphenoxylate HCL
in KBr and painter ‘s masking tape were from the alkane and also carbonyl group. The Ford
which consisted of O-H bonded and carbonyl (C=O) group may come from the diphenoxylate,
polystyrene acrylonitrile and pseudoephedrine of the library spectra. The library spectra can be
used as comparison as to identify the compounds that may present in the paint chip samples of
each of the cars.

CONCLUSION:

In a conclusion, the paint chip layers of each car were different as these cars may be
made or manufactured differently whereby, it can be identified morphologically and
spectroscopically by using stereomicroscope and also ATR-FTIR instrument.
QUESTIONS:

1. What is the advantage of using mapping in FTIR spectroscopy?
= The advantages of using mapping in FTIR spectroscopy which are the distribution of a
single component can be easily visualized and also the resulting spectrum can be
diagnosed for any changes in physical and chemical properties of the sample.
2. What does each layer in the paint chips represent?
= Each layer in the paint chips usually represent the primer which known as the second
coating that can reduce the corrosion process of the metal and the next one is the topcoat
coating which often refer to the color of the car. Lastly is the clear coat which will
improve gloss and durability of the coatings of the vehicle.
3. What are other techniques for analysis of paint chip in forensic investigation?
= The other techniques that can be used for analysis of paint chip in forensic investigation
are Scanning Electron Microscope or Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM/EDS)
which able to characterize the structure and also elemental composition of the paint
layers. Other than that, Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography (P-GC) can also be used whereby,
it is one of the destructive technique that can break down the product for comparison
purpose and also identification of the binder type used.
4. What are the choices of analysis that you will do if the paint is in the form of smear?
= The choices of analysis that we will do if the paint is in the form of smear is by
submitting the entire sample to the laboratory as the smeared transfer is a bit difficult to
work with due to the components of layers of coating can be mixed up and it will reduce
the ability to analyze the smeared paint accurately by the forensic scientist.
FRS581: FORENSIC CHEMISTRY
EXPERIMENT 6: PAINT CHIP ANALYSIS

NAME: FAQIHAH ILYANA BINTI MOHD SHALAHUDIN

MATRIX NO: 2016537995

GROUP MEMBERS: ABDUL HANAN BIN AHMAD JAMIL

FATIN NABILAH BINTI ROSLAN

NUR SYAFIQAH IMAN BINTI MOHD REDZUAN

DATE OF EXPERIMENT: 29 OCTOBER 2018

DATE OF SUBMISSION: 12 NOVEMBER 2018

LECTURER’S NAME: EN. MOHD IZZHARIFF
FRS581: FORENSIC CHEMISTRY
EXPERIMENT 6: PAINT CHIP ANALYSIS

NAME: ABDUL HANAN BIN AHMAD JAMIL

MATRIX NO: 2016537525

GROUP MEMBERS: FAQIHAH ILYANA BINTI MOHD SHALAHUDIN

FATIN NABILAH BINTI ROSLAN

NUR SYAFIQAH IMAN BINTI MOHD REDZUAN

DATE OF EXPERIMENT: 29 OCTOBER 2018

DATE OF SUBMISSION: 12 NOVEMBER 2018

LECTURER’S NAME: EN. MOHD IZZHARIFF